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Chitra Ghosh (1985), in her study, on “Women and Work in India – continuity and change”

brings out the wage differences between men and women in construction work. It is found
that though women carry as much load as men, the contractors pay women a lower rate only.
Worse still the labour contractors get the thumb impression of these illiterate women in the
register often paying them less than the stipulated rate.

Ponduranga Reddy (1990) in a study on “Construction Workers” narrates the plight of


construction workers in India. It is high time he says, suitable steps are taken to redress the
grievances they are groaning under. He also points out that the dominance of contractors and
the casual hiring that characterize this industry imply that the migrant labour, drawn form the
rural landless, is subject to old methods of in denaturing and recruitment where bonded
labour and indebtedness exist, affecting women workers most severely. It is also noted that n
significant percentage of women working in the unorganized sector is engaged in the
construction industry.

Saran A.B and Sandhwar A.N (1990) in their study on “Problems of Women
workers in unorganized sectors” have described the state of female workers in brick kiln,
quarry and mine. These labourers were stratified as migrated workers and local workers. The
study highlights the extractions of the contractors or intermediaries or brokers. Absence of
ever minimum amenities like potable water irregular working hours, low wage and sexual
exploitation.
Tripathy S.N (1996) in his study on “Unorganized Women Labour in India”, discuss the bad
working conditions of female workers in the construction industry, low wages, bondage to
intermediaries and insecurity of female workers.
Geroffrey K.Payne (1998) in his book “Urban Housing in the Third World” observes that
the continuous programme of large scale building projects, has created the need for a large
reservoir of building labourers who can be organized according to the needs of the building
project. Since a permanent auargement would involve employing a large labour force who
could not be seolgaized easily, there was little call for local recuriment and a system has been
evolved whereby labour is recruited according to demand accommodated on temporary basis
with in or adjacent of the building site, and then either dismissed or moved into other projects
as the need arises. Such a systems unable of the operate without a middle man to co-ordinate
the needs to building contractors with those of safe guarding the basic interests of the
labourers. This middleman is called a jamadai, is known as a labour contractor and is
normally directly responsible to the main building contractor for the supply of the necessary
size and the type of labour. Accordingly, he heeds to be in close touch with the building
industry and the source of potential labour.
Sharma A.M (1998) in the book “Aspect of Labour Welfare and Social Security” says that a
large part of the unorganized labour force in the country consists of unskilled labour, both
male and female employed in various forms of building and construction activities. They are
mostly rural migrants either landless or share croppers and marginal/small and owners who
came to the cities in search of work, being drawn from the same pool as the unorganized
agricultural labour in the rural areas. This labour is extremely mobile due to the conditions
and problems of employment in the construction industry which is characterized by high
turnover, use of contract labour, irregular employment and bad working conditions.
Shram Sakthi (1998) in “National Commission on self employed women and women in the
informal sector” expresses that the problem of women construction workers can be tackled
effectively only through a system of Tripartite Bodies at various levels, on which workers
and more particularly women workers, are represented in adequate numbers considerable
work has already been done by others in formulating proposals and drafting laws for the
purpose.
Sruti Changanti (2000) in his paper on “Creating of a third world in the first Economics of
Labour Migration” argues that the creation of cheap labour economics in the third world
result in the creation of cheap labour economics in the first world. Thus wage rates are
depressed all over the world, making greater profits for the capitalists. An essential
precondition to the depression of wage rates, therefore, is labour migration, both interstate
and international. He also finds that privatization and liberalization have only increased rates
and the rate of rural urban migration resulting in greater supply of industrial labour than
required.
Neela Mukherjee (2001) in her study on “Migrant women from West Bengal” focused the
Bangali migrants. She finds that the migration of increasing number of poor landless women
from several West Bengal districts to affluent cities like Delhi has important implication for
policy-making at central and state levels. While on one hand it points to the failure of
development and reform activity in the state, on the other hand it illustrates the absence of
relevant support mechanisms, especially offering financial assistance.

