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Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Lesley Harbon (University of Technology Sydney, Australia)
Michael Guest (The University of Miyazaki, Japan)
Loh Chin Ee (National Institute of Education, Singapore)
Jayakaran a/l Mukundan (Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
Adrian Rogers (Ohio State University, United States of America)
Hermawati Syarif (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
M. Zaim (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Yenni Rozimela (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Rusdi (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Delvi Wahyuni (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Witri Oktavia (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)



Padang, Indonesia, May 11-12, 2016

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

First Published 2016 by English Department

The Faculty of Langueages and Arts of Universitas Negeri Padang (FBS UNP)
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Edited by : Lesley Harbon
: Michael Guest
: Loh Chin Ee
: Jayakaran a/l Mukundan
: Adrian Rogers
: Hermawati Syarif
: M. Zaim
: Yenni Rozimela
: Rusdi
: Delvi Wahyuni
: Witri Oktavia

Cover Design : Delvi Wahyuni

Aga Tasrifan

Setting & Lay Out : Delvi Wahyuni

Aga Tasrifan
Hengki Agus Rifa’i

Publisher : English Department FBS UNP Press


Printed by : Sukabina Offset

Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka No. 29 Air Tawar Padang Telp 0751-7055660

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Conference Chairperson
Prof. Dr. Hermawati Syarif, M. Hum

Conference Vice Chairpersons

Prof. Dr. Jufrizal, M. Hum
Dr. Jufri, M. Pd

Prof. Lesley Harbon (University of Technology Sydney, Australia)
Ass. Prof. Michael Guest (The University of Miyazaki, Japan)
Dr. Loh Chin Ee (National Institute of Education, Singapore)
Prof. Dr. Jayakaran a/l Mukundan (University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia)
Adrian Rogers. Ph.D (Ohio State University, United State of America)
Prof. Dr. Hermawati Syarif, M. Hum (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Prof. Dr. M. Zaim, M.Hum (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Yenni Rozimela, M.Ed. Ph.D (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Prof. Rusdi, M.A. Ph.D (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Delvi Wahyuni, S.S, M.A (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Witri Oktavia, S. Pd, M. Pd (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Setting & Layout

Delvi Wahyuni, S.S, M.A
Aga Tasrifan, S.S

Phone: (0751) 447347

Supported by:

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



Steering Committee
1. Prof. Dr. Mukhaiyar, M.Pd. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
2. Prof. Dr. M. Zaim, M.Hum. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
3. Dr. Desmawati Radjab, M.Pd. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
4. Yenni Rozimela, M.Ed. Ph.D. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
5. Prof. Rusdi, M.A. Ph.D. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
6. Dr. Kurnia Ningsih, M.A. Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
7. Prof. Lesley Harbon, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
8. Ass. Prof. Michael Guest, The University of Miyazaki, Japan
9. Prof. Dr. Joko Nurkamto, the President of TEFLIN
10. Dr. Loh Chin Ee, National Institute of Education, Singapore
11. Adrian Rogers. Ph.D, Ohio State University, United State of America
12. Prof. Dr. Jayakaran a/l Mukundan, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Person in Charge: Head of English Department

Organizing Committee :
Chaiperson : Prof. Dr. Hermawati Syarif, M.Hum
Vice Chaiperson I : Prof. Dr. Jufrizal, M. Hum.
Vice Chaiperson II : Drs. Jufri, M. Pd.
Secretary : Dr. Zul Amri, M. Ed.
Deputy Secretary : Delvi Wahyuni, S.S, M.A.
Treasurer : Dra. Aryuliva Adnan, M.Pd.

Executive Divisions :
I. Secretariat
Coordinator : Witri Oktavia, M. Pd.
1. Leni Marlina, S.S, M.A
2. Nova Yulia S.Hum, M.Pd.
3. Sutria Rahayu, M.A., TESOL
4. Damai Yani S. Hum. M.Pd.
5. Novrina Eka Putri, M.Pd.
6. Salam Mairi, S.Pd. M.Sc.
7. Syafitri Ramadhani, M.Pd.
8. Yati Aisya Rani, M.Pd.
9. Desi Fitria
10. Ferdiansyah

II. Funding, Accomodation, and Transportation:

Coordinator : Dra. An Fauzia Rozani Syafei, M.A.
1. Drs. Jufri, M.Pd.
2. Dr. Zul Amri, M.Ed.

III. Schedule and Conference:

Coordinator : Dr. Yenni Rozimela, Ph.D.
1. Prof. Dr. Jufrizal, M. Hum.
2. Refnaldi, M.Litt.
3. Drs. Saunir M.Pd.
Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies
ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

4. Fitrawati, S.S., M.Pd.

5. Meira Anggia Putri, S.S, M.Pd.
6. Devy Kurnia Alamsyah, S.S., M.Hum.

IV. Conference Welfare

Coordinator : Dra. Aryuliva Adnan, M.Pd.
1. Dr. Ratmanida M. Ed.
2. Dra. Rahmah Apen, M.Si.
3. Inolla Octarina, M.Ad.
4. Dinovia Fannil Kher, M.Pd.

V. Event Organizer:
Coordinator : Dra. An Fauzia Rozani Syafei, M.A.
1. Devy Kurnia Alamsyah, S.S., M.Hum.
2. Yati Aisya Rani, M.Pd.

VI. Conference Venue and Documentation:

Coordinator : Dr. Hamzah, M.A., M.M
1. Januarisdi, M.Liss.
2. Drs. Donnarius, M.Hum
3. Yuli Tiarina, M.Hum.
4. Hendri Zalman, S.Hum., M.Pd.
5. Romardo Arsefta Wiguna

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

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Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Research shows that teaching-learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in countries where
English is not the vernacular language, like Indonesia, is riddled with multitudes of problems. Most
Indonesian learners are multilingual because they communicate in their local languages as L1 and in
bahasa Indonesia as the national and L2 language. Such condition brings about specific and complex
academic learning problems in using English as a medium of communication in classroom activities.
These need serious-pedagogical attention from scholars and practitioners in order to make some
improvement. In addition, government and policy makers should be aware of linguistic and
non-linguistic factors which may hinder any serious efforts to ignite a brighter future of EFL teaching
and learning in multilingual societies.
Issues emanating from EFL teaching and learning in multilingual settings, such as language
transfer, shifting paradigms, implicit knowledge on linguistic and non-linguistic factors and its practical
uses in communication, are crucial to be researched and discussed to overcome the problems mentioned
above. Studies and ways of how EFL learners in multilingual societies could have sufficient cultural
awareness and ability to minimize the negative L1 interference, for instance, should be carried out.
Results of such studies and ideas from scholars are expected to help practitioners in many aspects such
as preparing instructional materials, using appropriate teaching techniques, and selecting instructional
To ensure a brighter future of EFL teaching and learning in multilingual societies, professional
teachers and instructors of EFL should make innovations and share with others. Regarding to that
purpose, English Department of Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Padang holds an
International Seminar on the English Language and Teaching (ISELT) for the fourth time under the
theme Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies. To support
the main theme, there are some sub-themes that guide the speakers to write relevant papers presented in
plenary and parallel sessions.
This year, we welcome presenters coming not only from Indonesia, but also from other
countries adding to the international atmosphere of the seminar. There are 113 selected papers covering
various topics under the theme of the seminar. We hope that this event will serve as the right ―path‖ to
have academic-scientific discussion whereby various state-of-the-art research and concepts are
We would like to thank our keynote speaker, Prof. Dr. H. Irwan Prayitno, Psi., M.Sc.
(Gavernor of West Sumatera, Indonesia), and all invited speakers: Prof. Lesley Harbon (University of
Technology Sydney, Australia); Prof. Siti Hamin Stapa (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia);
Prof. M. Zaim, M. Hum (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia); Prof. Joko Nurkamto (the President
of TEFLIN, Indonesia); Ass. Prof. Michael Guest (Miyazaki Univeristy, Japan); Dr. Loh Chin Ee
(National Institute of Education, Singapore).
The committee thanks all speakers and participants for your coming and valuable contribution at
any session this forum has. It is not too late to say on this occasion that ―Ranah Minang‖, the
mother-land of Minangkabaunese, happily welcomes you all! Have a nice seminar and good luck. May
God Bless us! Amin!
Padang, May 11, 2016

Prof. Dr. Hermawati Syarif, M. Hum

ISELT-4 2016 Chairperson

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



Board Of Editors .................................................................................................................................... iii

The 4th International Seminar On English Language And Teaching Committee ................................... iv
Preface ................................................................................................................................................... vii
Table Of Contents ................................................................................................................................ viii

A. Keynote Speakers

1. Irwan Prayitno (Governor of West Sumatra)

Teaching English In Multilingual Societies ............................................................................................ 2

2. Lesley Harbon (University of Technology Sydney, Australia)

Considerations For English Writing In The ‗Super-Diversity‘ Of Multilingual Societies...................... 7

3. Siti Hamin Stapa (Universiti KebangsaanMalaysia, Malaysia)

Development Of Competence-Based English Test For Workplace Readiness ......................................14

4. M. Zaim (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

The Power Of Multimedia To Enhance Learners‘ Language Skills In Multilingual Class ...................22

5. Michael Guess (University of Miyazaki, Japan)

Preparing The Asian Non-Native English Speaker For Professional Discourse Communities .............30

6. Joko Nurkamto (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia)

Teachers‘ Creativity in Transforming the Mandated Curriculum into a Linguistically and Culturally
Diverse Pedagogical Practice ................................................................................................................ 39

7. Loh Chin Ee (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)

Engaging Students in Extensive Reading Through Literary Texts in the EFL Classroom ................... 48

B. Paralel Speakers

1. Made Frida Yulia (Sanata Dharma University, Indonesia)

Politeness Issues in Communication over Text Messages .....................................................................54

2. Maridha Fitri, Wina Viqa Sari, Eliyanti, Nurul Aiyah (Universitas Sumatera Utara dan
Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatara Utara, Indonesia)
The Effect of Applying Talking Chips Technique on The Students‘ Achievement in Speaking Ability

3. Mariska Febrianti & Bambang Suwarno (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Silence is not Golden ........................................................................................................................... 68

4. M. Khairi Ikhsan, Handayani. SB (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

The Development of Students‘ Worksheet Using Scientific Approach on Curriculum Materials........ 74

5. Masyhur (National Univeristy of Malaysia, Malaysia)

Influence of Motivation and Language Learning Environment on the Successful EFL Learning ........ 88

6. Melvina,S.Pd., M.Ed & Dona Alicia, S.Pd.,M.Pd (STKIP PGRI SUMBAR, Indonesia)
Students‘ Problems in Giving Presentation a Study at STIKIP PGRI of West Sumatera ................... 105
Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies
ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

7. Melviola Fitri, Putri Yulia Sari & Yummi Meirafoni (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
The Effect of Recorded (Videotaped) Mini-Drama toward Students‘ Speaking Ability .................... 113

8. Meylina (STKIP Jayanusa, Indonesia)

Using Video Projects in Promoting Students‘ English Participation in Conversation Class .............. 121

9. Ni Kadek Ary Susandi & Ni Luh Putu Krishnawati (STIKES Bali & Udayana University,
Needs Analysis: ESP Syllabus Design for Indonesian EFL Nursing Students ................................... 130

10. Ni Ketut Ayu Widianingsih, Ingatan Gulö (STBA Teknokrat, Indonesia)

Grammatical Difficulties Encountered by Second Language Learners of English ............................. 141

11. Nindy Chairani, Zulhermindra, Yulnetri (IAIN Batusangkar)

Strategies Applied by English Teachers in Expanding Student Talk in Classroom Interaction ......... 145

12. Nita Maya Valiantien, M.Pd, Ririn Setyowati, M.Hum., Setya Ariani, M.Pd (Universitas
Mulawarman, Indonesia)
Igniting Students‘ Motivation in Writing through Journal Writing .................................................... 155

13. Nurul Atma & Nosmalasari (Halu Oleo University and Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia)
Communication Strategies; Do They Differ across the Students‘ Level of Language Learning Anxiety?
............................................................................................................................................................. 162

14. Okri Ronaldo (STKIP PGRI SUMBAR, Indonesia)

Teaching Material for English Subject in Vocational High School .................................................... 170

15. Rahmah Apen. (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Indonesia)

The Applicative Use of Problem Solving Technique in Teaching Grammar...................................... 180

16. Resa Yulita (Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Payakumbuh, Indonesia)

Designing a Task-Based English Course Book for Students of Food Crops at Politan ...................... 188

17. Reski Oktaviani Yuned (University of Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Coherence Analysis of the 2015 International Conference Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistic.. 199

18. Retno Budi Wahyuni & Naniek Kuswardhani (Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bandung, Indonesia)
The Effectiveness of Enhaii Trainees‘ English Communication towards the Customers‘ Understanding
............................................................................................................................................................. 210

19. Rima Andriani Sari (Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Indonesia)

Teaching English for Tourism in Bali Based on Local Culture: What do Students Need? ................ 221

20. Rini Anita (IAIN Batusangkar, Indonesia)

Using ―Storybird‖ for Teaching Narrative Writing ............................................................................. 230

21. Rionaldi & Boni Saputra (Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis, Indonesia)

Vocabulary Learning Strategies Employed by English Department Students of State Polytechnic of
Bengkalis across Different Proficiency Levels. .................................................................................. 240

22. Rismareni Pransiska (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Requirements of Teaching English for Young Learners: an Overview in Padang, West Sumatera .. 250

23. Rismiyanto (Muria Kudus University, Indonesia)

Andragogy and Pedagogy: Learning Method Orientations for EFL Adult Learners .......................... 256
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

24. Rufo A. Labarrete (Leyte Normal University, Philippines)

Composition Writing Ability of Pre-Service Special Education Students: an Analysis ..................... 266

25. Rusdi (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Colouring English Multicultural Classrooms with Multicultural Values............................................ 272

26. Rutela Renette (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Using Reap (Read, Encode, Annotate, Ponder) in Teaching Reading ................................................ 278

27. Salam Mairi (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

An English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) Perspective in Asian English Language Teaching (ELT) ...... 283

28. Sariani, Witri Handayani, Mutia El-Khairat (Politeknik Negeri Padang, Indonesia)
Enriching Vocabulary Size Of EFL Learners through Deliberate Vocabulary Learning ................... 294

29. Saunir Saun (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Making Use of the Teachers‘ Questions in Developing Students‘ Language Inputs .......................... 301

30. Sitti Hadijah, M.Pd. (Islamic University of Riau, Indonesia)

Teaching by Using Video: Ways to Make it More Meaningful in EFL Classrooms .......................... 307

31. Siti Lestari & Sri Wahyuni (STKIP PGRI Semarang, Indonesia)
Bilingual Offline Game-Based Teaching Media for Science Subject ................................................. 316

32. Soraya Grabiella Dinamika & Elitaria Bestri Agustina Siregar (Universitas Sumatera Utara,
Developing English Syllabus for Tourism Management Students...................................................... 323

33. Sri Handayani (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

The Evaluation of English Textbook for Grade Vii of Junior High School in Indonesia ................... 328

34. Sri Hartiningsih (Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia)

Cross Culture Understannding as a Source of Communcation Material at Foreign Language Course in
Malang Raya ....................................................................................................................................... 340

35. Supardi (Universitas Jember, Indonesia)

ESP (English For Specific Purpose): Teaching Legal English Using Lexical Approach ................... 346

36. Suswati Hendriani (IAIN Batusangkar, Indonesia)

Taking Advantage of Students‘ Native Languages, Actions, Pictures, and Questions to Help Students
Master Present Progressive ................................................................................................................. 355

37. Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S.S., M.A. (STKIP PGRI SUMBAR, Indonesia)
Students‘ Personal ―Colors‖ in Self-Evaluation Essays as the Post-Process Pedagogy in Teaching
Writing (a Descriptive Study on EFL Composition Learning Practice in Indonesia) ......................... 361

38. Tatang Sopian (Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Bandung)

A Model for Assessing Students‘use of Apology Strategies............................................................... 374

39. Tri Ramadhaniarti (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Teaching English Vocabulary through Game: Views from The Students .......................................... 382

40. Tuti Andayani (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Code-Switching, a Communication Strategy in Learning English ..................................................... 388
Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies
ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

41. Urip Sulistiyo (Universitas Jambi, Indonesia)

English Language Teaching and EFL Teacher Competence in Indonesia .......................................... 396

42. V. Rido Rasmodjo, M.Hum. (Atmajaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Indonesia)

Grammatical Perspectives of the Teacher-Student Directives as the Instruction to High School Learners
in Multilingual Contexts: a Study Case............................................................................................... 407

43. Veni Roza (IAIN Bukittinggi, Indonesia)

The Effectiveness of Using Grammatical Consciousness-Raising Task (Gcrt) toward Students‘
Grammar Comprehension at the Fourth Semester Students of English Education Department at IAIN
Bukittinggi........................................................................................................................................... 412

44. Wahyudi (STIKeS Payung Negeri Pekanbaru, Indonesia)

Developing English Learning Materials Based on Content-Based Approach for Nursing Students of
STIKES Payung Negeri Pekanbaru..................................................................................................... 417

45. Wa Ode Nurmaulid Sakti B (Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia)

Reflective Teaching in the English Teaching and Learning Process at SMA Negeri 5 Kendari (a Case
Study) .................................................................................................................................................. 426

46. Wisma Yunita (Universitas Bengkulu, Indonesia)

Best Practice in Teaching English Grammar to University Students: Deductive, Inductive, or
Combination of Both? ......................................................................................................................... 435

47. Witri Oktavia (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Argumentative Elements and Quality of Multilingual Learners‘ Writing .......................................... 444

48. Wiwit Sariasih (Pamulang University Tangerang-Banten, Indonesia)

Language Awareness and Critical Thinking in Teaching Literary Appreciation ................................ 451

59. Yashori Revola (IAIN Bengkulu, Indonesia)

The Analysis of Tertiary EFL Students‘ Problem on English Speech ................................................ 458

50. Yasti Januariza & Suswati Hendriani (IAIN Batusangkar, Indonesia)

Student‘anxiety In Learning Speaking ................................................................................................ 468

51. Yelfiza (STKIP PGRI Sumbar, Indonesia)

Lecturers‘ Classroom Discourse Events And Power Relation Used In Communicating Learning Tasks
............................................................................................................................................................. 475

52. Yelliza (STIKIP PGRI SUMBAR, Indonesia)

Students‘ Language Use and Response in Classroom Presentation (a Study at Cross-Cultural
Understanding Class of English Department in STKIP PGRI West Sumatera) ................................. 484

53. Yenni Rozimela (Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia)

Untold Story: Classroom Management Problems and Their Influence on Student-Teachers‘ Teaching
............................................................................................................................................................. 489

54. Yulmiati, M.Pd (STIKIP PGRI SUMBAR, Indonesia)

Theoritical Reviews on Affective Assessment toward the Understanding of Senior High School English
Teachers in Padang of West Sumatera ................................................................................................ 497

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Prof. Dr. Irwan Prayitno, Psi., M.Sc.

(Governor of West Sumatera)


In the era of globalization, Eglish becomes the most powerful and essential tool of communication.
Consequently, teaching and learning English must be placed at a seriously important priority of
educational system. In order to achieve the ideal outcome of teaching and learning English in
multilingual society, three major aspects should be taken into account: 1) teachers, 2) teaching
methods, and 3) teaching materials. The flourishing English teachers are always characterized by
three dominant charateristics: 1) high degree of reflectivity, 2) high sense of efficacy, and 3) highly
student-centered teching style. English teaching methods should be creatively developed in order to
promote not only lower thinking order (memorizing and understanding) but also higher thinking
order, especially creative thinking level. Finally, teaching English materials should be developed on
the basis of students‘ background knowledge and environment, the concepts, principles, values, and
components for adapting didactic issues, and the higher thinking order.

Key words: teaching English, multilingual society

In the era of globalization, where we are living now, English becomes the most powerful and
essential tool of communication. No parts of the world, and no part of our life without English;
politics, economics, science and technology, education and socio-culture and so on employ English as
the means of communication. English becomes the language of all nations, and the language of every
sectors of the post modern age life. As reported by Ethnolaguage that English is utilized by 339
million people in 106 countries over the world ( accessed on April 21th
2016). It means that those who refuse learning English will be consequently thrown out from the
global companionship. As the result, teaching and learning English must be placed at a seriously
important priority of any level educational system.
In Indonesia, English has been formally taught as a core subject at the first year of junior high
school (K-7) through third year of senior high school (K-12). The basic competences to achieve is the
capability of communication in English covering interpersonal communication, transactional
communication, and functional communication. The 2014/2015 National Eexamination (Ujian
Nasional) Report shows that the English score of Indonsian students are relatively good—higher than
other courses. For junior high school, the avarage national score of English is 60,01, higher than
Mathematics (56,28) and Science (59,88). For senior high school, the avarage national score of
English for social sciences group (IPS) is 58,43—higher than Mathematics (55,76), Economics
(54,92), and Geography (51,55), except Sociology (59,00); for science group (IPA), the national
avarage score of English is 65,83—higher than Mathematics (59,17), Chamistry (59,98), Biology
(64,04), except Phisics (67,43) (Kemendibud, 2016 accessed on
However, the undoubtedly empirical fact shows that most of Indonesian high school
graduates who have formally learned English for six years are unable to communicate in English as
expected. They don not speak English fluently, and cannot write English confidently, although they
got excellent mark for English. It seems that there is no empirical relationship between the high school
students English score and the students‘ communication ability—orally and written. The basic
competences of interpersonal, trasactional and functional communication seems to be far from the
expectation. In short, It is hard to conclude that teaching English for high school students in Indonesia
has been successful in achieving it‘s goals.
The question is what the problems of teaching English in Indonesia are. In general, there are
three common issues of teaching and learning including teaching and learning English as foreign
language in multilingual society: 1) teachers, 2) teaching methods, and 3) teaching materials.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Although the constructivism approach places the students at the centre of teaching and learning
process, the significance of teachers‘ role in teaching and learning English should not be overlooked.
Teaching methods do not only motivate the students to actively take part in the teaching and learning
activities, but also inspire them to be more creative and self-encouraging. Teaching materials is a very
significant component of English teaching to create a lively and meaningful teaching and learning
atmosphere. These elements should be well integrated into a process of teaching and learning English
as foreign language in multilingual society.
This paper discusses the above mentioned issues in order to critically evaluate the
effectiveness of teaching English in a multilingual society like Indonesia. This paper focuses on the
central role of teacher, the signifacance of teaching methods, and teaching materials.


Althogh the constructivists argue that student is the center of teaching and lerning process,
teachers always play a very central in teaching and learning language, including English. As noted by
Freeman Johnson (1998) that second language teacher educators have begun to recognize that
teachers, apart from the method or materials they use, are central to understanding and improving the
quality of English language teaching. This point was strongly supported by Akbari & Allvar (2010)
stating that there has been a substantial theoretical and practical shift of emphasis, mostly in
mainstream education, towards acknowledging that teachers are among the principal components of
any pedagogical program. They found that three variables (e.i teacher‘s degree reflectivity, teacher‘s
sense of efficacy, and teacher‘s teaching style are significantly correlated to students‘ achievement in
English as second language. They highlight teachers‘ central role in language teaching.
Simply difined, reflection is stepping back and thinking about one‘s actions or thoughts
(Akbari & Allvar, 2010). Reflection is a reaction to the past experiences and is concerned with
conscious recall and examination of the experiences as a basis for evaluation and decision making,
and as a source for planning and action (Bartlett, 1990). The term of reflective teaching was first
promoted by Dewey(1933) who believed that teachers are not just passive curriculum implementers,
but they can also play an active role in curriculum design and educational reform. In English language
teaching, reflective teaching has been included in the studies on English language teaching as an
important means which teachers use to understand the complexity of the English language as well as
the social conditions affecting such learning and teaching (Abaslou & Langroudi, 2015). They found
that both critical thinking and motivation were significantly affected by reflective teaching. The
implication is that teachers of English should have higher degree of awareness in terms of the effects
of reflective teaching on learners‘ motivation and critical thinking. Consequently, as asserted by
Akbari & Allvar (2010), that teacher education programs should familiarize preservice and even
inservice teachers with the components of reflective teaching if they want to educate effective
teachers, who, in turn, enhance student achievement gains.
Secondly, an other significant teachers‘ characteristic correlating to students‘ achievement in
English as second language is teacher‘s sense of efficacy. In general, efficacy is definied as people‘s
beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over their own level of functioning and over events
(Bandura, 1993). Teacher sense of efficacy is defined by Tschannen-Moran & Hoy (2001) as a
teacher‘s judgment of his or her capabilities to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement
and learning. Akbari & Allvar (2010) found a positive relationship between a teacher‘s sense of
efficacy and student achievement in English language teaching. Teachers who possess a strong sense
efficacy show a trong commitment to teaching and spend more time in subject matters. They tend to
develop more effective lessons, take more responsibility for student achievement, use effective
management strategies stimulating student autonomy and keep student on task, and willing to
cooperate with parents and try to let parents know about students‘ educational performance.
Therefore, English teacher training programs are required to provide prospective teachers with
various verbal experiences to enhence their level of efficacy
Finally, teachers‘ teaching style strongly affects the stduents‘ achievement in English as
second language. Teaching style refers to a teacher qualities that persist although situational condition

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

changes (Akbari & Allvar, 2010). It is a label associated with various sets of consistent classroom
behaviors of the teachers regardless of the content that is being taught (Conti & Welborn, 1996). In
other words teaching style is a series of a teacher‘s expressive behaviors that constantly persist based
on his/hr beliefs, philosophy, and experiences.
Teaching styles is a very crucial component of English language teaching that either motivate
of demotivate the students. There are a number of teaching styles that have been identified in teaching.
Akbari & Allvar (2010) identifies some teaching styles introduced by deferent experts: 1) Visual,
Auditory, Group, Kinesthetic, Individual, and Tactile Styles (Salem, 2001), 2) Formal – Informal
(Bennett, Jordan, Long, & Wade, 1976), 3) Open -Traditional (Solomon & Kendall, 1979), 4)
Intellectual Excitement – Interpersonal Rapport (Lowman, 1995), and 5) Expert, Formal Authority,
Personal Model, Facilitator, and Delegator (Grasha, 1994). Sheikh & Mahmood (2014) evaluated the
dominant teaching styles of English language teachers that introduced by Grasha (1994) and found
that Delegator is the most prevalent style among the English language learners, because it is
student-centered in nature. In short, the more the teacher‘s teaching style student-centered in nature,
the more motivative the style is.

The second crucial issue of teaching English as foreing language is teaching methods. The
teaching methods determine the level students‘ involvement in the teaching activities. A number of
teaching methods have been introduced by experts for teaching English as second language. However,
not all of those methods are appropriate for all of language skills, especially the interpersonal,
functional, and transactional communication ability. The English teachers should mainly utilize the
teaching methods that promote the students to use the language in practice, rather than memorizing
and comprehending the rules or grammar of English. In other words, teaching methods selected by
English teachers should the ones that encourage the atmosphere where the students have more
opportunities to speak more than listen to the teachers lectures.
Although English consists a series of grammatical rules which students should understand, it
is a skill that involves a complex mental process. With reference to Bloom‘s taxonomy, teaching a
language does not end at the cognitive domain or lower thinking order (remembering, understanding,
and applying); it should reach the level of higher thinking order (analyzing, evaluating, and creating).
Teaching and learning English should not be only aimed at recognizing and recalling vocabulary and
rules, understanding the functions of the speeches, and applying them in mechanical ways, but also at
breaking down the components of language, judging the values of the communication, and creating
new sentences in meaningful contexts (e.i. interpersonal, transactional, and functional
communication, as stated in Kurikulum 2013). Therefore, the English teaching methods should be
creatively developed in order to promote higher thinking order, especially creative thinking level.
As reported by Baktash & Talebinejad (2015) that the very low learning objectives
(remembering, understanding, and applying) received more attention in this course book while little
heed was given to higher learning objectives (analyzing, evaluating ,and creating). This is equally true
as the teaching methods where teachrs of English tend to use lower thinking order teaching methods,
like leturing, mechanical drills, and alike. Hosseini (2007) asserted that most of Iranian language
classroom are run through a hybrid of grammar-translation method and audio-lingual methods, entails
translation, repetition, memorization, recitation, and reproduction. Interaction seems to be not
essential to the teaching and learning process, so that students miss the opportunity participate in the
process of collaborative tasks and interaction with their colleagues. This might be a mojor source of
English teaching disappointment in multilingual society, including Indonesia.


The last issue discussed in this papaer is the importance of selecting and developing
approriate materials for teahcing English students in multilingual society. Teaching materials are
anything that can be used to facilitae learning. They can be linguistic, visual auditory or kinaesthetic in
nature which can be presented in print, trhough live performance or display, or on cassette, CD-ROM,
DVD or Internet. Teaching materials are not only prepared to help teachers perform their role
effectively, but also to facilitate them to motivate students, diagnose class and individual needs,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

organize instruction, guide learning, evaluate people progress, and confer with perents concerning
their children. Therefore, in order to develop appropriate materials for teaching English in
multilingual society, the teacher as material developers should pay attention to: 1) what the students
have been familiar with, 2) the concept, principles, values, and components for adapting didactic
materials, and 3) the higher thinking order (analyzing, evaluating, and creating).
Since the setting or environment of English teaching in Indonesia is different from that of
America, England, or Australia, the materials should not be like what those in America, England or
Australia. The materials should be based on our students‘ daily live, rather then on other nations‘
culture. The materials should be developed on the basis of our culture and what the students have been
familiar with. It is hard to imagine that the English teaching be effective when the teachers use the
materials adopted from others‘ culture like Halloween, Canadian Day Festival, and Aborigin Culture.
It might be beneficial if the English teachers in Sumatera Barat develop the teahing materials based on
Minangkabau culture like Randai, Makan Bajamba, Malim Kundang, Cindua Mato, beautifulness of
Minagkabau nature, and so on.
Developing the teaching materials on the basis of national values must be a crucial
consideration of English teaching in every country in the world. For Indonesia, religious, humanism,
national integrity, democracy, and social justice values must be seriously taken into account by
English teachers when developing teaching materials. I believe that the National Curriculum
(Kurikulim 2013) is designed on the basis of our national values. However, the teachers should stand
on the first frontline of developing the young generation of our nation. In other word, although English
is not our culture, teaching English should be utilized as a tool of the national values development.
Finally, English teaching materials should encourage the higher thinking order as in Bloom‘s
Taxonomy introduced by Benjamin S. Bloom. The materials should not only be focused on the
cognitive domain (memorizing, recognizing and recalling rules or grammar and vocabulary;
understanding the rules or grammar and vocabulary; applying rules or grammar and vocabulary) but
also on the higher thinking domain (i.e. analyzing, evaluating rules or grammar, vocabulary, and
context, so that the students can create realistic and natural sentences). In short, English teaching
materials should be developed on the basis of integrating lower thinking order and higher thinking

Since English is the most widely used language in the globalization era, teaching and learning
English should be placed on a seriously important priority of educational system. In order to achieve
the basic competences as stated in the national curriculum (Kurikulum 13)—the English
communication sklls encompassing interpersonal communication, transactional communication, and
functional communication—three major components of English teaching should be taken in account.
The first is characteristic of English teachers covering the degree of reflectiveness, the teachers‘ sense
of efficacy, and the teaching styles. The second is the teaching methods that should be creatively
developed in order to promote higher thinking order, especially creative thinking level. Finally,
teaching English materials should be developed on the basis of students‘ background knowledge, the
concept, principles, values, and components for adapting didactic materials, and the higher thinking
order (analyzing, evaluating, and creating).

Abaslou, Azam & Langroudi, Jahanbakhsh (2015). The Effect Of Reflective Teaching on The
Intrinsic Motivation And Critical Thinking of Iranian EFL Learners Across Age Groups.
Modern Journal Of Language Teaching Methods, Vol. 4, Issue 5.
Akbari R. & Allvar, Nabi Karim (2010). L2 Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Students‘
Academic Achievement. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language.
Volume 13, Number 4
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational
Psychologist, 28, 117-148. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep2802_3.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Baktash, N. & Talebinejad, M. R. (2015). Evaluation Of The New Iranian High School Series Books
Based On Blooms's Revised Taxonomy : Prospect One In Focus. Modern Journal Of
Language Teaching Methods. Vol. 5, Issue 3
Behroozizad, S. Nambiar, Radha M.K. & Amir, Zaini (2015). The Relationship between Language
Learning Strategies and Teacher‘s Mediating Role. 3L: The Southeast Asian Journal of
English Language Studies – Vol 18(2): 35 – 48
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative
process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Freeman, D. & Johnson, K. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language teacher
education. TESOL Quarterly, 32(3), 397-418.
Hosseini, S. M. H. (2007). ELT in higher education in Iran and India: critical view. Language in India,
7, 1-11. Retrieved 04/22/ 2014 from http://www.
Parke, Margaret B. (1966). Teaching Materials and Their Implementation. Review of Educational
Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 pp. 380-387. Accessed:
22-04-2016 05:08 UTC
Tschannen-Moran, M, & Hoy, W, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct.
Teaching and Teacher Education 17, 783–805.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Lesley Harbon
University of Technology Sydney, Australia

In this paper I consider English writing in the context of what Vertovec calls the ―super-diversity‖
(1024) of multilingual societies. First I discuss the characteristics of multilingual societies, and the
example of Indonesia as a multilingual society with Bahasa Indonesia, the national language, many
regional languages, and languages of the different discourse communities, such as the language used
by socially connected young learners. Second I take up the concept of Vertovec‘s ―super-diversity‖
(1024), and how it might be applied to Indonesia today. Third I discuss general notions relating to
English writing, and particularly the sociocultural theory that has gained good ground in
conceptualisations of how best to teach and learn languages over recent decades (Vygotsky). Finally I
discuss my own practice in working with university students‘ writing through examples of two
particular cases. Salient aspects of my work with these two students are shared in the hope of
illuminating strategies which may be useful for teachers of English writing in Indonesia.

Keywords: English writing, super-diversity, multilingual societies, sociocultural theory, ELT

In this paper I consider English writing in light of Vertovec‘s ―super-diversity‖ (1024), and
discuss firstly the characteristics of multilingual societies. I provide Indonesia as an example of a
multilingual society: its national language, Bahasa Indonesia, its many regional languages, and
languages of the different discourse communities, such as the language used by socially connected
young learners. The concept of Vertovec‘s ―super-diversity‖ (1024) is discussed, especially as regards
how it might be applied to Indonesia today. General key notions relating to English writing issues are
outlined, particularly the sociocultural theory that has advanced scholars‘ conceptualisations of how
best to teach and learn languages (Vygotsky). Thereafter I discuss my own practice in working with
higher degree research university students‘ writing through examples of two particular cases. My
reflections about what key issues these two students are facing provide a focus for my discussion
about the types of strategies which may be worth considering by English teachers in Indonesia who
face the same issues.
Contemporary classroom contexts in the west and in many developing countries can perhaps
be characterised by the term 'super-diversity', a term initially used to describe diversity in Britain‘s
more recent ―emergent demographic and social patterns… [where] an increased number of new, small
and scattered, multiple-origin, transnationally connected, socio-economically differentiated and
legally stratified immigrants… have arrived over the last decade‖ (Vertovec 1024). If school and
university classrooms can be considered versions of wider society on a micro-scale, then those notions
of super-diversity – emergent demographics, social patterns, multiple-origin, transnationally
connected – are equally able to be applied.
One such multilingual society is Australia. The ‗super-diversity‘ of the Australian context
includes the fact that Australian English is ―the official language of the country and spoken as a first
language by 90% of the population with regional and social variation‖ (Austin 580). There are also
indigenous languages, Aboriginal English, pidgins and creoles and community languages (Austin).
Australian school and university classrooms may thus be considered as super-diverse, with the student
cohort of the 22-plus million inhabitants speaking any mix of the 400 different languages, including
indigenous languages.

Indonesia is ―…a diverse society in terms of people and culture‖ (Erb, Sulisyanto and Faucher 3), with
a population in 2009 of 230 million (Hellwig and Tagliacozzo 1) and possessing 726 of the world‘s

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

languages (Romaine 584). The national language, Bahasa Indonesia is ―a variety of Malay‖ (Clayton
432) and is the basis of government policy, societal communication and school and university
curriculum, except where policy allows the teaching and learning of ―different local or regional
languages such as Batak or Javanese‖ (Clayton 432). In 2006, English in Indonesia was classified as
an English of the expanding circle of world Englishes (Kachru 196), alongside China and Thailand. It
is ‗guesstimated‘ that of Indonesia‘s total population of more than 230 million people, approximately
12 million (or 5%) of the population are L1/L2 English users (Kachru 197). Figure 1, the map of
ethnic groups in Indonesia ―from Sabang to Merauke‖ (Hellwig and Tagliocozzo 4), displays the exact
nature of the ‗super-diversity‘ of the Indonesian context.

Figure 1: Ethnic groups in Indonesia

Source: Based on ‗Peta Suku Bangsa di Indonesia‘ (Ethnic Group Map) in Ethnography Room, National Museum
of Indonesia, Jakarta.
A multilingual society like Indonesia faces a multitude of challenges as regards languages
policy and languages in education.


English in the scholarly literature
A glance through the Index of the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (Brown) shows
the extent of the themes in the scholarly work published about English. English writing is the focus of
discussion, from anything such as ‗plain English writing‘, ‗academic English writing‘, ‗medical
writing‘, through to wider literature which touches on writing, such as ‗variation in non-native
varieties of English writing‘, ‗language for specific purposes‘, ‗world Englishes‘, ‗genre approach‘,
‗spelling‘, ‗formal grammar‘ and many more. As well, there have been millions of books written on
topics as various as ‗women‘s writing in English‘, ‗advanced English writing‘, ‗plain English
writing‘, ‗composition writing in English‘, ‗English for research purposes‘, ‗business writing in
English‘, ‗science writing‘, ‗English writing skills‘, and the list continues. ―English continues to be
the chief lingua-franca of the Internet‖ (Crystal 117), and higher education systems around the world
place a great deal of emphasis on knowledge published and influenced by English.

Multilingual societies
In describing multilingual societies in today‘s globalised world, Romaine states ―bilingualism
and multilingualism are a normal and unremarkable necessity of everyday life for the majority of the
world‘s population‖ (584). The very characteristics of multilingual societies bring inherent
challenges: ―the varied cultural and linguistic existing in contemporary societies around the globe
pose complex challenges for policy makers in many areas‖ (Romaine 584). All aspects of life are
shaped and impacted by language, and the complexity multiplies when people possess more than one
language. Yet for various reasons, people are usually at different proficiency levels in their various
languages. Often there is a need to receive more instruction in the second language, especially in

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

writing skills. Teachers need therefore to be up-to-date with the best strategies for teaching foreign
and second languages.

Teaching academic writing

According to Paltridge, Harbon, Hirsh, Shen, Stevenson, Phakiti and Woodrow (ix-xi),
English teachers/lecturers need to know about the nature of academic English writing, about needs
and situation analyses, about the different approaches to teaching academic writing (such as the
process approach, the content-based approach, the genre approach to name a few), about the
importance of vocabulary, about the importance of an intercultural perspective, and about assessing
English writing, including feedback strategies.
There are clearly so many considerations for English writing in an academic context. Users of
English in Indonesia will need to write a variety of English texts in academic and non-academic
settings at various points in their lives. A key message for teachers to note is that ―students often have
quite different writing needs, depending on the level of study and area of study they are working in or
wish to study in‖ (Paltridge et al. 2). They say, ―students often move from summarizing and
describing information to questioning, judging, and recombining information, to a deliberate search
for new ideas, data and explanations‖ (Paltridge et al. 3). Essentially, students needing to write in
English need to learn the ―rules of the game‖ of academic writing (Paltridge et al. 4), and their teachers
and lecturers are thereby the ones to support them.

