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Numerical analysis of the Caledonian

Symmetric Four Body problem using effi-

cient fourth order symplectic integrator
1 2
Iharka SZÜCS-CSILLIK and Muhammad SHOAIB
Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca
Abu Dhabi Mens College, Higher Colleges of Technology,
P.O. Box 25035, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Abstract Figure 1: Initial configurations of selected systems. shown in figure ..., using the Lie4 integrator for the time interval
The Caledonian Symmetric Four-Body Problem (CS4BP) is a four-
body system with symmetrically reduced phase space. Therefore, we
[0, 314].
could investigate the CS4BP numerically using an efficient fourth order The initial conditions at the moment τ = 0 for HB 98800
symplectic integrator in comparison with Lie-series and Neri’s explicit like star system are µ1 = 0.25, µ2 = 0.25, r1 = 5, r2 = 53,
symplectic integrator. As applications of the CS4BP we explored the V1 = −0.08 and V2 = 0.08. In figure 1 we present its trajecto-
orbital motions of some fictitious quadruple stellar systems. The results
of these numerical experiments demonstrate hierarchical stability for a ries using the Lie4 integrator for time interval [0, 1256].
long period of time. The method and model introduced here can be
used to study more efficiently the evolution and stability of quadruple
stellar and planetary systems.

The complicated nature of n-body problem does not allow a
comprehensive analytical study of few-body orbits in the most
general form and therefore numerical tools have to be used to
understand the n-body problem for n ≥ 3. To tackle the compli-
cated nature of the general four body problem, different restric-
tion methods are used, the most common being the neglecting
of the mass of some bodies. Another method of restriction, not Figure 5: Experimental quadruple star system orbital trajectories using RK,
Lie4, Neri and Ruth (BAB) integrator.
as common but very effective, is the introduction of some sym-
metry conditions (Steves & Roy 1998). This type of restriction
method reduces the dimensions of the phase space very effec-
tively, whilst still producing a model which can be very close to Figure 2: HD 98800 trajectory using RK, Lie4, Neri and Ruth (BAB) inte-
real systems. Conclusions
In this article we study the CS4BP numerically and analyzed
some quadruple star system to see the long term evolution and For a supposed star system with two pairs of red dwarves, the A symmetrically restricted four body problem called the CS4BP
stability of the system. initial conditions at the moment τ = 0 are µ1 = 0.25, µ2 = 0.25, is investigated both analytical and numerically. Two different
r1 = 10, r2 = 12, V1 = −0.021 and V2 = 0.19. Their trajecto- types of integrators namely Lie4 and Neri4 are constructed for
ries using the Lie4 integrator over the time interval [0, 1570] are the CS4BP. Both these integrators are symplectic in nature and
Some experimental Caledonian Symmet- shown in figure... are more efficient in terms of time and accuracy. The Lie4 inte-
ric Four Body system via efficient numer- grator, where the solution is written in the power series expan-
sions of the τ independent variable up to the the 4th order, is a
ical integrators good choice for studying the n-body problem.
The Neri4 symplectic-integrator, is shown to have the merits to
We now present explicitly the 4th order Neri integrator (Neri4),
integrate Hamiltonian systems over very long periods of time.
where the values of coefficient (ci, di), i = 1, 4 are
In addition, we set up numerical experiments and investigated
1 1−2 3 the orbital evolution of hierarchical quadruple systems using
c1 = c4 = 1 , c2 = c3 = 1 (1)
2(2 − 2 ) 3 2(2 − 2 )
both the Lie4 and Neri4 integrators developed in this paper. The
1 results of these experiments are shown in figures. Poincaré sur-
1 −2 3
face of sections are used to investigate stability of various real
d1 = d3 = 1 , d2 = 1 , d4 = 0.
2−2 3 2−2 3 and experimental quadruple stellar systems. We found that the
Therefore the integration scheme for CS4BP with (q1, q2, q3, q4) star systems similar to HD 98800, red dwarfs and Almach-type
coordinates and (p1, p2, p3, p4) momenta is are stable and hierarchically stable over a long period of time.
k−1 The experimental quadruple system is hierarchically stable for a
qik = qik−1 + τ ck · i , i = 1, 2, j = 3, 4, k = 1, 4,(2) slightly shorter period of time.
2µ1 Numerical tests suggest that the obtained symplectic integra-
Figure 3: Red dwarf quadruple star system trajectory using RK, Lie4, Neri
j and Ruth (BAB) integrator. tors despite of the order’s increasing improved the integration
qjk = qjk−1 + τ ck · ,
"2µ2 accuracy and stability.
µ21qik An hypothetic Almach-type quadruple stellar system has ini- In the future we shall study the the CS5BP using the same
pki = pk−1 − τ dk · method using a higher order symplectic integrator.
i k 2 k
2((q1 ) + (q2 ) ) 2 2
3 tial conditions µ1 = µ2 = 0.25, r1 = 13, r2 = 52, V1 = −0.12
# and V2 = −0.14 at the moment τ = 0. Its orbital trajectories are
2µ1µ2(qik + qi+2k ) 2µ1µ2(qik − qi+2k )
shown in figure ..., using the Lie4 integrator for the time interval
+ 3 + 3 ,
((q1k + q3k )2 + (q2k + q4k )2) 2 ((q1k − q3k )2 + (q2k − q4k )2) 2 [0, 6280]. References
2q k k + qk )
k k−1
µ 2 j 2µ1 µ 2 (q j j+2
pj = pj − τ dk · 3 + 3
[1] Csillik, I.: 2004, Symplectic and regularizations methods,
k 2 k 2 k k 2 k
2((q3 ) + (q4 ) ) 2 ((q1 + q3 ) + (q2 + q4 ) ) 2 k 2
Technische Mechanik 24, 67–73.
k k
2µ1µ2(qj − qj+2) [2] Koerner, N. H., Jensen, E. L. N., Cruz, K. L., Guild, T. B.,
− 3 ,
((q1k − q3k )2 + (q2k − q4k )2) 2 . Gultekin, K.: 2000, A single circumbinary disk in the HD
98800 Quadruple System, Astronomical Journal 533, L37-
where we used the notations q3 = q 1, q4 = q 2, p3 = p1, and
p4 = p2. Integrating the selected quadruple star systems using
the Neri4 integrator for a long time interval are shown in fig- [3] Nielsen, K. M. E.: 2015, Efficient fourth order symplectic in-
ures... tegrators for near-harmonic separable Hamiltonian systems,
Additionally, as the Neri’s integrator use the terms of Lie se- https://arxiv.org/abs/1501.04345
ries, let us introduce the well-known Lie integrator. [4] Roy, A. E. and Steves, B. A.: 1998, Some special restricted
We applied the above described Lie4 to the selected quadru- four-body problems-II.: From Caledonian to Copenhagen,
ple star systems, hereinafter referred as HD 98800, red dwarf, Planetary and Space Science 46 (11/12), 1475–1486.
Almach-type and experimental quadruple star system.
[5] Shoaib, M. and Steves, B. A.: 2013, Numeri-
Figure 4: Almach-type quadruple star system orbital trajectories using RK, cal investigations of the hierarchical stability of
Lie4, Neri and Ruth (BAB) integrator. the Caledonian Symmetric Four Body Problem,
The orbital trajectories of an experimental quadruple system [6] Szücs-Csillik, I.: 2010, The Lie-integrator and the Hénon-
with initial conditions at the moment τ = 0: µ1 = 0.25, Heiles system, Romanian Astronomical Journal 20, 49–66.
µ2 = 0.25, r1 = 0.526, r2 = 0.311, V1 = 0.06 and V2 = 2.22 are