Shobhana Warrier M.V (2001) in a study on “Women at work migrant women in fish
processing industry” discusses the nature of the fish processing industry in India, focusing on
issues concerning the migrant women workforce specifically. The fish processing industry
employs migrant women workers on contract in almost all parts of the country. A detailed
questionnaire was used to elicit information from the workers and the data collected have
been supplemented with detail derived from observation and informal discussions with
women workers information from the village from where the women are recruited and from
discussions with their friends, neighbours and relatives also form a major part of the
database.
Solanki S.S (2002) in his study on “Migration of Rural Artisans’ – Evidence from Haryana
and Rajastan” finds that certain long- standing beliefs concerning migration of rural artisans
to urban areas. As observed over a certain period, there has been little incidence of such
migration. While this may assist the preservation of traditional craftsmanship, state and civil
society alike need to develop fresh perspectives to nurture and hone rural talent.
Sushanta.K.Banerjee, V.Jaya Chandran, and T.K. Roy (2002) in their study on
“Has Emigration influenced Kerala’s living standards? A micro level investigation”, view
that the impact of job migration on households across Kerala has its impact on a greater flow
of remittances from abroad, which in turn leads to improved living standards and increased
consumption levels. More long- term changes are related to education. Higher educated
workers spend more time abroad. While for the women an increased access to education,
also leads to improved health, indicators a decline in the overall birth rate and a lowering of
infant mortality rates.
Vijay (2002) in his study on “Migration Vulnerability and insecurity in new industrial labour
markets” identifies the three types of employment patterns, namely The causal system which
is seasonal and is suggestive of lack of non-farm employment avenues for the labourers.
Contract Migration System is a tied, personalized institutionalized system. The migrants are
recruited by “maistries” after paying advances in the form of loans. They are then transported
to a worksite of a canal, dam, rail or road construction undertaken by a contractor and are
made to work during the period of contracts. Oscillatory Migration system. This is a system
observed in the informal patterns of employment in the organized manufacturing sector. The
industries in new industrial towns or semi-urban locals are seen to be preferring migrants to
local workers so that they may practice flexible labour market policies. He also suggested to
stop eulogizing migration as social mobility and recognize the substantive compulsions for
migration and initiating effective measures of employment generation in rural areas to put an
end to a fast deteriorating quality of work and life in industrial labour markets especially in
the newly industrializing town.
Arup Maharatna (2003) in a study on “Migration-Mediocrity and Misery Case of West
Bengal” says that, there is considerable literature on international migration of professionals
from developing countries and its implications, that is brain drain, such migration among
states within India has not been well studied. An examination reveal that migration of
qualified and skilled human power from states like West Bengal to relatively faster growing
areas in the country affect the efficiency and economy of the home state.

Ashish Bose (2003) in a study on “Migrant women workers, Victims of Cross-Border


sex “Terrorism’ in Asia” finds that throughout Asia women migrate to neighboring countries
for many reasons fleeing from the aggressive and finally to Bangkok; women from rural
areas of Thailand seeking Japan’s entertainment industry; and women domestic workers in
Srilanka, Indonesia and Philippines desperately seeking work in many countries recruited by
unscrupulous agents who have complex and well developed under ground net works. There
appears to be little that government and multinational agencies like ILO can do.

David Mosse & et al (2003) in their study on “The Margins in the city Adivasi Seasonal
Labour Migration in Western India” analyse the nature, experience and implications of
adivasi seasonal labour migration primarily to major centres for construction work. It goes on
suggesting why those institution are mandated to protect vulnerable workers.
Appa Rao Ch. etal (2004) in their study on “Rural out-migrants in a low population growth
setting have examined the migration trends that caused low population growth in the district
of Srikulam. Using, primary data, they found that there is a possible under count of
population in2001 census because of seasonal migration in Srikulam district they observed
that many rural youth are attracted to the city life and they often settle between the cities and
village.
Bhavani Shankar Rao (2004) in a study on “Migrant Construction Labour in
Visakhapatnam City” analyses primary data on living conditions of the construction workers
of Visakhapatnam City”. He observes that their living conditions are highly deplorable with
insufficient earnings, poor housing, and ill health and without basic amenities like water and
sanitation.
Neetha.N (2004) in her article on “Making of female bread winters – Migration and
social net working of women domestics in Delhi” highlights the primary role of women.
Migration and the survival of family. Women domestic are found assuming vital functions
and roles in migration the setting down process and in the search for job. Women are seen as
central in accessing and mobilizing social networks, which not only direct the course of
migration but also the survival of the migrant family in the urban milieu women are thus part
of the migration system and subsystems and take up numerous functions. This calls for a re-
examination of the validity of some of the widely accepted functions male-centric analysis in
the literature on migration.

Nigel Harris (2004) in a study on “Migration and Development” opines that


government attitudes to migration – internal and external have changed radically in recent
years. Formerly seen as evidence of chronic social and economic break down internal
migration is now seen as a major mechanism for the redistribution of resources from richer to
poorer localities and a vital means of raising the incomes of the poor. The same revision of
view is affecting international migration. Remittance flows have become major components
in the foreign exchange earnings of a number of countries. After some reluctance
governments have come to embrace emigration for wok to facilitate and reinforce its effects
on the alleviation of poverty. However, there are problems in the loss of the most
enterprising and best-trained workers of developing countries can the interests at state of
developing countries be reconciled. Temporary circulatory migration for the purpose of
training would seem to be the best out come, so that migration becomes a means to enhance
the human capital of developing countries for the task of reducing world poverty. There are
however, many options for developed countries without immigration from their domestic
labour market to off shoring. The real choice is about what sort of world we want.
Sundari.S (2005) in her work on “Migration as a likelihood strategy-migration in
Tamilnadu” finds that the major push factor was lack of employment opportunities in the
place of origin caused by drought and the full factor was a favourale employment situation in
the destination areas. After migration there seems to be a sizeable improvement in self-
employment and regular salaried jobs for women but the concentration of women in the
formal sector to the extent of 82% is an indication of their disadvantage.
Farhana Ibrahim (2005) in his study on “Defining a Border – Harijan Migrants and the
State in Kachchh” says that national cultures are considered by their guardian states as
bounded and homogeneous. Territorial boundaries must also aspire context of Kachcch and
sindh. The border remains socially fluid even often decades of its territorial demarcation. But
even as state attempts to nationalize their frontier spaces, inhabitants of frontier areas need
not always passive subjects in the process they need not always contest the state project, in
fact they may take decisions, based on their own particular circumstances, that an
intentionally bolster the nationalist state project of defining borders. Also the paper discuses
the migration of harijans from Tharparkar, Sindh into Kachchh in 1971 and the implications
of such a planned move for the themes above.