Sociocultural theory supporting the teaching of English writing

According to Renshaw, ―the sociocultural perspective suggests that learning is a process of
appropriating ‗tools for thinking‘ that are made available by social agents who initially act as
interpreters and guides in the individual‘s … apprenticeship‖ (2). This definition refers to the notion
that learning is mediated (Vygotsky), indicating a significant other individual assists in scaffolding
learning. Believing in social constructivist principles, Beck and Kosnik follow the school of thought
that learners learn best when working in, and supported by, social groupings, maintaining that teachers
can ‗scaffold‘ student learning.
Considering the context of students of English language in multilingual Indonesia who need
to improve their writing skills, it is not unusual then to focus on what the English teacher/lecturer
might best suggest, and what strategies they might advise for the student‘s writing improvement. The
English language writing teacher can be the social agent – the significant other – who can assist the
often anxious student. Outlined below is my own recent experience of being the scaffolder for the
work of two postgraduate students in a university context.

Thesedays postgraduate research degree supervision is considered a teaching activity, rather
than a research activity, in an academic staff member‘s workload in Australian higher education
institutions. It is considered teaching because the activity involved is a type of research ‗training‘. In
the process of regular introspective, reflective evaluation of my higher degree research teaching,
considered as ―a concept of importance for the development of teacher professionalism‖ by Erlandson
(661), I took the following steps to journal my thoughts after recently experiencing critical incidents in
the supervision of two higher degree research students. I am certainly committed to the notion that
teachers ―use conscious reflection as a means of understanding the relationship between their own
thoughts and actions‖, as stated by Farrell (23), and thus track my professional supervision activity in
this way by making notes subsequent to a supervision meeting with my students.
Usually, and depending on which stage the student is at, I meet my research students on a
two-weekly basis. Two weeks between meetings gives them an opportunity to prepare new work for
me to read and critique. I require students to submit the written text to me 2 days prior to a meeting,
giving me sufficient time to read and critique and prepare feedback. In March and in April I spent time
reading two postgraduate students‘ work: Georgia submitting an essay for the coursework section of
her Masters degree, and Sunil writing up the chapter drafts for his Masters dissertation. After my
meetings, I wrote notes about the student, including comments about their writing. My notes are

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

running records and quick comments that allow me to recall where I left off with my last feedback,
and for follow-up should I need to consult others to assist me with different aspects of supervision.
First the reflective journal notes are condensed data into categories based on valid inference
and interpretation. Such data analysis, according to Mackey and Gass, has the goal of seeing whether
the ―research findings… emerge from the frequent, dominant, or significant themes within the raw
data‖ (179). This is a ―directed‖ inductive process (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) where the coding follows
the known theories. Trends and themes are then distilled from the reduced data.


The data presented and discussed below are my reflective journal entries after working with
two research higher degree students, one local and one from overseas. Pseudonyms are used, Georgia
and Sunil are not the students‘ real names. The raw data (reflective journal notes) are all stored in my
secure files on my personal computer. My comments reproduced below were all compiled in 2016.
Case #1: Georgia
I note two particular findings about Georgia‘s writing: (i) a difficulty in starting to write, and
(ii) the usefulness of writing in chunks of text. Those two notions are explored below.
Georgia, like many young adult students enrolled in higher education degrees throughout the
world, is a product of a schooling system where learning is mediated (Vygotsky), indicating a
significant other individual assists in scaffolding learning. As she has moved through her
undergraduate degree into her postgraduate study, Georgia has faced new understandings of both
content (what she needs to learn) and process (how she needs to learn new information, and how she
needs to demonstrate this learning). Yet I note that Georgia ―does not seem to be able to plan her work
by herself. She seems to need me to be able to feel confident about making a plan and getting on with
the task.‖ Perhaps today‘s students are not comfortable to work alone, and need the help provided by
a significant other.
I wrote in my journal:
It seemingly helps Georgia to talk things through with me. She knows what she wants to get
across, but she really seems to struggle with starting her writing off. When I mentioned that to
her, she told me that it‘s like abseiling – being really anxious about jumping over the edge of
the cliff, but once over the first bit, she can start to manage what follows a lot more easily.
It was exactly as I recorded it – once I started her writing, she took over and confidently made
For Georgia, breaking the task down into little sections appears to make it easier for her. I reflected:
Going through the essay task and pulling Keywords out of it and turning them into action
points in the essay seems a perfect strategy for her. So, when the essay instruction said,
"present a critically engaged argument for your decisions and approaches", she knew that
she had to show in her essay a) what decisions and approaches she took and b) a critically
engaged argument for each of those. So it was just rewording it really, to make her
understand what she had to do. It was then her choice to write about 3 decisions/approaches,
and then for each of those, present an argument for those with the support of academic
Perhaps still not confident and even fearful of presuming she understood the requirements of
the writing task, I told her how to look for signposts in the instructions, and plan to address each
signpost, linking them all together to construct a coherent argument. Georgia‘s problems may be
faced by some but not all students who are required to write in English. Other problems can be seen in
the case of another student, Sunil.
Case #2: Sunil
I note two particular aspects of Sunil‘s writing and discuss them through my journal reflections: (i) the
complexity of his writing style, and (ii) the particular problems he has with English prepositions and
pronouns. Those two notions are explored below.

After reading two draft versions of his dissertation chapter, my thoughts on Sunil‘s writing
include the following comments:

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Sunil‘s style of writing is highly complex. He seems to take for granted that the target
audience/reader are academics and they supposedly understand technical terms in his
writing. He needs to simplify his writing at sentence level. After my first meeting with him on
the first draft, he told me the way English is taught to adult EFL learners in his country: that
they are given ‗big words‘ and ‗complex grammar‘ to indicate a high proficiency. Now after
the second meeting he has told me that he needs to ‗express‘ instead of ‗impress‘, thus making
the finished produce less complex. His long dependent clauses were encumbering his ability
to convey a clear thought. I told him he really had to work on his prepositions and pronouns
Sunil came to this point in his professional development knowing quite a lot about English,
and quite a lot about English writing. However, I believe he was being encumbered by some rules he
had picked up. I believe Sunil has gone through a process, with my guidance, of needing to ‗unlearn‘
some of what he had first learned about English writing. Sometimes, he has now learned, and
depending on the writing genre, it is more important to simplify sentences and paragraphs. As well, he
has learned that the wrong use of a preposition or pronoun (which can be excused in a verbal
interchange because the interlocutor has more than just written textual clues and can rely on
paralinguistics to make meaning), can totally distort meaning and confuse the reader. Sunil knows
now to take great care with his lists of prepositions and pronouns, to double check the correct options.
Essentially for students in their secondary school years or perhaps in their university studies,
we have a situation where:
- the students are learning to write in English in a context where a curriculum has been written
for them by education authorities who may or might not be familiar with the student cohort
and their disparate needs and experience
- the classroom materials for teaching and learning English writing may or may not be useful
- the teachers/lecturers themselves, native speaker and/or non-native speaker teachers, will be
at different abilities in English writing competencies themselves, and
- the students may face situations where they need to ―unlearn‖ English writing skills, as well
as ―learn‖ new ones.
If all of those impacting factors are present, then the students like Georgia and Sunil need help
with their writing. What often results in much later years is young professionals who need to be able to
write in English, wishing they had developed and focussed their English skills in earlier years. It is
almost like authorities should run courses entitled, English for Wise Students, where an amount of
‗early wisdom‘ guides students into knowing what they will need to know later on.
Georgia is now coming to realise that example texts can provide her entry points to launch
into her writing, and assist her to dispel any fear she has of beginning to write, to put her first ideas into
structured text. As a part of the task of beginning her writing, Georgia has also learned that academic
contexts are replete with structured statements of what writing is required. Georgia needs to learn how
to look for those signposts – those structured statements – then plan carefully to take each one and
frame the chunks of her writing in that structured way.
Sunil needed to address the fact that he could unlearn the compulsion he felt to write complex
paragraphs. Sunil needed to re-learn that his English writing is just the production part of language
use: he does well to remember now that there is the receptive aspect of reading, where his supervisor
(and later examiner) needs to receive and decode the message he wishes to deliver. As his supervisor,
I felt obliged to let Sunil know what was important for me, reading his writing. If he could consider the
reader of his writing, he could plan to simplify his sentence and paragraph structure, and focus on how
the use of a particular preposition or pronoun can be crucial in delivering his message.

The four notions I now present in my conclusion show my desire to close with useful points
for English teachers to consider in their teaching of English writing. From a closer examination of
what issues existed to block Georgia and Sunil‘s writing progress, the following statements may be
valid for a good number of students:

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

- English writers need to learn how to project their thinking about their writing into the minds
of those who will read their work. A simple question might be: If I was reading this, what
would I want to see written?
- English writers need to learn how to decode the signposts provided which guide their
planning to write. Simply, a question to guide them is: What is in the list of tasks I must
undertake to write this task?
- English writers should be guided to write firstly at a very simple level. Layers of complexity
can always be added. A guiding question here might be: Do I know what I am writing, and
why I am writing it - at every point?
- English writers need to know that the sometimes daunting starting point of their writing task
does not need to be a fearful thing. As they make ―notes to self‖, students might reflect: I
know I can produce drafts of my writing, so I should feel less anxious as I begin to write now.
Keeping good humour about students‘ English writing is probably the most important aspect
for both English teachers/lecturers and students of English. Adding an amount of light-hearted
humour might ease students‘ anxiety to an extent, and there are plenty of memes on social media to
assist here. We can never go wrong with, for example, Keep Calm and Start Writing!

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and Woodrow, Lindy., Teaching academic writing: An introduction for teachers of second
language writers. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 2009. Print.
Renshaw, Peter D. ―The sociocultural theory of teaching and learning: Implications for the curriculum
in the Australian context.‖ Australian Association of Research in Education 22nd Annual
Conference. Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria. November, 1992. Web.
Romaine, S. ―Language policy in multilingual educational contexts.‖ Encyclopedia of Language and
Linguistics. 2nd ed. Ed. Keith Brown. New York: Elsevier. 2006. 584 – 596. Print.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Simeon, Jemma. ―Learner writing strategies of Seychellois ESL (English as a second language)
secondary school students: A sociocultural theory perspective.‖ Learning, Culture and Social
Interaction 8 (2016): 1 – 11. Web. 20 April 2016.
Vertovec, Steven. ―Super-diversity and its implications.‖ Ethnic and Racial Studies 30.6. (2007).
1024 – 1054. Print.
Vygotsky, Lev Semyonovich. Mind in society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1978. Print.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Siti Hamin Stapa
School of Language Studies and Linguistics
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

This article discusses the development of an English test to prepare for workplace readiness among
Malaysian graduates. This test is considered important to indicate the level of competency of the
graduates before entering workplace. This test focus on the oral competence as it was found that
Malaysian graduates lack communication skills. Six competencies (based on the framework
developed by TOCC) are examined in the test. These are discrete but work together holistically to
make a speaker persuasive and convincing in presentations and discussions: discourse competence
– holistic impression of speaking ability – persuasiveness, articulateness, linguistic competence
– fluency and accuracy of language, interactional competence – ability to give feedback or comment
on another‘s ideas without offending, strategic competence – ability to recover from mistakes, or to
think on feet, socio-cultural and formulaic competence – expected courtesies as heard in common

Keywords: English test, Workplace readiness, Competence-based English test, Communication


Malaysia‘s higher education has grown up tremendously in the last 20 years due to the
shifting of the country‘s economy from agricultural to industrial and service oriented (Kim & Rasiah,
2011). There were seven public universities in the era of 1990‘s which has expanded to 20 by 2007; an
additional of 18 private universities created during the same period. At the same time, there are more
than 500 other higher education institutions, which includes university colleges, branch campuses of
local and overseas institutions, open universities and other institutions with non-university status. The
total number of students enrolled in higher education institutions was 748,797 in 2007. The
Malaysian economy has grown, too during this period at an annual rate of 6.6% for the last 30 years
(Ismail 2011).
The expansion of the economy has produced an abundance of jobs primarily in the industrial
and service sector which requires graduates to fill them. These jobs require skill sets that are different
from those that were needed in a primarily agricultural society. One of the major emphasis is on
communication skills. Many jobs in the industrial sector and most jobs in the service sector rely
heavily on employees to have strong communication skills (Ismail 2011). Of course when
communication skills are mentioned here, it is the global language of English that is referred to.
Despite the expansion of the economy and higher education as well an abundance of jobs in
the industrial and service sector, many Malaysian graduates still do not find suitable employment.
Since 1998, the rate of unemployment has been on the rise consistent with the transition of the
economy from agricultural to industrial and service oriented (Ismail 2011). The employment rate
among graduates is the highest in the country (Singh and Singh, 2008).
Although there are many factors that contribute to the high unemployment rate among
graduates in Malaysia, a lack of English proficiency in general and a lack of communication skills in
particular are the major contributing factors. Ambigapathy and Aniswal (2005) noted that English
language skills in general are the major factor in Malaysian graduates‘ lack of employability. In a
survey conducted with 10 companies that recruited Malaysian graduates, 81% of them reported that
English language proficiency is the utmost important when recruiting graduates. Ismail (2011) found

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

that graduates may receive adequate training in the technical knowledge related to their field of study,
but do not possess soft skills (communication skills, in particular) needed in the workplace. She
continues by saying that since the official language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia almost all courses
are delivered in this language. As a result of this, graduates may have difficulty communicating in
English upon entering workplace. At the same time employers are also reluctant to hire graduates
based on prior bad experiences with graduate employees with bad communication skills.
Hence, there is a need to prepare graduates with effective oral communication skills in
English that is required by the potential employers. This article presents the development of a
competency test that focus on workplace readiness in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). UKM
students were found to be incompetent in speaking and writing in English (Siti Hamin Stapa et al
2008). They also found that students are less able to use English for developing and conveying new
knowledge. Based on the problems in equipping the right intervention for the students, then there is a
need to investigate their level of oral communication. A team of lecturers from the School of
Language Studies and Linguistics proposed to develop a Competency based English Test (CBET).
CBET is a test which is developed to enable UKM students, undergraduate or postgraduate, to
assess how well prepared their oral communication skills are for the multinational workplace.


The CBET is a criterion referenced proficiency test of oral communicative competence. This
means that as long as a candidate fulfils the basic criteria of communicative competence as defined by
the test framework they will be given a score to reflect their proficiency at that point of time. The test
which is focused on the speaking competency which is seen as situated social practice which involves
reciprocal interaction with others, as being purposeful and goal-oriented within specific context.
Being competent, in other words, involves not just production, but also interaction, which is clearly
reflected in the CEFR treatment of speaking as comprising of two skills: production and interaction
(Council of Europe 2001a:26). CBET will be designed based on the six levels of language proficiency
organized into three bands as described by CEFR: A1 and A2 (basic user), B1 and B2 (independent
user), C1 and C2 (proficient user).
Six competencies (based on the framework developed by TOCC) are examined in the test.
These are discrete but work together holistically to make a speaker persuasive and convincing in
presentations and discussions.
 Discourse competence – holistic impression of speaking ability – persuasiveness,
 Linguistic competence – fluency and accuracy of language
 Interactional competence – ability to give feedback or comment on another‘s ideas without
 Strategic competence – ability to recover from mistakes, or to think on feet
 Socio-cultural and formulaic competence – expected courtesies as heard in common

This research utilized the following instruments to gather data
1. Questionnaire for background details
2. Interview ( Post test analysis)
3. Experts‘ evaluation ( Content validation)
4. Open-ended questionnaire for test evaluation

Hence, this investigation requires a mixed methods approach in which both qualitative and
quantitative data will be utilized. The validation of the proposed instrument would be done
quantitatively and qualitatively.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

It is our belief that the validated proposed test could be used as an alternative to other
well-known proficiency tests to decide on the language ability of the prospective students. We
believed that once the proposed CBET is validated it is appropriate to be used as an indicator to gauge
the students‘ language ability before leaving the university.
The Test
The test is divided into three parts:
1. Monologue
2. Description of tables/graphs
3. Problem solving task (pair work)


A pilot run of CBET (Competency-based English Test) was conducted on 16 October 2015 by
Faculty of Social Science and Humanities (FSSK), Faculty of Islamic Studies (FPI) and Faculty of
Technology and Information (FTSM), and on 25 October 2015 by Faculty of Science and Technology
(FST). The test was administered by the respective faculty. The test takers were required to tape their
responses to Parts 1 and 2 of the test using their smartphone, and sent their audio files to a CBET
email. For Part 3, the test takers were required to converse in pairs. Their performance was either
video-taped by the faculty as was done by FPI, FTSM and FSSK, or by the students themselves and
the video-file emailed to the CBET email account (FST).
A rater-training to ensure standardization of expectation of performance at the different
competency levels was conducted on 20 October 2015 and attended by 12 raters assigned to assess the
performance. All raters are from PPBL except for one who is from Pusat Citra. The raters were given
4 weeks to rate the performance. They were also told to assess the performance in-pairs to ensure
better scoring validity.
Test takers, Files and Performances
100 students were identified by each faculty to sit for CBET. However, the actual number of
students who turned out and registered as test takers was below that number (Table 1). FTSM and
FSSK have 79 and 78 test takers respectively while FPI and FST have 51 and 56 respectively. The
number of audio and video files received does not tally with the number of test takers as shown in
Table 1.
Table 1: Number of Students Who Sat for CBET According to Faculty
Faculty Number of Number of students# Comments
registered* Part1 Part 2 Part 3
(audio) (audio) (video)

FPI 51 35 33 47 More students completed Part 3

compared to Parts 1 and 2 because the
video recording was carried out by the
Faculty while Parts 1 and 2 had to be
audiotaped by the students themselves.
FST 56 40 18 38 Only 14 students have completed all 3
parts. For Part 3, the videos are of poor
quality. The test taker voice is very soft
and there are many voices in the
FTSM 79 39 32 73 Some of the audio files sent are in AAV
format and they could not be assessed by
the raters. Voice quality of some audio
files are poor.
FSSK 78 60 60 77 More students did Part 3 than Part 1 and

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

2. This is similar to the situation in FPI

and FTSM.
* figure provided by the faculty
# based on availability of files
For FPI, even though there were supposed to be 51 test takers, there are only 35 audio files for
Part 1, 33 for Part 2 and 47 for Part 3. However, only 30 students completed all the different parts of
the test.
The breakdown of the performance of the students is given in Table 2.
Table 2: Performance of FPI Test Takers
Band CBET Part 1 CBET Part 2 CBET Part 3 Overall
No. % No. % No. % No. %
A1 7 20 8 24.24 2 4.26 3 10
A2 18 51.43 15 45.45 22 46.8 18 60
B1 5 14.28 7 21.21 20 42.55 7 23.34
B2 4 11.44 3 9.1 1 2.13 1 3.33
C1 1 2.86 - - 2 4.26 1 3.33
C2 - - - - - - - -
Total 35 100 33 14 47 100 30 100

The number of test takers given by the faculty is 56 but there are only 40 audio files for Part 1 and 18
audio files for Part II. Most students only responded to Part I. Only 14 students completed all 3 parts
of the test. Therefore, the overall analysis can only be done for the 14 students. The breakdown of the
FST student performance is given in Table 3.
Table 3: Performance of FST Test Takers
Band CBET Part 1 CBET Part 2 CBET Part 3 Overall
No. % No. % No. % No. %
A1 - - - - - - - -
A2 9 22.5 3 16.67 7 18.42 3 21.43
B1 12 30 6 33.33 15 39.47 6 42.86
B2 7 17.5 6 33.33 8 21.05 4 28.57
C1 8 20 3 16.67 6 15.79 1 7.14
C2 4 10 - - 2 5.27 - -
Total 40 100 18 100 38 100 14 100

The number of FTSM students with at least one file that could be accessed is 77. Out of this
77, there are only 31 audio recordings for Part 1 and 32 for Part 2. Students either did not attempt the
question or did not provide a file in a format that could be accessed by the raters.
There are 72 student video performances. There are 5 students who have audio files for Part 1
and/or Part 2 but do not have any video performance (Part 3). Only 29 students have completed scores
for all the three parts.
The performance of the FTSM students are presented in the table below (Table 4). Generally,
majority of the FTSM students obtained either a B1 or B2, and there more B2 students than B1.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Table 4: Performance of FTSM Test Takers

Band CBET Part 1 CBET Part 2 CBET Part 3 Overall
No. % No. % No. % No. %
A1 1 2.56 0 0 0 0 0 0
A2 5 12.82 4 12.5 6 8.34 2 6.9
B1 8 20.51 5 15.62 23 31.94 6 20.69
B2 17 43.60 17 53.13 33 45.83 15 51.73
C1 8 20.51 5 15.62 9 12.5 5 17.24
C2 0 0 1 3.13 1 1.39 1 3.44
Total 31 100 32 100 72 100 29 100

The number of students who registered is 78 but the number of students who sat for at least
one part of test is 80. This means that 2 students did the test without registering. There were 15
students who had only their video performance. There were no audio-files. This suggests that the
students might not have sent their audio files. There were 3 students with audio files but had no video
performance which means that they left after doing Parts 1 and 2. There were 4 students who
submitted blank files and one students who responded in Malay. There were only 54 students who
completed all the 3 parts of the test. All problematic cases mentioned were excluded from the analysis
of FSSK student performance presented in Table 5.
Table 5: Performance of FSSK Test Takers
Band CBET Part 1 CBET Part 2 CBET Part 3 Overall
No. % No. % No. % No. %
A1 - - - - 2 2.6 - -
A2 2 3.33 5 8.33 13 16.88 1 1.85
B1 14 23.33 10 16.67 21 27.27 15 27.78
B2 21 35 20 33.33 26 33.77 22 40.75
C1 10 16.67 12 20 10 12.98 8 14.81
C2 13 21.67 13 21.67 5 6.5 8 14.81
Total 60 100 60 100 77 100 54 100

Because of incomplete data and other problems summarised below, the test results that have
been presented might not be indicative of actual student performance.
PART 1: Ratings of students’ performance
A1 – Test takers have very limited ability to answer questions. Effort is lacking. They might
on occasions repeat parts of the questions and give up on the task or remain silent. They might attempt
to perform task but fail. Only occasional words or phrases are intelligible.
A2 – Test-takers have limited ability to answer questions. They respond with much effort but
provide limited speech sample and they often run out of time. It is obvious that they cannot fully
answer the questions posed due linguistic weakness but function can be evident. Answers given are
incomplete ideas without substantiation.
B1 – Test- takers can answer questions quite competently. They respond with effort,
sometimes provide limited speech sample and sometimes run out of time. They sometimes use
excessive distracting and ineffective language to compensate for linguistic weaknesses (vocabulary
and/or grammar). Content is adequate. Some listener effort is required.
B2 -- Test- takers can answer questions competently. They provide relevant information,
sometimes with difficulty and usually do not run of time. There are linguistic weaknesses and repair

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

strategies might be necessary and these could be distracting. Sometimes awkward expressions are
used. Generally, there are good content and supporting details. Little listener effort is required.
C1 -- Test-takers can answer questions very competently. They provide relevant information
freely with little difficulty, and may go beyond the task by using additional appropriate functions.
Very good language and appropriate expressions. Generally, there are very good content and
supporting details. No listener effort is required.
C2 – Test-takers can answer questions very competently and effectively. They provide
information freely with no difficulty and go beyond the task by using additional appropriate functions.
Excellent language and sophisticated expressions. Generally, very strong content and supporting
details. No listener effort is required.
PART 2 : Ratings of students’ performance
A1 – Test takers do not have the skills to understand the test directions and the content of the
test questions.
A2 – Test-takers can do limited description but cannot state their opinion or support it. The
opinion given is either not logical or not relevant. Responses given have very basic vocabulary and
grammar. Generally, the test-takers‘ responses are difficult to understand.
B1 – Test- takers can undertake simple basic description. They can with some difficulty state
their opinion but cannot support their opinion well. Responses given used limited vocabulary and
grammar. Generally, it is possible to comprehend their responses.
B2 – Test- takers can successful describe the graph but grammar and vocabulary used are
limited in variety and range. They have some success in expressing their opinion but their weaknesses
include vocabulary that is not precise enough, answers that are not clear and there seem to be
insufficient audience awareness. It is possible to comprehend their responses easily.

C1 – Test- takers can describe the graph with good grammar and suitable vocabulary. They
have successful expressed their opinion and support them clearly. Use of vocabulary and grammar
when they give their opinion is concise and appropriate. Answers are clear and show audience
awareness. It is possible to comprehend what is spoken with ease at all times.
C2 – Test-takers can do an excellent job in describing by using appropriate grammar and
vocabulary at all times. Opinion given are expressed and supported very clearly and logically.
Answers given are very appropriate and show their abilities to respond not only accurately but
critically. Basically they are very advanced speakers who have succeeded in meeting all the
requirements of the task given.
PART 3 : Ratings of students’ performance
A1 – Test takers display very limited ability to perform task. Effort is evident. They might
repeat prompt and give up on the task or remain silent. They might attempt to perform task but fail.
Only occasional words or phrases are intelligible.
A2 – Test-takers perform task limitedly. They respond with much effort but provide limited
speech sample and they often run out of time. Much effort is required on part of the listener to
understand. It is difficult to tell if task is fully performed because of linguistic weakness but function
can be evident.
B1 – Test- takers can perform task somewhat competently. They respond with effort,
sometimes provide limited speech sample and sometimes run out of time. They sometimes use
excessive distracting and ineffective repair strategies to compensate for linguistic weaknesses
(vocabulary and/or grammar). Content is adequate. Some listener effort is required.
B2 -- Test- takers can perform task competently. They volunteer information, sometimes with
effort and usually do not run of time. There are linguistic weaknesses and repair strategies might be
necessary and these could be distracting. Sometimes awkward expressions are used. Generally, there
is strong content. Little listener effort is required.
C1 -- Test-takers can perform task very competently. They volunteer information freely with
little effort, and may go beyond the task by using additional appropriate functions. Good repair
strategies, appropriate expressions and content are used. No listener effort is required.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

C2 – Test-takers can perform task very competently and effectively. They volunteer
information freely with no effort, and go beyond the task by using additional appropriate functions.
Excellent repair strategies, sophisticated expressions and very strong content are evident. No listener
effort is required.

A number of problems are identified and will be discussed below.
 Students did not attempt all questions and parts
For Part I, raters reported that some students answered only the first question out of the 3
questions. Also, many did not answer Part II or did not appear to know what to say (FPI and FTSM).
This could be due to an error in the task for Part II which could be resolved when the test was
conducted at FSSK, but not at FPI and FTSM. However, when the test was conducted at FST the error
was correct. Nevertheless, only 18 students answered Part II out of 40 students who answered Part I in
FST (Table 3). This could be due to the way the test is conducted at FST.
 Quality of audio and video files is poor
Raters for FTSM and FST reported that some of the audio files are barely audible probably
because students spoke very softly. There are also reports of voices overlapping (responses from one
part overlapped with responses from the other).
FST raters reported that the quality of the video files is poor. The videos appeared to have
been taped by the students and that they could hear many voices in the background. This suggests that
there are other students also carrying out the task in the same room. FTSM raters also said that there
are a lot of background noises in the videos. They could hear other students responding to the task in
the background. No quality issue was reported with the video files of FSSK and FPI.
 Discrepancy in number of students who registered and number of files received
There are some FSSK students who either did not sent their audio files for Parts 1 and 2 which
involved self-taping or did not do them (Table 5). There were also students who sent blank files. The
reason why is not immediately clear. It could be due to internet access, uploading issue or problems
with taping or smartphone.
 File Format that could not be accessed
A number of students from FTSM uploaded their audio files to Goggle Drive or Dropbox and
provided the link to the files via email. Raters reported that they could not access these files which are
in the AAV format.
 Difficulty in assessing the test
Raters have problems rating some of the files because of the sound quality. Some raters could
not meet the deadline despite being given a month to do so as it was during the semester and they are
busy with classes etc. As the rating involves 2 raters, some have problems meeting up with their
partners as required.
The committee suggests the following changes to solve the problems highlighted above:
 Streamline the test and response mode
The test will only has 1 task with 3 / 4 questions instead of the current 3 tasks. Test takers
would be required to talk about themselves, and be given real world scenario that requires them to
problem solve and think critically to come up with solution(s). The students will not be required to
discuss in pairs.
Test takers‘ responses will be audio-taped in the computer laboratories, if available.
Alternatively, they would be audio-taped using the students‘ own smartphones. With the change to the
test, the test takers only need to send in one audio file solving the problems of missing files or not
attempting certain tasks. There would be no video-taping as not all faculties have facilities to do this,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

and asking the students to video-tape themselves have proved to be problematic. This also facilities
assessing as the examiners only need to give one score.
 Dissimilate Information about CBET prior to the test
Sample test items with clear instructions on the mode of assessment, and the dos and don‘ts
will be dissimilated to test takers at least a week before the test so that they would not only be able to
practice and be familiar with using their smartphone to tape their response but also the pitfalls of
self-taping could be overcome.
With the implementation of these changes, the committee believes that the problems
encountered could be minimized and that CBET will not only be more test-taker and examiner-
friendly, but also more practical.
Ambigapathy, P. and Aniswal, A.G (2005) University Curriculum: An Evaluation on Preparing
Graduates for Employment, University Sains Malaysia: National Higher Education Research
Gurvinder Kaur Gurcharan Singh & Sharan kaur garib Singh. (2008). Malaysian graduates‘
employability skills. [Online] Available: Graduate.pdf (August 15, 2008)
Ismail, N.A. (2011). Graduates Characteristics and Employment : A Study among Malaysia
Graduates, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2 (16), 94-102.
Kim, Peong Kwee & Rasiah, D. (2011). A Study on Ethical Investment Behaviour among Malaysian
General Insurance Fund Managers , Journal of Financial Studies & Research, Volume 2011
Stapa, S.H., TG Maasaum, TNR, Mustaffa, R, and Darus, S. (2008) Workplace Written Literacy and
Its Effect on the Curriculum. GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies 8(1), 23-33.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Prof. Dr. M. Zaim, M. Hum
Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia

The aim of language teaching is to enable learners to be fluency in the language being learned. Some
efforts have been done by the teachers in the process of teaching and learning in language class such
as using various methods and strategy of teaching to make the students learn in the class but the
results are still far from the expectation. Multimedia, that can be found easily nowadays, can be used
to enhance the learners‘ language skills. The use of silent story, picture cued, TV news, comic strips
are among the multimedia that can be used by teachers as the solution to make the learning process
more motivated for the learners to practice their language skills orally and in written form.
Multimedia has a power to motivate learners practice their language in a contextual situation then
they acquire the language.

Keywords: multimedia, language skills, multilingual class

Instructional systems and educational technology have been gaining great attention by
educators in order to enhanche students‘ learning. Educators are always looking for ways to make
their educational initiative more effective. Therefore, the learning experience has shifted paradigms
from an instructor-focus appproach to learner centered pedagogical approach. Educators have been
adapting their curricular to take advantage of new instructional methods. Educational technologies
such as multimedia presentation, simulation methods, online courses, and computer assissted learning
are becoming commonplace (Yamauchi, 2008).
At the beginning, learning was done in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students,
as Plato‘s dialogues with his student Aristoteles, that solely used of teacher‘s voice in implementing
the learning process. When the teacher's voice alone is not sufficient to explain something, then
teaching aids was used by writing or drawing something on a flat area, which was known as the
chalkboard or blackboard. Chalkboard did not simply write a words, phrases, and sentences, but it is
also used to draw objects or graphs that need to be explained. Technological developments, changing
blackboard increasingly diverse both in terms of form, quality, and function, but remain solely serve
as a visual learning.
In foreign language learning, the first visual media used using a blackboard media is a simple
image in the form of stick figure, to explain object, action, or idea. For a talented persons, they can
make a better picture for the provoking productive and receptive language skills. Blackboard can be
used to write new vocabularyies, phrases, or sentences, and to practice in writing sentences by
language learners. Blackboard is solely the medium of instruction used by teachers in the classroom.
Some methods of teaching originally used by teachers are grammar translation method, direct
methods, total physical response, and audio-lingual (Larsen-Freeman, 1986), where the interaction of
teachers and students was done through voice of teachers to explain learning materials, conduct drills
to practice the language learned, practice the language being studied, and test the ability of oral and
written language to cummunicate with others. The emergence of communicative language learning
and communicative approach gives a new nuance in the importance of learning in order to improve the
understanding and skills in the language learners to master the language learned. Instructional media
are used to help teachers explain and practice the language.
The development of gadget technology has changed the role of teaching media. Everyone
now has one or more gadget that can access texts, pictures, videos and music. All of them can be used

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

as a medium of learning a foreign language. Foreign-language text can be read by language learners to
practice reading. Video, in the form of YouTube, can be accessed any time to listen how information
and entertainment in a foreign language can be understood. The students can learn not ony from
teachers but from any sources that be accessed easily through internet.
Learning is defined as the process of creating an environment that enables the process of
getting knowledges or skills. Learning is the mental activity of students in interacting with the
environment that produces behavioral changes that are relatively constant. Thus, the environment is
an important aspect in learning activities. The environment is created by rearranging the elements that
can change the behavior of students. Multimedia is one of the elements that can affect students'
learning environment. Multimedia can stimulate the mind, feelings, concerns and willingness to learn
so that the learning process takes place to achieve the objectives. If the selected instructional
multimedia developed and used appropriately and well, it will provide enormous benefits to the
implementation of instructional process (Ariasdi, 2008).
About teaching and learning, Brown (1994) mentions that ―learning is acquiring or getting of
knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience or instruction. Learning is a relatively
permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice‖. He, then,
continuous that ―teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the
conditions for learning‖. Similarly, teaching may be defined as ―showing or helping someone to learn
how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with
knowledge, causing to know or understand.‖ So, teaching cannot be defined apart from learning.
Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for
To set the conditions for learning, the use of media is very useful in teaching. Research at
Harvard Business School shows that the learning outcomes of students taught using audio-visual
media is 38.5% better than the group that was taught with traditional methods. Further research
indicates that the information received by the human brain comes from the five senses, in comparison
can be expressed as follows: sense of taste 1%, sense of touch 1.5%, sense of smell 3.5%, sense
listening 11%, and senses seeing 83%. The last report explained that what we can remember on
average through the five senses are: 10% of what we read, 20% of what we hear, 30% of what we see,
50% of what we hear and see, 80% of what we say, and 90% of what we say and do. This suggests that
the best conditions for teaching students are participating, namely reading, listening, seeing, saying
and doing (Zaim, 1990). Instructional media can help teachers to activate as many senses as possible
in learning.
Zaim (1989) says that instructional media can help to simplify the learning process, allow the
students to better understand the content of what being taught, help to shape the learning prcess, and
can stimulate interest in the language program and thus provide for a motivational impulse. The media
can serve as a source of linguistic information, models of linguistic, cultural resources, and cultural
model. A picture is worth a thousand words. With a picture, the teacher can instill concepts, uncover
ideas, making a conversation, and write an essay (Zaim, 1991). Instructional media can be single
media (audio or visual) and multimedia.

Multimedia is media that connects two or more media elements consisting of text, graphics,
images, photographs, audio, video and animation integratedly. Multimedia can be divided into two
categories, namely linear multimedia and interactive multimedia. Linear multimedia is multimedia
that is not equipped with any control device that can be operated by users. This multimedia is running
sequential, for example, TV and Film. Interactive multimedia is a multimedia which is equipped with
a controller that can be operated by the user, so that the user can choose what he wants for the next
process, for example, gaming applications, and interactive learning multimedia (Ariasdi, 2008).
Mayer (2001) defines multimedia as the combination of various digital media types, such as
text, images, sounds, and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or
presentation to convey a message or information to an audience. Multimedia allows to convey the
understanding of a topic in a variety of ways, provide the students with opportunity to explain their

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

ideas to others (Ivers and Baron, 2010). Multimedia is the presentation of instructional content to
certain target population via some instructional materials such as graphics, audios, and videos (Eristi,
Haseski, Uluuysal, and Karakoyun, 2012). So, multimedia is media that utilizes a combination of
different content forms displayed or accessed using computerized or electronic devices. In education,
multimedia resources allow the user to go through a series of presentations, text and associated
illustrations about a particular topic in various information formats.
Moreover, Ivers & Baron (2010) and Nunes & Guba (2011) state that there are some main
elemens which make up a typical multimedia program, they are text, image, video, animation, sound,
interactivity, and user control. Text is the on-screen display of words. They should be easy to read. The
use of different styles, fonts and colour can be used to emphasize specific points. Image is a picture of
an object. It has more impact than merely reading about the words. Video can help make learning more
meaningful to students. Animations are a series of graphic images that are shown in rapid succession
and fool the eye into seeing motion. Sound can be used in strategic parts of the program or during a
movie to emphasize certain points. This may include speech, audio effects, and music. Interactivity
refers to the action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. User control is
to provide students with the option to use or leave certain parts of the application. Besides the criteria
above, Ampa at all (2013) add that the contents of multimedia materials should be very interesting and
engage the students in learning. The design should display particular skill relevant with the students
and the language should be appropriate, understandable, and very accurate. Multimedia allows
teachers to integrate text, graphics, animation, and other media into one package to present
comprehensive information for their students and to guide students to achieve specified course
outcomes (Yamauchi, 2008). Multimedia permits the demonstration of complicated prcess in a highly
interactive, animated fashion and that instructional material can be interconnected with other reated
topics in a more natural and intitive ways (Crosby & Stelovsky, 1995).


Multimedia has a variety of roles in the language learning process, such as aid of learning,
materials of learning, instruments of assessment, and generating ideas.
a. Multimedia as aid of learning
Multimedia can be used as a teaching aid, which helps teachers explain the concept of knowledge
or help learners practice skills that are taught using instructional media prepared by the teacher.
There is a growing body of evidence that the use of ICT in the classroom can enhance learning
(Meiers, 2009). However, all multimedia resources are not equally effective, so the challenge
teachers‘ face is how to assess and select multimedia resources that best promote meaningful
learning. Computer-based multimedia learning environments - consisting of images, text and
sound - offer a potentially powerful setting for improving student understanding. Mayer and
Moreno (2002) discuss the cognitive theory of how learners process multimedia information.
This theory can be used to guide teachers to assess and select the most effective multimedia
resources for learning in the classroom.
b. Multimedia as material of learning
Multimedia can also be used as learning materials, which describe the content of learning taught.
Multimedia learning occurs when students build mental representations from words and pictures
that are presentaed to them. The promise of multimedia learning is that students can learn more
deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from
more traditional modes of communication involving words alone (Mayer, 2003).
c. Multimedia as instrument of assessment
Multimedia can be used as a tool to determine the extent of the knowledge and skills taught has
been mastered by the learner. Pisters, Baxk, and Lodewijks (2003) did a research on the
effectiveness of multimedia assesssment of social communicative competence. A series of
multimedia test was developed and put on the internet, enabling flexible use. Each test contain
video conversations, where fragments were alternated with questions. It was found that students
showed a great deal of enthusiasm with respect to multimedia test, reporting that they liked to
make use of the test.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

d. Multimedia as generating idea

Multimedia can be used to convey a person's ability to speak and write. With multimedia, teacher
can provoke what will be communicated to students in the form of speaking or writing skills.
With multimedia teacher may illustrate what is read and heard so that the understanding of the
written text and spoken text will be better. Therefore, by using the multimedia students may be
inspired to communicate about what has been heard and seen.


It is important that teachers prepare the target language audio-visual material containing a
range of different interaction types to enhanche awareness of the verbal and non-verbal features used
by members of the speech community. In the following, types of multimedia used for acquiring
language skills will be explained.

a. Types of Multimedia used for developing listening skills

Listening skill is language skill to comprehend the information given orally by a speaker. It is a
receptive skill. However, listening is not a simply receptive act, there are multiple interactive and
creative processes engaged simultaneously through which listeners receive speakers‘ production
of linguistics and non linguistics knowledge. Classroom listening learning activity is usually
done by playing audio recording, then students listen and answer questions related to the content
of the conversation or oral text played. With multimedia, learners do not only listen to the audio
recording, but they can watch audio-visual media, such as TV news, video, which contain sound
and image. Teachers can create the learning materials themselves. One of the software that can be
used for developing multimedia for listening skills is exe-learning (Zaim & Refnaldi, 2016).
There are a lot of recorded TV programs available in internet beside YouTube that can be used by
teachers for developing students‘ listening skills.

b. Types of multimedia used for developing speaking skills

Speaking skill is language skill to deliver idea, opinion, or answering the idea given by someone.
The learners think that they are successful in learning English when they have improved their
spoken language proficiency (Ampa, 2013). According to Richard (1990), there are three
function of speaking skills; interaction, transaction, and performance function. Interaction refers
to conversation. Transaction refers to situation where the focus is what is said or done in
obtaining goods or services. Performance refers to public talk which transmits information to
audiences, such as public announcement and speeches. The types of multimedia that can be used
for speaking are multimedia presentation, video, and animation are as follows.
1) Multimedia presentation
The use of mutimedia presentations in teaching evokes special academic interest. Presentations
generated with the help of Microsoft Office Power Point play a significat role in this area
(Bochina, Ageeva, and Vlasicheva, 2014). Most papers devoted to educational multimedia
presentations mention their informative and illustrative functions. It is no doubt that the use of the
visual aids improved students perception, since the more channels of perception are used (optic,
mechanical/tactile, auditory and emotional ones), the higher the indicator of perception is.
Consequently, the quality of the acquired knowledge is improving too. The traditional means of
visual aids (graphics, maps, symbols and signs, schemes, tables, etc) can be presented to the
students with the help of new information technologies, including multimedia presentation.
Bochina, Ageeva, and Vlasicheva (2014) state that the slides can be devided according to the
following kinds of support.
a) Verbal support
Slides with verbal support are used to enhance skills of forecasting and expanding information.
Verbally information is represented as a text in its absolute sense (words, phrases, sentences). In
speaking practice the verbal support in presentations shuld mainly contain encyclopedic
information such as proper names, title of works of art that are not included in the lexical

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

minimum of the given level. For instance, in studying ―tourism‖ topic verbal supports may be
presented by names of historical sites, places of interest of a particular country.
b) Verbal-pictorial support
Slides with verbal and pictorial support are combination of images with the title slides,
inscriptions of various kinds, etc. This type is the most popular because it has an effect on
imagination, feelings and it allows combining verbal and visual image.
c) Graphic support
Slides with graphic support are slides with charts, diagrams, dates, pictures, etc. Students should
describe and discuss what they see, exchange opinions on what they know about the person and
the picture by operating the knowledge received earlier in class up to the utmost.
2) Video Presentation
Viedo provides simultinuous audio-visual input and complete contextualized conversations. It
contains captivating storyline, true-to-life scenarios, on-location scenes, various social
interactions, realistic yet easy–to-follow linguistic and cultural information (Hwang, 2005). By
viewing videos, learners can observe social, cultural, and discoursal conventions, and even go
through a range of emotional experiences along with characters (Diyyab, 2013). Instructional
videos have certain characteristics, they represent lasting records, they can be collected, edited
and recombined, and they sustain a set of practices that are very different from traditional
teaching (Brophy, 2008). Video can also be presented in the form of silent story where there is no
conversation or sounds in the film.
3) Animation
Animation is the process of making the illusion of motion and change by means of the rapid
display of a sequence of static images that minimally differ from each other (Wikipedia).
Animation is the process of displaying still images in a rapid sequence to create the illusion of
movement (Wisegeek, 2016). Animation is a simulation of movement created by displaying a
series of pictures or frames. (Beal, 2016). Cartoons on television is one example of animation.
Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentation.

c. Types of multimedia used for developing writing skills

Writing skill is language skill to convey messages, ideas, and opinions in writing to be
understood by others who read the message, ideas, and that opinion. Various instructional media
can be used for speaking such as still picture, picture series, animated video, cartoon, film, etc.

d. Types of multimedia used for developing reading skill

Reading skill is language skill to understand written language, understand the information
conveyed in writtten form. There are two possible multimedia used for reading comprehension;
static visualization and dynamic visualization. Static or fixed visualization is graphic, diagram,
and picture, and dynamic visualization a kind of instructional animation. The example of
visualization is illustration in textbook-based instructions or animations in computer-based
instruction. Animation is any application which generates a series of frame, so that each frame
appears as an alteration of the previous one and where the sequence of frames is determined by
the designer or tthe user (Niknejd & Rahbar, 2015). Concerning the role of visualization, research
has reveal the superiority of animated visualization over static visualization.


Many researches strive to measure the effect of mutimedia on students‘ learning achivement.
Mayer (2001) reports that multimedia learning combining animation with narration generally
improves performance on retention text better than when information is presented as either text or
narration alone. In addition, Ampa et. al. (2008) state that the implementation on the multimedia
learning materials in teching speaking skills at university is practical and effective. Related to
motivation, Neo (2010) states that by setting an authentic task via a multimedia project into a
constructivist learning environment, students became highly motivated learners and active in their
learning process and provided strong support and encouragement for educators to incorporate
multimedia technology and constructivist learning into their classroom.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Hwang (2005) states that the multimedia video material develops the students‘ understanding
of English-specific ways of thinking, of lexical/syntactic choices, and of formulaic expression. Aldera
(2015) investigates multimedia strategies to aid L2 listening comprehension in EFL environment. He
found that listening comprehension is improved more when multimedia is used than audio alone is
used. This may signify that the greater the amount of multimedia is used in listening comprehension
classes the better the listening skills will be.


Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and
cultural openness. Multilingual is defined as using or knowing more than one language.
Multilingualism is considered to be the use of two or more languges, either by individual speaker or by
community of speakers. (Wikipedia, 2016). Multilingual contexts refer to context where more than
one language is used in or out-of-school setting (de Oliveira, 2014). Multilingual reflects the notion of
multitude and goes beyond two or more languages and language varieties.
Language teaching in multilingual context should be linguistically responsive. Teachers
should understand language learners‘ diverse language background, experiences, and proficiencies to
be able to tailor their instruction and adjust curriculum to take into account language learners‘
resources and needs. Teachers should understand the connection between language, culture, and
identity, and develop an awareness of the sociopolitical dimensions of language use and language
education (de Olivera, 2014). Many students will learn concepts faster and retain them better if we
provide some form of visual aid to accompany the lesson (Freedman, 2012). People learn more deeply
from words and graphics than from word alone (Frey & Sutton, 2010).
Teachers can use multimedia in multilingual class to create morecolorful and stimulating
language classes. There are some advantages of the use of multimedia technology. Multimedia
technology, with the help of audio, visual, and animation effects, motivate students to learn English
quickly and effectively. It develop students‘ communicative competence since it create a positive
environment for the classroom activities and offer more opportunities for communication among
students and between students and teacher. Multimedia widens students‘ knowledge about the culture
of English.The use of multimedia technology connected to the target culture, offer the students with
more information more than textbooks, and helps them to be familiar with cultural backgrounds and
real-life language materials. The learners not only improve their listening and speaking ability, but
also learn the culture of target language. Multimedia creates condusive teaching environment in the
classroom, improves teaching efficiency, and provides opportunities for English teaching outside the
classroom (Pun, 2013). Multimedia will help multilingual learners to understand the cultures of the
language learned that are different from their own culture and to practice the language being learned.
Multimedia enhances the English language skills of the learners.

Multimedia allows integration of text, graphics, audio, and motion video in a range of
combination. The result is that learners can now interact with textual, aural, and visual media in a
wide range of format. With multimedia, teachers can expose not only aural processing opportunities,
but multi modal, simultaneous sight, sound, and test. Multimedia supports teaching English as foreign
language. Multimedia can enhance the students ability to communicate orally and in written form with
the language being learned.

Aldera, A.S. (2015). Investigating Multimedia Strategies to Aid L2 Listening Comprehension in EFL
Environment. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 5 (10), 1983-1988.
Ampa, A.T., Rasyid, M.A., Rahman, M.A., Haryanto., Basri, M. (2013). ―The Implementation of
Multimedia Learning Materials in Teaching English Speaking Skills‖. International Journal
of English Language Education, 1 (3), 293-304.
Ariasdi. 2008. Pengantar Multimedia Pembelajaran.

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Beal, V. 2016. Animation. Retrived on April 12, 2016.

Bochina, T., Ageeva, J., and Vlasicheva, V. (2014). Multimedia Presentation as a Strategy of
Teaching Speaking. Proceedings of INTED 2014 Conference 10th-12th march, 2014,
Valencia, Spain.
Brophy, J. (2008). Using Video in Teacher Education. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Brown, H.D. (1994). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice Hall Regents
Crosby, M.E., & Stelovsky, J. (1995). From multimedia instruction to multimedia evaluation. Journal
of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 4, 147-162
de Oliveira, L.C. (2014). Language Teaching in Multilingual Contexts. RBLA, Belo Horizonte, 14 (2),
Diyyab, E.A., Abdel-Haq, E.M., and Aly, M.A. (2013). Using a Multimedia-Based Program for
Developing Student Teachers‘ EFL Speaking Fluency Skills. Egypt: Benha University
Eristi, S.D., Haseski, H.I., Uluuysal, B., and Karakoyun, F. (2012). The use of mobile technologies in
multimedia-supported learning environments. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education,
12 (3), 130-141.
Freedman, L. (2012). Teaching Multilingual Students: An Overview for Course Instructors and TAs.
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Frey, B.A. & Sutton, J.M. (2010). A Model for Developing Multimedia Learning Projects. MERLOT
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Ivers, K. and Baron, A. (2010). Multimedia Project in Education. Washington: ABC-CLIO.LLC
Larsen-Freeman, D. (1986). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford
University Press
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Digest, 2009 (1). (retrieved March 21, 2016)
Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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accross different media. Learning and Instruction, 13, 125-139.
Mayer, R. E., and Moreno, R. (2002). Aids to computer-based multimedia learning. Learning and
Instruction, 12, 107–119.
Neo, M. (2010). Students‘ Perceptions in Developing a Multimedia Project Within a Constructisist
Learning Environment. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology &
Society. 7 (4), 143-152.
Niknejad, S. & Rahbar, B. (2015). Comprehension through Visualization: the Case of Reading
Comprehension of Multimedia-Based Text. International Journal of Educational
Investigation. 5 (2), 144-151.
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Communicative Competence. International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning. 6
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Perspective. Crossing the Border: International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 1 (1),
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Wisegeek. (2016). What is animation?. Retrieved from
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Perceptions of the Instruction. Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. Paper 15324. Iowa:
Iowa State University.
Zaim, M. (1989). Preparing and Using Visual Media for Language Teaching. Padang: FPBS IKIP

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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Zaim, M. (1990). Penggunaan Media Pendidikan dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris. Padang: FPBS
IKIP Padang.
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Zaim, M., & Refnaldi. (2016). ―From Need Analysis to Multimedia Development: Using
Exe-Learning in Developing Multimedia Based Listening Matarials‖. Paper presented at 51st
RELC International Conference, 14-16 March 2016.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Michael Guest
University of Miyazaki, Japan

With an ever-increasing focus upon English for specific purposes (ESP) programs being advanced in
East Asia, training both English learners and young in-service professionals to enable their entry into
a specific discourse community has become necessary. Without the ability to engage and interact in
English within a professional specialty, it will be difficult for any society to maintain pace with, or
advance in, the global community. But what are the types of skills, the hallmarks of belonging, that are
required for entry into and participation in professional discourse communities (PDCs)? Moreover,
what does it mean for the Asian non-native English speaker to enter into such a community? Does this
type of internationalization require an abandonment of local norms and subsequent absorption into
Anglo-American modes of communication? This paper attempts to answer these questions by drawing
upon a compilation of the author‘s recent research regarding the management of spoken medical
English, both in Japan and Southeast Asia, focusing in particular upon English conference English
presentations and in vivo medical workplace discourse. Based upon the author‘s previous fieldwork
in this area, it will be demonstrated that management of professional discourses does not require
conformity to an Anglo-American standard. However, to avoid dependency upon overly localized
varieties of English that do not conform to the emerging standards of international discourse
communities, particular attention should be paid to the following often underappreciated aspects of
international professional discourses, 1) speech event opening gambits and transitions 2) the use of
semi-academic formulaic phrases in academic presentations, and 3) the use of ellipsis and other
abbreviated forms in the professional workplace. Samples from 1) Medical conference presentations
2) Doctor-Patient history taking, and 3) Nurse-Nurse workplace dialogues will be used to
demonstrate the value and importance of each of these features.

1. Balancing the local and the international in professional English discourses
The exponential growth in economics and technology over the past 50 years seen in almost all
Asian societies has spurred a need for English speakers who can engage others within wider
international communities. Participation within various professional or specialist discourse
communities (PDCs) is crucial to maintaining this ongoing development, both economically and
educationally. But, for the English teacher, what does it mean to train learners or practitioners to
become a participant in a given professional discourse community? What are the essentials that mark
entry into such communities that ESP teachers in particular should be focusing upon?
Over the past 17 years I have been training both medical students and medical working
professionals in Japan so that they might become active participants within the international medical
discourse community. However, both administrators and medical practitioners often believe that all is
required for specialist English learners is a basic mastery of general English (EGP), decorated with a
subsequent sprinkling of terminology, and topped with a more nuanced, detailed grammaticality.
In fact however, through a combination of field research, workplace observations, and my
own teaching practice, I would argue that the hallmarks of practical specialist speech discourses that
deserve greater consideration from teachers and trainers are threefold: 1) the considered use of
opening and transitional strategies in speech, 2) the use of various types of ellipsis and abbreviated
forms in workplace speech, and 3) the deployment of semi-formulaic academic phrases in academic
discussion sessions such as conferences. In this paper, I will outline the arguments as to why I
advocate such an approach, applying observations from my own research practice, supported by
related studies on the essential features of teaching ESP discourse.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

One essential feature that has become apparent of most international discourse communities
is that it represents a truly internationalized notion of English – it is not confined by Anglo-American
standards or norms, culturally, pragmatically, or stylistically (Kirkpatrick, 2011). In short, participants
need not adhere to mimic Anglo-American norms of discourse, even though this remains the model
most represented in the region‘s teaching materials and textbooks (Hamied, 2012; Kirkpatrick, 2012).
But while specialist professional discourses have come to recognize, and even enhance, the legitimacy
of various localized Englishes (Canagarajah, 2007), there remain international norms of discourse that
need to be adhered to. The three areas of focus that I will introduce today serve as testaments to these
qualities, as although they do not represent Anglo-American norms neither are they so localized as to
invite communicative breakdown among participants. However, before discussing the three aspects of
professional discourses that I consider crucial, let‘s first look at a brief overview of the status of Asian
Englishes within a PDC context.
2. Being an Asian English speaker within a Professional Discourse Community
Although the stable variety of what Kirkpatrick calls ‗entity English‘ (2012), the norms
utilized within the Anglo-American English sphere, remains the standard in written English
throughout Asia within education and academia, spoken English has increasingly become the
province of localized forms of English, referred to by Canagarajah (2007) as Lingua Franca English
(LFE), a term that should be distinguished from the more well-known, English as a Lingua Franca
(ELF). The former represents a code that is dynamic and constantly negotiated by its users – it is not a
single, stable variety. It represents not the accumulation of notable varieties found in the region
(Singapore‘s Singlish, the Philippine‘s Taglish etc.) but rather the form of English that emerges when
members of these communities interact with each other, forms that are mutually negotiated and yet do
not conform to Anglo-American norms.
Prior to the development of the Asian Corpus of English (ACE) headed by Kirkpatrick (2014),
and the susequent increasing awareness of an Asian LFE, Seidlhofer‘s research team at the University
of Vienna and developed a corpus of an European English as a lingua franca (ELF) known as VOICE
(2013), which indicated that even within academic, professional, and specialized discourse
communities, canonical ‗rules‘ of spoken English were regularly being broken in a manner that
reflects not so much the innate abilities of the native English speaker or as an indicator of an
individual‘s interlanguage development, but rather the innate capacity of the English language itself.
In my own observations of Englishes used by Asian speakers of English at medical
conferences within Asia as well, speech forms emerged with consistency and regularity that indicated
a more ‗localized‘ management of English, a form negotiated and mutually agreed upon by the
participants, but which in no way impeded communication (Guest, 2011, 2014, 2016). Note the
sample of medical conference presentation English forms (taken from Guest, 2014) uttered a
minimum of five occasions by effective and competent Asian English speakers of at least three
different nationalities presented below. The actual spoken form is represented on the left side with the
‗standard‘ form appearing on the right:
Table 1. Non-standard speech forms of Asian NNES at International Medical Conferences (adapted
from Guest, 2014)

Actual spoken form Canonical, standard form

We placed clamp on X We placed the clamp on the x

Three colonoscopy were performed during two Three colonoscopies were performed during two
separate period separate periods

There was so significant difference There was a very significant difference

Why we chose X is because… The reason we chose X is because…

May have some advantage to do by endoscopy There may be some advantages in doing it by

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


What is most immediately noticeable about these forms is that many conform to patterns that
have also been widely noted in the VOICE corpus, particularly the dropping of pronouns, objects, and
articles when meaning could still be conveyed adequately. However, what is even more significant is
how closely this coheres with Canajagarah‘s (2007) argument that, ―Language learning and use
succeed through performance strategies, situational resources, and social negotiations in fluid
communicative contexts. Proficiency is therefore practice-based, adaptive, and emergent.‖ (p. 921).
Even in regard to the English used within PDCs by those for whom English is very much still a second
language, such as those living in a multilingual community like Indonesia, and/or whose English skills
are still in the developmental stage, can perform as members of an English-speaking PDC .
In my own experience and observations at Asian medical conferences (Guest, 2013), attitudes
and expectations surrounding those who are not fully proficient in English were treated by fellow
community members with a linguistic magnanimity that fostered, and in many ways defined, their
entry into and membership in that PDC.
The bottom line is that these developments represent a boon for the Asian NNES. Young
professional NNESs need not be intimidated by a pressing necessity to mimic Anglo-American
speakers of English. Forms and interactions that are representative of larger Asian cultural, linguistic,
and interactive norms are increasingly accepted into, and regularly mark, professional communication.
No intrinsic sacrifice of local identity is called for, no necessity to attain the so-called ‗native standard‘
is warranted. With this in mind then, let‘s now take a look at the three points that I argue are crucial,
yet often underappreciated, features of English-speaking PCDs in Asia.

Indicators of participation within a professional discourse community as noted in from
three different types of speech events
For the purposes of this paper, I would like to discuss how salient features of discourse such as
opening and transitional gambits, the use of elliptical forms and semi-formulaic academic phrases, all
often ignored by teachers and trainers, were managed in three distinct types of professional medical
discourses 1) Academic conference presentations, 2) Clinical service encounters (doctor-patient
history taking), and, 3) High-intensity nursing workplace scenarios. Although the examples presented
come from the domain of medicine, readers should understand that many of these features can readily
be applied to cross-disciplinary contexts (Hyland, 2009).

1. Academic conference presentations

a. Opening gambits
First, let‘s look at the efficacy of opening strategies as performed by Asian NNES in
presentations given at international medical conferences. Although oral conference presentations are
generally thought of as monologic, they have recently also been described as dialogic in nature,
involving an interactive, negotiable component between speaker and audience (Shalom 2002,
Rowley-Joviet & Carter-Thomas, 2005). In parallel sessions in particular, the specialized audience
holds the expectation that new, perhaps challenging, content will be offered. They are not attending to
meet ‗personalities‘ but to learn the latest in research and practice developments. They are informative
rather than persuasive in nature.
In my observations of 80 such conference parallel session presentations (Guest, 2016), 34 of
the presenters opted to begin by simply re-stating the presentation title or introducing themselves by
name and affiliation (even though this had been written on both their introductory slide and stated by
the chairperson). 11 began with lighthearted or anecdotal comments, on some occasions making
reference to the conference theme or other presenters. 14 began with an adjustment of the title or
outline of presentation contents, while 16 launched directly into the presentation content. 12 also
added an apology for their poor English or remarked upon their nervousness and/or inexperience in
giving English presentations.
Thus those who began by redundantly repeating the title slide or offering a self-introduction
(the chair and program both previously having done so) violated both the expectations of the audience,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

not to mention Grice‘s maxim of quantity. This habit was noted far more among North Asian
presenters (Japan, Korea, China) than those from South or Southeast Asia and thus perhaps represents
a cultural value placed upon ceremonial formality found in those cultures that is not as abundant in
other settings.
Apologizing in advance for one‘s English also established an uncomfortable or adversarial
tone, as if the speaker were begging for leniency or special conditions, when in fact the majority of
speakers were fellow NNESs. This attempt to establish an interpersonal connection through often
backfired. The attempt at self-deprecation could be interpreted as a ready-made excuse for poor
performance, often creating a sense of palpable discomfort in the audience. The propensity to
apologize for one‘s English is in fact misplaced. NNES have nothing to apologize for, nor do
less-than-proficient speakers of English. In fact, it could be argued that apologizing in advance might
even encourage mediocrity, fostering pre-assembled negative expectations for the speaker‘s
Lighthearted and anecdotal stories and comments were chosen as opening gambits largely to
establish a relaxed and more intimate relationship with the audience. However, this choice was far
more effective in plenary and keynote sessions, where the speaker not only is more well-known as a
personality in the field but also because these sessions generally last 30-90 minutes, much longer than
the 10-20 minutes generally allotted to parallel session speakers.
The most effective presentations tended to include opening gambits in which the speaker met
audience expectations by immediately launching into their research contents. Within this strategy,
several effective openings patterns have been noted (Guest, 2013). Among these were: beginning with
a rhetorical question, beginning with a statement challenging orthodoxy, beginning with the known
and thereafter moving to expressing the unknown (which also serves to acknowledge the audience as
peers), providing relevant background information immediately, and/or beginning with a variation of
the presentation title or a very general outline or statement of purpose.
In my observations, each of these strategies had the effect of meeting audience expectations
regarding the content-heavy quality of academic parallel presentations and thus helped to establish a
suitable interpersonal dimension in which the audience and presenter moved in synch with
academic/professional conference presentation norms. In virtually all presentations observed, these
opening strategies paved the way for the most effective and impacting performances.

b. Transitional phrases
A feature that regularly marked effective NNES medical conference presentations was the
careful choice and deployment of transitional phrases. These are the discourse signals that provide or
indicate the flow between rhetorical sections in the presentation, very often connected – but not
limited to – the advancement of presentation slides.
In my conference presentation observations, ineffective presenters often failed to give
considered use to the deployment of transitional phrases, instead relying on a combination of
single-word connectives (‗so/but/and/next/then‘) or by simply stating section headings
(‗summary/conclusion‘), often without regard for the actual discursive function of the word. It was
simply used as an acoustic marker accompanying the change of presentation slides but carrying no
rhetorical or descriptive weight.
However, because academic presentations often utilize crucial rhetorical cohesion patterns
such as question-answer, cause-effect, chronological sequencing, and induction/deduction, it is
essential that the device used to mark the transition as a direction signal, better allowing the audience
to understand the nature and flow of the rhetoric. Some of the notable transition markers commonly
utilized by effective NNES conference presentation speakers included those shown in table 2 below:
Table 2. Common transitional discourse markers used by proficient Asian NNES speakers in
conference presentations
Following this/that… Getting back to our main point…
It is important to note… So far I‘ve discussed/focused upon X so now I‘ll
move on to Y…

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Let me expand on that… OK, so where does that leave us?

Looking at this in more detail… What we learned/don‘t understand is…

Interestingly, I also noted that those speakers who utilized such effective transitional phrases
were not always the most fluent English speakers, however their considered choice of transitional
phrase impacted their intonation, ushering in greater dynamism in tone and character. This also
enabled the audience to better understand the rhetorical flow of the presentation, as well as allowing
both the speaker and audience to draw a cognitive breathing space and pace themselves adequately.
All in all, transitional phrases play an important role in establishing the flow and direction of
an oral conference presentation and the guidance function that they serve represent yet another
interpersonal dimension of conference presentations. Teachers and trainers would do well to
emphasize them more when training young academics and professionals to perform well at
international conferences.

c.. Semi-formulaic academic phrases

It is often believed that the major hallmark of a specialist is the mastery of that particular
field‘s terminology. While this is indubitably true, in my observations, it was not mastery of specialist
terminology that most readily distinguished members of the PDC from those outside the community
but rather the ability to deploy what I will call semi-formulaic academic phrases (SFAP).
These are phrases which are not limited to one particular discourse domain but rather display
a sense of belonging to an academic or intellectual discourse community in general. Thus, these are
phrases that are well-known to educated EGP speakers, but also serve to mark an academic domain or
speech event. SFAPs are commonly used in academic writing in particular, but also in formalized
speech events such as conference presentations, symposia, and poster sessions. Since they are
transferable across many academic and professional disciplines they also have widespread
applicability and thus offer great pedagogical value to ESP teachers – as opposed to localized,
specialist terminology, with which the ESP teacher may be less than familiar and which may best be
acquired by practitioners in the workplace, not in classrooms.
It was the ability to utilize such phrases within conference presentations, as well as related
poster sessions, discussions, and symposia, which marked the speaker as a field specialist, and
provided a sense of academic gravity to the interaction. Some of the common SFAPs noted in my
observations appearing in sections on methods, hypotheses, and descriptions (taken from Guest, 2014)
are noted below in table 3:
Table 3. SFAPs used by Asian NNES in medical conference presentations (adapted from Guest, 2014)
Used in methods, hypotheses, descriptions Used in discussions, results, and conclusions
In the initial trials we investigated X. There is a significant/slight degree of correlation
between X and Y.
In order to determine X we carried out/conducted Our data also indicates the probability of X.
a Y.
We performed a comparative analysis. Perhaps the most important/significant factor is
To implement real-time detection,... This excluded any other possible findings.
The ability to deploy SFAPs in academic and professional discourse is rarely discussed in the
literature and is notably lacking within ESP research, where the emphasis seems to be placed more
upon the acquisition of discrete terminology. Given that SFAPs are elements of interactive discourse,
as distinguished from stand-alone lexical items, they deserve more attention from ESP teachers and
trainers in order to prepare learners for participation in any PDC.

2. Clinical service encounters (doctor-patient history taking)

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Unlike the conference presentation forms mentioned earlier, medical clinical encounters must
employ a more delicate balance of power relationships, maintaining the authority of the doctor (or
other medical professional) while maintaining the dignity of the patient and recognizing that one is
offering a service to a customer.
A. Opening gambits
In my own classroom experience with 1st year medical students, there is a tendency to
overlook the civility and courtesy of beginning a clinical encounter with a common greeting and the
use of the patient‘s name (to establish a mutually respectful tone) in favor of immediately initiating a
history taking. When 106 of my 1st year medical students were asked at the beginning of a
communicative medical English course how they would open such a clinical encounter, only 6
responded with some type of interpersonal dimension, the others opting for a thoroughly
informational opening (―What‘s wrong? What‘s the matter?‖). Interestingly however, Glendinning &
Holmstrom‘s (2011) first dialogue from the textbook ‗English in Medicine‘, used in my own
Communication English courses, begins a doctor-patient encounter (p. 92) as follows:

Dr: Good morning Mr. Hall. So, what‘s brought you along today?

Not only does this greeting and use of name establish an interpersonal dimension at the head
of the speech event, the form of the opening ‗present complaint‘ question extends this amicable tone.
Other initially popular choices among students, such as, ‗What‘s the matter?‖ or ―What‘s wrong?
appear somewhat stark and cold, perhaps even face-threatening.

b. Transitions
The use of explicit means of marking a transition in the discourse should also be noted. The
use of ‗so‘, as a discourse marker indicating the opening of the medical history speech event further
serves as an interpersonal function, softening the transition from greeting/salutation to medical history
taking, adding a degree of levity to the proceedings.
Abrupt changes in tone or topic without accompanying signals can confuse or alienate a
patient. In the ‗English in Medicine‘ sample dialogue cited earlier, the topical transition occurs after
the doctor has proceeded through a series of history taking questions focusing on, among other things,
duration, location, other symptoms. The transition then occurs as follows:
Patient: Well, the wife, my wife, she says that I seem to be getting a bit deaf.
Dr.: Oh! Well, Mr. Hall, at this stage I think I‘d like to check your ears…
The doctor marks the transition from history taking to physical examination first with a
summative, ‗Oh!‘ The following item, ‗well‘, indicates that the dialogue will now move from an
interview format to a suggestion. The name of the patient is then used again, a further signal that the
structure of the discourse is about to change. Finally, the explicit transition marker, ‗I think at this
stage‘, is used to usher in the beginning of the physical examination.
By marking the transition in such a way, the doctor ensures the cooperation and understanding
of the patient. Once again, an easily overlooked feature of professional workplace discourse should be
considered of great importance, both interpersonally and in terms of managing the encounter.
Awareness of and utilization of forms as simple as these mark PDCs and should be inculcated among
learners and young practitioners.

3. High-pressure workplace interactions (nursing discourses)

In order to help prepare our nursing students for possible practice or research abroad, during
the years 2013 and 2014, I was actively researching how nursing English was actually used in
hospitals around Asia. This included sponsored visits to hospitals in Singapore, Malaysia, and the
Philippines. Many of the workplace encounters I observed involved high-intensity interactions as

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

standard workplace speech events. Prominent among these were roll call (the pre-shift briefing given
by a head nurse to the gathered team of nurses under his/her care) and handover (nurse to nurse
briefings given as the shift and patient responsibility changes). For the purposes of our discussion,
let‘s focus on discourse features noted in examples taken from each type of speech event.
a) Openings and transitions
In almost all of the high-intensity nursing workplace scenarios I observed, the roll call and
handover speech events began with an decisive ―Ok‖ followed by either a number (representing the
bed number of the patient under discussion‘s) or some type of existential framing of data (―There
is…‖, ―We‘ve got a…‖).
Such truncated and stark openings, the hallmark of a busy workplace where time is limited,
can be contrasted with the expectations of Japanese nurses, whose roll calls typically began with a
formalized or ceremonial statement explicitly marking the beginning of the speech event, a feature
widely associated with Japanese workplace discourse. One (translated) example I noted in a Japanese
hospital was as follows:

―Everybody, thank you for your hard work. Now, if it‘s all right, I would like to start today‘s roll call.
Is everyone prepared? Starting with room x…‖
Japanese nurses expecting this type of elaborate opening in Southeast Asian workplace
settings might be ill-prepared for the lack of any explicit opening gambit for such set speech events.
With Indonesian and Philippine nurses now being employed in Japan and in other countries in the
region, the norms and standards regarding openings, transitions, and the use of ellipsis and
abbreviations – those elements that most emphatically mark the localized discourse – need to be
understood by learners and young professionals in order to effectively participate within such a
Transitions in these high-intensity nursing workplace scenarios were markedly different from
those noted in academic presentations, partially because these events were more dialogic in nature, but
also due to time constraints and power considerations. Handover scenarios were often performed
effectively using only ‗so‘ as a turn-taking marker, a weak choice in an academic presentation but a
very appropriate one in a one-on-one high-intensity scenario. In roll calls transitions were regularly
marked by explicit requests for clarifying comments or further questions were typically initiated by
more powerful of the speakers, usually indicating that they completed a turn (―So, unless anything
else, that‘s all‖).
Once again, for learners unfamiliar with the interactive norms of the workplace, an
understanding of how transitions in discourse is signaled should be considered a central feature of
active participation within that PDC.

b. Abbreviations and elliptical forms

Note the example below (taken from Guest & Nambu, 2011) of a roll call in the Philippines
(with x representing a specific medical term):
Head Nurse: Ok, 7- maintain x, avoid x, x removed, decrease x. 8, 9- on liquid diet, start IVM,
9- discharge expected PM. 10- x expected tomorrow, x to start 4 pm, CBC 12, x positive. 11- ongoing
IV, (number) minimum, ultrasound scheduled (time). 12- painkiller to follow x at same rate, x 1 liter at
54cc per hour, may go ahead with contemplative surgery, loss of blood, limited fluids at (number) per
day. Post-partum (?), now prescribing x.
Following the succinct opening ‗Ok‘, the head of each subsequent utterance is headed by a
number, immediately followed by the intense conveyance of data. On every occasion I observed, this
data was delivered in elliptical form, involving the widespread use of acronyms and abbreviations, as
well as dropped the pronouns and prepositions often in the same forms discussed earlier in relation to
the findings of the ACE and VOICE spoken English corpora.
Handover differed only slightly, largely due to the lack of a significant power differential
between the participants. Below, also from Guest & Nambu (2011), is an example of handover from a
hospital in Singapore in which the speakers were from a) Myanmar and b) China:

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Nurse A: So, still radiating, now extending to lower leg. Hypertensive meds. X stable. PTOP (?) was
just now so just document it. And x was restarted again.
Nurse B: So, so far no y. She already knows, yeah?
Nurse A: No, the y is still there. So today‘s review is x, tomorrow blood, and they‘ll do the x-ray. So far
blister still isn‘t broken…
This exchange is marked by a significant degree of negotiation between two speakers of
differing L1s. However, because they share the same nursing discourse protocols they are able to
decode the intensive workplace data through a shared understanding of the rapid-fire nature,
manifested in the abbreviated and elliptical forms, employed in this type of speech event. NNES
nurses expecting a more formulaic discussion involving full and complete grammatical form might
well struggle in such an encounter. The need to negotiate in abbreviated and elliptical forms is
paramount, and once again represents a feature that deserves greater consideration when developing
classroom materials or lessons.
In this paper I have outlined in brief some of what I consider to be the essential marks of
participating within an English-speaking professional discourse community (PDC), particularly for
the NNES Asian professional or student. Based on my research into both presentation and workplace
discourse within the region, as well as my years of medical English teaching practice in Japan, it has
become apparent that an ability to use appropriate opening and transitional phrases, both in academic
presentations and within the professional workplace, is an essential marker of belonging to a PDC.
Furthermore, the ability to deploy semi-formulaic academic phrases in professional-to-professional
speech events such as conference English, and utilize abbreviated/elliptical forms in high-intensity
workplace scenarios are common markers of PDC membership throughout the region.
However, these features are often under-appreciated by ESP teachers and trainers, even those
who hope to foster in their learners skills that will enable them to actively participate within such
PDCs. ESP curricula and course designers would do well to include these features and teachers should
try to heighten learner awareness of them when formulating their lesson plans.
Moreover, it should be remembered and reinforced that mastering such skills does not require
adherence to an Anglo-American standard or English nor does it imply any specific cultural milieu.
While the Asian continent is host to a great number of distinct Englishes and differing micro-cultures,
the forms and strategies used across to communicate in PDCs across the region can be taught and
acquired as distinctly Asian norms and values, without a loss of local identity nor submission to an
‗international standard‘ that ignores the identity of the individual learner.
Hamied (2012) has argued that for a country such as Indonesia, with its vast number of local
languages and cultures and an intricate relationships both to the national Bahasa Indonesian language
and English as well as the need among many working professionals and academics to speak in English,
calls for competence in performance, not native-like proficiency in English, wherein English can still
also be used as a means of expressing ones local identity.
This combination of reflecting the local while balancing the global (a phenomenon sometimes
referred to as glocal) should represent a welcome direction for both ESP teachers and learners. ESP
courses and classes can help foster skills that truly enable a learner to perform effectively within an
international PDC without losing his or her local identity.

ACE. (2014). The Asian Corpus of English. Director: Andy Kirkpatrick; Researchers: Wang Lixun,
John Patkin, Sophiann Subhan. (last accessed Feb. 10/2016).
Canagarajah, S. (2007). Lingua Franca English, Multilingual Communities, and Language
Acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 91: 923–939.
doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00678.

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Glendinning, E. Holmstrom, B. (2011). English in Medicine. Cambridge University Publishers.

Cambridge (U.K.).
Guest, M. (2011). Framing Nursing Discourse for English for Specific Purposes Materials‘
Development. Journal of Medical English Education. Vol. 10 No.3 2011 (78-83).
Guest, M. (2013). Japanese Doctors at International Conferences: Why the worry? JASMEE (Japan
Association of Medical English Education) Journal 12(3): 47-55.
Guest, M. (2014). 学 会 発 表 の サ バ イ バ ル 英 語 術 (Survival English Skills for Academic
Conferences) (Japanese). Medical View Publishers, Tokyo.
Guest, M. (2016). Parallel Lines: Managing Effective Openings and Transitions in Academic
Conference Parallel Session Presentations. JACET Journal (in print).
Guest, M., Nambu, M (2011). Strategic Competence and ESP Materials Development: A Pilot Study
in Authentic Nursing Discourse. ESPの研究と実践 (Research and Practice in ESP).10
/2011 (47-57).
Hamied, F. (2012). English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for Language
Education. In A. Kirkpatrick & R. Sussex (Eds.) English as an International Language in Asia:
Implications for Language Education. P. 63-78. Springer: Science & Media: Dordrecht.
Hyland, K. (2009). Academic Discourse. Continuum International: New York.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2012). English as an International Language in Asia: Implications for
Language Education. In A. Kirkpatrick & R. Sussex (Eds.) English as an International
Language in Asia: Implications for Language Education. P. 29-44. Springer: Science & Media:
Kirkpatrick, A. (2011). English as an Asian lingua franca and the multilingual model of ELT.
Language Teaching, 44(2), 212–224.
Rowley-Joviet, E. Carter-Thomas, S. (2005). The rhetoric of conference presentation introductions:
context, argument and interaction. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol 15 (1),
Shalom, C. (2002). The academic conference: A forum for enacting genre knowledge. In E. Ventola,
C. Shalom, & S. Thompson (Eds.), The language of conferencing (pp. 51-68). Frankfurt: Peter
VOICE (2013). The Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English. (version POS Online 2.0). (last
accessed Feb. 4, 2016).