Santhosh Nandal (2006) in a study on “Women workers in unorganized sector: A study on


construction industry in Haryana” finds that a vast majority of India’s labour force is in
unorganized sector. In the absence of economic opportunities in their own states, many
workers migrate across the other states of India to seek employment construction industry
depends almost entirely on migrant workers, majority of which are women. The main object
of this of this paper is to shed light on the socio-economic problems being faced by a section
of the women workers in construction industry. These women workers have a very touch
life. In spite of being actively involved in economic activities for survival, bearing and
rearing of children remain their prime responsibility and thus they end up with playing roles
in both production and reproduction.
Darshan Singh (2007) says “Working conditions and problems of unorganized labour”
construction workers have been contributing substantially to the infrastructural development
of nation by contributing their labour to build hospitals, schools, townships, offices, houses
and other buildings, the socio-economic development of these poor people hove remained
inadequate in spite of their productive contribution to national development. They are
burdened with indebtedness and poverty their nutritional levels are low, their bodies are weak
and they are over whelmingly illiterate. They are compelled to work on lower wages and
under unhygienic conditions without proper facilities of housing, washing, bathing, latrines,
urinals other sanitary arrangements and social security measure. Under such circumstances it
should be the primary responsibility of the government and the civil society to ensure the
welfare and development of this poor and deprived sector of the society. The state with the
help of professional social workers or through non governmental organizations need to create
awareness about the rights of workers working in unorganized sector and also set up
mechanisms of redressal by encouraging them to form trade unions, according to the
building and construction workers regulation of employment and conditions of services act
1996.

Mridula Bajaj (2008) in her study on women construction workers in Delhi finds
that among the women surveyed at construction sites, 52 percent were suffering from chronic
energy deficiency. While 24 percent of these workers had normal body weight index, seven
percent were over weight. Apart from health parameters, the study found that in 84 percent of
the cases, the wife migrated because the husband had done so. Talking about the existing
disparity in the earnings of male and female construction workers, the study said: In most
instances (68 percent cases), the husband earned more than the wife. Half of the construction
workers interviewed had migrated within the last two years and 25 percent have been staying
in Delhi for five years or above. Nearly 60 percent of migrant construction workers had
migrated from another city, while 37 percent had moved from their villages, the study
revealed. The frequent mobility of the families threatens children’s education and also
access to government facilities that settled families usually enjoy, the study mentions. The
majority of constructions labourers are working to give a new look to the national capital but
they have no identify. No one knows about their plight. This study is a small step in airing
their voice in public.
Denzil Fernandes and Bino Paul G.D (2009) in their study on “Social Networks of
Migrant workers in construction Industry: Evidence for Goa” finds that Goa is a small
prosperous enclave on the west coast of India which has been attracting migrants from all
over the country. A large proportion of migrants to Goa are from backward districts of the
country, who come in search of employment. The high demand for labour and the high wage
rates of labour in Goa have resulted in a large influx of migrants in the causal labour market.
One of the sectors that have absorbed a significant number of migrants in its work force is
the construction industry. They paper provides, using census 2001 and NSSO 62nd round
data, an overview of the labour market in Goa using variables such as demographic
characteristics, work participation ratio (WPR), rate of unemployment and status of
employment. It also examines the role of the construction sector in the Goan economy, both
in the growth of the Net Domestic State Product (NSDP) and employment. Further, using
census data it captures the trend of increase in migration to Goa. Moreover, using primary
data collected in May-June, 2008, from seven construction sites spread all over Goa, it
presents a socio-economic profile of migrant construction workers, which include their place
of origin, age distribution, social category, education level, occupation status, type of skill,
employment status and daily wage rate. finally, it traces the social networks among migrant
construction workers. Showing different phases of the labour market, including the flow of
information regarding the labour market, entry into the labour force, allocation of work at the
construction sites, friendly relations among them and the flow of credit among the migrant
workers in order to meet their financial requirements.

The review made by the research on past studies gave familiarity and clear idea of the
research topic. This has helped to gain a good background for planning the present study.