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Joko Nurkamto2
Sebelas Maret University

English language teaching in high schools in Indonesia is carried out based on a nationally compiled
curriculum which tends to be standardized and prescriptive – one for all (Widodo, 2016). In reality,
the situation in which English is taught and learned is highly complex, due to the interaction of a
number of variables, such as political, economic, and geographical factors, as well as the school, the
teachers, and the students (Richards, 2002). Therefore, in order to teach successfully, the teacher, as
the implementer of the curriculum, needs to interpret this policy creatively in accordance with the
situation and context in the field. According to Matsumoto (2009: 160), creativity is ―the capacity to
produce new art, ideas, techniques, or other products which are useful, aesthetically appealing,
meaningful, and correct within a particular field.‖ In this paper, I will explain the different forms of
the teacher‘s creativity in teacahing -- the knowledge and skills of the teacher in selecting and
applying the appropriate teaching strategies for transforming the lesson (Huizinga, Handlezalts,
Nieveen, and Voogt, 2013). In addition to broadening our understanding of the concept of creativity in
the teaching of the English language, it is also hoped that this paper will provide input for teachers in
the implementation of their pedagogical duties in the field.

Keywords: teacher‘s creativity, mandated curriculum, pedagogical practice, and particular contexts

During the last 40 years, Indonesia has undergone six changes in the curriculum for primary
and secondary school education, namely the 1975 Curriculum, 1984 Curriculum, 1994 Curriculum,
2004 Curriculum, 2006 Curriculum, and 2013 Curriculum (Hamied, 2014). Each of these curriculums
has different characteristics, from the point of view of the language theory, the theory for language
teaching, and the design of the lesson. The curriculums mentioned above are among five curriculum
models proposed by Burns and Joyce (2007), namely the Centre to Periphery Model, Genetic Model,
De Facto Model, Goals-Objectives Model, and Outcomes Model. From the point of view of the
teacher‘s role, some of these curriculums offer broad autonomy to the teacher for planning and
implementing the lesson (for example the Goals-Objectives Model), while others leave little room for
the teacher‘s creativity (for example the Centre to Periphery Model). In the Centre to Periphery Model
of curriculum, the teacher is required to follow as closely as possible the stipulations that have been set
by the designers of the curriculum, which in general is on a national level, while in the
Goals-Objectives Model of curriculum, the teacher is given the freedom to determine the objectives of
the lesson, the lesson procedure, the type of activity, the text book used, and the model of assessment.

1 A paper presented at the 4th International Seminar on English Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)
with the theme ―Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual
Societies‖, hosted by the English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, Universitas Negeri
Padang, 11 – 12 May 2016.
JOKO NURKAMTO teaches ―Language Curriculum and Materials Development‖ in the English
Department of the Teacher Training and Education Faculty, University of Sebelas Maret, Surakarta,
Central Java, Indonesia. He received his Doctorate in English Education from Jakarta State
University (Indonesia) in 2000, and earned his professorship in 2004. His research interests include
language curriculum development and teacher professional development.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

The central government only determines the general goal of the teaching in relation to the level of
language skill that should be acquired by the student.
In the Indonesian context, the 2006 Curriculum, which is known as Kurikulum Tingkat
Satuan Pendidikan or KTSP (School Based Curriculum or SBC) is closer to the Goals-Objectives
Model. As the name sugggests, SBC gives the freedom to each school, or to a group of schools in the
same area, to design, implement, and evaluate its own curriculum. This policy is founded on the
assumption that the school understands its own needs in accordance with the context and situation in
which the school exists. The central government only determines the standard of competence and the
basic competence for each level of education as the minimum criteria that must be met nationally by
all school graduates (The Decree of the Minister of National Education of the Republic of Indonesia
Numbers 22 and 23 Year 2006). Schools with the potential to do so are encouraged to develop and
implement a curriculum which is above this minimum standard (The Decree of the Minister of
National Education of the Republic of Indonesia Number 24 Year 2006).
Unfortunately, before 10 years had passed, the 2006 Curriculum, which was in fact more
suitable for the multicultural and multilingual nature of the Indonesian nation, was replaced with the
2013 Curriculum. According to Hamied (2014: 17-18), this change in curriculum was due to four
main reasons, namely ―current global challenges, required competencies, current negative phenomena
especially among young people, and discouraging perceptions among Indonesians regarding
education.‖ In connection with this, Widodo (2016: 127) states that the replacement of the 2006
Curriculum by the 2013 Curriculum ―has much been driven by the ideological and political agenda
instead of pedagogical benefits of interested stakeholders (e.g. students, teachers, and parents).‖
Based on its characteristics, the 2013 Curriculum is closer to the Centre to Periphery Model, which
tends to be prescriptive in nature and allows little opportunity for the teacher to be creative (Burns and
Joyce, 2007). The question is, what can the teacher do with this curriculum? This paper intends to
answer this question.
(A curriculum is a set of plans and blueprints for students‘ learning outcomes, teaching materials,
teaching process, and assessments to run courses of study.


A curriculum is usually understood to be merely a document which contains goals, materials,
procedures, and evaluation for teaching and is used as a guideline for implementing a lesson at a
particular level of education. This presumption is not too far off the mark if we refer to the definition
of curriculum according to Indonesian Law Number 20 Year 2003 about the National Education
System, which states, ―Kurikulum adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi,
dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan
pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu.‖ (A curriculum is a set of plans and
blueprints for students‘ learning outcomes, teaching materials, teaching process, and assessments to
run courses of study to achieve a particular educational goal) (Chapter 1, point 19). In response to this,
Graves (2009: v) explains that ―It is not a set of documents or a textbook... Rather, it is a dynamic
system. This system can be conceptualized as three interrelated processes: planning, enacting (i.e.,
teaching and learning), and evaluating...‖ She states further that ―these processes create a system that
is at once stable, rooted in what has gone before, and evolving as it responds to change, to new ideas,
and to the people involved.‖ (p. vi).
The dynamic nature of a curriculum is due to the fact that teaching does not take place inside
a sterile space or a vacuum but rather in a complex context, situation, or environment which is formed
by the functional interrelation between a number of aspects, such as political, social, economic, and
geographical aspects, the school, teacher, and student (Graves, 2000; Richards, 2002; Nation and
Macalister, 2010). The different contexts or situations in which the teaching takes place require
certain attitudes or treatment. In this case, Tan (2016) states that ―Humans do not simply act according
to some predetermined pattern, but rather each action is influenced by a range of norms, traditions,
overt formalised rules, and so on.‖ Thus, before a language teaching program is carried out, the school
or the teacher must first make an analysis of the context, situation, or environment, as well as an
analysis of the students‘ needs. The analysis of the situation is intended to identify the factors which,
whether directly or indirectly, are predicted will support and/or hinder the implementation of the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

language teaching program (Richards, 2002). This is where the importance of the teacher‘s creativity
lies, since the teacher is the person who develops and implements the curriculum and needs to be
supported by a design expertise which includes curriculum design expertise, subject matter
knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curriculum consistency expertise (Huizinga,
Handlezalts, Nieveen, and Voogt, 2013).
In general, creativity is understood to be ―the ability to juxtapose ideas in a new and unusual
way to find solutions to problems, create new inventions, or produce works of art.‖ (Strickland, 2001:
167). More specifically, creativity refers to certain aspects, which Kozbelt, Beghetto, and Runco
(2010) refer to as the six Ps, namely person, process, product, place, persuasion, and potential. A
similar view is expressed by Richards and Cotterall (2016), who state that creativity can be regarded
as a person, process, and product. If it is viewed as a person, then creativity refers to expertise, such as
that of mathematicians, architects, writers, and other groups in terms of the traits that may be
indicative or contraindicative of creative potential. If it is viewed as a process, creativity refers to the
nature of the mental mechanisms that occur when a person is engaged in creative thinking or creative
activity, which typically specify different stages of processing. And if it is viewed as a product,
creative products include works of art, inventions, publications, musical compositions, and so on,
which can usually be counted, thus permitting considerable quantitative objectivity (Kozbelt,
Beghetto, and Runco, 2010).
If this is applied to a curriculum, creativity is needed in the planning process, the teaching
process, and the evaluation process (Graves, 2009). The planning process includes the activity of
analyzing the students‘ needs and the analysis of the situation; the determining of the main goals and
the objectives of the teaching; and the transformation of the goals into the material and activity of the
teaching. The teaching process includes the activity of using a particular approach or method and
material for teaching that is appropriate for the needs, competence, and interests of the students. The
evaluation process includes the activity of selecting and using the right evaluation techniques for
reviewing the effectiveness of the teaching process and measuring the learning outcomes of the
students. In addition to these three processes, creativity is also needed in class management, especially
in managing the role of the teacher and the students and the effects caused by the distribution pattern
of these roles (Mayes, 2013).
With this in mind, it can be concluded that creativity in a curriculum refers to the activities of
designing, implementing, and evaluating the teaching in an appropriate and dynamic way in
accordance with the context, situation, or environment in which the teaching is taking place, so that
the lesson will be conducive to achieving the goals that have been agreed upon beforehand.


The curriculum discussed in this section is the 2013 Curriculum, which is the Curriculum for
Primary and Secondary Education issued by the Ministry of Education and Culture. This is the
curriculum currently being used in Indonesia, having replaced the previous 2006 Curriculum which
was known as School Based Curriculum or SBC. The discussion will be divided into two parts, the
first of which will discuss the 2013 Curriculum in general and the second of which will discuss the
curriculum for English language lessons. The general discussion about the 2013 Curriculum focuses
on four areas, namely the standard of competence for graduates, the teaching material, the teaching
process, and the evaluation.
The 2013 Curriculum aims to prepare Indonesians so that they have life skills, both as
individuals and citizens of the state, and become human beings who are God-fearing, productive,
creative, innovative, and affective, and are able to make a contribution to the life of society, the
Indonesian nation, and global civilization (Attachment to the Decree of the Minister of Education and
Culture Number 69 Year 2013 about the Basic Framework and Structure of the High
School/Madrasah Aliyah Curriculum). In order to achieve this goal, the government determined a
standard of competence for graduates (SKL), which is the criteria for the qualification of the student‘s
competence that is hoped to be achieved after the student has completed his or her primary and
secondary education, including attitude, knowledge, and skills. This standard of competence is used as
the main reference for developing the standard of content, standard of process, standard of educational

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

evaluation, standard of educators and educational staff, standard of equipment and facilities, standard
of management, and standard of costs. The standard of competence is divided into three levels,
namely primary school level, junior high school level, and senior high school level, each of which has
a different scope and depth (Attachment to the Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture
Number 54 Year 2013 about the Standard of Competence for Graduates of Elementary and Secondary
The teaching material is developed based on competence so that it fulfils aspects of
compatibility and adequacy. While previously the competence was derived from the subject taught, it
has been changed so that the subject taught is now developed based on competence. The material also
accommodates local, national, and international content. In order to accommodate the concept of
equal content between public high schools and vocational high schools, a curriculum structure has
been developed for high school education which is made up of a group of compulsory subjects and
another group of optional subjects. The optional subjects are intended to provide an additional feature
for the function of the education unit, and contain choices to suit the interests of the student
(Attachment to the Decree of the Minister of Education and Culture Number 69 Year 2013 about the
Basic Framework and Structure of the High School/Madrasah Aliyah Curriculum).
The teaching process is oriented towards achieving competence in the student, including
attitude, skill, and knowledge. The implementation of the teaching uses a scientific approach which
gives priority to discovery learning and project-based learning. The standard of the process, which
was originally focused on exploration, elaboration, and confirmation, is now complemented with
observing, asking, processing, presenting, concluding, and creating. In its implementation, the
teaching not only takes place in the classroom but also in the rest of the school environment and also in
the community. Therefore, the teacher is not the only source of learning. Attitude is not taught
verbally but rather through example (Attachment to the Decree of the Minister of Education and
Culture Number 65 Year 2013 about the Standard of Process in Primary and Secondary Education).
The teaching evaluation is implemented on a competence basis. There has been a shift in
evaluation, from evaluation solely through tests (in which the competence of knowledge is measured
based on results alone) to more authentic testing (in which the competence of attitude, skill, and
knowledge are all measured based on process and results). In order to maintain the quality of
education, the criteria for achieving competence are based on criterion-referenced evaluation, which is
the achievement of learning outcomes based on the position of the score obtained by the student in
comparison to the ideal (maximum) score. Evaluation is not on a level of basic competence but also
core competence and the standard of competence for graduates (Attachment to the Decree of the
Minister of Education and Culture Number 66 Year 2013 about the Standard of Evaluation in
In connection with the English subject matter in the 2013 Curriculum, Agustien (2014)
focuses her review on the theory of linguistics, the theory of applied lingusitcs, approaches and
methods. Agustien argues that the 2013 Curriculum adopts a systemic functional linguistic (SFL)
theory, ―that sees language as a resource for making meaning, for interacting with others, and for
communication.‖ (p. 40). In connection with this, Derewianka (2004: 3) states that ―A functional
approach looks at how language enables us to do things ... It is concerned with how people use real
language for real purposes. At the heart of a functional model of language is an emphasis on meaning
and on how language is involved in the construction of meaning. It sees language as a resource for
making meaning.‖ Hence, in the opinion of Gerot and Wignell (1995: v), ―good functional grammar
can help language teachers be more effective teachers, since language teachers usually find they need
to be discourse analysts in their own classrooms.‖
The theory of applied linguistics in the 2013 Curriculum is related to the primary goal of
language teaching, which is building communicative competence among students (Agustien, 2014).
Brown (2007: 219) refers to communicative competence as ―that aspect of our competence that
enables us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within a
specific context.‖ In order to achieve this competence, a language learner must have a command of the
six pillars which make up this communicative competence, namely linguistic competence,
socio-cultural competence, formulaic competence, interactional competence, strategic competence,
and discourse competence (Murcia, 2007). Of these six elements, discourse competence lies at the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

centre of the construction of communicative competence. According to Murcia (2009: 46), discourse
competence refers to ―the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures, and utterances
to achieve a unified spoken message. This is where the top-down communicative intent and
sociocultural knowledge intersect with the lexical and grammatical resources to express messages and
attitudes and to create coherent texts.‖
Consistent with the theory of linguistics discussed above, the 2013 Curriculum adopts a
genre-based approach (GBA), which aims to develop both verbal and written communication
(Agustien, 2014). Referring to Derewianka (2011), Agustien suggests two cycles (verbal and written)
and five steps, namely building knowledge of the topic, learning about the text type, guided practice in
using the text type, independent use of the text type, and reflecting on the text type and its use. Here,
Agustien (2014) sees a discrepancy between the linear approach to language teaching and the
linguistic theory on which it is founded, that is between the genre-based approach (GBA) and the
approach suggested by the Ministry concerned, which is a scientific approach (SA) that is derived
from the framework of science teaching. In the 2013 Curriculum, all subjects must use this scientific
After looking at the 2013 Curriculum in its entirety, Widodo (2016: 138-139) sees that the
curriculum is inclined to be prescriptive in nature since it ―dictates what and how to teach and learn
English within the remit of pre-determined competencies. Both core and basic competencies are set
based on the ideological and political agenda.‖ He goes on to elaborate four weaknesses of the 2013
Curriculum. First, its core competence and basic competence do not reflect communicative language
competence or the totality of the competences that students have to develop to become competent
users of English. Second, the 2013 Curriculum marginalizes the role of the teacher as the person who
designs the curriculum and develops the teaching material. Third, pedagogically, the teacher must
follow five teaching steps (in the scientific approach), as specified in the curriculum, which may not
be appropriate to the real condition in the field. Fourth, in the 2013 Curriculum, evaluation still places
priority on cognitive evaluation through formal assessment.


In this section, I will elaborate on three things, namely the criteria for creativity, forms of
creativity, and the prerequisites for creativity to appear in language teaching.
4.1 Criteria for Creativity in Teaching
As I have already mentioned, in this paper, the teacher‘s creativity in teaching refers to the
creativity of the teacher in selecting and applying the appropriate teaching strategies for transforming
the lesson (Huizinga, Handlezalts, Nieveen, and Voogt, 2013), so that the student can develop his or
her competence, including attitude, skill, and knowledge. In this context, creativity in teaching is not
just any kind of creativity but rather focussed or directed creativity with a basis. Creativity with a basis
means creativity that is designed intentionally based on the methodological repertoire of the teacher.
Directed creativity means that the creative actions of the teacher are directed towards the goal of the
teaching. Creativity in teaching is considered to have value if it produces a positive effect on the
quality of the process and outcome of the teaching. If the creativity does not have a positive effect on
the quality of the teaching, the creativity is meaningless.
4.2 Forms of Creativity in Teaching
I propose five forms of creativity that can be implemented by teachers in a variety of different
teaching situations and contexts. The five forms of creativity are as follows: (1) Selecting and using an
appropriate teaching strategy, (2) Combining two or more teaching strategies, (3) Changing strategies
while the teaching process is taking place, (4) Adapting the teaching strategies, and (5) Creating new
teaching strategies. These five forms of creativity will be outlined briefly below.

4.2.1 Selecting and using an appropriate teaching strategy

For practical reasons, I use the term strategy in this paper to include approach, method,
design, and anything else associated with the ways used by a teacher to teach. To date, we already
know numerous different approaches/methods/ techniques, such as the audiolingual method,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

communicative language teaching, cooperative language teaching, the silent way, and the natural
approach (Freeman, 2000; Richards and Rodgers, 2014). Selecting and using an appropriate teaching
strategy means selecting and using a teaching strategy that suits the context or situation in which the
teaching is taking place. Context plays an extremely important role in the selection and use a teaching
strategy. Different contexts should produce different teaching strategies. This is what led
Kumaravadivelu (2003: 1) to say that ―there is no best method out there ready and waiting to be
discovered.‖ It may be that a strategy which is considered appropriate and which works in a particular
situation or context does not work well in another context. Appropriateness is measured based on a
number of parameters, such as the goal of the teaching (For what purpose is the teaching being
implemented?), the competence of the students (Are they fast learners or slow learners?), and the
teaching facilities available (Are there teaching facilities available that are needed for the effective
implementation of the teaching?). As an illustration, discovery learning is more suitable to be used in
teaching where the outcome is related to the process rather than the product (Westwood, 2008).
Therefore, the teacher needs a comprehensive outlook of the context and situation in which the
teaching activity is being implemented.

4.2.2 Combining two or more teaching strategies

A teaching strategy is created or invented with a particular assumption, and when this
assumption is not met, the teaching strategy will not achieve optimal results. The implication of this is
that every teaching strategy has its own strengths and weaknesses (Westwood, 2008). It is natural,
therefore, that teachers are advised to use more than one teaching strategy. The use of more than one
teaching strategy will help cover up the weaknesses and at the same time optimize the strengths of the
teaching strategies used so that the goal of the teaching will be achieved to a more optimal level.
Richards and Cotterall (2016) refer to the use of more than one teaching strategy as ―principled
eclecticism‖. However, they both suggest that the combining of teaching strategies should not be
random but rather by design, in accordance with the context and situation and depending upon what is
needed in the field. Richards and Rodgers (2014: 352) give the following example: ―Are there aspects
of Audiolingualism that are compatible with Communicative Language teaching? How can
Grammar-Translation be used in a text-based approach? How can I combine a task-based and a
text-based approach? Can cooperative learning and competency-based approaches be used together?‖.

4.2.3 Changing strategies while the teaching is taking place

The context and situation in which the teaching process takes place is not stable but rather
dynamic and unpredictable in nature. The situation in the classroom is continuously changing from
one moment to another, whether it is only momentary or for a longer period of time. Noise, fatigue,
power cuts, sudden activities, students‘ learning styles, and teaching at different times of the day are
just a few examples of variables which often alter the situation in the classroom. The logical
consequence of this is that the teacher needs to be alert and anticipative, as well as flexible in the use
of his or her teaching strategies. It may be that a particular teaching strategy that has been prepared in
the document for the lesson plan cannot be applied due to these changes in situation. In connection
with this, Kumaravadivelu (2003: 2) suggests the following:
To shape the practice of everyday teaching, teachers need to have a holistic understanding of
what happens in their classroom. They need to systematically observe their teaching, interpret
their classroom events, evaluate their outcomes, identify problems, find solutions, and try
them out to see once again what works and what doesn‘t. In other words, they have to become
strategic thinkers as well as strategic practitioners.

4.2.4 Adapting the teaching strategies

The context or situation in which the teaching takes place may not be the same as the context
or situation that has been assumed for a particular teaching strategy. Therefore, a teaching strategy
cannot always be applied before it has been adapted to suit the local context. As an example,
communicative language teaching (CLT) will be more suitable if it is used in a class with a small
number of students. If the communicative language teaching strategy is used in Indonesian schools,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

where class sizes are usually large (between 30 and 40 students), the teacher needs to adapt the
teaching strategy. On this subject, Richards and Rodgers (2014: 350) give the following suggestion:
A more flexible way of considering approaches and methods is to see them as a resource that
can be tailored to the teacher‘s needs. This view of the relationship between teachers and
methods assigns a greater role to teacher creativity and individuality and positions method in a
supporting rather than a controlling role. The method is viewed as providing a core set of
principles and procedures that can be adapted and modified to the teacher‘s teaching context.

4.2.5 Creating new teaching strategies

The teaching strategies that a teacher possesses and uses are generally acquired while they are
at university or from various academic activities such as seminars, workshops, focus group
discussions, upgrading courses, and training courses. In general, these strategies are created by experts
who are already considered established theorists. Hence, in this context, the established theorists are
the producers of teaching theories or strategies and the teachers are the users, who attempt to apply the
theories of these experts in their teaching practice in the classroom. In reality, not all of the strategies
(theories) created by these established theorists are applicable in the field, and not all teachers have the
ability to apply the strategies of these experts in the proper manner. In relation to this, Richards and
Ridgers (2014: 354) state that, ―Research on teachers‘ use of methods has often found that at the level
of classroom practice, methods are often more similar than different ... teachers using different
methods implemented them in the classroom and found that many of the distinctions used to contrast
methods, particularly those based on classroom activities, did not exist in actual practice.‖
For this reason, on the subject of postmethod pedagogy, Kumaravadivelu (2003: 1) states that
―an awareness that the artificially created dichotomy between theory and practice has been more
harmful than helpful for teachers.‖ It is only natural, therefore, that ―...teachers are encouraged to
develop their own teaching philosophy, teaching style, and instructional strategies‖ (Richards and
Rodgers (2014: 353). Furthermore, they say that ―Teacher training, teacher experience, as well as the
teacher‘s personal philosophy and understanding serve as a source of principles and practical
knowledge that can be applied across different situations as well as in specific situations‖ (p. 353).
4.3 Prerequisites for Creativity in Teaching
In order to think and act creatively in teaching activities, as I have already suggested earlier, a
teacher must at least have a wide repertoire of teaching strategies. These strategies provide a rich
source that can be made use of at any time in accordance with the needs and goals of the teaching
(Richards and Cotterall, 2016). In my opinion, a teacher can be said to have a good understanding and
command of a teaching strategy if he or she has the ability to explain at least the elements of the
strategy, such as the definition, theoretical basis, procedure, and also its strengths and weaknesses.
When I ask teachers to explain the theories that underline the strategies that they are using, for
example, they are often unable to provide an explanation. This is an indication that their understanding
and command of the teaching strategies used is still extremely limited. Hence, it is only natural that
their teaching competence is also not at a maximum level.
In order to make use of a number of different teaching strategies in a creative way, teachers
must have a holistic and deep understanding about what is taking place in the classroom
(Kumaravadivelu, 2003). For this reason, teachers need knowledge and solid skills about reflective
practice in teaching. Farrell (2013: 4) describes reflective practice in teaching as follows, ―Reflective
practice means more than fleeting thoughts before, during, or after a lesson; it means examining what
you do in the classroom and why you do it. Reflective practice also means thinking about the beliefs
and values related to English language teaching, and seeing if classroom practices are consistent with
these beliefs and values.‖ In order to implement reflective practice, teachers must systematically
gather information about the events that take place in the classroom, and then analyze, evaluate, and
compare them with their underlying assumptions and beliefs so that they are able to make changes and
improvements in their teaching.


Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

The topic of this paper is teachers‘ creativity in transforming the mandated curriculum, which
has been established by Central Government, into a teaching practice in a variety of different contexts
and situations, such as is found in Indonesia. I have discussed a number of important issues related to
this topic, such as creativity in curriculum reappropriation, the context of the mandated curriculum,
and designing a linguistically and culturally diverse pedagogical practice. The final topic, which is the
main idea I wish to present in this paper, comprises three sections, namely the criteria for creativity in
teaching, the forms of creativity in teaching, and the prerequisites for creativity in teaching. There are
five forms of creativity that teachers can use in their teaching, namely selecting and using an
appropriate teaching strategy, combining two or more teaching strategies, changing strategies while
the teaching process is taking place, adapting the teaching strategies, and creating new teaching
strategies. The implication of all this is that teachers need to have a wide repertoire of teaching
strategies which can provide them with a source that can be used in accordance with the needs and
goals of the teaching. In addition, teachers also need to have knowledge and solid skills about
reflective practice in teaching.

Agustien, Helena I.R. (2014). The 2013 English curriculum: the paradigm, interpretation and
implementation. In Handoyo Puji Widodo and Nugrahenny T. Zacharias (Eds.), Recent issues
in English language education: challenges and directions (pp.39-64). Surakarta: Sebelas Maret
University Press.
Brown, H. Douglas. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th Ed.). New York:
Pearson Education.
Burns, Anne and Joyce, Helen de Silva. (2007). Challenging requirements: how teachers navigate to
make changes within required curricula. In Anne Burns and Helen de Silva Joyce (Eds.),
Planning and teaching creatively within a required cirriculum for adult leaners (pp. 1-14).
Virginia: Teachers of English to peakers of Other Languages Inc.
Derewianka, Beverly. (2004). Exploring how texts work. Sydney: Primary English Teaching
Farrell, Thomas S.C. (2013). Reflective teaching. Virginia: TESOL International Association.
Freeman, Diane Larsen. (2000). Techniques and principles in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Gerot, Linda and Wigness, Peter. (1995). Making sense of functional grammar. Sydney: Gerd
Graves, Kathleen. (2000). Designing language courses: a guide for teachers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle
Thomson Learning.
Graves, Kathleen. (2009). Series editor‘s preface. In Katleen Granes and Lucilla Lopriore (Eds.),
Developing a new curriculum for school-age learners (pp. v-vi). Virginia: TESOL
International Association.
Hamied, Fuad Abdul. (2014). Curriculum change: what does it mean to Indonesian TEFL?. In
Handoyo Puji Widodo and Nugrahenny T. Zacharias (Eds.), Recent issues in English language
education: challenges and directions (pp.13-37). Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press.
Huizinga, Tjark; Handelzalts, Adam; Nieveen, Nienke; and Voogt, Joke M. (2014). Teacher
involvement in curriculum design: need for support to enhance teachers‘ design expertice.
Journal of cucciculum studies, 46 (1), 33-57.
Jones and Richards. (2016). Creativity and language teaching. In Rodney H. Jones and Jack C.
Richards (Eds.), Creativity in language teaching: perspectives from research and practice
(pp.3-15). New York: Routledge.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: macrostrategies for language teaching. New Haven:
Yale University Press.
Matsumoto, David (Ed.). (2009). The cambridge dictionary of psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Mayes, Eve. (2013). Negotiating the hidden curriculum: power and affect in negotiated clasrooms.
English in Australia, 48 (3), 62-71.
Nation, I.S.P., and Macalister, John. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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Nuh, Muhammad. (2013). Lampiran Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan nomor 69
tahun 2013 tentang kerangka dasar dan struktur kurikulum sekolah menengah atas/madrasah
Aliyah. Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Nuh, Muhammad. (2013). Lampiran Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan nomor 54
tahun 2013, tentang standar kompetensi lulusan pendidikan dasar dan menengah. Jakarta:
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Nuh, Muhammad. (2013). Lampiran Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik
Indonesia nomor 65 tahun 2013 tentang standar proses pendidikan dasar dan menengah.
Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Nuh, Muhammad. (2013). Lampiran Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik
Indonesia nomor 66 tahun 2013 tentang standar penilaian pendidikan. Jakarta: Kementerian
Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Richards and Cotterall. (2016). Exploring creativity in language teaching. In Rodney H. Jones and
Jack C. Richards (Eds.), Creativity in language teaching: perspectives from research and
practice (pp.97-113). New York: Routledge.
Richards, Jack C. (2002). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Richards, Jack C. and Rodgers, Theodore S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Soekarnoputri, Megawati. (2003). Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia nomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang
sistem pendidikan nasional. Jakarta: Sekretarian Negara Republik Indonesia.
Strickland, Bonnie (Ed.). (2001). The gale encyclopedia of psychology. Detroit: Gale Group.
Tan, Charlene. (2016). Teacher agency and school-based curriculum in China‘s non-elite schools.
Westwood, Peter. (2008). What teachers need to know about teaching methods. Victoria: Acer Press.
Widodo, Handoyo Puji. (2016). Language policy in practice: reframing the English language
curriculum in the Indoneian secondary education sector. In R. Kirkpatrick (Ed.), English
language education policy in Asia (pp. 127-151). Switzerland: Springer International

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



Assistant Professor Loh Chin Ee

National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University
The 4th International Seminar on English Language and Teaching
Theme: Igniting a Brighter Future of English as Foreign Language Teaching and Learning in
Multilingual Societies

Much has been written about the benefits of extensive reading, which include increased positive
attitudes towards reading, increased scores in reading comprehension ability and increased reading
speed and fluency. Well-implemented extensive reading programmes can thus improve students‘
reading competency and motivate them to read more. As a result of their wide reading, they are more
likely to increase their knowledge, which lead greater linguistic and academic competence. This
paper argues for the use of literary texts to engage students in extensive reading in the EFL
classroom. In addition to improving their linguistic ability, the students are exposed to creativity in
language, to different social and culture worlds embedded in texts, and to enjoyment through the
reading of literature. Various strategies for using literary texts such as reading aloud, organizing
literary reading circles, complementing extensive reading with intensive reading of literary texts,
book cluster selection will be discussed in this paper.

Much research has documented the strong correlation between independent reading and
academic achievement (Kirsch et al., 2002), and extensive reading has been widely promoted as a
strategy for increasing and improving student reading (Krashen, 2004). Extensive reading can lead to
increased reading speed and fluency, vocabulary gains, increased score in reading comprehension
skills and most importantly, increased positive attitudes towards reading (Renandya & Jacobs, 2002).
Well-implemented extensive reading programmes can thus improve students‘ reading competency
and motivate them to read more. As a result of their wide reading, students are more likely to increase
their knowledge, which lead to gains in academic achievement (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998).
Since motivation is an important factor in students‘ choice to read voluntarily (Gambrell, 2013),
motivating unengaged readers to read should be one of the most important aims of extensive reading.
This paper argues for the use of literary texts to engage students in extensive reading in the
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. The success or failure of extensive reading
programmes can be measured by whether students are encouraged to read independently and whether
students are given the opportunity to read a wide range of well-written texts. John McRae (1991)
distinguishes between literature with a capital ‗L‘ and literature with a small ‗l‘. Literature with a
capital ‗L‘ refers to classic canonical works by writers such as William Shakespeare and Charles
Dickens. On the other hand, literature with a small ‗l‘ refers to popular fiction, fables and song lyrics.
Both kinds of literature are creative works, and offer much potential for improving enjoyment,
empathy, creativity and language improvement. In the following sections, I will first discuss the kinds
of literature suitable for extensive reading, and then, various strategies for reading literature in the
EFL classroom.


It is important to select the right kinds of literature suitable for engaging students in extensive
reading. In this section, I suggest encouraging students to read through contemporary Young Adult
(YA) literature, multicultural literature and canonical Western literature.

Contemporary Young Adult Literature

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

YA literature is a relatively new genre. Before the 1990s, it was more typically associated
with romance and growing up novels, but has since then, ―come of age as literature – literature that
welcomes artistic innovation, experimentation, and risk-taking‖ (Cart, 2008). YA Literature is defined
by Robert Carlson (in VanderStaay, 1992, p. 48) as literature where the protagonist is either a teenager
or one who approaches problems from a teenage perspective. Such novels are generally of moderate
length and told from first person. Typically, they describe initiation into the adult world, or the
surmounting of a contemporary problem forced upon the protagonist(s) by the adult world. Though
generally written for a teenage reader, such novels – like all fine literature – address the entire
spectrum of life.
The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins is a striking example of a contemporary YA
literature that has caught the attention of the public, especially because it has been adapted into a
movie series. The dystopian series features a strong female protagonist, has an exciting plotline and
deals with the larger themes of class and society, the role of the media, the role of power, and the
power of sacrifice, among others. High quality YA series are appealing because readers can identify
with the characters and story, and are encouraged to read more books by the same author. Moreover,
series books also allow readers to build communities around their books as they read and talk about
their reading (Jones, 2015). Reading a series around a particular topic can encourage students to read
more of the same kinds of books. For example, students might be encouraged to read The Maze
Runner series by James Dashner and other dystopian literature after reading The Hunger Games.Other
than series books, students can be encouraged to read award-winning YA literature. A Monster Calls
by Patrick Ness was awarded the CILIP Carnegie Medal in 2012. Jim Kay was also awarded the
CILIP Kate Greenaway Medal for his illustrations of the book.
The monster showed up just after midnight. As they do.
Conor was awake when it came.
He‘d had a nightmare. Well, not a nightmare. The nightmare. The one he‘d been having a lot
lately. The one with the darkness and the wind and the screaming. The one with the hands
slipping from his grasp, no matter how hard he tried to hold on. The one that always ended
with –
―Go away,‖ Conor whispered into the darkness of his bedroom, trying to push the nightmare
back, not let it follow him into the world of waking. ―Go away now.‖
(Introduction from The Monster Calls)

The introduction of A Monster Calls reads like a horror story, but as the story unravels, one
learns that Conor, the protagonist, is learning to deal with his mother‘s impending death from cancer.
The text is rich in description and literary symbolism, but holds the attention of the reader at the level
of the story about a boy learning to deal with loss and death. For students who might find the novel too
difficult to read on their own, read aloud can be employed as a strategy for students to appreciate and
understand the story. Reading aloud is a useful strategy to expose students to different literary texts
and tease them into reading the full novel. One teacher has shared about how she has read aloud A
Monster Calls for her upper primary students. Her students enjoyed the book tremendously and
looked forward to the daily read aloud sessions. Some students, unwilling to wait to find out what
happened, borrowed the book and completed it on their own. Helping students to select good stories
and rich literary texts can allow for deeper conversations around their readings.

Multicultural literature
Other than using YA literature, using multicultural literature is another way to encourage
extensive reading in the EFL classroom. While there are various definitions of multicultural literature
(see Cai, 1998 for a comprehensive discussion), I find Yokota‘s (1993) inclusive definition of
multicultural literature as ―Literature that represents any distinct cultural group through accurate
portrayal and rich detail‖ most useful. In contrast to canonical Western literature with its dominantly
white European-American male perspectives, multicultural literature exposes students to literature
written from different parts of the world. Multicultural literature includes the literature that is distinct
to one‘s own non-Anglophile culture, and can provide a way for students to understand one‘s own

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

culture and other cultures. In helping students to select multicultural literature for reading, it is
important to remember to exposure students to books that are both international and local so that they
have opportunities to understand diversity both globally and within the national context (Loh, 2009).
In Singapore, students enjoy reading novels that are set in Singapore or Asia. Books like Sing
to the Dawn by Ho Minfong (about a Thai girl achieving her dreams of studying) and Gone Case by
Dave Chua (about a adolescent boys‘ experience of growing up) are culturally relevant to students.
Our teenage students identify with the adolescent protagonists and are able to relate to the issues that
are set in more familiar Asian contexts. Ensuring that students have access to a wide selection of
multicultural literature allows them to firstly, access their own worlds, and secondly, to expand their
knowledge of other worlds. It is one way of expanding students‘ horizons of what they read (Said,
1993). In an increasingly globalized world, it is extremely important that we expose our students to
literatures from all over the world. It is particularly vital for students in our interconnected Asian
context to read each other‘s literature for greater understanding of our neighbours. As such, English
teachers should curate and ensure that a wide selection of multicultural literature is available to their
students for reading. Perhaps we can have conversations with EFL teachers in different Asian contexts
to exchange suggestions for books to read to learn more about each culture.

Canonical Western Literature

The canonical western canon remains an important resource for EFL students. Reading is a
way to pick up what Neuman and Celano (2012) has termed ―information capital‖ , information that
begets more learning. The culture of English literature is embedded in the language and stories of
classic western canon, and it is through the reading of these texts that students can become familiar
with the language and the culture embedded in the language. For example, biblical knowledge and
Greek mythology are some of the common ―information‖ that English students need to know to better
access the English language. Knowing the story of Achilles and his pride helps students to understand
the meaning of ―Achilles‘ heel‖, which refers to a person‘s weak spot. Knowing the parable of the
Good Samaritan in the New Testament of the Bible brings greater understanding to what it means
when someone is referred to as ―a good Samaritan‖, a person who would go out of his way to help
someone in need. In The Literary Mind (Turner, 1998), Mark Turner explains that humans understand
best through stories. Stories also help us to understand others (Bruner, 2002), and can provide aids to
remembering the meaning behind words.
One possible difficulty with reading canonical texts could be students‘ inability to grapple
with the dense language. While I would encourage higher proficiency students to tackle the original
texts for extensive reading, it is possible for teachers to introduce classics to students in the form of
simpler prose adaptations and even graphic novels and comics. Students could be encouraged to begin
with the adaptations to get a sense of the story, and then move on to reading the original texts as a
challenge for themselves. Anthologies of Greek myths, Aesop‘s Fables, fairytales by Hans Christian
Anderson and the Grimm Brothers are good selections. Students can also be encouraged to read
around different versions of the same stories – for example, they can read different versions of Red
Riding Hood or Cinderella in the form of fractured fairytales (see Roald Dahl‘s Revolting Rhymes for
a humorous example or Neil Gaiman‘s retelling of Hansel and Gretel with more contemporary
overtones) or fairytales set in different cultures, including their own. This would bring classic
Anglophile stories into a more multicultural context, and allow students to see the common stories
told across cultures. Students an also learn to understand that the different versions are told differently
or result in different endings as a result of cultural differences. Through exposure to these different
retellings, students learn to read critically and to see the world from different perspectives.

Strategies for Introducing Literature to EFL students

I have already mentioned in the earlier section some strategies for introducing literature to
EFL students for extensive reading. Reading aloud is an important strategy for immersing students in
the book, getting them interested in the story and scaffolding their learning. For weaker students,
reading aloud provides a way for them to access the story before attempting it on their own. Listening
to audiobooks or using e-books might be another way to harness technology to engage students in
reading (Larson, 2015).

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Extensive reading can also be complemented with intensive reading of literary texts. For
example, a unit on fairytales can include in-class intensive reading of fairytales to understand the
narrative structure, and complemented with a supplementary list of fairytales to be read for extensive
reading. This way, students‘ in-class discussion can deepen their out-of-class readings and vice versa
as they have a chance to be immersed in understanding the narrative structure and various fairytales.
Another example: a unit on popular culture can include non-fiction and fiction texts, and students can
be encouraged to read YA literature that deal with contemporary issues meaningful to them. Newberry
winner Linda Sue Park‘s A Long Walk to Water is based on the true story of Salva Dut, a Sudanese lost
boy, and the fictional story of Nya, a young village girl, and how their paths cross. Its issue of access
to clean water is relevant to our students, and the themes of belonging, survival, and unity are
important for understanding our world today. Students can be given a list of common books and
tasked to read at least one of the books for extensive reading. Excerpts from these books can be used
for intensive reading to further encourage students to read these books and to scaffold their
In addition, talking about books can generate greater interest in books and help students to
understand the books and language better. Providing opportunities for students to discuss books read
in the form of literary book clubs (Daniels, 2002) or even informal chat sessions allow students to
share about the books read and cultivate a peer culture that supports reading. Through these
opportunities to have conversations about books, it is hoped that the students can learn to ―author rich
literate selves‖ and ―want the life of a reader and envision that for themselves‖ (Calkins, 2001, pp.
Finally, it is vital that teachers themselves are wide readers (Cremin et al., 2014). Being
familiar with literature will allow teachers to recommend the right books to students and enthuse them
with their own reading. Teachers should ensure that the books recommended are available to students
by checking that they are stocked in either the class or school library. Access to a wide variety of good
literature is important to encourage students pick up books of their own accord and to read for pleasure
(Loh, 2015).

Encouraging the reading of literary texts in extensive reading allow students to immerse
themselves in enjoying a text, learning empathy, cultivating creativity and contributing to language
improvement. Students should be encouraged to read both literature with a capital ―L‖ and with a
small ―l‖ in the form of YA literature, multicultural literature and western classics. By ensuring
student access to rich literary texts, teachers can cultivate students‘ acquisition and appreciation of
English. Through such extensive reading, students can also widen their view of the world and of
language, thus learning to read both the world and the word (Freire & Macedo, 1987).

Bruner, J. (2002). Making stories: Law, Literature and Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Cai, M. (1998). Multiple definitions of multicultural literature: Is the debate really just "ivory tower"
bickering? The New Advocate, 11(4), 311-324.
Calkins, L. M. (2001). The art of teaching reading. NY: Longman.
Cart, M. (2008). The value of young adult literature. Retrieved April 22, 2016, from
Cremin, T., Mottram, M., Collins, F. M., Powerll, S. & Safford, K. (2014) Building communities of
engaged readers: Reading for pleasure. NY: Routledge.
Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (1998). What reading does for the mind. American Educator,
Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs and reading groups. Portland,
ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
Freire, P., & Macedo, D. (1987). Reading the word and the world. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey
Publishers, Inc.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Gambrell, L. B. (2013). Reading motivational engagement: Research trends and future directions. In
P. J. Dunston, S. K. Fullerton, C. C. Bates, P. M. Stecker, M. W. Cole, A. H. Hall, D. Herro &
K. N. Headley (Eds.), 62nd Yearbook of the Literacy Research Association (pp. 43-52).
Altamonte Springs, Florida: Literacy Research Association.
Jones, S. A. (2015). Children reading series books: Ways into peer culture and reading development.
Changing English, 22(3), 307-325.
Kirsch, I., de Jong, J., Lafontaine, D., McQueen, J., Mendelovits, J., & Monseur, C. (2002). Reading
for change: Performance and engagement across countries Paris: Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.
Krashen, S. D. (2004). The power of reading: Insights from research (2nd edition ed.). Portsmouth,
NH: Heinemann.
Larson, L. C. (2015). E-books and audiobooks: Extending the digital reading experience. Journal of
Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 69(2), 169-177.
Loh, C. E. (2015) Building a reading culture in a Singapore school: identifying spaces for change
through a socio-spatial approach. Changing English 22(2), 209-221.
Loh, C. E. (2009). Reading the world: Reconceptualizing reading multicultural literature in the
English Language Arts classroom in a global world. Changing English, 16(3), 287-299.
McRae, J. (1991). Literature with a small 'l'. London: MacMillan.
Neuman, S. B., & Celano, D. (2012). Giving our children a fighting chance: Poverty, literacy, and the
development of information capital. NY: Teachers College Press.
Renandya, W., & Jacobs, G. (2002). Extensive reading: why aren't we all doing it? In J. C. Richards &
W. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in Language Teaching (pp. 295-302). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Said, E. W. (1993). Culture and imperialism. United Kingdom: Vintage.
Turner, M. (1998). The literary mind. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
VanderStaay, S. (1992) Young Adult Literature: A Writer Strikes the Genre. English Journal 81(4),
Yokota, J. (1993). Issues in selecting multicultural children's literature. Language Arts, 70, 156-167.

Author Biography
Loh Chin Ee is an Assistant Professor in the English Language and Literature Academic Group at the
National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University. She is the co-editor of Teaching
Literature in Singapore Secondary Schools (Pearson, 2013), Little Things: an Anthology of Poetry
(Ethos, 2013) and Teaching Poetry to Adolescents: a Teachers‘ Guide to Little Things. Her book, The
Space and Practice of Reading: A Case Study of Reading and Social Class in Singapore, will be out in
end-2016 (Routledge). She is Book Review co-editor of Pedagogies, and international journal, and
founder of enl*ght, a NIE-based student-run publication for Literature teachers. Her research interest
is in Literature education, reading and school libraries for 21st century learning.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



Made Frida Yulia

English Language Education Department
Sanata Dharma University
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Text messages have become common media of communication in this era. Face-to-face interactions
between teachers and students have often been replaced by virtual communication through these
media. In practice, such a communication may create breakdown due to the language which is used
in them. Politeness features which serve an essential buffer for a successful interaction are
sometimes neglected. The research was aimed at analyzing politeness issues appearing in English
and Indonesian text messages. The communication took place between Indonesian students at the
English Education Department of Sanata Dharma University Yogyakarta and their teachers. Thirty
text messages were collected from various teachers and then they were analyzed. The analysis
revealed that there were features in the text messages which did not abide by the principles of
politeness. It could be seen among others from the diction and absence of greetings and address
terms. The situation was potentially able to induce discomfort on the receiver‘s part and it may affect
the flow and success of communication. From the findings it could be concluded that not all of the
senders had sociolinguistic competence. Such senders often disregarded the concepts of social
distance and power relation, which should actually be taken into consideration while texting their

Keywords: text messages, communication, politeness, sociolinguistic competence

Communication nowadays has been made easier with the advancement of technology.
People may communicate with each other through a variety of modern tools, such as through mobile
phones. Distance among people is minimized as these modern means of communication are able to
connect people wherever they are. In addition to using short message service, the existence of
numerous messenger applications, such as Whatsapp messenger and Blackberry Messenger, have
made communication faster and easier. The use of this gadget along with messenger applications in
education domain is also unavoidable. Not only has it been used to communicate among students or
among teachers, but now it is also used to replace a face to face interaction between students and
teachers. Instead of meeting the teacher in person or giving him/her a call, which is definitely more
costly, students will send text messages to their teachers with whom they want to communicate.
The growing use of text messages in academic setting has raised the issues of politeness.
Some teachers have been heard making complaints about the students‘ use of language in the text
messages sent to them. The complaints were largely about the text messages which were seen to be
lacking politeness seen from the receivers‘ viewpoint. This happens both in the text messages written
in English and in Indonesian.
The research was aimed at analyzing English and Indonesian text messages which were sent
by the English Education Department students of Sanata Dharma University to their teachers in light
of politeness features. Thirty text messages were collected from a number of teachers and then they
were analyzed. The analysis focused on describing the students‘ use of languages in the messages
and analyzing whether the languages adhere to politeness theories.


Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

The following part elaborates the theories that underlie the research. They are theories on
language variation and code choice, politeness, factors which afftect politeness, and sociolinguistic
1. Language Variation and Code Choice
Language use varies from person to person. The variation, according to Holmes (2001), is
determined by gender, education, social status, interactional status, speech events, interlocutors, and
the group(s) one wishes to be identified with (or, sometimes, disassociated from). Speakers select a
particular code, or language, by considering some social factors (Holmes, 2001). Addressee is one of
the factors. In any interaction, speakers always plan their utterances with the addressee in mind.
Other factors are social context of the talk and the topic of discussion.
Furthermore, a code is selected by taking account of social distance. It means that how well
the participants know each other will determine the language to be used in the interaction. Certain
linguistic choices indicate social relationship that the speaker perceives to exist between his/her
interlocutor. In addition, status relationship (including social role), degrees of formality of an
interaction, and the function or goal of the interaction, be it affective or referential, should also be
taken into consideration in selecting a certain code.
In describing code choice, an area called discourse domain is employed. Domain refers to a
number of typical interactions which are relevant in describing patterns of code choice in many
speech communities. Holmes (2001: 20) states that ―A domain involves typical interactions between
typical participants in typical settings.‖ It implies that domain constitutes three elements; they are
topic, participants, and setting. For example, a conversation about throwing a birthday party for a
family member will be one of the typical topics in family domain.
2. Politeness
Politeness is a central issue in language learning. Being linguistically polite means that a
speaker has the ability to select linguistic forms which express the appropriate degree of social
distance or which recognize relevant status or power differences (Holmes, 2001). By so doing, the
speaker will make his/her conversation partners at ease because his/her feelings are taken into
consideration. To successfully do so, a speaker needs cultural knowledge as the degree of politeness
is different between one culture and another. Such knowledge requires the speaker‘s awareness of
‗face‘ and the sense of self and of the addressees (Brown and Levinson, 1987).
The concept of politeness is related to Goffman‘s work on ‗face‘ (as cited in Brown and
Levinson, 1987). Face means ―the public self-image of a person. It refers to ―the emotional and social
sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize‖ (Yule, 1998: 60). The
purpose of face is to avoid embarrassing the interlocutors or making them feel uncomfortable (Brown
and Levinson, 1987). From the definition, two kinds of face are derived, namely positive face and
negative face. According to Brown & Levinson (in Wardhaugh, 2002: 272), the former refers to ―the
desire to gain the approval of others‖, while the latter refers to ―the desire to be unimpeded by others
in one‘s actions.‖ Positive face is solidarity-oriented. Negative face, on the other hand, concerns the
need to act without giving offence.
Consequently, these two kinds of face result in two kinds of politeness. Positive politeness is
characterized by attempts to attain solidarity through statements of friendship, using language
informally, employing compliments, and using hedging and attempts to avoid conflict. ―It
emphasizes shared attitudes and values‖ (Holmes, 2001: 268), which means that it expresses
solidarity and minimize status difference. Positive politeness deals with positive face, i.e. one‘s self
Positive politeness strategy recognizes the addressee‘s desire to be respected, accepted, or
liked by others, treated as a member of the group. Besides, it recognizes the addressee‘s needs to
know that his/her wants are shared by others. It also verifies that the relationship is friendly and
expresses group reciprocity. Such strategies seek to minimize the threat to the hearer‘s positive face.
Negative politeness, on the other hand, is shown by paying people respect and avoiding
intruding on them. It involves ―expressing oneself appropriately in terms of social distance and
respecting status differences‖ (Holmes, 2001: 268). Negative politeness focuses more on expressing

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

oneself appropriately in terms of social distance and respecting status differences. Such politeness is
characterized by deference, apology, indirectness, and using language formally.
It has been common knowledge that speakers need to respect each other‘s expectations
regarding self-image, consider their feelings, and avoid face threatening-acts (FTAs). FTAs are ―acts
that by their nature run contrary to the face wants of the addressee and/or of the speaker‖ as Brown
and Levinson (1987: 65) state. To decide which strategy to use in real life situations, there are three
sociological factors to consider (Brown & Levinson, 1987). The first factor is social distance
between parties, i.e. how they are related. The second factor is power relations between parties. The
way one speaks will be different whenever speaking to social equals or those whose status is higher
or lower. The third factor is the threat level of the imposition.
3. Factors Affecting Politeness
There are four dimensions which influence polite use of language as proposed by Holmes
(2001: 9-11). They are social distance scale, status scale, formality scale, and referential and affective
function scales. According to Holmes (2001), the Social Distance Scale is solidarity-oriented,
whereby it is related to participant relationships. This shows that how well people know each other
will determine the linguistic choices. An example of this is the use of first name over full name. The
Status Scale also deals with the relationships of the participants. The linguistic choices are
determined by the relative status existing between the speaker and the hearer. The third scale, The
Formality Scale, concerns itself with the setting or type of interaction which will affect the language
styles, i.e. the formality of the language. The more formal an interaction is, the higher the level of
formality will be. The Referential and Affective Function Scales are related to the purposes of an
interaction. It shows how much information content or speakers‘ emotions or attitudes there are. The
more referentially-oriented an interaction is, the less emotional content it will carry.
4. Sociolinguistic Competence
Sociolinguistic competence is one of the pragmatic aspects of communicative competence,
which deals with how language is used in communication situations to achieve a speaker's purposes.
Acquiring sociolinguistic competence is a difficult undertaking, even in one‘s first language.
Sociolinguistic competence is defined as the ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of
linguistic varieties and to use language with the appropriate social meaning for the communication
situation (as cited in Broersma, 2016). It is understood as the ability to use language appropriately as
confirmed by Holmes (2001: 366-367), who claims that sociolinguistic competence refers to ―the
knowledge which underlies people‘s ability to use language appropriately.‖ Broersma (2016) argues
that having good sociolinguistic competence means having an ability to ―read situations and know
what is the right thing to say or do.‖
Possessing sociolinguistic competence in a second language is critical. Lacking this
competence will make people think that the speaker is ignorant. This may happen if his/her grammar
is poor. Even worse than that, the speaker will be thought of as being ill-mannered, dishonest,
insincere, rude, pushy, and some more negative impressions. By contrast, if his/her grammar is
excellent, the absence of such ability is considered sociolinguistic gaffes, which may result in
disappointment, shock, bewilderment, insult, or contempt.
Many people assume that language learners will acquire sociolinguistic competence
naturally as they are exposed to the culture of the language they are learning. However, this is untrue.
Learners need to be assisted to understand how to behave appropriately in a new cultural context.
Thus, efforts to improve sociolinguistic competence of learners should be an integral part of language
learning early on.
The goal of a language learning process is developing the ability to communicate
competently (NCLRC Home, 2007). One of the competences referred to is sociolinguistic
competence. This refers to the ability to use and respond to language appropriately, given the setting,
the topic, and the relationships among the people who are involved in the communication. This
implies that a speaker should try to avoid offending their conversation partners.
As language is used for communication, language learning should be directed at possessing
sociolinguistic competence, which is closely related to politeness. People are expected, among
others, to have knowledge about the social distance norms of the community and knowledge of how
to use the community language which signals one‘s membership of social group and enacts social

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

identities, and to choose appropriate linguistic code or variety in different domains and for different
functions. In a nutshell, a sociolinguistically-competent speaker should have the ability to choose
language forms which express the appropriate degree of social distance or which recognize relevant
status or power differences between the participants.
Acquiring sociolinguistic competence in a language is a difficult process. It is not enough to
understand the language solely. It is beyond having rich vocabulary, sophisticated grammar, and
excellent pronunciation. More importantly, it requires a speaker to understand the social and cultural
values of the community, as well as its social distance norms.


Thirty text messages were collected to be analyzed. Of those thirty texts, twelve were in
Indonesian and eighteen were in English. Because the media of the communication were chat boards,
which was limited in space, the occurrence of reduced forms or abbreviations was neglected.
Nonetheless, the more complete the words were written, the more pleased the receivers would be as
they did not have to painstakingly figure out what the word said.
The interaction being analyzed took place in school domain. It meant it involved typical
participants, namely a student and a teacher. It occurred in a typical setting, i.e. school. The topics
under discussion were school-related. Seeing these, it can be concluded that the nature of the existing
interaction should be formal. The participants involved were not of equal status; power difference
thus comes into play because one party has more power than the other. Even if both parties were
close, social distance was still in existence due to age and status differences. The students as the ones
having less power should pay some amount of respect through his/her languages. Accordingly, the
student who initiated the interaction should respect the interlocutor by being modest, tactful, and
avoid intruding on him/her.
From the twelve Indonesian text messages which were collected, it was found that most of
the messages had observed politeness features. The senders remembered to greet the receivers and
use proper address terms, even though sometimes the greetings and the address terms used were in a
different language. For instance, as shown in [1] and [2], they used Selamat pagi, Maam; Selamat
malam, Miss; or Selamat siang, Bu. Greetings are essential in an interaction because it may serve two
functions. It is the requirements of phatic communication, to create bond for a social contact,
acknowledging that one exists. Furthermore, they open a way for further interaction (Chaika, 1989:
Some of the senders remember to say maaf or maaf mengganggu, which showed that they
realized that they were about to perform an FTA and would intrude on the person receiving the
message. Another evidence of the senders‘ awareness on the FTA was the use of ―thank you‖,
―terima kasih‖ or ―nuwun‖ as an expression which the senders used to end the messages.

[1] Selamat malam miss, maaf mw tny, besok bisa ktm jam berapa? Nuwun.

[2] Selamat pagi, maam. Maaf mengganggu. Sehubungan dengan feedback dr Ms X minggu
lalu, ada yang perlu saya konsultasikan. Apakah ada waktu, Maam? Terima kasih.

Meanwhile, there were a few of the senders who employed casual style in the greeting, as
seen in [3]. The sender used ‗Met malam‘ instead of ―Selamat malam.‖ In addition to the casual
greetings, casual style in the content of the messages also appeared. In [4], to perform a request, the
sender used question tag to insist on his/her wish.

[3] Met malam Ms. bsk ada bimbingan atau tdk?

[4] Selamat malam Miss. Ini A. Saya mau daftar buat konsultasi Research Methods. Bisa kan

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Politeness issues emerged when the senders used inappropriate dictions or expressions to
express his/her requests. For example, in [3], the sender used a direct question Besok ada bimbingan
atau tidak? A better way would be asking ―Apakah besok ada bimbingan?‖ A similar case was
illustrated in [5], in which the sender asked ―besok ada waktu luang utk konsultasi?‖ In [6], the
sender said ―saya ingin miss cek sebentar.‖ This message indicated that the sender did not realize that
his/her request was an FTA. It would have been more acceptable and would have saved the receiver‘s
face if the senders had said ―saya minta tolong …‖

[5] Good afternoon Miss X, besok ada waktu luang utk konsultasi? Terima kasih.

[6] Selamat malam, Miss X. Power point saya sudah selesai. Kalau boleh, saya ingin miss
cek sebentar. Terima kasih Miss. Happy Sunday!

The use of inappropriate expressions was shown in [7] and [8]. Although the intended
actions were the same, the ways they were expressed would influence how the receivers would react.
―Apakah besok Ibu ada waktu untuk berbicara dengan saya?‖ implied that the sender positioned
himself or herself higher than the receiver, and it obviously threatened the receiver‘s face. Setting the
time instead of asking the receiver‘s availability would also threaten face.

[7] Selamat siang Bu. Saya ingin bertemu dengan Ibu besok untuk membicarakan skripsi
saya. Apakah besok Ibu ada waktu untuk berbicara dengan saya? Mungkin tidak lama, hanya
sekitar 10 menit. Terima kasih.

[8] Selamat malam Ms. Besok saya mau konsul skripsi jam 2, apakah ada waktu Ms?

The most severe problem found in the Indonesian text messages in the study was shown in
[9]. In this message, the sender was pushy despite his/her saying ―minta tolong‖ as s/he directly
requested something without considering the receiver‘s situations and was very straightforward in
his/her message content.

[9] Bu Y, sy mnt tolong bsk diluangkan wkt utk bimbingan krn sy hrs maju bulan bs
diundur lg.. sy mnt pengertian ibu. Terima kasih.

Eighteen text messages written in English were gathered and analyzed. Some of the
messages were classified since polite as they had observed politeness features. Like polite Indonesian
text messages, the senders employed greetings to open the interchange. The senders also used
appropriate address term, such as Miss, Ms, or Sir to pay respect to the people two whom they sent the
messages, as seen in [10]. These address terms were used for power recognition. It showed that the
senders made use of negative politeness. Some of the senders even felt the need to reveal their
identity by mentioning their name, such as in [11], assuming that the receiver may not know who the
senders were. At the end of the interchange, the senders also expressed gratitude.

[10] Good evening Ms B, may I have a thesis consultation tomorrow? Thanks in advance :)

[11] Morning miss D,,, This is C. I just wonder if you have time to see my final paper
today..When should I come to your office, Miss? Thank you.

When any inconvenience had happened on the receiver‘s part, the senders also
acknowledged it and they also asked for an apology. As to the content of their messages which were
mostly questions or requests, the senders employed negative politeness strategies in that they
apologized for something they were about to say. It exhibited their awareness that they were about to
impose on others. These features were shown in [12]-[14].

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

[12] Miss B, I‘m so sorry to disturb you. I‘m A. As I said last Wednesday I had submitted
my PKMM in your pigeon hole. Would you mind checking it? I do really your advices for
improvement. Thanks.

[13] Good morning Miss. Sorry to interrupt your morning. I‘d like to ask you whether you
have free time tomorrow for consultation. Thank you.

[14] Miss, A and I plan to meet you if it is possible and not bothering. We want to ask your
signature for our scholarship. Thank you miss.

Unlike the Indonesian messages, the English messages gathered in the study demonstrated
more politeness problems. There were language features in the text messages which did not conform
to politeness theories. The senders‘ possession of sociolinguistic competence was questioned.
In [15]-[16], the senders did not establish a good connection first with the receiver by making
an opening; out of the blue they came up with the content. They were found to be very
straightforward, and did not take caution to use greetings and address terms, nor did they say sorry or
thank you. This situation was not favorable because the receiver felt that s/he was not acknowledged
properly and not connected with the sender.
In these messages the senders did not seem to recognize status difference and power relation
that existed between them and the receivers. Even though some smiley emoticon was inserted and the
sender said sorry like in [15] and [16] respectively, it did not make the messages more polite. The
senders should have worded them differently. For example, instead of using a direct question s/he can
use an indirect one. Hence, [16] can be rewritten as I am wondering if we can make a new

[15] Are you available on Wednesday? :)

[16] I‘m really sorry for the inconvenience that I couldn‘t make it for a consultation
yesterday. I had something to take care of. Can we rearrange the meeting? Thank you.

Another problem that appeared in the messages seemed to be caused by poor diction or ignorance.
The senders in [17] and [18] placed themselves equal to the receiver, or even higher. Message [17]
can be rewritten as Where can I meet you? and [18] can be rewritten as I am wondering if you have
time. I would like to ask for your signature or I‘d like to know if I can see you to ask for your

[17] Morning maam. Where would we meet? In your office?

[18] Good day Miss. I‘m wondering if you have time to meet me for your signature. If you
do, would you let me know when? Thx Miss.

Another issue with status and power differences was found in [19]-[22]. The senders assumed equal
or higher power than that of the interlocutor. They did not mitigate the imposition they made, despite
the existence of ‗polite features‘ in the messages, such as the use of greetings, address terms, and
expressions of gratitude. They thought that they had more control over the interaction and did not
realize that they should have asked for an apology due to the inconvenience they had caused.

[19] Good afternoon. I would come at 14.50 because my bike‘s chain is being repaired.
Thank you.

[20] Mam, my motorcycle broke down. I am still on t way. Late.

[21] Miss this is A. Where are you? I‘ve been waiting.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

When a sender expressed directives, the language used was often too direct and
straightforward. They used imperatives, which were the least polite form of directives. The senders
talked as if to their subordinates and tended to be task-oriented, as seen in [22]. After notifying the
teacher that s/he had submitted his or her thesis draft, s/he continued by saying ―Please check it‖,
which was actually unnecessary. Teachers know their job, without their students telling them. As a
matter of fact, by mentioning that s/he had submitted a draft, it implied that what followed should be
the teacher‘s giving the student feedback. The existence of ‗please‘ in that message, nonetheless, did
not make the message more polite.

[22] I have put my draft in ur box. Please check it.

Messages containing impolite features would result in irritation, annoyance, and contempt
on the receivers‘ part, i.e. the teachers. The senders, regardless of the linguistic competence they had,
showed an absence of sociolinguistic competence. They were unaware of the social relationship with
the interlocutors. They did not recognize existing social distance as well as status and power
differences. As the interaction took place in the school domain, which was formal, the language
employed should have reflected appropriate possession of power resulting from the social role that
each of the participants held, which was teacher-student relationship. In reality, conversely, many
students were communicating as if they were equals. Consequently, they selected inappropriate
forms of language which did not abide by politeness features and made the interlocutors

Politeness is a very important principle in communication. It employs devices to show
certain relationships to other people as well as attitudes toward them. In expressing an FTA in written
communication, for instance, a good advice will be to take longer effort to express it in order to
mitigate imposition. It means longer sentences would be more preferred.
From the study it was found that some of the analyzed messages had employed polite
features; however, the majority of the messages had politeness issues as they contained features
which did not conform to politeness theories. The same situations happened to both Indonesian and
English messages. Yet, in terms of the number of problems, English messages were found to have
more problems. This may be due to the nature of the language, which was not the senders‘ L1, and the
senders‘ less familiarity with the culture of the foreign language.
Many students were not aware of social distance, roles and status, and power relations. They
were communicating as if they were equals, or even some of them placed themselves higher than the
interlocutors. The phenomenon resulted in many teachers becoming annoyed and irritated by the
messages. In a nutshell, such students were concluded to have a lack of sociolinguistic competence
due to their failure to recognize the existing social distance and power differences between the two

Broersma, D. H. 2016. How do I Learn Sociolinguistic Competence? Retrieved on 23 January 2016
Brown, P. and S. C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Chaika, E. 1989. Language, the Social Mirror. Cambridge: Newbury House.
Gloria, S. 2016. The Use of Brown and Levinson‘s Politeness Strategies as Seen in Elizabeth
Gilbert‘s Eat Pray Love. Unpublished Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.
Holmes, J. 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 2nd ed. London: Longman.
NCLRC Home. 2007. Teaching Goals and Methods. Retrieved on 23 January 2016 from
Oregon University 1997. Politeness. Retrieved on 23 August 2009 from politeness.html.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

SIL International. 1999. What is sociolinguistic competence? LinguaLinks Library, Version 3.5
Retrieved on 23 January 2016 from
Wardhaugh, R. 2002. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
Yule, G. 1998. Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Yulia, M. F. 2009. A Sociolinguistic Analysis on Politeness Features in English Text Messages.
CONEST 6 Proceedings. Jakarta: Atma Jaya Catholic University.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Maridha Fitri
Wina Viqa Sari
Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara
Faculty of Cultural Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara
Nurul Aisyah
Faculty of Teachers‘ Training and Education, University of Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara

The objective of this research was 1) to find out the effect of applying talking chips on students‘
achievement in speaking 2) to find out the students‘ difficulties of applying talking chips technique in
learning speaking. The experimental research method was applied in this study. The population was
the 2013/2014 first grade of SMA HARAPAN MEKAR jalan Marelan No. 77 Medan which consisted
of 60 students. All of the population was taken as the sample. The students were divided into two
groups, namely experimental and control group. The experimental group was taught by talking chips
while control group was taught by discussion method. The instrument was used in this study was
essay test. The essay test consisted of 5 items; the test was teacher-made test. The data was analyzed
by using t-test formula. The findings showed t-observed= 2.45, while t-table=2.02. Based on the
findings above, t-observed bigger than t-table (2.45>2.02). It means that the students who were
taught by applying talking chips were better than those who were taught by discussion method. So, it
can be said that alternative hypothesis (Ha) was accepted.

Keywords: Talking Chips Technique, Speaking Ability

English language as a foreign language has four skills; speaking, writing reading and
listening. One of those language skills that influence the language ability is speaking. Teaching
speaking is considered to be difficult among the four skills. Chastain in Paisal (2011: 1) states that
learning is obviously more difficult. It means that more effort is required by the students and various
interesting activities are also required by the teacher. Furthermore, he states that it is not enough for
the students to hear or to listen speech only. The teacher needs to give opportunities to the student to
practice their oral language especially speaking.
In teaching English for speaking skill, the English teachers must be creative to design many
communication activities in the classroom that urge and motivate students to use the language
actively and productively. Byrne in Paisal (2011: 1) states that the first task of the teacher is create the
best condition for students to study. In other words, the teacher is responsible for the situation were
the student can orally communicate with their classmates. Most of the students think that speaking
English is really difficult because we should adapt among the written form and pronunciation. We
can see the fact that most of the Indonesian students cannot perform speaking English well.
The observation result when the researcher conducted teaching practice at the first year
students of SMA Harapan Mekar Medan showed that speaking was most frustrating English skill for
students. The students faced many problems in learning speaking because of many factors such as
shy to speak, have low motivation, have less self confidence, afraid of making mistakes and etc. They
sometimes understand about the topic or material but they were difficult to express their idea to
others. Therefore, it was important to focus the teachers‘ intention to stimulate the students in
speaking. For this purpose, active learning was demanded. This problem actually was a matter of
teaching method that conducted by the teachers. So, the teachers had to find out a special method to

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

facilitate the students to solve their problem. Based on this statement, the researcher chooses the
Cooperative Learning Type Talking Chips Method to make the student become active and improve
the speaking ability.
According to Robert E. Slavin in Mustari (2010: 12), cooperative learning is one of the
learning methods where the students are engaged in groups when they receive material from a teacher
or do their task or assignment. Cooperative learning is an approach to organizing classroom activities
into academic and social learning experience. Student must be put in group to complete the two sets
of task collectively. Everyone succeeds when group succeeds (Brown and Ciuffetelli Parker, 2010).
Several types of cooperative learning namely make a match, think-fair-share, swapping couples,
exchanging greetings and questions, numbered heads together, two stat to stray, talking chips (card
speak), round table, inside-outside-circle, paired storytelling, and jigsaw.
Based on the background above, the researcher was interested to use Chips to help students
in learning speaking. Talking Chips Technique was chosen because it could build a sense of
responsibility to join, care and get committed together in the group. Therefore, the researcher chooses
to research “The Effect of Applying Talking Chips Technique on the Students’ Achievement in
Speaking Ability”.

The Formulation of the Study

1. What is the significance effect of applying talking chips technique on the students‘ achievement
in speaking ability?
2. What are the students‘ difficulties of applying talking chips technique in learning speaking to
tenth grade students of SMA Harapan Mekar Medan?
The Objective of the Study
1. To find out the effect of applying talking chips technique on the students‘ achievement in
speaking ability.
2. To find out the students‘ difficulties of applying talking chips technique in learning speaking to
tenth grade students of SMA Harapan Mekar Medan.
Scope and Limitation
The scope was speaking ability. Limitation of the research was The Effect of Applying
Talking Chips Technique on the Students‘ Achievement in Speaking Ability at SMA Harapan Mekar
Medan class X-A and X-B at academic years 2013/2014, Marelan street No. 77, Medan.

Speaking is one of language skill that people use in communication to others. The purpose of
the teachers of speaking is to enable the student to speak and interpret the message that occurs in the
communication process. Speaking ability is an ability to express, to convey the idea and suggestion.
Talking is about how to express, it is related to the language problem and the pronunciation of speech
In accordance with this, Talking Chips Technique is one of the cooperative learning methods
where students are engaged in groups and receive material from a teacher in order to do academic
activities and have social learning experience (Slavin in Mustari, 2010).

Talking Chips
Talking Chips is developed by Kagan (1992), Talking is a word taken from the English
language, means to speak, while the Chips means the card. So, the meaning of Talking Chips is the
card to speak. Talking Chips technique is a technique of teaching speaking which make the students
interested and help student to speak. In the course of talking chips, each member of the group gets a
chance to provide their construction and listen to the views and concerns of other members.
Talking chips learning model is one model of learning using cooperative learning methods.
In cooperative learning, students learn together in small groups and help each other. Classes are
arranged in groups of 4-5 students with heterogeneous capabilities. Heterogeneous in this regard,
previous grades, gender, religion, race, and so on.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

In Talking Chips, students are divided into small groups of about 4-6 people in group. In the
groups, the students were asked to discuss an issue or subject matter. Each group was given 4-5 cards
used for student in talking. After the students give their opinion, the card kept on the table of their
group. The process is continued until all students can use their cards to speak. This method makes no
students more dominant and no student to be passive; all students have to express their opinions. In
addition, the implementation of cooperative learning techniques Talking Chips is a model of
student-centered learning (student-oriented), which is consistent learning model occupies a central
position as the subject of learning through activities seek and find the subject matter itself. According
to Wina Sanjaya in Supri Wahyudi Utomo, stated that dengan beraktifitas siswa bukan hanya
dituntut menguasai sejumlah informasi dengan cara menghafal, akan tetapi bagaimana memperoleh
informasi secara mandiri dan kreatif melalui aktifitas mencari dan menemukan. Thus, what is
learned to be more meaningful, because the learning experience gained through the process, not the
result of other people‘s notification.
Talking chips has two important processes; they are social process and the process of
mastering the material. Social processes play an important role in studying Talking Chips in order to
make students capable to work in group. Those students learn to discuss, summarize, clarify concept,
and solve problems.
Applying Talking Chips Technique in the Class
According Kagan (1992), there are some steps that the teacher does in the classroom in
teaching speaking by applying Talking Chips Technique, they are:
1. Each member in the group was given 4-5 cards.
2. The students in the group discussed the topic for solving problem which was given by the
3. All students who would like to speak or express an idea; students should raise their cards and
then kept their cards on the table of their group.
4. Student could not talk anymore if his/her card had been used, until all of the cards of other
members in his group were used.
5. The teacher gave score based on the time and the speaking skill aspects, such as
pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, fluency.

Materials that were used in this study are expression of asking, giving and declining an
opinion. In these materials, the students should be able to give opinions of the topic. In Talking
Chips Technique, students gathered in a group, and then they were given 4-5 cards. Each group was
given a question sheet and each student in the group was asked to discuss to find the answer. For
example, the students must provide pro or contra opinions toward the given quarries or the students
were asked to make conversation with a situation that was determined by the teacher. All students
who would like to speak or express their ideas, the students should raise their card first, and then their
card is stored on the table. The process was continued until all students could use their card to speak.
This means that students do not have to dominate and all of the students have the turn to speak their
mind. Therefore, each student in each group should be able to understand the material from the
expression of asking, giving and declining an opinion to defend his group‘s position.
Factor Affecting the Speaking Ability
According to Clark and Clark (1977:25), speaking is fundamentally instrumental act. So, the
students should learn how to be communicative in speaking English. They learn some speaking skill
and develop some attitude toward speaking achievement. Therefore, the speaker must know the topic
of the conversation in order to give of share the other information.
In the manner of speaking course, it is important to know principle in speaking, as follow:
1. Speaking is characterized by two or more people who communicate orally as speaker and
2. There are many types of oral communication between the speaker and listener.
3. The teacher encourages the students to effectively develop their speaking competence.
In other hand, speaking is the one of language skills which is difficult to be acquired by
students. Brown (1994:1) divides the problems which influence speaking ability into:
1. Students cannot express their idea.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

2. This problem comes from the student itself. Example, student shy or reluctant to speak.
3. The student had nothing to say

In order to measure the speaking ability, there some elements that should had got attention,
they are:
1. Pronunciation.
Pronunciation skill obviously influenced by L1. The pronunciation can be varies because of
the influences of locality and social surrounding.
2. Grammar.
Grammar is the description of the structure of the language and the way in which linguistic
units, such as words and phrases, combined to produce sentence in the language (Richards,
Platt and Weber, 1955).
3. Vocabulary.
Vocabulary is more than lists of target language words. In order to communicate idea
precisely, a speaker should express them with precise word rather than general words.
4. Fluency.
The definition of fluency is derived as the ability of an individual to speak without hesitation.
5. Comprehension.
Hormby stated that comprehension is the mind‘s act or power of understanding. Clark and
Clark (1977) stated that make a simple meaning of comprehension as the building of
meaning from sounds. It means what the listeners hear and understand from a speaker is to

There is significant effect of applying Talking Chips Technique to the students‘ achievement
in teaching speaking.

Population and Sample
The research was conducted at SMA Harapan Mekar, Jalan Marelan no. 77, Medan. The
population of this research was the tenth grade students of academic year 2013-2014 of SMA
Harapan Mekar which consist of two classes (XA, XB). The total number of the students was 60
According to Arikunto (2006:131), if the subject less than 100, it is better all the subject
become the sample in the research, but if the subject is more than 100, the sample could be 10% -
15% or 20% - 50% from the population. Since the population is less than 100, then all the population
is taken as the sample.

No Class Sample
1 X-A 30 (experimental)
2 X-B 30 (Control)
Total 60

Research Design
This research was applied in an experimental research with two group pre-test and post-test
design. One of the classes was assigned to be control group and the other to be experimental group.
The design was applied in order to investigate the effect of applying talking chips technique on the
students‘ achievement in speaking ability. The data was collected from students‘ answer. The type of
the test was essay test, the teacher asks students to answer the questions orally. This test was given to
the students in group.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Pre-test was given out to both groups (experimental group and control group) before the
treatment. The function of the ore-test was to know the students‘ scores from both group before
receiving treatment.
The treatment was given to the both group. The experimental group was taught by applying
Talking Chips Technique, while the control group was taught using discussion method.
Post-test was given after the treatment. This post-test was exactly same with the pre-test
which was used in order to know the mean score of experimental group and control group.
After collecting the data from the test, the data was calculated by using T-test in order to test
the hypothesis.

Instrument of the Research

The instrument of the research was essay test for speaking conversation. In the test, the
students were asked to speak by the topic ―asking, giving and declining opinion‖. The score of the
test was based on the conversation indicators (Underwood, 1989). The indicators are pronunciation,
Grammar, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension.

The test was administrated to collect the data. The data required in this study were obtained
from the result of the test had given to the students. The first group was treated as the experimental
group, and the second group as the control group. The total score in the experimental group are, 430
for the pre-test and 544 for the post-test. While, the total score in control group are, 216 for pre-test
and 302 for post-test. Therefore, comparing of both classes total scores, experimental group has
higher score than the control group.
Based on the total score of both classes, it can be said that applying talking chips technique in
studying speaking is more effective than applying discussion method. Besides that, the students in
experimental group shows that they had confidence, brave to share and express their ideas and all of
the students have the sense of the responsibility in joining the group activity.

No Group Total Score

Pre-Test Post-Test
1 Experimental 430 544
2 Control 216 302

Testing Hypothesis
T-test used to find the relationship of applying talking chips technique in teaching speaking
towards the students‘ achievement in speaking ability. T-test was implemented to find out t-observed
value of both groups as the basis to test the hypothesis of this research. After accounting the data by
using t-test formula, it shows that critical is 2.45, then after seeking the table of distribution as
t-critical as basis of counting t-critical in certain degree of freedom (df), the calculation shows that df
is 58. In the line of 58 showed that t-table is 2.02 for 0.05.
To test hypothesis, the formula of t-test and the distribution table of t-critical value were
applied. If t-observed is greater than t-table, it means that the null hypothesis is rejected and
alternative hypothesis is accepted. The fact of this research showed that t-observed is greater than
t-table (2.45>2.02). Therefore, the students who were taught by Talking Chips Technique got higher
scores than those who were taught by Discussion Method in speaking, there was significant effect of
Talking Chips to the students‘ achievement in speaking ability.
Conversation Indicators
From the conversation indicators, it shows that the total fluency score were lower than other
indicators. Therefore, it can be concluded that the students‘ difficulties were in fluency, while the
highest indicator was in comprehension. It means that they understood what they spoke but they were
still difficult to utter their ideas fluently.

No Conversation Indicators Total Score

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

1 Pronunciation 139
2 Grammar 127
3 Vocabulary 122
4 Fluency 116
5 Comprehension 144


1. From this research, it was found that there was effect of applying Talking Chips Technique
on the students‘ achievement in speaking ability which was proven by the result of the test
t-observed > t-table (2.45>2.02).
2. The students‘ dominant difficulty in speaking is the fluency in speaking, yet they understood
what they spoke. It means that Talking Chips Technique would be said very effective in
learning speaking.
1. The teacher can use varies of techniques in teaching speaking, one of them is the Talking
Chips Technique.
2. Students should study harder to increase their speaking ability, not only at school, but also at
home and wherever.
3. Other researchers can explore this study to get improvement of this technique.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2007. Principles of Language and Teaching. USA: Prentice-Hall.
Clark and Clark, H. E. V. 1977. Psychology and Language: An Introduction to Psycholinguistic.
New York: Harcourt Brace.
Richard, J. C. 1985. The Context of Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University
S, Kagan. 1992. Cooperative Learning. San Cemente, CA: Kagan Publishing.
Suharsimi, Arikunto. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Supri, Wahyudi Utomo. 2007. Penerapan Metode Talking Chips dalam Pembelajaran Kooperatif
Guna Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Kewirausahaan di SMKN I Madiun. Madiun: IKIP
PGRI Madiun.
Underwood, M. 1989. Teaching Speaking. New York: Longman.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Mariska Febrianti1, Bambang Suwarno2
Universitas Bengkulu

In order to improve students‘ language skill various teaching methods need to be introduced in the
language classroom. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of small group discussion on
students‘ achievement in grammar. This was a pre-experimental research, in which there was only
an experiment group that was taught through small group discussion. The subjects consisted of the
second semester Accountancy students at Dehasen University. The data were obtained from the
students‘ test scores. Data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test
mean and post-test mean. Thus, it could be concluded that small group discussion technique could
improve students‘ grammar. This improvement could be contributed to more active students‘
participation through small group discussion. Further study using quasi experiment is recomended.

Keywords: Small group discussion

Listening, speaking, reading and writing are four basic skills that have to be mastered by
language learners. In addition, there is also one important thing which students need to master,
namely, grammar. Harmer (2001) says that grammar is the description of word forms and the rules to
combine them into sentences. In other words, grammar refers to the rules of language that regulate
the combination of correct and appropriate forms for meaningful language. Meanwhile, Brindley
(1994) defines grammar as a set of rules for determining correct or incorrect forms and for
maintaining standards. It can be concluded that grammar refers to the principles of language rules to
form meaningful and correct language. Grammar includes parts of speech, such as noun, pronoun,
verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction and interjection.
Mastering grammar is very important because it may affect the meanings and messages that
speakers want to convey. William (2005) emphasizes the fact that grammar is essential for good
communication. Furthermore, Widodo, in Brindley (1994), argues that grammar is related to
language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It is crucial that language speakers
acquire the capability of producing grammatically acceptable utterances in a language.
There are many grammatical aspects that the learners should master to have good
competence in English language. Learners often find it difficult to understand the rules of the
language. The reason is that there are many rules to remember and understand, and thus they often
make mistakes in using rules or composing sentences. Such a situation also happens in the Business
English course, Economic Faculty, Dehasen University, a private university in Bengkulu City. Here,
parts of speech belong to the core materials to be taught. There are three departments in the Economy
faculty, namely, management, accountancy, and banking finance. In this paper the writer focuses on
the accountancy class as the subject of her research.
In Indonesia, students learn grammar since the junior secondary school level but their ability
is still unsatisfactory. Apparently, the situation goes on the university. An informal observation in
the mentioned department revealed that students‘ grammar command was still unsatisfactory.
Therefore, in order to help students, the teacher should find appropriate methods in teaching.
There are a lot of language teaching methods that can be selected; one of which is small group
There are some previous studies that investigated small group discussion method. For
example, Ahmad (2013) found that small group discussion method effectively improved students‘
reading skill, increase students‘ participation in class, and developed their responsibility to finish the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

1 68
ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Meanwhile, some studies in speaking class provided similar results. In a domestic study in
Riau, Indonesia, Rive (2016) found that small group discussion improved students‘ speaking skill.
The improvement occured on general speaking speaking scores as well as pronunciation, grammar,
vocabulay, fluency, and comprehension scores.
By comparison, in an overseas study in Gaza, Palestine, Alhabbash (2014) found that class
group discussion method and online group discussion method were more effective than traditional
method, and that online discussion method was more effective than other methods, in improving
student‘s speaking skill. The improment occured on general speaking speaking scores as well as
grammar, vocabulay, and fluency scores.
The findings of these studies revealed that small group discussion could improve students‘
language skill. More specifically, it could also improve students‘ grammar skill
Based on this background, the writer decided to investigate the effect of small group
discussion method on students‘ grammar ability. Student‘s grammar ability was defined as the score
that the student got after he/she took a grammar test that was provided by the researcher.


In order to lay out the theoretical foundation for this study, several concepts will be exposed,
namely, nature of group discussion as well as its benefit and drawback.
The nature of group discussion
Steward (2004: 157) states that a group refers to more than two people who interact with one
another, with or without an assigned leader, in such way that each person influences, and is
influenced by, other persons in the group. Small group, according to Barker (1987), consists of three
or more people interacting face to face, with or without assigned leader, in such a way that each
person influences another person. Fowler (1980: 310) maintains that groups should be arranged so
that each student can see all other members and communicate with them. Small group discussion is
the process by which three or more members of a group exchange verbal and nonverbal massages in
attempt to influence one another.
The advantages of small group discussion
Muijs and Reynolds, (2005: 52) elaborate the benefit of small group, as follows:
a. Small group provides motivational framework for the group members.
b. It permits ease of control, flexible method regulation, personalized attention, and individualized
c. It provides a social framework that each child can identify and use as a guide to for his or her
d. The main of benefit of small group work seems to lie in the co-operative aspect it can help foster.
Meanwhile, Stewart (2004: 8) states that small group could help students in:
a. Developing self-awareness
b. Managing personal stress
c. Solving problem analytically and creatively
d. Coaching, counseling and establishing supportive communication
e. Gaining power and influence
f. Motivating others
g. Empowering and delegating
h. Managing conflict
i. Building effective team and framework
The disadvantages of small group discussion
According to Steward (2004:56), although small group work can be powerful for teaching
and learning strategy, it has some disadvantages, namely:
a. It unnaturally promotes independent learning and can foster dependency on certain dominant
members of group
b. The complexity of a small group can also make it harder to manage for the teacher
c. Small group work can result more time spent on lesson.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

From the explanation above, while caution needs to be exercised in using small group
discussion, small group has many advantages in teaching learning process because it can motivate
and develop student‘s skill. Small group also can develop student‘s learning outcome. It is an
effective technique that a teacher can apply in the classroom.

The exposition of methodology consists of general outline of the study and data analysis.
General Outline of the study
This paper is a pre-experimental study, which aimed to find the effect of small group
discussion method on students‘ grammar achievement. The population consisted of the Accountancy
Department, the Economy Faculty, Dehasen University, Bengkulu, Indonesia. The sample consisted
of 20 students in the second semester. The instrument consisted of a grammar test.
Research Procedure
The research procedure included several stages, namely, pre-test, treatment, post test and
data analysis. A pre-test was given before the treatment started. Then, treatment was given in the
form of small group discussion, which was given in 3 meetings. Subsequently, a post test was
administered to the students. Finally, pre-test and post test scores were compared to see whether there
was any progress in student‘s grammar skill
The application of small group discussion was performed in the following steps:
a. The teacher provided resource material of several kinds.
b. The teacher assigned individual into groups; then s/he formed a special group to help other
c. The teacher set some well-defined, accomplishable tasks that provided early reinforcement, to
enhance students‘ satisfaction
d. The teacher worked with each group in turn. She sat down with them and systematically
explored the ―state of the project‖ with each group member, in order to student‘s motivating in
e. After the project was finished, the teacher asked the student in each group to report and discuss
the result of group discussion; then she offered suggestions.
Technique for Data Analysis
For data analysis, students‘ pre-test and posttest scores were collected and compared. The
score were then analyzed to find the average score, standard deviation, and t-count. The paired t-test
was used to compare the students‘ pre-test and post-test scores. The statistical formula was as

Note: d bar is the mean difference, s² is the sample variance, n is the sample size and t is a Student t
with n-1 degrees of freedom.
The analysis was performed by using Excel statistical analysis package.


After post-test was administered, analysis was performed by comparing the pre-test scores
and post test scores. Then the result was compared with the theory and the findings from other
Data Analysis
A table containing the pre-test and post test scores was attached in the appendix.
The descriptive summary, the correlation, and t-test calculation were shown in the table below.
Using Excell, the analysis of the data revealed that the mean score of pre-test was 66.80 and the mean
score of post-test was 77.45. The descriptive statistics showed that there was an improvement in
score from pre-test to post-test by as much as 10.65.

Table 1. T-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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Pre test Post test

Mean 66.80 77.45
Variance 40.06 31.63
Observations 20.00 20.00
Pearson Correlation 0.18
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0.00
df 19.00
t Stat -6.21
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.00
t Critical one-tail 1.73
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.00
t Critical two-tail 2.09
Note: the minus (-) sign occurs as in the counting of the t-count, the post test mean (with bigger value) was
subtracted from the pre-test mean.
To determine whether the improvement in the post-test was significant, the formulation of
hypotheses was needed. The first hypothesis was null hypothesis (H0) and the second hypothesis was
(H1). The formulation of both hypotheses is as follows:
H0: There is no significant difference between pre-tees mean and post test mean on student‘s
grammar achievement
H1: There is a significant difference between pre-test mean and post test mean on student‘s
grammar achievement.
Using Excel, the analysis of data using paired sample t-test revealed that t-count (t- stat) was
–6.21. The absolute value of t-count was 6.21. With α=0.05, the value of t-critical (t-table), for
two-tailed test, was 2.09.
T-count was bigger than t-table. Therefore, H0 was rejected while H1 was accepted. In other
words, there was as significant effect of small group discussion on student‘ grammar achievement.
Thus, more speaking led to better student‘s grammar achievement; this implied that less speaking
was not beneficial to students‘ grammar achievement. In other words, silence is not golden.

The finding of this study showed that small group discussion could improve students‗ ability
in grammar. The improvement was proved to be statistically significant.
In this respect, the finding supports the theory that small group discussion is beneficial for teaching as
it provides better motivation, provides greater enjoyment of learning expereiencde,and promote
cooperation, and these all may lead to improvement in studens‘ skill, including grammar.
The finding was also in line with a number of studies, both domestic and overseas. One
domestic study that dealt with the use of small group discussion was one by Rivi (2014), an action
research in which small group discussion was used to improve students‘ speaking skill at Pasir
Pengairan University, Riau, Indonesia. His data showed that after cycle 1 there was improvements
only in grammar and vocabulary. However, after cycle 2, there was improvements in all aspects,
namely, pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.
In this respect his finding on grammar was similar to the finding of this study, in which small
group discussion improved student‘s grammar skill. Rivi (2014) attributed the success of his study to
the fact that small group discussion enabled students to be more actively involved in speaking
activities. This supports the benefits of small group discussion as outlined in the previous exposition
on theory.
Another study that gave similar finding to this study was an overseas study by Alhabbash
(2014). He used a true experiment to investiagate the comparative effect of classroom group
discussion and online group discussion on student‘s speaking skill among year-12 students in a
Palestinian secondary school. As the subjects of his study sat in the last class of a secondary school,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

they were considered close in ability with the subjects in this study and thus a comparison could be
made with this study.
Alhabbash (2014) found that both class group discussion method and online group
discussion method were more effective than traditional method, and that online discussion method
was more effective than other methods, in improving student‘s speaking skill. As online method was
beyond the scope of this study, only classroom group discussion method is discusssed.
Alhabbash (2014) found that there was a significant difference in average score between the
experimental group the control group. Moreover, the average score for the experimental group was
almost twice of the average score for the control group, in the total score as well as the scores for
vocabulary, grammar, and flueny.
Alhabbash (2014) attributed the success of this study to the fact that in the group discussion
students were encouraged to be more active participants in the teaching and learning process and this
led to greater development of their skill. His result provided another evidence of the benefit of small
group discussion for improving the speaking skill.
These studies supported the theory that group work is beneficial for language instruction,
including grammar. However, the theory also mentions the disadvantage of group discussion, in that
it may lead to dependency and that it may require more classroom management skill and more time to
implement. In addition, Changko (2016) showed that while students perceived group discussion
positively, they faced some challenges, including differing proficiency levels among members of
groups, difficulty in decision making process, and relationship with peers. It is also to be noted that
this study was a pre-experiment and thus its finding was not so robust as the finding of true and quasi
In general, group work seems to offer more benefit than drawback. As a result, it is
recommended that teachers use it for his/her language teaching. However, considering the drawback,
Changko (2016) suggested that teachers need to consider students‘ differing proficiency levels,
students‘ relations with each other, and the individual differences among the students. Teachers may
also need to consistently observe students‘ needs and wants regarding group work, e.g., by
conducting surveys or interviews. Lastly, in order to arrive at a stronger finding, further researchers
need to conduct a stronger form of investigation, such as quasi and true experiments.

Based on finding it can be concluded that small group discussion is an effective method to
enhance students‘ grammar ability. In addition, students also get more active in classroom by
interacting between one another. Therefore, further study is recommended to find out more about
small group discussion method by using quasi experiment or true experiment.

Ahmad, Cecep. The Effectiveness of Small Group Discussion Method in Teaching Reading (A Quasi
Experiment Research in Second Grade Students one of Public Junior High School). Bandung :
Perpustakaan UPI. (2013). edu. retrieved on March 10th 2016.
Alhabbash, Mohammed. The Effectiveness of Online and Classroom Discussion on English Speaking
Skill of 12th Graders at Gaza. Thesis. Gaza, Palestina. 2012. Gaza, Palestina : Islamic of Gaza.
Antoni, Rivi. Teaching Speaking Skill through Small Group Discussion Technique at the Accounting
Study Program. Al-Manar : Journal of Education and Islamic Studies 5.1. (2014) : 55-64 : Web
5th Jan 2016.
Barker, Larry. Communication. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall Inc. (1987)
Brindley, G. (1994). Factors affecting task difficulty. In D. Nunan (Ed). Guidelines for the
Development of Curriculum Resources. Adelaide: National Curriculum Resource Centre.
Hamra & Syatriana. ―Developing a Model of Teaching Reading Comprehension for EFL Students.‖
Teflin Journal 21. (2010).
Fowler, William. Infant and Child Care : A Guide to Education Group Settings. New York : Allyn &
Bacon Inc. (1980).
Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London : Longman Inc. (2001).

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Kwon, Changko. "Student Perspectives on Group Work and Use Of L1: Academic Writing in A
University EFL Course in Thailand." Second Language Studies 33.1 (2014): 85-124. Web. 01
Feb. 2016
Muijs & Reynolds. Effective Teaching Evidence and Practice. London: SAGE Publication. (2005).
Nunan, David. Designing Task for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press. (1999).Storch, Neomy. "Collaborative Writing: Product, Process, and
Students‘ Reflections." Journal of Second Language Writing 14 (2005): 153-73. Web. 1 Dec.
Steward, Tubs L. A System Approach to Small Group Interaction. Eightth Edition. New York: Mc
Graw-Hill Companies Inc. (2004).

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



M. Khairi Ikhsan1), Handayani. SB2)


Scientific approach is a learning approach that is designed to make learners work actively in
constructing concepts and principles through the stages observed (to identify or find the problem), to
formulate the problem, propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data with a variety of techniques,
analyzing the data, draw conclusions and communicate the concept. To support the implementation
of the learning with scientific approach, scientific learning tools such as student‘s worksheet is
required. Students‘ worksheet, as one of learning tools that is used to involve the students to work
actively during teaching and learning process, should be developed based on the students‘ need.
Students‘ worksheet with scientific approach in teaching curriculum has not developed well yet. A
good student‘s worksheet must be satisfied criteria of valid, practical and effective. This research is a
developmental research using 4-D, without the dissemination phase. It has been conducted on 32
students of STKIP PGRI Sumbar academic year 2012. In this study, data obtained from Curriculum
syllabus analysis, students‘ need analysis and results of validation. Students‘ need analysis was done
to analyze the students‘ perception about the previous learning materials and to know what kind of
learning material they need. From the results and discussion on this research, it was found that the
students‘ had bad perception about the previous Curriculum learning material in score 58.07. It was
also found that the development of student‘s worksheet satisfies aspect of validity (average total
validity is 75,4). Therefore developed student‘s worksheet in the category of was good.
Keywords: Student‘s worksheet, scientific approach, Curriculum materials.

Curriculum course typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are expected to
learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet; the
units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to students; the books,
materials, videos, presentations, and readings used in a course; and the tests, assessments, and other
methods used to evaluate student learning. One of the principles of curriculum is that students are
directed not only to truly understand the concepts being taught but also to create the teaching devices.
Mastering to prepare teaching devices is also one of the competencies that should be had by the
students who will be a candidate of teacher. As stated in the document of the Republic Indonesia
Minister of National Education Number 16 Year 2007 on Academic qualification standards and
competencies of teachers, as for a variety of competencies that must be owned by teachers, among
others, pedagogical, personal, professional and social obtained through professional education.
Pedagogical competencies include understanding the teacher to the learner, the design and
implementation of learning, evaluation of learning outcomes, and the development of learners to
actualize various potentials.
Pedagogic competency of the students can be reached if the learning process is meaningful
for them. Meaningful learning refers to the concept that the learned knowledge is fully understood by
the individual and that the individual knows how that specific fact relates to other stored facts. To
make the learning more meaningful and easily accepted by the students, it needs a learning approach
that is related to the real life experience of students with curriculum concepts. One of learning
approach that allows the connection between students‘ experiences with curriculum learning had
been suggested by National educational curriculum 2013 is scientific approach. Scientific approach
is a learning approach that is designed to make learners work actively in constructing concepts and

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

principles through the stages observed (to identify or find the problem), to formulate the problem,
propose or formulate hypotheses, collect data with a variety of techniques, analyzing the data, draw
conclusions and communicate the concept. It also focuses on the activities and the provision of
learning experiences directly to the students. Scientific Approach based learning will impact learning
for positive mental development of students, because through this learning, students have
opportunity to explore and discover for themselves what they need.


The concepts of scientific approach has been proposed by several experts. For instance, Sund
(2010) states that in implementing scientific approach the discovery occurred when individuals,
especially in the use of mental processes to find some of the concepts and principles. A student must
use all his ability and act as a scientist (scientist) who performed experiments and able to perform the
mental process.
Dealing with the opinion that scientific approach helps the students to develop their
intelectual competency, Sanjaya (2011) adds that the use of scientific approach should pay attention
to several principles, namely oriented intellectual development (development of the ability to think),
the principle of interaction (the interaction between students and student interaction with teachers
even among students in the environment), the principle of asking (teacher inquirers) , the principle of
learning to think (learning how to think), the principle of openness (providing space to provide
opportunities for students to develop hypotheses and openly validate the hypothesis). There are some
characteristics of the main learning model of Scientific Approach as follow:
1. Scientific Approach learning model emphasizes the students‘ activities optimally to seek and
find, meaning that learners made the subject of study.
2. All activities undertaken students are directed to seek and find their own answers on a question.
Scientific Approach learning model puts the lecturer as facilitator and motivator and not as a
learning resource that explains it.
3. The purpose of a learning model Scientific Approach is to develop the ability to think in a
systematic, logical and critical or develop intellectual abilities as part of the mental process.
To support the learning process by using scientific approach, learning tools are needed, one
of them is the student worksheet. In this research, student worksheet selected as learning tools which
would be developed because it can support teacher in performing learning process, assist students in
learning and understand the learning material (Depdiknas, 2008: 13). Researchers also argue that
student worksheet can be used directly by the students and students will get the chance to learn
independently in accordance with the tasks of the worksheet. For implementing the learning
approach well, it needs student worksheet using scientific approach.
Dealing with the students worksheet as the learning tools which can direct the students to
work independently, Darusman, (2008: 17) states that students worksheet is a sheet contains
guidelines for students to carry out the activities programmed. It includes instructions, guidance and
understanding questions so that students could widen and deepen their understanding of the material
being studied. Therefore, it can be considered that students worksheet is a source of learning which
forms of sheets containing briefly material, learning objectives, the instructions do the questions and
a number of questions that must be answered students.
In addition, Sutiasih (2009) explains that student worksheet is a series of tasks laid out in the
form of questions. By answering these questions, students are able to master the materials they
studied. The function of student worksheet for students is to make students easier to understand the
subject matter studied. Meanwhile, according to Ladyawati (2009), student worksheet is a series of
tasks with questions that make students in working on and get it done. Preparation of student
worksheet intended to provide ease of students in understanding the material taught in the learning

This research was a research development because researchers developed student worksheet
by using Scientific approach on curriculum to prepare teaching devices. According to Richey in

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Akker (2006: 222), developmental research is opposed to simple instructional development, has been
defined as the systematic study of designing, developing and evaluating instructional programs,
processes and products that must meet the criteria of internal consistency and effectiveness.
Development of student worksheet on curriculum subject followed the stages of development as a
result of modifications to the development model expressed by Richey in Sugiono (2007) called the
development model of 4-D. This model consists of four phases, namely: a) define, b) design, c)
develop, d) dissemination however in this research, the stages were applied without dissemination.
Based on the description above, researchers then considered that it is important to develop student
worksheet through research with title ―The Development of Students Worksheet Using Scientific
Approach on Curriculum for English Department of STKIP PGRI Sumbar‖ . The purpose of this
research is to describe the process of development of student worksheet by using Scientific approach
on the subjects of Curriculum.
The Procedure of the research
The procedures of the research were done in 4-D steps; Define, Design, Develop and
Disseminate. Finding the problem would be done first by analyzing the objective of the curriculum
syllabus. Need analysis was done as the next point of this research since this research categorized as
developmental research. At this stage, the reseachers did some analysis defining the analysis front
end includes analyzing the curriculum and tools, and worksheets that are used by teachers
Analysis of the student to determine the level of student progress, which generated
worksheets based scientific approaches would be developed for the 4th semester students of STKIP
PGRI Sumbar . The task analysis was an analysis of the content of the material to obtain indicators of
learning. Further analysis to determine the concept of important concepts that would be taught by
standard competencies of curriculum course to be developed and the formulation of learning
objectives based on the analysis performed generated learning objectives would be developed into a
students worksheet.
After learning objectives obtained, performed the design against some students
worksheet-based scientific approaches to be developed. There are several aspects that reconstructed
on the syllabus. Furthermore, the design of the development of students worksheet structures adapted
to the structure students‘ worksheet according to Ministry of Education (2006) is a good students
worksheet structure includes the title, learning instructions, competencies achieved, supporting
information, tasks and work steps. Students worksheet developed structure title, identity, discourse,
tools and materials, ways of working, table observations, and questions about the critical thinking
Students worksheets have some pictures, guide scientific attitude and critical thinking skills
manual and reference answers. Students worksheets guide students developed requires students to
find their own concepts when doing lab activities and after answering questions in the Students
worksheets. Students worksheets developed will guide students in applying scientific attitude and
practice critical thinking skills. At the development stage worksheets that have been developed
further tested through a validation process.

Procedures of the research

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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Problem Identification

Need analysis Define

Syllabus analysis course description analysis

Arranging learning indicators


Prototype design

Expert validation Revision

A valid students worksheet

Limited trial

no Disseminate

The Participants and Data collection

This research involved 32 students of STKIP PGRI West Sumatera to see the need analysis
of students‘ learning material. The data about the students‘ need about the learning tools were taken
from two kinds of instruments; questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was developed by
indicators of students‘ perception of learning material and their experience in studying curriculum.
Interview was also done to support the students‘ data about the learning material and experience in
studying curricullum. To find the data about the lecturers‘ need analysis of teaching material, the
researcher would give questionnaire and interview to some lecturers who ever taught curriculum
course. The indicators of need analysis were developed into four indicators; perception of teaching
curriculum, experience in teaching curriculum, preparation in teaching curricullum and perception
on teaching curriculum material. Interview was also done to support the data about lecturers‘ need

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


As the data of this research were about the need analysis from students and lecturers, the
validity of the product; some techniques are needed to be applied. Since the researcher started this
research based on students‘ need on learning material, the researcher will analyze the data based on
Likert scale. The criteria of the need analysis can be explained that the percentage of the number and
proportional criteria are inversely. The smaller of the percentage, is the higher of the demand for the
item in question, and vice versa, the greater of the percentage is the lower the demand for the item in
question. Therefore it can be assumed that if the numbers of respondents are less, the higher need of
the things are needed or vise versa. To examine the need criteria, semantic differential was used. If
the result very low, it means that the need of the product would be high. The technique to analyze the
reliability of the instrument of need analysis questionnaire was product moment correlation in type
The next data that would be analyzed were the data about the validation of the prototype.
Once the Scientific approach students‘ worksheet was made with a measured aspect based on a
particular theory, the researcher then consulted with the valuator. The valuator gave an opinion
whether the device needs to be repaired again; format or the words; or it may be revised. The valuator
was an expert who had experience in curriculum field and he was also concerning in teaching English
as foreign language.
After the students worksheet was completely designed; the next step was testing the validity
of the experts with the following steps.
1. The researcher asked the expert‘s willingness to see at the feasibility of the students worksheet as
well as the truth of the learning concept that has been made
2. The researcher asked the expert's willingness to provide an assessment of the students‘
worksheet that is made based on the existing items in the questionnaire and expert‘s criticism or
suggestions to the deficiencies of it.
3. After the assessment done, the researcher revised the form and the content of the students‘
worksheet according to advice provided. This following table shows the name of the lecturer
On the front – end analysis, researchers conducted observations in the classroom before the
product was produced to find out what was required of faculty and students as learning tools in the
form of worksheet to the course curriculum. Researchers gave questionnaires to faculty and students
what they think about curriculum course as one of the compulsory subjects in English language
courses, learning media which has been used and the media to learn what is needed.
a. Define
At this stage, the analysis performed curriculum analysis, students analysis, teaching
material analysis, and the demands of the curriculum analysis. The curriculum was curriculum 2013
refers to KKNI. The first analysis results indicated that the student learning materials used in the
course curriculum was only to make students aware of the concepts and theories of curriculum based
learning process in which the source of the theory developed. While clearly said that the selection of
instructional materials to meet the demands of the curriculum should be adapted to the conditions of
students and usefulness of the instructional materials throughout the life of the student. Teaching
materials available today already meet the needs of students of the theory curriculum but can not lead
students to develop a critical mindset to be able to apply theory as the basis for development of
curriculum was teaching device they need while teaching practice later.
Subsequent analysis is devoted to the development of teaching materials that are used during
the process of learning the curriculum. Teaching materials used in the course curriculum so far only
given in order to provide the theory and concepts to waive implementation of the curriculum in the
form of performance. The theory was given directly to the students not accustomed challenged to
perform an initial analysis of the theory in question until the knowledge gained just stayed as a theory
in their brains. While as a prospective teacher, they should be able to perform an initial analysis on
educational problems, collect data, analyze the data to be able to find a way out. Therefore, what was
the problem of education were found during the implementation of a curriculum could be completed.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

The next analysis was the lecturers‘ need of teaching tool. The analysis was done by
distributing questionnaire to some lecturers who have ever taught curriculum for long times. The
components which were asked to lecturers were about experience in teaching curriculum, experience
in preparing teaching material, the result of need assessment of teaching material of curriculum test
shown that the lecturers and the students were really need a teaching curriculum material which lead
the students not only to understand the theory of curriculum but also create and prepare their own
learning material. The table below would show the result of lecturers need analysis of the teaching
Table 1. Lecturers need analysis of teaching curriculum material
No Indicators Score
1 Lecturers‘ experience in teaching curriculum 71.66
2 Lecturers‘ experience in preparing teaching material 72.22
3 Lecturers‘ experience in teaching curriculum 48.15
4 Lecturers‘ perception on available teaching curriculum 40

From the table it could be assumed that the lecturers thought that the available teaching
curriculum material could not filled their need in guiding the students to precede discovering activity.
The result of interview also indicated that the lecturers need appropriate curriculum teaching tools.
Next, the result of students‘ need analysis of the teaching curriculum material also showed that
the students really need a learning tool which leads them not only to understand the theory but also
produce some teaching devices. It can be seen from this following table:
Table 2. Students‘ need analysis of learning curriculum material
No Indicators Score
1 Students‘ perception of curricullum course 71.68
2 Students‘ learning experience of learning curricullum 64.77
3 Students‘ perception of learning material used 58.07
From the table above, it can be concluded that the students had dire perception of the
available learning material used in curriculum and the result of the interview also indicated same
opinion. It means that they need learning tools which helped them in developing their discovery skill.
Therefore, a learning tools in form students‘ worksheet would be developed aiming not only
to help the students understand about the concept of curriculum but also common in doing scientific
activities to dig their knowledge. The worksheet would be developed based on the principles and the
characteristics of Scientific Approach as an approach that guides the students to dig their discovery
skill and their skill in solving problem. It was also in line with the results of the analysis of the
Curriculum theory for the development of student worksheet was about the development of student
worksheet based on the principles and characteristics of Curriculum. Analysis of the students was the
student characteristics examination in accordance with the development design of the student
worksheet. The intended characteristics included knowledge background of students, academic
ability of students and potential students ' ability to construct knowledge.
b. Design and Develop
Based on the need analysis which has been done, the students‘ worksheet was developed
which appropriate with the teachers‘ and students need. The prototype of the students‘ worksheet
consisted of:
1) The cover of the worksheet (before revision)

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


The prototype was started by the cover of the worksheet, based on the suggestion of the
expert, the words on the cover should be used in English. Some revision have had been done.
After revision

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

2. Sample of worksheet (before revision)
The next validaation came into the sheet of the worksheet. Here is the sample of the
worksheet before revision.
Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Mata Kuliah : Kurikulum
Pokok Bahasan : Instructional Materials
Alokasi Waktu : 2 SKS

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

After studying this part' you are e,xpected to be able to:
1. Explain about the types and the functions of InstructionalMaterials
2. Mention the criteria in choosing instructional materials
3. Design the instructional materials

Scientific Approach Suggested Activities:

1. The students observe a teacher instructional materials of Junior High School and Senior High
School English
2. The students quest some information on instructional materials
3. The students work in syllabus by exploring information on instructional materials
4. The students design instructional materials
5. The students share the information on the instructional materials by building networking
with friends


Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

1. Draw the types of materials for English Language Teaching

2. Explain the functions of materials for English Language Teaching

3. Mention the criteria in choosing materials of English LanguageTeaching

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

4. Choose a topic from the syllabus for teaching Listening, speaking,Reading, and Writing then
design the appropriate material byconsidering the criteria of developing materials.

The result of the valuator evaluation about the worksheet was the worksheet did not represent
the activity of scientific approach yet. The implementation of the activity should be based on the
guidance of scientific approach such as constructing concepts and principles through the stages
observed (to identify or find the problem), to formulate the problem, propose or formulate
hypotheses, collect data with a variety of techniques, analyzing the data, draw conclusions and
communicate the concept. The identity of the worksheet was still in Bahasa, therefore it should be
chosen into English.
Based on the suggestion of the valuator, the researcher tried to revise the worksheet mostly in
the part of students‘ activity in implementing the concept and theory of curriculum.
Here is the worsheet after revision,


Department : English Education
Course : Curriculum
Topic : Instructional Materials
Time Allocation : 100 minutes

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

After studying this part' you are expected to be able to:
1. Explain about the types and the functions of InstructionalMaterials
2. Mention the criteria in choosing instructional materials
3. Design the instructional materials

Scientific Approach Suggested Activities:

1. The students observe a teacher instructional materials of Junior High School and Senior High
School English
2. The students quest some information on instructional materials
3. The students work in syllabus by exploring information on instructional materials
4. The students design instructional materials
5. The students share the information on the instructional materials by building networking
with friends
Materials (the concept and theory about instructional media)

1. Draw the types of instructional media that teachers used based on your analysis result

2. Explain the problem of the instructional media of English that you found

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

3. Discover the problem based on your interview result with the teachers

4. Explain the functions of materials for English Language Teaching based on what you found

5. Mention the criteria in choosing materials of English LanguageTeaching based on what you

6. Choose a topic from the syllabus for teaching Listening, speaking,Reading, and Writing then
design the appropriate material byconsidering the criteria of developing materials.

Validity of the product

The validation stage was done by asking expert‘s willingness to determine the validation of
the product four aspects would be considered; the content, the language, the presentation and the
appearance. Result of the validation was 79.4 categorized into can be used with little revision.
Therefore the product could be used with little revision. The table will show it:
Table 3. Valuator‘s validation on the students worksheet
No Aspect Valuator score Total score
1 Content 37 72.15
2 Language 13 81.25
3 Presentation 11 72.75
4 Appearance 18 71
Average 77.4

Validation of Student Work Sheet was done by performing validation of the content by a
valuator who wass an expert in the development and application of teaching materials based on
learning curriculum Scientific Approach.
Expert used a checklist to validate the students‘ worksheet. The tests validated based on four aspects,
the first content, language aspects, presentation and display validator also provided some notes for
improvement students‘ worksheet indicator represents the indicator has not been the activities of
designing instructional materials because there was no indicator that directs students to produce
teaching materials. In modeling and strengthens the assessors who think that teaching materials on
modeling and reinforcement parts should be changed due to the activities of these parts were not in
accordance with the activity to produce teaching materials.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Based on the evaluation and recommendation of thet aexper, several revisions were made to
the students‘ worksheet. Researchers analyzed the material used had to be varied to avoid monotony
of teaching materials. Instructions were given also need a slightly revised to further refers to
measures Scientific Approach. The use of language was also slightly revised by taking into account
the grammatical structure of English. Some revisions were also conducted in aspects such as the
appearance of the font used, the empty space available as the characteristics of the students‘
worksheet, some interesting pictures and some colored tables. After the researchers analyzed the
results of the first validation, the researcher revised some aspect of the worksheet based on the
suggestion of the expert.

The development of learning tools in this research was conducted in three phases: namely define, the
design, develop without dissemination. After doing this research, it obtained that the result about the
development of student worksheet with the scientific approach in the subject of curriculum is the
average value of the validation score provided by experts (75.4). Therefore, the student worksheet
with the scientific approach on the subject of curriculum was valid. In addition, student worksheet
with scientific approach on the subject of curriculum can be said to be theoretically practical because
based on a common assessment of the experts, it can be said that the student worksheet can be used
with little revision. From the above statement, student worksheet with scientific approach on the
subject of curriculum is in the valid. Then, student worksheet developed can be said either. As a
suggestion, in order to achieve a better learning process with scientific approach, it should be
developed not only student worksheet, but also the other learning tools, such as lesson plan, student
books and assessment sheet. In addition, to get the validation result of student worksheet with the
Scientific approach surely valid, all the principles and the characteristics of Scientific approach must
be contained in composing validation sheets in order to explain that the validity criteria shows the
student worksheet in accordance with the principles and characteristics of Scientific approach. The
practicality and the effectivity will be estimated for the next research activity after the disseminate
stage is done completely.

Akker, Jan Van Den. 2006. Educational Design Research. New York: Rouledge.
Brown, H. Doughlas. 2004. Language Assessment Principle and Classroom Practice. San Fransisco:
Pearson Education, Inc.
Departement Pendidikan Nasional. 2008. Memilih Bahan Ajar. Jakarta : Depdiknas.
Lennidawati. 2009. Penerapan Pembelajaran Berdasarkan Masalah (Problem Based Instruction)
untuk Sub Materi Pokok Transactional text di Kelas VIII SMP Negeri 1 Taman
Sidoarjo. Surabaya: Tesis. Tidak dipublikasikan.
Nieveen, N. Prototyping to Reach Product Quality. P.125-135 from Design Approaches and Tools in
Education Training. Van den Akker, al. Dordrecht: The Netherland Kluwer
Academic Publisher.
Riduwan. 2005. Belajar Mudah Penelitian Untuk Guru, Karyawan dan Peneliti Pemula. Bandung :
Sutiasih. 2009. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe STAD untuk Pelajaran
Bahasa Inggris di Kelas II SLTP. Surabaya: Tesis. Tidak dipublikasikan.
Tomlinson, B. and Masuhara, H. 1998 Developing Language Course Material: RELC Portfolio
Series 11. Singapore: RELC Publisher.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


University Kebangsaan Malaysia

The research seeks to investigate successful learners‘ motivational changes and learning histories
from the first time they studied English until the achievement of high proficiency in the foreign
language in Riau Province Indonesia. The central research questions are to reveal what
motivational changes and learning histories successful learners display and how these learners have
sustained their learning motivation until they eventually achieved high level of proficiency while
studying in EFL environments. The participants are six adults who have achieved high levels of
English proficiency. The design used in this case study involves both holistic and specifically focused
analyses, by which each participant‘s learning history is collected through individual interviews.
The research reports each participant‘s learning history, and the initial proposition concerning
motivational change and salient motivational sources found in the participants‘ learning histories
are collectively analyzed and discussed. Exploring the data concerning how the participants have
sustained their language learning motivation resulting in the idea that sustained motivation is not
always present in successful foreign language learning. What make these six successful EFL learners
different from other learners in Riau are their perseverance and intensively-prioritized EFL
learning. In other words, they develop a more intentional psychological force, known as
commitment. The results provide new, engaging, and important information to people who are
seriously involved in foreign language learning in EFL contexts, especially Riau Province where the
majority of learners fail to attain high levels of foreign language proficiency after receiving years of
formal education.

Keywords: dynamic motivation, learning histories, successful EFL learning

These are the conditions found in many provincial areas of Indonesia. Government and
international donors have long complained of inadequate levels of English among university
graduates (for example, Sinclair and Webb 1985; Priyadi and Ismuadi 1998). Data from some
universities in Sumatra indicate that about 75 per cent of students enter university with no more than
‗elementary‘ level proficiency even after six years of English at school (Lamb 2000). Universities
themselves rarely provide more than four credits (64 hours maximum) of English instruction for
non-English majors, with the result that students are unable to read the English language textbooks in
their subject areas, are thereby denied access to further language learning opportunities (as well as
contemporary subject knowledge), and finally enter the labor market without the economically
valuable asset of English proficiency.
Despite all the facts mentioned above, researchers have revealed many EFL learners who
have been successful in the histories of their English Language learning. (see for example, Stevick,
1989). These learners, despite the odds, have succeeded in achieving a degree of communicative
competence in English. This similar situation has also occurred in the EFL Indonesian context e.g., in
Riau Province. Although few in number, there are successful EFL learners in the province who have
managed to become competent in the English language.
Researchers attribute the learners‘ success mostly to motivation. As a result, there has been
an increase in research interest for the past four decades on language learning and has important
implications on EFL learning success in both classroom and naturalistic learning environments.
Recent work such as Csizer et. al (2010) emphasizes the dynamic nature of motivation. ―Motivation
not only changes through the different phases of language learning, but it can also fluctuate within a
relatively short time interval due to the influence of external and internal factors‖ (Csizer et. al 2010,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

p473). While many studies have examined motivation as a learner trait at one point in time (e.g. Chen
et. al. 2005, Bernaus & Gardner 2008, Dörnyei & Kormos 2000), few studies (e.g. Dörnyei & Csizer
2002 & Gao 2008) have examined changes in motivation over time. The present research, therefore,
aimed at examining in depth the motivation changes of the few EFL successful language learners in
Riau Province Indonesia. The emergence, source, ways, order and time of motivation of their English
language learning histories were examined in depth. If it can be discovered what enabled these few
individuals to transcend the contextual constraints, we may be able to better help the majority who
fail to do so, and who carry the burden of their failure with them throughout their working live.
The objectives of the present research firstly seek to display successful learners‘ dynamic
motivational changes and their learning histories from the first time they studied English until the
achievement of highly proficiency. Secondly, it also aims to examine how these learners have
sustained their learning motivation while studying in EFL environments. While the two research
objectives guide the overall study, several associated specific objectives were pursued The objectives
are associated with when the most intensive learning took place, what learning strategies were
employed, why intensive learning took place during those particular period(s), and other relevant
issues that might have influenced their learning such as their family environment, influential people,
and their interest other than English.

A study of foreign adults learning Norwegian was carried out by Svanes (1987) in Norway.
She found that European and American students were more integratively motivated than the Middle
Eastern, African and Asian students who were found to be more instrumentally motivated. Swanes
reflects that westerners can have ―luxury motives for coming to Norway to study‖, whereas for
students from developing countries their motivation is ―to get an education‖. In Swanes‘ study there
was also a significant difference in the grades recorded, with Europeans having the best and Asian
students the poorest scores. According to Swanes, and corresponding to Dörnyei‘s findings, this
indicates that integrative motivation rather than instrumental motivation may lead to better
proficiency. He points out that familiarity with the culture and the language will make it easy to
communicate and learn the language. She maintains that such a closeness in culture develops an
integrative motivation towards the target language culture which fits in with Schumann‘s (1978)
theory that the social distance an L2 learner has with the TL community is a major factor in language
learning. Asian women were found to be significantly less instrumentally motivated than Asian men
but no such differences were found among the other groups. Such a low instrumental motivation
could be due to lack of opportunities for women at least until recent times. No survey has been done
which looks at his factor in the Japanese context in particular but there is a good chance that this
difference may exist here also.
In a recent study, Schmidt, Boraie & Kassabgy (1996) investigated learners of English in an
adult EFL setting in Cairo. Egypt would be representative of the developing countries which Swanes
talked about in his research, the difference being that these learners were ―on home turf.‖ The authors
were interested in finding out what ―spurs thousands of Egyptians to exert the effort required and pay
the fees for private instruction in English‖. Schmidt found a significant instrumental motivation
which compares to Dörnyei‘s study (1990). Schmidt argues that instrumental factors are important
for adults who have chosen to study English privately in contrast with young learners who take
English as a school subject and who are not yet faced with career choices or the need to be concerned
with making a living.
The remaining studies deal with younger learners-at the secondary and university level.
Clement, Dörnyei & Noels (1994) looked at secondary level Hungarian students. They found that
although these learners viewed English as an ordinary school subject with few chances for
communication with the target culture on a personal level, they did think that contact with English
was possible through the media and technology and English was widely recognized as the lingua
franca of international communication. They found an instrumental orientation based on the
acquisition of knowledge, rather than on the achievement of pragmatic outcomes and an integrative
one based on expected foreign friendships through travel and an interest n English culture. This

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

anticipated contact in the study resembles that of the adult learners in Dörnyei‘s previously cited
study, indicating that adults and younger learners in an EFL context share similar integrative
The authors included the instrumental-knowledge orientation in the integrative motive,
putting an end to what they and Oxford (1996) a consider the ―misleading use of a simplistic
integrative-instrumental dichotomy‖. They also found two other motivation components-linguistic
self-confidence and classroom group dynamics. They argue that group dynamics in the classroom
setting have particular relevance to L2 instruction since communicative methodologies stress
interaction between learners. Oxford (1996b) has stressed the need for longitudinal studies in order to
monitor developmental changes in learners‘ motivation. Two studies, one by Teweles (1996) and the
other by Berwick & Ross (1989) are longitudinal in nature. However, although Teweles claims his
study to be part of a longitudinal study, he fails to point out any changes that occurred during the
period of the study and indeed doesn‘t mention how long the study itself was. Teweles found
differences between Chinese and Japanese university students, with the Japanese showing more of an
integrative motivation than the Chinese who showed more of an instrumental motivation. This
difference in motivations between the Japanese and Chinese learners is partly explained by the fact
that English assumes a very specialized role in the Chinese context, with courses offered in
connection with special needs such as ‗Business English‘, but it could also have something to do with
the difference Swanes (1996) found, as Japanese learners are way more affluent than their Chinese
counterparts and perhaps also feel less of a social distance with the west. Teweles quotes Berwick &
Ross‘ comment that there is a considerable decline in ―instrumental interest‖ once the college
entrance exams are over, as the reason Japanese students tended to score higher in integrative
Berwick & Ross (1989) assessed the motivation of university students at the beginning and
end of their freshmen year. Their analysis indicated a limited development of an orientation towards
personal growth through widening of their horizons and a desire to study abroad. While they support
the idea that it is difficult to bring students back from the boredom of exam fever they also maintain
that the curriculum is at fault, by not being relevant to learners‘ needs and motives for language
study. They contrast this ‗motivational vacuum‘ with the extraordinary interest in language learning
among adults in Japan and emphasize that universities must do much more to motivate students in
this direction.
Greer (1996) claims that a motivation survey of Japanese female junior college students he
teaches, is a useful tool in curriculum development. By understanding why students learn English, he
uses the results to shape the course of classes he teaches especially when choosing textbooks or
deciding how much conversation practice to do. He has found that integratively motivated students
respond better to texts weighted towards conversation and more instruction. The majority 68�of
students he surveyed were integratively motivated.
In a comparative study, Okada, Oxford & Abo (1996) found that the motivation of American
learners of Japanese was far greater than that of learners of Spanish and concluded that motivation
must be higher when one tries to learn a more difficult language because greater persistence and
determination are needed to cope with the stress of a difficult situation. Conversely one might assume
that for EFL learners in Japan, English is a difficult language to learn and so, such persistence and
determination must also be present in order for language learning to be successful.
However this is rarely the case and unlike the U.S.A. where generally the motivated and able
students choose to study Japanese, in Japan everyone has to learn English so teachers have to search
for ways to motivate these less able students. It could be argued that one way to motivate these less
able students is to offer incentives. Gardner & MacIntyre (1991) studied the effects of both
instrumental and integrative motivation among university students. Results showed that both types of
motivation facilitated learning but that those who were instrumentally motivated studied longer than
those who were integratively motivated. They offered financial incentives for high performance on
vocabulary tests and found that when the incentive was removed, students stopped applying more
effort. Gardner & Mclntryre stress this as being the major disadvantage of such instrumental
motivation, but add that if the goal is continuous, instrumental motivation would continue to be

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Dörnyei (1994) stresses that the question of how to motivate students is an area on which L2
motivation has not placed sufficient emphasis in the past. He points to the lack of research into
extrinsic motives such as grades and praise. Financial incentives such as those offered by Gardner &
Lambert (1991) are not often feasible but other types of incentives such as certificates may work well
especially with younger learners. Access to the Internet and other media such as newspapers and
magazines in schools may take advantage of the ―acquisition of knowledge‖ factor which Dörnyei
(1994) found to be important for the students in his study. Such knowledge can be seen as ‗intrinsic
motivation‘ or motivation brought about by the stimulating or interesting presentation of the subject
of study itself, an area where the teacher has the most influence and is therefore of paramount
importance. However, as Ellis (1994) noted, there has been very little systematic research of the
effects which pedagogic procedures have on motivation.
This lack of focus on intrinsic motivation has been borne out by the studies in this section.
Intrinsic factors have been touched on but have not been the focus of research. As it has been found
by Chihara & Oller, Schmidt, Teweles, Berwick & Ross that intended contact of some nature with the
target culture plays an important role in motivation, a combination of strategies to motivate learners
integratively and intrinsically is probably the key to enhancing language performance. Indeed,
Berwick & Ross (1989) maintain that motivation to learn a language can be expanded by offering
programs that offer attainable short-term goals, exchange programs with foreign colleges, short-term
homestay programs overseas and programs with foreign students in Japan. These would seem to be a
combination of intrinsic and integrative factors.
Oxford (1996b) contends that intrinsic motivation in the form of the classroom experience
can be a big determiner in motivating power and with Okada et al (1996) maintains that it is desirable
to use activities in the classroom that ―engage and enhance the learners‘ motivation.‖ They consider
that learners are not just interested in language but also in culture. Therefore motivation might be
stimulated by weaving culture into classes more effectively in the form of ―content of conversations,
tapes, readings ....sociolinguistic aspects, cultural elements in games, simulations, and role plays
which also reduce anxiety.‖
Dörnyei (1994) recommends 30 different ways to promote motivation among students.
These serve as a very practical checklist for teachers, covering areas related to language, learner and
learning situation plus teacher-specific and group-specific motivational components. As teachers in
the foreign language classroom we have to be aware of the kinds of motivations our students bring
with them but we also have to be aware of our own power to enhance those motivations and/or
introduce different kinds which will further develop language learning.

This study employed a multiple case study as suggested by Yin (2009). To this end,
presenting a comprehensive case study protocol is crucial in this case. A case study protocol is
applied in order to describe the process which was followed throughout the study; this includes
aspects of the study that were added and altered as the study proceeded. Specifically, information
concerning the case study design, participants, instrumentation, interviews, follow-up e-mail
messages, case study questions, analyses, and case study report, are presented in the protocol.
The participants were the following six persons using pseudonyms, which were used based
on those participants‘ requests: Dinda, Athalla, Pathia, Ratna, Indra, and Putri. They are highly
proficient in English proved by their TOEFL/TOEIC scores and estimated written receptive
vocabulary sizes. Table 1 presents the backgrounds of the six participants.

Table 1

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Participants‘ Backgrounds
Name Gender Age of Total time Highest Highest Estimated
starting studying TOEFL TOEIC Written
to learn English Score Score Receptive
English Vocabulary Size
Dinda Female 12 26 years 630 NA 12,700
Athalla Male 12 33 years NA 950 12,700
Pathia Female 13 13 years NA 920 11,500
Ratna Female 13 39 years 270 (CBT) 990 13,200
Indra Male 13 40 years NA NA 13,200
Putri Female 10 19 years 283 (CBT) 980 10,000

All the participants are native speakers of Bahasa Indonesia who were English instructors working in
the same English faculty in a state university located in Riau Province. Some of them are lecturers,
and others are part-time university instructors in more than one educational institution. A salient
characteristic of the six participants was their advanced English speaking ability. Some university
English instructors in Riau are unable to speak English well even though they are able to teach
English (e.g., grammar and reading), but this was not the case with the English faculty in the
department. This occurred because of the head of the department had extensive experience teaching
English in a number of language schools before becoming a university lecturer, and he recruited most
of the new instructors utilizing his own personal network when he was put in charge of creating a new
faculty, not through publicly posting the positions. As a consequence of this unique recruiting
process, the new faculty members had advanced English-speaking proficiency. Furthermore, they
came from a variety of backgrounds, which was another advantage of choosing research participants
from this group.


There are three issues discussed. The issues emerged from the collective analyses of the six
case studies of the participants‘ English learning histories. First, fundamental issues concerning the
characteristics of the participants are emphasized, their motivational development, and their learning.
Second, the exploration focuses on seven motivational sources salient in the participants‘ English
learning histories. Third, there is an examination of the initial proposition 1 concerning the
participants‘ sustained motivation and discuss a new concept, commitment to learning.
a. Fundamental Issues
The six case studies revealed that the participants were not special learners who were
destined to consistently possess high levels of learning motivation and become highly proficient in
English. Rather, at the onset of their English study, they were indistinguishable from many students
found in English classrooms across Indonesia: They were from middle class families, their parents
were not proficient in English, and they did not visit or live in an English-speaking country in their
childhood. Most of them began studying English as a school subject at age 13 in a junior high school,
and they studied to pass entrance examinations in their final years in junior high school and high
Academically, they were generally not exceptional students who were the top of their class in
elementary and secondary school. English was not their only interest; they were involved in many
other activities, such as playing music and sports, watching movies, painting, reading, writing,
studying science and Japanese, and spending time with their friends. The participants‘ broad interests
indicate that English learning represented just one of their interests. Despite the impression that they
were unexceptional in most respects, the participants became exceptional English learners. Why was
this possible? Did this happen partially because of the participants‘ innate traits and partially
something they learned from the environment? Though the issue concerning the ratio between the
inherited and the learned is hard to speculate and beyond the scope of this study, research on the
development of expertise provides a clue to the answer to the question; a number of researchers have
reported that an extended number of years of intensive practice of an activity is essential to achieve
expertise in a field (Bloom, 1985; Erricsson, Krampe, & Tesch-Römer, 1993). This was true with the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

participants in this study; they prioritized acquiring English and they studied intensively for an
extended period of time, both of which differentiated them from most other English foreign learners.
The participants‘ perseverance was a primary reason for their exceptional achievement.
b. Salient Motivational Sources
In this section, seven salient motivational sources in the six participants‘ learning histories
are discussed. Salient means: (a) the motivational source appeared in four or more of the six case
studies, or (b) fewer than four but the issue was important to those participants. Five of these
motivational sources, personal disposition, key people, internally emergent motivation, external
goals, and authentic communicative experiences using English, played generally positive roles. In
contrast, the final two motivational sources, national examinantions and classroom experience,
influenced the participants generally negatively.
c. The Key to Success in Foreign Language Learning
In this section, the key to successful foreign language learning is discussed. In the first half,
the initial underlying proposition of this study—successful learners have experienced motivational
declines at least once, but they overcome such setbacks—is examined over the six case studies. After
reconsidering the notion of sustained motivation, a new assumption concerning the key to successful
foreign language learning is presented. In the charts presented in this section, the dotted line indicate
the times of motivational decline and the solid lines indicate the times when motivational resurgence
took place in the participants.

1. Dinda.
Motivational Fluctuatiions

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43

Figure 1. Dinda‘s motivational fluctuations.

Dinda stated that her motivation repeatedly increased and decreased, and that high levels of
motivation were not sustained for longer than three years (See Figure 1). The primary pattern she
displayed in her English study was based on goal achievement: she experienced a sharp motivational
increase before achieving the goals and a sharp decline after attaining them. Dinda stated that she
never particularly liked English, but she believed that English was a necessary tool in her quest to
achieve other goals: enrolling in a good public high school, studying for the university entrance
examinations, and enrolling in and academically succeeding in her undergraduate program and
graduate program in the United States. She studied English with great intensity in order to achieve
these goals. Therefore, her English learning motivation inevitably rose when she targeted a goal that
required English skills and diminished when she achieved the goal.
2. Athalla.
Motivational Fluctuations

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43

Figure 2. Athalla‘s motivational fluctuations.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Athalla‘s major motivational increase and decrease happened at ages 24 and 26 (See Figure
2). The first motivational decrease took place at age 24 after he graduated from his university. He
abandoned his hope to become a professional musician, but he did not have a specific alternative in
mind for a while. As he was not serious about a future profession, he worked as a telex operator for
two years after graduating from the university. At age 26, his motivation resurged when he ended his
moratorium period and decided to become a fully engaged in mainstream society. When considering
a possible professional goal, he selected an English-related profession and reentered the university to
study English literature. Because his academic and professional pursues were related to English, he
was motivated to improve his English skills.
3. Pathia
Motivational Fluctuations

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Figure 3. Pathia‘s motivational fluctuation.

Pathia‘s motivation noticeably declined at age 18 and began a resurgence at age 20 (See
Figure 3). Before this largest fluctuation occurred, her motivation increased to all time high at age 17
when she participated in a two week study abroad program in the United States. Because of the
impact from that study abroad program, she wished to study English intensively to become a good
English speaker after enrolling in the university she wanted to attend; however, she temporarily
postponed her desire because she had to study for the university entrance examinations for the entire
next year. Her motivational decline happened because of the negative washback of the university
entrance examinations. After being free from the intensive studying for the entrance examinations,
she allowed herself to enjoy a more relaxed life as a university student. As a result, her English
learning motivation was weakened and she did not seriously study English for the next two years. At
age 20, visiting Australia triggered her learning motivation again.
Using English communicatively in an English-speaking country led her to regret the past two
years during which her English did not improve at all; however, it also promoted her to recall her
desire to become a good English speaker. This experience provided her with a strong impetus to
study English, and she once again began to pursue her goal to become a good English communicator.
4. Ratna.
Motivational Fluctuations

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51

Figure 4. Ratna‘s motivational fluctuation.

Ratna‘s motivational decrease took place at 18 and her motivational resurgence occurred
when she was 29 (See Figure 4). The decrease occurred when she enrolled in the Japanese literature
department in her university. Even though English was her favorite subject and she liked and was
enthusiastic to study it in high school, it was merely one of many school subjects to her. After
completing the university entrance examinations, English became nearly irrelevant in her life, a
situation that continued for the next 10 years. After finishing her undergraduate studies, she worked
at the city office for eight and a half years but was never satisfied with the job. While searching for a
more interesting and challenging career, she encountered English again and her motivation to study
was revived. English once again captured her interest and provided her with a new profession,
teaching English. Since that time, she has been motivated to improve her English skills for the sake of
her profession.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

5. Indra.

Motivational Fluctuations

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49

Figure 5. Indra‘s motivational fluctuation.

Similar to Dinda, Indra stated that his learning motivation rose and fell periodically. His
motivation to study English emerged primarily internally and was based on his interest in English,
learning English, and English related activities. Figure 5 illustrates his motivational fluctuations,
which moved in accordance with the changes of his interest. Although his motivation temporarily
decreased at age 16 after failing the high school entrance examinations and at 18 after failing the
university entrance examinations, his motivation resurged when he engaged in English-related
activities that captured his interest, for example, studying English, especially memorizing a great deal
of vocabulary in high school, speaking English and forming the English club at 20, acting as a tour
guide and interpreter and leading the student tour guide interpreter club at the age of 21, passing the
tour guide test and teaching English at a language school at 22 , and studying linguistics in graduate
school at 33. Each case clearly shows that every participant experienced at least one motivation
decline followed by a subsequent resurgence in motivation. Thus, initial proposition 1 was supported
by all six case studies. The participants potentially could have lost their learning motivation and not
experienced its resurgence; consequently, they would not have achieved a high level of English
proficiency, as is the case with the majority of English learners in Japan. This suggests that successful
learners‘ advanced proficiency is a consequence of conquering motivational challenges that occurred
in their long-term learning histories. The path to advanced proficiency in a foreign language is rough
and winding, rather than smooth and straight.
6. Putri.

Motivational Fluctuations

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Figure 6. Putri‘s motivational fluctuation

Putri‘s brief motivational fluctuation took place between the ages of 17 and 18 (See Figure
6). Her motivation has been constantly high because her interest in English had never dwindled and
she had selected an English-related career goal at age 15 by choosing to focus on English rather than
the piano; however, a motivational decrease occurred because of the disappointing classroom
experience she had in her university. At age 18 when she became a university freshman, she had to
take a general English course with relatively unmotivated and lower proficiency students. Even
though she had had a long term English goal and had been motivated to study English in high school,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

her motivation was affected negatively when facing the demotivating class atmosphere. She felt that
studying hard was neither encouraged nor appreciated in the class where few students tried to study
hard. If she had experienced the same kind of course next year, her motivation might have been
jeopardized further. However, her motivation resurged to its highest level the next year because she
obtained the qualification to take the intensive English course in the university. The class atmosphere
was entirely different from the course she took the previous year: The students were highly
motivated, and a number of them aimed to study abroad. The course instructors were also
enthusiastic, and hard work was rewarded and valued. In addition, taking the course was an important
step in applying to the study abroad program in her junior year. Therefore, her English learning
motivation returned to its previous high level.
1.1. Applying the Motivation-Commitment Model to the Participants
Finally, let us reexamine the participants‘ English learning histories, this time applying the
motivation-commitment interaction model. The primary focus is on: (a) the important motivational
sources that underlie the formation and emergence of commitment and, (b) when English became
important to the participants, as this provides a clue to the emergence of commitment. In addition, the
participants‘ investment in activities involving studying English, prioritizing these activities over
other alternatives, and the challenges they faced are also discussed. Because the concept of
commitment emerged in the final phase of the data analyses, I have never asked the participants about
their commitment to learning. Thus, the following discussions are based on my interpretation of their
learning histories as viewed through the lens of the motivation-commitment interaction model. In the
figures below, the arrows schematize the formation and emergence of commitment in the
participants. The motivational source(s) in bold are directly and immediately involved in the moment
when English became important to each participant.
1. Dinda
Studying English became important for Dinda when she studied abroad at ages 17, 20, and
25. Her primary motivation was instrumental, as English was a tool for her to achieve her other goals
that always required advanced English proficiency because she was competing with native speakers
of English. When necessary, she exerted a tremendous effort and studied intensively to ―win the
game,‖ or to succeed in the academic programs in which she was enrolled. In particular, in the first
one-year study abroad experience at age 17 and the second one when she attended the undergraduate
program in the United Stated to study journalism at age 20, English was a crucial requirement, given
that she would not have been able to participate in and complete these programs successfully without
achieving advanced English abilities. In the beginning of both study abroad experiences, she faced
linguistic, academic, and cultural challenges, which she overcame with unexceptional hard work. She
prioritized achieving her goals to a degree that resulted in serious health problems. Although her
commitment might not necessarily have been to learning English, I believe that commitment to
achieving her goals likely formed and emerged during these periods of studying abroad (Figure 7).

Dnda‘s Motivational Sources

- Independent and
self-understanding English became
- Ability to concentrate important at age 17
- Family support when studying abroad, Commitment to
- Key people and age 20 when learning
- External goals that required applying for the emerges.
English undergraduate program
- Communicative experience in US.
- -University entrance exams

Figure 7: The formation and emergence of commitment in Dinda

2. Athalla.
English became important for Athalla at age 26 when he considered what academic and
professional career he wanted to pursue. At the age of 26, he decided to return to his university to
study English literature. Until that time, he had not considered his long-term goals realistically. He

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

had valued English to a certain degree since he was a high school student, as he frequently read
English novels and watched western movies, and he was inspired by his reading teacher in the
university, but he studied English primarily to satisfy his own interest. In contrast, the decision he
made at age 26 was more serious and associated with a professional goal, and he has continuously
made an effort to improve his English skills. I believe that his commitment to learning emerged with
this decision (See Figure 8).

Athalla‘s Motivational
- Independent
- Ability to concentrate English became
- Key people important at age 26 Commitment to
- interest related to English when he considered learning
- External goal with a new academic and emerges.
- career vision professional goal..
Figure 8: The formation and emergence of commitment in Athalla
3. Pathia.
English attained a special value for Pathia when she met and communicated with the
American high school students at age 17 when studying abroad for the first time. Though she had
liked English as a school subject in junior high school and she enrolled in the English course in high
school, the impact she received from the experience in the study abroad program changed her
perception toward learning English. Because her English communicative ability had not developed
yet, participating in the communicative activities with the American students was great deal of
challenging experience for her. After this experience, the American students became role models
whom she perceived in an idealistic way, and acquiring a high degree of English proficiency became
the goal that she most wanted to achieve.
This goal was set autonomously and consciously by Pathia and was not based on
encouragement from other people, such as her parents or teacher. Although it took Pathia several
years to begin seriously pursuing her goal and investing a great deal of time and energy in English
study due to the powerful negative washback from the university entrance examinations, her
commitment to learning likely started sometime around this event (see Figure 9).

Pathia’s Motivational Sources

- Ability to concentrate
- Family support English became important
- internally emerged motivation at age 17 when she studied Commitment to
- Communicative experiences abroad and had learning
- Key people communicative emerges.
- University entrance exams experiences

Figure 9: The formation and emergence of commitment in Pathia

4. Ratna.
English became important to Ratna at around age 29 when she resumed studying English at
the end of her prolonged period of job searching. She had had a stable job she was not satisfied with
and wished to quit for eight years. Working in the unsatisfying and frustrating situation, her
psychological challenges gradually developed into physical health problems. She encountered
English at this time again. Though her initial motivation was merely instrumental—she thought that
passing the second level of the English test might help her find a new job, English soon became
interesting and important to her. Unlike her high school period, English was not just one of her
favorite school subjects; acquiring English became an important goal that provided her with an
interesting and challenging career. The intensive study, effort, and investment she made afterward to

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

improve her English skills and develop her English teaching career indicate that her commitment to
learning emerged at this time (see Figure 10).

Ratna‘s Motivational Sources

- Independent and optimistic
- Ability to concentrate
- Family support English became
- Key people important at age 29 Commitment to
- Internally emerged when she resumed learning
motivation English study while emerges.
- An external goal searching a new
professional goal.
- Communicative experience
- University entrance exams

Figure 10: The formation and emergence of commitment in Ratna

5. Indra.
English became special for Indra at age 19 when he began speaking English for the first time
in his university course. Having only studied reading, grammar, and vocabulary in high school,
speaking English was novel and fascinating to him. Even though he was a fundamentally
science-oriented person and his favorite subject had been physics, speaking English captured his
interest, and he made an extraordinary effort to improve his speaking skills. It was a starting point for
him to participate in a variety of English-related activities in which he used and improved his English
speaking skills to establish the ESS club, become a tour guide interpreter, teach English, publish
English textbooks, and study linguistics. His exceptional effort to improve his English skills has not
stopped since then. Thus, his commitment to learning might have begun to form at this time (see
Figure 11).

Indra‘s Motivational Sources

- Independent and
self-understanding English became
- Ability to concentrate important at age 17
- Family support when studying abroad, Commitment to
- Key people and age 20 when learning
- External goals that required applying for the emerges.
English undergraduate program
- Communicative experience in US.
- -University entrance exams

Figure 11: The formation and emergence of commitment in Indra

6. Putri.
English became special for Putri at age 15 when she decided that her future career options
related to English were more practical and achievable than the career as a professional pianist, though
she had enjoyed and enthusiastically engaged in both activities since she was an elementary school
student. Because of her family environment and her parents‘ support, she had been exposed to and
had liked English since she was a child; however, her decision at age 15 to select an English-focused
high school course increased the importance of English for her. While playing the piano became a
hobby, increasing her English proficiency became a serious and concrete goal for her. After
prioritizing English over the piano, Putri has invested a great deal of time and energy in developing
her English skills. Thus, it is possible that her commitment to learning emerged after this event (see
Figure 33). The entrance examinations, her commitment to learning likely started sometime around
this event (see Figure 12).

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Putri‘s Motivational Sources

- Self-understanding and
- Family environment
- Parents‘ support English became Commitment to
- Key people important at age 15 learning
- Internally emerged when she selected emerges.
motivation English related career
- External goal with an goal.
academic and career vision
- Communicative experience
- Classroom experience

Figure 12: The formation and emergence of commitment in Putri

1.2. Applying the Motivation-Commitment Model to English Learners in Riau
The motivation-commitment interaction model allows us to perceive motivational
development in foreign language learning from a new angle, which can help us better understand
learners‘ motivational development and their eventual successes and failures in foreign language
learning. For instance, important questions, such as why only a limited number of foreign language
learners become proficient in English in spite of the fact that a large number of young learners are
motivated to study the language, or why negative washback from taking the entrance examination
occurs frequently in university students, can be explained by the model. Conventional wisdom
suggests that these results occur because the learners‘ learning motivation is too weak, but the model
provides an alternative explanation: For the majority of English learners in Riau, English is not
important in any realistic sense—they can carry on their lives without using English, and
commitment to learning it is unlikely emerge in that context. Even if they are motivated to study
English when they begin their formal education in the language or they think that English is
important when studying for the entrance examinations while in middle school, they have not been
intentional and autonomous about their learning to a degree that allows them to prioritize studying
English over other important activities, to persist in their efforts to develop their English skills
further, and to overcome the challenges they inevitably encounter. The motivation-commitment
interaction model implies that acquiring a foreign language in an EFL context is not necessarily a
task that ―motivated‖ learners can achieve.

This multiple case study was an investigation of six highly proficient learners‘ motivational
changes and their learning histories. The results illuminate the complex and dynamic development of
the participants‘ motivational fluctuation in the long-term process of foreign language learning. Each
participant‘s learning history vividly shows that each individual‘s motivational development and
learning history was fundamentally unique because a number of motivational sources interacted with
one another at different times, in different orders, and in different contexts. Second, the six case
studies allowed me to confirm an underlying proposition concerning successful learners‘ foreign
language learning motivation I made at the onset of the study: Successful learners have experienced
one or more motivational declines but have overcome such experiences. This indicates that the path
to acquiring high proficiency in a foreign language is a dynamic and challenging one in which
motivational fluctuations are a common occurrence. Third, searching for the keys to the participants‘
sustained motivation revealed seven salient motivational sources in their learning histories: the
learners‘ personal dispositions, their family environment, internal factors, especially interest,
external goals, their communicative experiences, especially those that occurred while studying
abroad, the entrance examinations, and their classroom experiences.
Finally, exploring the participants‘ learning histories collectively led to the emergence of
two new related findings regarding the key to successful foreign language learning. First, sustained
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

motivation is not always a prerequisite for achieving high levels of proficiency and in some cases is
insufficient. Second, the emergence of commitment, which is an intentional, enduring psychological
force, is more important in the long term than what has been called motivation and is perhaps
necessary in some learning contexts, such as those in which access to linguistic input and
communicative opportunities are limited. The data gathered in this study suggest that one key to
success in foreign language learning is commitment to learning, a cognitive change that emerged at
some point in each of the participants‘ learning histories through the interaction of several
motivational sources. This change always occurred after the participants perceived that English was
important to them and sometimes involved challenges they had faced previously and wanted to
overcome. Commitment is conceptualized as a key element in the motivation-commitment
interaction model, and the participants‘ learning histories were reexamined using the model. I
propose that the model plausibly explains the tremendous effort and extraordinary achievements the
participants made in their acquisition of English; motivation alone failed to completely explain these
achievements. Centering the analysis on the learners‘ voices and their stories made these new
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Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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Table 2. Data: Pre and Post Test
Accountancy Department

No Pre test Post test

1 56 85
2 65 82
3 60 62
4 68 74
5 72 75
6 65 80
7 67 78
8 56 75
9 75 84
10 64 82
11 78 80
12 64 68
13 72 75
14 65 75
15 67 80
16 60 78
17 72 75
18 64 84
19 78 82
20 68 75

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Melvina,S.Pd., M.Ed, Dona Alicia, S.Pd.,M.Pd
English Department STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat

Class presentation is one kinds of activity that is done by the teacher in teaching and learning. In
class presentation, the students will present the material or topic that will be discussed in the
classroom. In presenting the material, the students get the opportunities to speak English well in their
performance. It also gives valuable experience for them to prepare themselves to use English in multi
society where English is a demanding tool for communication in our today‘s life. This paper is
intended to discuss about students‘ problem in giving presentation in classroom. The data of this
research are collected while teaching and learning process by means of observation, recording, and
note taking. The result of the research are, students have some problems in delivering and content of
presentation. The result indicates that the students need more practice to improve their speaking
performance and take more attention about delivering technique in presentation. While, presentation
skill need to be transferred in the classroom by the teacher to prepare students for their further
academic career as well as future professional surrounding.

Keywords: Classroom Presentation, Presentation skill, Students ‗Problem

In the era of information and technology, every people are demanding to master the English
language for communication purpose. Nowadays English is widely used for different purpose such as
academic, business, diplomacy, news and information, entertainment and others. It proves that the
English language has become a basic requirement for students and job seeker in this increasingly
globalized world. In order to meet the needs for international communication, Indonesians students
need to be proficient in English, especially in oral communication skill. Communication skill is
highly needed by students in order to prepare them for their possible further academic career and
future workplace.
Students need a lot of practice the English language to make them able to communicate in
multi-society. To prepare students, teachers should be able to give them a great experience in
learning language and encourage students to have practice of communication in English because
language is means of communication. Students are considered to have language proficiency when
they know how to use the language in a various communication setting.
In developing students communicative competence teacher should be able to encourage
students to get involved actively in learning process. This approach is commonly known as
Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). The ultimate goal of Communicative Language
Teaching is the students have the ability to communicate or students learn language through using it
to communicate. To make the students take part actively in learning process and use the language, a
teacher should bring interactive activities into the classroom. Classroom presentation is one of the
activities that can bring about interactivity between students and teacher, students and students.
Giving presentation in the classroom is necessary for the students in order to encourage them
to have intensive practice to use the English language productively, receptively, in unrehearsed
outside the classroom. Students are given opportunities to practice English language in situation
which encourage them to express their needs, ideas, and opinions. Particularly, in global world where
English is high demanding as a tool of communication in multi lingual and multi society. Students are
also hope to be more success in their further academic career and future professional surrounding.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Realizing the importance of classroom presentation, most of English department lecturer at

STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat consistently use class presentation activity. The researchers as a
lecturer who teach English for Specific Purposes (ESP) subject bring classroom presentation as
interactive activity into the classroom. It has purpose to make the students more active in
participating and use English language in the classroom. Learning process needs active students and
challenging as well as creative teachers. It is supported by Poorman (2002) he notes that‖ true
learning cannot take place when students are passive observers of teaching process‖. It means that
students will not interest in the learning activities because the teachers do not create a conducive and
challenging atmosphere for the students to make them get involved actively in classroom activities.
Generally, in class presentation, the students will present the material or topic that will be
discussed in the classroom. The lecturer divides the students into some groups. Next, give the
material for the students, and ask the students to discuss the material with a group. Then, the lecturer
asks the students to perform their result in front of the classroom. Lecturer as a facilitator and guide
has to establish situation likely to promote communication. Communicative interaction encourages
cooperative relationship among students.
In presenting the material, the students get the opportunities in speaking English more. All of
the students include in the group discussion. A group as performer and the other groups as audiences
will give the questions, suggestions, and contributions. It is supported by lecturers‘ feedback related
to the presentation and material that is discussed in the classroom.
Unfortunately, based on the observation, it was found that the presentation was not run
expectedly. They looked nervous to sit in front of the class to deliver the material. It makes the
students were confusing in delivering the material in using English language. The students also were
difficult to use English for communication; therefore, students did not use English as much as
possible yet. Furthermore, they seemed not ready to perform, got difficulty in using media and attract
audience‘s attention. Even, they wanted to finish the presentation soon.
Dealing with the phenomenon above, the researcher is interested to observe more about the
students‘ problem in giving presentation in classroom setting. The problem of the research was
formulated in the following question: ―What is the students‘ problem in giving presentation in the
classroom?‖ This research is therefore aimed to investigate the English Department students‘
problem at STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat in presenting the material in the classroom.


Class presentation is one kinds of activity that is done by the teacher in teaching and learning.
In class presentation, the lecturers divide the students in to group discussion, one group as presenter
and others as audience. The lecturer also divides the materials that should be presented by presenter.
Presentation is an activity used in academic course in conveying the content of learning and giving
the opportunity to the students for developing team working (Chivers and Michael 47). It can be said
that class presentation is frequently used in learning. The students provide to group work in
presenting the material and practice the language to deliver the content of learning.
In addition, Barras has argued (72) that presentation is a special kind of talk. In this case, in
presentation have more than two presenters that will invite the audience to give a contribution in
discussion. The presenters will introduce the topic, explain the focus term, and persuade those
presents. It can be seen that presentation does in class discussion which the students as presenter get
the opportunity to deliver the materials and the essential terms in discussion, therefore; there are
some contributions will be given by the audience in discussion. In other words, in presentation class
it is needed two or more performers that will explain the topic in presentation class, and audiences are
needed to give valuable contribution in discussion.
Similar to Thonbury arguments, he stated (125) presentation is special term of discussion.
Class presentation is used to deliver the topic in the classroom by giving feedback from the audience.
In doing presentation class, it is needed the speaker and the audience. In this case, class presentation
is the kind of discussion that is used by the teacher in teaching and learning. Students have great
opportunity to use English language in order to deliver the topic that is discussed at that time. It is
also can lead students to more developed ideas and therefore greater confidence and more effective
communication. Discussion in class presentation also explains by Thonbury. He has explained (125)

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

that discussion is one way of class presentation do by the students in order to deliver the topic
discussion. On the other words, class presentation gives the opportunity to the students to develop
their ability of the materials and share with the peers in the classroom.
Classroom Presentation as Communicative Learning Activities
Realizing the communicative competence, English Department lectures at STKIP PGRI
Sumatera Barat are trying to make their class more communicative. In the class mostly lecturer
encourages the students to use English interactively and consistently. Challenging students to
communicate with other students in term of standing in front of the class to give an oral presentation,
it clear enough will give them great experience exposure that language. It is also the way for students
to improve their English particularly in speaking performance.
It is important that language teachers include task that allows students to use the language
skills that they have learned to communicate with others in the classroom (Apple 286). Means that, in
learning English it is important for learner to use the language that they are learning. It is line with the
ultimate goal of communicative language teaching. Oral presentation in the classroom gives students
the opportunity to communicate their needs, ideas, and opinion by using target language in a
meaningful way and the students will develop communicative competence.
Moreover, it provides opportunities for rehearsal of real- life situations and provides
opportunities for real communication. Then, in class presentation students regularly work in groups
or pairs to transfer and negotiate meaning in situation where one person has information that others
lack (Celce-Murcia 1991).
If the activity is properly designed, participating in class presentation can provide students with an
enjoyable learning experience that allows them to interact with others using only the language that
they are learning. Also, oral presentation where it generally in group allow students to engage in a
cooperative task and in problem solving activities.
The Benefit of Oral Presentation
Oral presentations have been shown to be successful to improve students‘ skill in English,
encourage students become active, and increasing their autonomy. Presentations require students to
use all four language skills in a naturally integrated way; and that presentations have been shown to
encourage students become active and autonomous learners (King 401). Furthermore, Girard, Pinar
and Trapp (77) found that using oral presentations in the classroom lead to greater class interaction
and participation, an increased interest in learning and noticeable improvements in their students‘
communication and presentation skills. Presentations have been also shown to improve students‘
abilities in ways that can be beneficial for their future employment (Zivkovic, 474). Nowadays many
employees are looking for candidates who have the ability to give formal presentations. Experience
with oral presentation in the classroom will give much higher chance for students to show their
abilities in giving presentation. In short, for most language teachers the seven major benefits to using
oral presentation in the classroom are:
1. Improving students skills in English
2. Encouraging students to become active (students-centered)
3. Increasing their autonomy
4. Increasing students interest
5. Improving students communication and presentation skill
6. Collaborative/work together
7. Improving students‘ abilities/ beneficial for future academic career and employment
Communication and Presentation Skills
In presentation, student is doing the performance in order to deliver idea, opinion, feeling,
and tough related to the material in the classroom. This activity is done to help the students to use
their English in learning. Doing the performance means taking an opportunity to converse the idea,
seeking for information, organizing the tough, and distinguishing between fact and speculation
(Barras 22). It means, performance in presentation is how to deliver the message by searching the
information or data then arrange them. Besides, the speaker should know between fact and opinion in
delivering the idea. Hence, (Richards 27) has stated that performance is talking. It means someone is

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

trying to communicate a specific topic to others. An oral presentation should never be a monologue,
but an active dialogue in which verbal communication is not the only constituent (Zivkovic 470).
To communicate well, a special skill is needed. Here, communication skills are required by
students whether they are expected to give presentation in classroom presentation, seminar,
conference, symposia or other meetings. The effective and good presentation include the
considering content of speaking, planning and preparation, time management, good communication
skill, and supporting documentation (Chivers and Michael 20). It means in presenting the materials,
the students need to pay attention a carefully planned and constructed guideline of performance,
know the interesting topic and audience. Then, time management and communication skill will
support the performers in presentation class. In short, students should pay attention in preparing,
organizing, and delivering oral presentations.
Before going beyond in speaking performance, it is better to prepare some preparations
(Barras 86). In this case, in preparing the performance, the performers should consider, first think. In
this stage, the performers make sure the topic, purpose, and allocate the time in presentation. Second,
plan, in this part, the performers prepare kind of outline, specific terms, and visual aids for delivering
the materials. Third, write, the performers need to write the points that will be discussed with the
audience. Fourth, check, the performers need to check the preparation from the beginning and
complete the deficiency. And last is practice, the students can practice their performance in
presentation class.
Furthermore, Zivkovic has divided (468) the important aspect of spoken presentation into
introduction, the main body (methods, results) and conclusion (discussion). In introduction part, we
are required to greet the audience, introduce our self, explain the purpose of our talk start by
introducing the topic, and outline the main points. In stating the purpose and announce the outline of
presentation used precise and very simple language. A good introduction will take an audience‘s
attention. The main body (methods and results) is a part we move to a point, outline our talk, state
main ideas clearly and present examples, introduce a visual aids in order to engage the interest of
audience. Notes that, the information in the body needs to be well structured. The last part is
conclusion (discussion), here we require to conclude our talk, summarize the main points, invites
questions and comments.
However, there are other facts that need close attention. They are:
1. Analyzing the audience. It is the first thing that should be done. We have to know the
background of audience, wants and needs, level of English, and knowledge of the subject. To
sum up, different audiences require and are prepared for different amount and depths of
2. Determine the aims of presentation. In this stage, restricting your purpose. What exactly do
you want to do in this presentation (to inform, to persuade, to teach). Depending on these, the
structure and the shape of the presentation will vary significantly.
3. Shape the presentation. Students should gain the mastery of organizing and selecting their
arguments or pieces of information so as to respect the time allotted
4. Introduce appropriate visual aids. The main thing is to encourage students to use support
material and visual aids. It will help students when presentation and vice versa, help the
audience follow the presentation.
5. Gain the audience‘s attention. The introduction to a presentation is especially important
because listeners often decide in the first minute or two whether they want to pay attention to
what you are going to say. Gain the audience‘s attention by connecting their needs/ values/
knowledge to the topic of the speech
6. Familiarize the audience with the aim, content, and the structure of presentation.
7. Prepare a closing summary. The conclusion of your presentation is important because you
want to leave a strong impression on your audiences. An effective conclusion develops
naturally from the structure and content of the preceding material.

8. Delivery. During the presentation a presenter need to :

a. Face the audience ( maintain eye contact with the audience as much as possible)
b. Use natural hand gestures

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

c. Look presentable, it means to dress well, appearance says a lot about someone‘s
personality and confidence.
d. Speak in a clear and audible voice
e. Pause periodically, in order to give your audience a chance to digest your
information and it also gives them permission to participate.
f. Be aware that nervousness is to be expected, just should be turned into enthusiasm
g. Engage your audience by pose a question to see how much they know about the
subject you are about to discuss
h. Give the talk a clear, logical structure with an introduction, the main body and a
i. Emphasize Keywords to allow your audience what they really need to pay attention
to; if you speak in the same voice tone throughout the entire presentation, no one
knows what is really important.
j. Make the visual aids clear and easy to understand.
k. Respond to question politely, good-humoredly, and briefly
l. Summarize your main points and give a strong concluding remark that reinforces
why your information is of value
m. Invite questions from the audience at the conclusion of your presentation

Furthermore, Brown and Priyanvada has argued (219) that there two main points can be
assessed from students‘ performance during presentation, content and delivery.
1. Content
Content means the appropriate function of the students speaking in class presentation. It is
also relating to students‘ purpose in presenting. In performance, the performers should decide the
balance content of speaking with the topic of discussion (Chivers and Michael 72). In addition, the
sub indicators in content of speaking performance are purpose, introduction, main idea, supporting
point and conclusion (Brown and Priyanvada 219).
Purpose means the clear objective in speaking performance. The performers demand to have
a clear purpose in speaking to the audience. Introduction means the speaker or performers give the
introductory of speaking in delivering the material to the audience or other group. Main idea means
the speakers deliver the content of speaking by using clear main idea that will be discussed in
discussion. It is important to be considered, by using clear main idea the audience will get the point of
the speaker. Conclusion in delivering the materials is important. It is needed to make a clear
explanation when delivering the material.
2. Delivery
Getting means of how the speaker delivers the paper, report or idea to the audience. In
addition, Brown and Priyanvada (219) have explained the sub indicators of delivery include speaker
gesture, language, pronunciation, visual aids, and respond to the audience. Speaker gesture and body
language are used to attract audience attention. It is line with Chivers and Michael (2007: 39) who
argues that the speaker or performer need to used gesture body language to attract the attention of the
audience while doing performance.
Eye contact with the audience means the speaker attends audience response in discussion.
(Chivers and Michael 41) has stated that ―Eyes are the best tools for involving the audience in what
are you saying‖. It means good posture, gesture, and movement will support by using eye contact
while speak in front of the audience. Notes are kind of visual aids that can be used by the speaker. But
in this case, the speaker did not read it verbatim. It is used for remembering the content of the
material that will be presented to the audience. Language was natural and fluent are very important in
delivering of speaking. The natural and fluent language will give the clear information to the
audience. The audience will understand more about the explanation of the discussion by using natural
and fluent language.
The rate and volume were appropriate used by the speaker. Speaker‘s pronunciation and
grammar were appropriate. In this case, grammar and pronunciation were the parts of speaking

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

components. It means the delivering the messages in speaking performance the students need to
consider the components of speaking in order to make the speaking better.
Besides, speaker used visual aids, handout effectively. According to Chivers and Michael
visual aids are kind of the tools that support the speaker to deliver the performance (105). Visual aids
that can be used by the speaker are power point presentation and handout. The speakers are response
audience‘s question. It is need to make clear understanding of the material. The speaker is hoped can
explain the content of discussion clearly. In doing speaking performance the speaker need to
response audience question.
Meanwhile, (Barras 109) has stated that performance can be assessed from the students. In
order to assess students‘ performance it can be done after class discussion. The students can assess
their own performance by considering the audience reaction, students‘ own feeling, comfortable, fit
of the topic, and time allocation. It can be said that performance also can be measured by the
students‘ themselves. The students can know it from the audience feeling and the performer feeling.
Besides, the comfortable in presenting the topic and time allocation are also the consideration of
assessing the performance.
Evaluating speaking performance can be seen from speaker‘s pronunciation and grammar,
accuracy of the time, long pause and repetition, and speaker‘s contribution to topic discussion
(Richards 39),. Speaker‘s pronunciation and grammar can be included to speaker‘s speaking
components. Long pause and repetition is related to speaker‘s fluency in speaking. And speaker‘s
contribution to topic discussion is the knowledge of the speaker of the materials discussed.

This study was conducted by using a descriptive research. In this particular work, the
researcher investigated and identified the problems of English Department students of STKIP PGRI
Sumatera Barat in giving classroom presentation. This research was conducted in the English
Department of STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat. The subject of this research was the sixth year students
in academic year 2013/2014 who take ESP subject and have classroom presentation activity. The
data of this research are collected while teaching and learning process by means of observation,
recording, and note taking.

The research project has investigated students‘ problem in giving presentation in the
classroom. The result of the research are, students have some problems in delivering and content of
presentation. The result indicates that the students need more practice to improve their performance
and take more attention about delivering technique in presentation.
Content involved five aspects to be analyzed. First, the purpose or objective of the
presentation was accomplished. Second, the introduction was lively and got the attention. Third, the
main idea or point was clearly stated toward the beginning. Fourth, the supporting points. The last the
conclusion restated the main idea or purpose.
Based on the observation, mostly students introduced the purpose of their presentation, but
only few students could introduce the purpose well. Most of the group just greeting the audiences and
move to the point of discussion. So the introduction was not lively and did not get the special
attention from the audience. Then, the students stated the topic that they want to present in front of
the class, but they did not state clearly to the audience. Moreover, they less in supporting points and
difficult to developing a strong conclusion. Even they wanted to finish the presentation soon. Topic
and purpose of presentation are very important to make clear understanding between speaker and
audiences. In fact, the students seem did not aware the topic, purpose, main idea, supporting idea, and
Delivery is one of performance aspects that were seen from the students. There are ten items
of delivery that was checking from students‘ speaking performance during class presentation. The
aspects included: gesture and body language, eye contact, used notes and did not read the script
verbatim, speaker‘s language was natural and fluent, the appropriate volume, language of speaking
components, visual aids, and respond audience questions.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

In delivering the materials, the students did not use good speaking components such as
pronunciation, fluency, grammar, and vocabulary. According to Brown and Priyanvada (129)
speaking components are the important thing to be considered by the speaker in speaking. Speaking
components will show speaker‘s ability to deliver the message to the audience. Moreover, the
students seemed monotonous in speaking. They did not pay attention to the audiences. It can be seen
the performers did not maintain eyes contact with the audience as much as possible. They did not use
natural gesture and body language well in giving presentation. Besides, the students rare engage the
audience by pose a question to see how much they know about the subject are being discussed or to
make it sure whether the audiences are still following the presentation or not.
In question and answer session, the speakers were busy to prepare the answer of audience‘s
questions and take a long time to answer it. But, generally the students as speakers have the ability to
respond the audience‘s questions. Other problem is students cannot use visual aids effectively. They
did not make the visual aids clear and easy to understand. Most of group presents the power point, but
only few of them can explain the material clearly and briefly. Most of them just read the points in
each slide.
Other result that was found during the research is some groups used Indonesia language
more than English during presentation class. It means that the students still cannot use English
maximally in giving presentation. Ineffective English language in speaking performance during
presentation class was a problem by the students in delivering the materials in front of the classroom.

Classroom presentation in one of the activity that language teachers bring into the classroom
in order to create interactive activity , encourage students to have practice in English language in
classroom in natural way, and to improve students‘ communication and presentation skills. Group
presentations require students to work together to plan and to prepare for their presentation.
English department students of STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat are used to have presentation in
the classroom. The lecturers are consistently brought classroom presentation activity. Particularly in
ESP Subject, because students will be asked to use English to present in their future jobs.
Unfortunately, there are some students still have problems when giving oral presentation in front of
their friends. They have problems in content and delivery of presentation.
To overcome these problems, it is important for the lecturer of an oral presentation class to
spend time introducing students to both macro and micro skills that they need to give oral
presentation. In short, Presentation skills need to be transferred in the classroom by the teacher to
prepare students for their further academic career as well as future professional surrounding.

Apple, M. "Language Learning theories and cooperative learning techniques in the EFL classroom."
Doshisha studies in Language and Culture (2006): 277-301.
Barras, Robert. speaking for yourself: a guide for students. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis
Group, 2006.
Brown, H. Douglas. Language Assesment: Principle and Classroom Practice. New York: Pearson
Education, 2004.
Brown, H. Douglas, Privanda Abeywickrama. Language Assesment: principles and CClassroom
Practice 2nd ed. London: Longman, 2009.
Chivers, Barbara and Michael shoolbred. Students' Guide to Presentation: Making your presentation
Count. London: SAGE Publication Inc, 2007.
Girard, T., Pinar, AM.,& Trapp, P. "An exploratory study of class presentation and peer evaluation:
Do Students perceive the benefits?" Academy of Educational Leadership Journal (2011):
Harmer, Jeremy. Practice English Language Teaching. England: Pearson Education, 2001.
King, J. "Preparing EFL Learners for oral presentations." Journal of Humanistic Studies (2002): 4,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Poorman, P.B. Biography in role playing: Fostering Empathy in Abnormal Psychology: Teaching of
Psychology. 16 March 2002.
Richards, Jack C. Communicative Language Teaching Today. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2006.
—. Teaching Listening and Speaking: From Theory to Practice. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2008.
Thonbury, Scott. How to Teach Speaking . Vermont: Longman Pearson, 2005.
Zivkovic, Sladana. "The Important of Oral Presentation for University Students'." Mediterranean
Journal of Social Science (2014): 468-475.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Melviola Fitri1, Putri Yulia Sari2 and Yummi Meirafoni3
The State University of Padang
The State University of Padang
The State University of Padang

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of using the technique named recorded (videotaped)
mini-drama toward students‘ speaking ability. Students‘ speaking ability can be seen from the five
aspects of a rubric used, which are pronunciation, fluency, comprehension, grammar, and
vocabulary. Researchers conducted observations at SMA N 2 Padang in order to see the techniques
applied by the teachers in the classroom that affect to students‘ speaking ability. Researchers found
several weaknesses of the teaching techniques which are implemented in schools. Those techniques
influence students' speaking ability. To overcome the problems, the researchers applied a technique
called recorded (videotaped) mini-drama. In this technique, students performed a mini-drama and
the researcher record the performance. In the next meeting, the recording was showed in front of the
class and then the researchers discussed it with the students by considering the five aspects of the
rubric. After the technique applied in the classroom, the researchers held a posttest to see the effect
of the technique. Posttest assessed by two English teachers from SMA N 2 Padang with reference to
the five aspects previously mentioned. Based on this research, it was found that the technique
recorded (videotaped) mini-drama gives a significant effect on students' speaking ability.

Keywords: Speaking, ability, technique, videotaped, mini-drama

In learning English, there are four skills that should be mastered by the learner. They are
listening, reading, speaking and writing. Bailey (2005:2) says that listening and reading are called
receptive skill. Then, speaking and writing are included in productive skill. By speaking, the student
can express messages, information, thought, ideas and opinion to someone else. They can tell their
feeling through speaking. Besides, others will get point and meaning of someone‘s expression.
Speaking is regarded as one of the complicated skills in learning English. However, Bailey
and Savage (1994:7) say that speaking has often been viewed as the most demanding of the four
skills. It is because this skill is the most basic means of human communication. The situation is like
having conversation or may be doing public speaking is called the process of communication.
Speaking is also a verbal language that used by people to communicate in social life. It is a process of
communication where the people take some information from others while speaking.
Speaking can be said as one of the important skills in learning English. One of the linguists
who consider the importance of studying speaking is Scott Thornbury. In this case, Thornbury
(2005:1) said that speaking takes so much part of our life. He expresses the importance of speaking in
everyday life so that he suggests learning it, especially to the learners of foreign language. Since
English is a foreign language for Indonesia‘s students, the teachers have to help them in studying
speaking skill.
However, the process of teaching speaking is not always well. Most of the students in
Indonesia especially in senior high school get problems when they are speaking. Based on the
interview with English teacher and observation which were held at SMA N 2 Padang, there were
some problems faced by students in speaking. The first one is the ability of students; students do not
want to speak because their ability in speaking is low. The second one is lack of self-confident. In
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

truth, students can speak fluently, but they do not want to speak since they always feel unconfident.
The next one is they are afraid to make mistakes. This is the biggest problem that students always
have. Students do not want to be ridiculed by their friends if they say something wrong. So, they just
keep silent during speaking class. Last one, the problem that students usually have is they feel that
learning English, especially speaking, is not interesting. Students easily get bored since teacher
applies the monotonous technique in teaching. Teachers teach students by giving them some
dialogues and then ask them to read it. This technique makes students feel that learning speaking is
not interesting.
Due to the problems faced by the students in speaking, recorded (videotaped) mini-drama is
used as a technique in teaching speaking in order to overcome these problems. It is one of the good
techniques that can be used in improving students‘ speaking ability.


2.1 The Nature of Speaking
Speaking is a language skill that can be delivered orally. This is a skill that is used by people
while doing communication in daily activities. As Baigate in Nunan (1995:40) says the
communication can be done by the people who generally control the interaction by paying attention
to who is saying what, to whom, when, and how. In other words, speaking produces a speech act that
aims to express their opinions or ideas in order to maintain social relationships or to convey
Speaking is also one of the complex skills since it has some considerations that must be
considered by the students. As Levelt, Roelofs & Meyer (2000) said that speaking has been regarded
as a complex cognitive skill. Some things that students have to consider are how to pronounce the
word, the ideas of speech, fluency of the speech, and also grammar and vocabulary that they use.
Speaking is a useful skill since it takes a main aspect to interact in society. As Baker &
Heather (2003:6) state that by learning to speak English well, students gains a valuable skill which
can be useful in their lives and contribute to their community and country. Students who can speak
English well may have a greater chance of further education, finding employment and gaining
Actually, speaking is an oral language that can be done by a person or more than one person.
As Brown (2004) mentions that speaking is a mean of oral language which can be conducted
individually or by more than one person who involved in spoken language. Speech is one of the
examples of oral language that can be conducted individually. On the other hand, dialogue is an
example of spoken language that needs more than one person.
Speaking is a skill that people use when they have a communication with others. As Bailey
(2005:2) states that speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves:
producing, processing, and receiving information. Its form and meaning are depending on the context
in which it occurs. It includes the participants themselves, their collective experience, the physical
environment, and purpose of speaking. He also add, speaking requires the learners not only to know
how to produce specific points of the language such as grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary but
also they can understand ―when, why, and in what ways to produce language.‖
In conclusion, speaking is an activity and process of interaction between people that involves
producing, processing, and also receiving information. It is important to be learnt since people,
including students, need to interact and communication society. It means speaking is one of skills
which useful in students‘ life.
2.2 The Concept of Mini – Drama
Drama is usually used as a technique of teaching speaking since it can bring a different
learning atmosphere in the class. As Kao & O‘Neill (1998:81) state that drama activity creates a
lively, enjoyable learning environment, motivate students to participate in classroom activities, and
help to build up the students‘ confidence in learning the target language. It means drama can motivate
students in learning speaking.
Drama is known as the performing of stories through action. It is not just explained through
narration. It is one of the techniques that can be used in teaching, especially speaking. As Chauhan
(2004) says that drama involves ideas, emotions, feelings appropriateness and adaptability; in short

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

an opportunity to use language in operation which is absent in a conventional language class. Drama
also can make the process of learning become fun and the class will not get bored anymore like the
other class.
Based on the opinion above, by using drama techniques to teach speaking, the monotonous
of a conventional speaking class can be broken. The monotonous of speaking class happen since the
way of teaching is still like the usual one. Teachers have to create various techniques in order to break
that. One of the techniques is asking the students to create a role play or drama in groups. Each group
is given a certain theme and plays the role as suitable as the characteristic and situation given.
Students are free using their words and sentences as suitable with characteristics and situation they
Furthermore, based on the experts‘ opinion above, the researcher concludes that drama is not
so different from role play. In drama students are given a freedom to observe the problem of daily life
such as social problems, political problems, economical problems, and others. On the other hand, in
role play students are given a certain characteristic and contexts. Furthermore, students are free to use
their own words and sentences as appropriate with characteristics and contexts.
Since drama as a technique of teaching speaking, the duration will be shorter than the
common drama. It will be called as mini-drama. Mini – drama is brief dialogues that demonstrate the
relationship (s) between ideas. As Education (2007:212) says that mini - dramas are a great technique
to help students to build their visualization skills. Mini-drama allows students in team or pairs to
summarize what they have seen and learned in an interactive way.
Mini – drama is rather similar to drama. The difference between drama and mini-drama is
only in the duration of time. The common drama takes a longer time, but mini-drama runs for 20-30
minutes. The definition of mini-drama is still the same with drama. Drama or mini-drama is a
composition in verse or prose intended to portray life or character. The function of mini-drama is to
tell a story usually involving conflicts and emotions through action and dialogue and typically
designed for theatrical performance. Mini-drama is shorter than drama, but it is quite longer than
role-play. It also has plot, character, theme, genre, and also style like the common drama. Mini-drama
takes 20-30 minutes time to play.
There is also scene inside mini-drama. Duncan (2006: 162) says mini-drama has scene that
should become very clear to the player and the audience that they can never go back to the previous
scene. It means that the events inside the mini-drama are in sequence. It has some scenes just like the
common drama.
As a researcher said before, the duration of mini-drama is shorter than drama. Although it
does not take much time to be performed, the actors could be allowed to use some properties if it is
needed. Zingher (2006: 80) says that students could be allowed to use a few simple props or costume
pieces-perhaps a hat, some kind of fabric, a mask, or a walking stick. It is important since the players
can feel that they are in the real life. The mini-drama seems real and believable to the player and also
Mini-drama for second language learners can provide an opportunity to develop the
imagination of the students. As Richardson and Jackson (2004: 92) say that one way to encourage
students to extend their imagination is to engage them in the process of creating mini-dramas. By
working in group, students could develop improvised scenes tied to particular themes.
In conclusion, mini-drama is also a great technique in teaching speaking. Since this
technique takes shorter time than the common drama, it can be applied easily during learning
activities in the classroom. The process of learning activity that uses mini-drama is interesting and
makes students interested to do it.
2.2.1 The Advantages of Practicing Drama in Teaching Speaking
Some experts have discussed the advantages of drama activities in teaching speaking.
According to Maley and Duffs (1982:13-14) problem solving tasks and opinion gaps that stimulate
the need to speak are provided by the drama activities. To create a performance, the speakers need to
exchange idea, make decisions, and negotiate the shape of the final product.
Drama activities give valuable contribution to both students and teacher. Drama encourages
students to speak and give them the change to communicate, using nonverbal communication, such

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

as body movements and facial expression. The use of drama can reduce the pressure that students
feel, so they become ready to talk. Furthermore, drama can help teachers to prepare learners for the
real world (Davies 1990:97 in Barbu), purely by immersing learners in authentic communication.
Drama provides an opportunity for independent thinking. As Boudreault (2010) says that
students are encouraged to express their own ideas and contribute to the whole. Drama also offers
exercises in critical thinking and the chance for the students to be creative.
2.3 The Concept of Recorded (Videotaped) English Mini - Drama
Videotaped mini-drama is a new technique that can be done by using camcorder. Teacher
can use the camera to record the process of performing mini-drama during learning. According to
Magnusson (1996) using a camcorder can be an effective teaching tool since it can capture the
students' attention in class. It also provides information about the students‘ abilities of speaking. As
Kao & O‘Neill (1998) say that videotape of how a group of students create drama together in the
classroom will provide information about the students‘ abilities.
Doing videotaping is something which is pretty fun. Kita & Kinghorn (2002) state that
videotaping is an activity that always fun, useful, and addictive, but sometimes needs hard work.
Students will love to do it because they like to be ―shot‖ by the camera. They will do it happily since
they know their performance will be recorded. It is like the real drama or movie that has the real actor
and actress. It will be more fun if they wear the costume that is related to the theme of their drama. It
can make the performance ―real‖.
According to Orlova (2009:30) videotaping or video recording provides an objective and
permanent source that can be viewed repeatedly to observe various aspects of classroom practice. It
can be used in speaking class since speaking needs more classroom practices. One of classroom
practices of speaking is through drama. Since teacher adds the videotaped mini-drama technique, the
activities can be funnier than just a common drama.
There are some advantages of recording the drama. According to Wright, Betteridge &
Buckby (2006) recording the drama invites more creativities and participation of the learners.
Students will give their best to the drama by performing it creatively since they know it will be
recorded. The other good thing about the recorded of the drama is student can replay the recorded
easily later.
After recording the drama, the teacher can show it to the students. Teacher and students can
discuss the recorded of the drama. Teacher starts to ask the comments from the students. They can
comment their own performance, and also their friends‘ performance. The comments must be about
how the students pronounce the word, their fluency, the comprehension, grammar, and also
vocabulary that they use in the script. After that, teacher gives her comment to her students. The
aspects of comments from teacher will be the same as the students, e.g. pronunciation, fluency,
grammar, comprehension, grammar, and vocabulary. The comments from friends and teacher will be
the helpful comments to each of the student. If the students said the word in the wrong pronunciation,
they will know how to pronounce the word after the teacher teaches them how to pronounce it

This research was an experimental research which aimed to investigate the effect of recorded
(videotaped) an English mini-drama for speaking ability. It examined the hypothesis proposed to
prove whether using recorded (videotaped) mini-drama method in teaching speaking gave a better
effect towards students‘ speaking ability. As this research is an educational research, the researcher
used Quasi-Experimental Design. It is Quasi Experimental research because it uses intact group and
the availability of participant is limited (Creswell, 2005: 297).
The population in this research was the students in grade eleven at SMA N 2 Padang. There
were 276 students in population. Then, the sample was chosen by using cluster random sampling
method that selects groups, not individuals. It is supported by Ary, Jacobs, and Sorenson (2010: 154)
who state that ―A common application of cluster sampling in education is the use of intact classrooms
as clusters‖. The samples of this research were XI IPA 3 as the experimental class and XI IPA 2 as the
control class. The experimental group was treated by using recorded (videotaped) mini-drama in

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

teaching speaking while control group was treated by using the usual speaking method that is role
A speaking test was used as the instrument of this research. The form of the test was role play
scored based on the rubric of speaking. There were five aspects in the rubric pronunciation which are
fluency, comprehension, grammar, and vocabulary.
Technique of data collection in this research was done by administering the posttest to both
samples. The data were taken from the students‘ speaking test rated by two raters. The agreement of
score of both raters was used as data that would be analyzed by using t-test formula.
3.1. Procedures of the Research
Table 1. Procedures of the research
Experimental Group Control Group
a) Exploration a) Exploration
1. The teacher built the students background 1. The teacher built the students background
knowledge about the topic by showing some knowledge about the topic by showing some
dialogues which are related to that topic. dialogues which are related to that topic.
2. The teacher showed the expression of the 2.The teacher showed the expression of the
transactional in the dialogue transactional in the dialogue
3. Teacher and students read the dialogue 3. Teacher and students read the dialogue
together together
4.Teacher asked two or more students to come 4. Teacher asked two or more students to
to the front to perform the dialogue come to the front to perform the dialogue.
b)Elaboration b)Elaboration
1. The students were divided into three 1. The students were divided into five
groups. groups.
2. Teacher asked each group to have a 2. Teacher gave an instruction that students
chairman. This chairman was the director of made a role play by using the expression that
the mini-drama later they have studied before.
3. Teacher gave each group a theme of the 3. The expressions of love, anger, and
mini-drama like romantic or comedy, etc. sadness were used in the dialogue.
4. Ask students to make a mini-drama script 4. Ask students to make a role-play script
together. There were some expressions that together.
have been studied together in the previous 5. In the next meeting, students decide their
meeting inside the script. role.
5. In the next meeting, class decided the role. 6. The group rehearsed the role play in front
Make a list of the characters on the board of the class after doing some practices
including the narrator. Assign any "extras" outside the class.
(odd number of students left over, or 7. Show time. This is the time to show the
latecomers as assistant narrators to other first role-play. All of the groups performed
groups.) Tell students they have to memorize one by one.
their lines, except the narrator who can read 8. After the first performance, teacher asked
the lines. If there is more than one narrator to a the whole class about how the performance
group, the narrators should divide up their was. Other group gave their comments about
work. their friends‘ performance. The comments
6. Each group rehearsed in front of the are about pronunciation, fluency, etc.
classroom. Let each group perform the play 9. Students chose the best performer after
from start to finish. Guide students on their giving their comments for all groups.
movements and give them ideas regarding 10. The best group chose the first performer
gestures. (Such as putting hands on hips to for the second role-play.
show anger.) Help them with pronunciation 11. Students made the second role play‘s
and intonation. Masks, costumes, or special script. They are free to use one of the three
props should be used if available. expression(can be love, anger, or sadness)
7. Show time. Call on groups to perform the 12. They performed the second role play in
play. Teacher stands in the middle of the the next meeting.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

classroom and record the play. Use the zoom 13. After one group performed the role play,
lens occasionally. Record each group. others gave their comment, just like the first
8.Students watched their performance, and role play.
teacher told students about their pronunciation
when they say the dialogue, it will be
corrected later.
9.After watching their own performance,
students were asked to perform again in order
to ―make it clear‖, they performed with the
right pronunciation
10. After performing mini-drama, they
watched it again since it was also recorded by
the teacher.
11. After that, teacher gave comment like the
previous performance.
12. Teacher and students shared about the
result, students‘ pronunciation becomes better
than before. They improved their
pronunciation in this performance.


The data of the research were the scores of students‘ posttest. The results of the students‘
posttest scores in the experimental group were 23.5 as the highest one, while the lowest score was
14.5. The mean of their score was 19.7, and the sum was 532. While, the result of students‘ posttest
scores in control group was 21.5 as the highest score and 13 as the lowest score. The mean of
students‘ scores was 17.8 and the sum was 465.
From the data obtained in posttest, it was found that the experimental class got higher score
than the control group. The mean of students‘ scores in experimental was 19.7, meanwhile in control
group, the mean was 17.8. From the calculation, it was found that t-calculated was 3.8 which was
bigger than t-table (1.674). Since t-calculated was bigger than t-table, it means the hypothesis was
accepted. The recorded (videotaped) mini-drama gives an improvement toward students‘ speaking
ability. So, it could be said that recorded (videotaped) mini-drama has a better effect on students‘
speaking ability.
Based on the data above, it was found that the t-calculated was greater than t-table. The result
of speaking test in experimental group is better than control group. It means that the use of recorded
(videotaped) mini-drama gives a better effect toward students‘ speaking ability. In other words,
videotaped mini-drama technique is suitable for speaking class which needs some practices. It is
similar with the theory proposed by Orlova (2009:30) who says that videotaping or video recording
provides an objective and permanent source that can be viewed repeatedly to observe various aspects
of classroom practice. It can be used in speaking class since speaking needs more classroom practice.
Actually, in the experimental group, the researchers did a classroom practice for speaking in
the form of mini-drama, and it was recorded (videotaped) by the researchers. The students watched
the recorded of their performance in the classroom in the next meeting. The researchers gave
comment and explained about which part that students have to improve. The researchers‘ comments
are all about the five aspects; pronunciation, fluency, comprehension, grammar and vocabulary. If
they mispronounced the word, did not comprehend their own dialogues, used the wrong grammar
and vocabulary, or even they were not fluent in saying the dialogues, the researchers noticed it and
explained it to the students. For example the researchers explained the right way to pronounce the
words, or explained about the grammar that students used in their mini-drama script. By showing
them the recorded of their performances, their speaking ability got improved. It happened because
they finally knew how to pronounce the words, comprehend the sentences inside their script, used the
right grammar and vocabulary, and delivered the dialogues fluently.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Students also had fun when they studied speaking by using their own videotaped. This
technique makes a new atmosphere in the class. The finding of this research is also in line with the
theory proposed by Kita & Kinghorn (2002) who state that videotaping is always fun, rewarding, and
addictive. Students love doing it. They also like to watch their own performance when the teacher
played at the next meeting. They laughed and enjoyed their own video. They gave their full attention
to the recorded (videotaped) of their performance.
Based on the research findings related to the theories, it can be concluded that recorded
(videotaped) mini-drama technique is strongly suggested to be used in teaching and learning process
especially to improve students‘ speaking ability.

Based on the research done, it can be concluded that: (1) The mean of speaking score of the
students who were given the recorded (videotaped) mini-drama technique was higher than those who
were not given this technique. By using statistical analysis, it was found that there was a difference in
speaking achievement between the students who were given videotaped mini-drama technique and
those who were not given it .Thus, it can be said that the use of recorded (videotaped) mini-drama
gave a better effect on the students‘ speaking achievement. (2) The students who were given recorded
(videotaped) mini-drama technique got motivated and interested more than those who were not given
it. Furthermore, it avoided the students‘ boredom to study.This technique is beneficial to improve
students‘ speaking ability. It is recommended to the English teacher to use this technique to use
recorded (videotaped) mini-drama technique. This method creates a new atmosphere at the class. The
students love to do it.

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Malley. Alan Duff. Drama Techniques in Language Learning. New York: Cambridge University
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Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


STMIK Jayanusa
Jl. Damar No.69E Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Videos are engaging. They teach students to plan, organize, write, communicate, collaborate, and
analyze. This paper reports on a case study of the role of video projects in improving students‘
participation in conversation class. Students‘ low motivation in conversation class is presumbly
caused by their less ideas to maximize the technology they had to draw in and connect them in
innovative ways. This research is aimed at examining whether video projects can better improve
students‘ participation in English conversation. The result showed the improvements in terms of
numbers of exchanges the students could produce in a conversation, students‘ turn-taking, and
students‘ back-channeling. It indicated that video projects is really a great way to encourage
students‘ participation in conversation. As this media further matures, students may need to be able
to express themselves as effectively through moving imagery as with the written word.

Keywords: video projects, conversation class, turn-taking, back-channeling.

Obviously, one of the problems in learning a foreign language, particularly English as a
Foreign Language (EFL), has always been providing quality linguistic input to learners. Amongst the
main goals of the English language teaching is enabling EFL learners to communicate in the target
language in real-world situation (Oxford, 1990). It can be said that EFL learners are expected to be a
proficient language users. Nevertheless, in such contexts, real language learning enviroinment does
not always provide EFL learners a natural setting to promote their English language proficiency.
There are a number of limitations associated with EFL classroom. Cziko (2005) identifies several
problems, they are; limited exposure to the target language, limited opportunities to use the target
language, limited exposure to inaccurate forms of expressions produced by both fellow students and
the teacher, limited opportunities for authentic communication, and limited language ability and
cultural knowledge of EFL teachers. Therefore, to compensate the aforementioned shortcomings, an
alternative critically needed to be sought.
As media devices become increasingly portable, this paper argues that integrating video
projects into the EFL classroom may help address the above limitations by providing students wide
opportunities to be exposed to the target language. As educators, our aim is to get students energized
and engaged in the hands-on learning process, and video is clearly the perfect medium for students
because it has greater amount of interest and enjoyment than the more traditional printed material. It
is also assumed as one new approach to emphasizing professional communications skills by
assigning student to make video projects (Genereux: 2014). Without question, today‘s generation
truly is the media generation. Most of them are devoting more than a quarter of each day to media.
For instance, In my classroom, video usually equals instant engagement. Students like to record
anything around them. Many of them get to use their phones for fun and for school purposes. They
like to watch it even more, and if those videos are produced by their peers, their interest skyrockets.
Undoubtly, there are ample of strength of video as communication medium in the classroom. Video
can present visual information that is difficult to convey in other ways. One of the appeals of video is
that it provides a sense of ‗being there‘. A student who sees and hears the eruption of a volcano will
likely be more affected than one who reads simple textual information about it. Moreover, video can
be used to model positive behaviour and to motivate students, they are particularly useful for
introducing a topic, or reviewing material already studied. With a careful concern about critical
analysis of message design, information sources, and the power of video to elicit emotional
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

responses, video can be effective for examining many different types of issues and promoting
conversation class.
Every educator has experienced the frustation of a discussion falling flat in class. Even when
they design substanstive and open-ended questions, students sometimes choose not to share their
ideas or engage in conversation with other students. It is hoped by seeing their own video projects,
students can lead to participate actively in conversation and a platform for sharing ideas, even if it is
out of the classroom. This statement is in line with Sherman (1990) that stated that watching
student-made video also can enhance students‘ communal viewing and listening experience. It is felt
to be awkward if the participants of a conversation cannot take their turns to speak smoothly.
Students learn best when they are actively ( physically and/or intellectually) enganged in the learning
activity. A variety approaches can be used to promote active learning during a video viewing
experience (Plowman, 1988). Viewing a video with carefully stop points can greatly enhance
attention and engangement with the topic. On the other hand, affective learning and motivation may
be influenced strongly by the choice of media. This in turn, may influence how enthusiastically and
succesfully student engage in learning activities. Here, before watching the video, student can be
separated into small groups. A single question of a set of questions can be distributed around the
class. After watching their own video, with a face to face conversation, student can create
opportunities for more intimate conversation and discussion. They have time to consider the
question, articulate the response, reply the thoughtfully to their peers, and learn from each other.
Valuable discussion on the video concepts and topics can be fostered in these small group.


College students are enthusiastic users of mobile and social media technology in their private
lives, but are not often invited to make use of these in the classroom. Clark (1983) stated that research
on cognitive learning and media technologies has shown that no spesific educational media is
inherently more effective than another. The video projects described here strive to motivate students
into using technology for their own active and participatory learning. Essentially, a video by itself is
unlikely to be more effective for teaching information than a book or programmed learning device on
topic. Some scholar recognize a video as the ‗current venacular‘ (Hobbs,2011; Daley, 2003; Poe,
2012). Moreover, Jarvinen (2012) and Lichter (2012) argue that some scholars describe student
video projects as flexible and easily integrated into courses regardless of academic area and even
suggest that students can learn material from videos made by other students.
The expectations of students today are for more active and enganging experience, an experience that
utilizes their unique learning skills and styles. Hofer and swan (2005) state that students fo
twenty-first century, are frequently described as multi-taskers, having short attention spans for aly
one project, comfortable switching from one project to another, and expecting and enjoying constant
digital stimulation and gratification. Requiring students to create video projects to explore subject
content plays to their expertise, familiarity, and interests. Gehringer and Miller (2009) recognize that
the active learning exercises need not be creative solely by the instructor and that students may
benefit in multiple ways by giving them an opportunity to construct their own activities to master
subject content. They further investigated that the students were able to increased students‘
engangements and learning activities.
Depending on the complexity of the project, students may work independently or in groups.
The video topic can be assigned or students can choose their own relevant topic. Stash (2015)
proposes some suggested steps to be considered for ensuring that the students create thoughful final
products that demonstrate their knowledge rather than pieces full of flash but potentially lacking of
substance. The steps are:
(1). Outline: students should start by outlining what they have to say, what they intend to show, and
their main points
(2). Script: whether the students are going to perform in their video, use a voice-over, or simply write
captions, they shoud know what they are going to saybefore they begin.
(3). Storyboard: students often have higher expectationthat they can actually deliver. Having them
present a storyboardbefore filming, makes they plan each step of the process encourages them to
gather resourcesin advance.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

(4). Filming: they key to good video project is the actual raw footage. Consider blocking a few times
for recording and having an alternate activity availablefor the rest of the students.
(5) Editing: tools such as Microsoft Movie Maker, Apple iMovie, and Pixorial easily allow students
to add soundtrack, voice overs, special effects, captions, and titles.
(6). Publishing: at the most basic level, a camera can be plugged in to a Tv or projector and shown to
the rest of the class. Online video sharing sites (Youtube amd Vimeo) and class websites provide
students with an even broader audience.
With the availability of video recorders, visual communication using video is becoming
more prevalent. Through video, it is hoped that communication strategies can be taught. Grenfeld and
Harris (1999) suggested that strategy instruction could give learners more of sense control over their
own learning. The strategy training could be beneficial for language learners because it is also
teaching learners how to select turn-taking phrases, request for help, clarification and repetition and
pause fillers.
The quality of discussion improves when more people participate, and because research has
documented what most of us have experienced that only a few students regularly participate in class
conversation. Here is a brief summary of what studies suggest to motivate students to talk more in
class proposed by Weimer (2015), they are (1) establish the expectation of participation by warming
students that will be called. Discuss the importance of participation in class and attach a grade to
participation, (2) provide opportinities for reflecting and responding by giving students time to
prepare. Use appropriate amounts of wait time. Maybe let students write some ideas and/or share
them with another students, (3) skillful facilitate the discussion by setting ground rules. Discuss what
makes the good answer. Do not let a few students monopolize the discussion. Let students look at
their notes or the text, (4) use questions appropriately by asking open-ended questions. Call on those
who might have relevant experience or background knowledge. (5) create a supportive learning
enviroinment by letting the classromm be a safe place where honest attempts to answer are supported
and encouraged, and (6) respond respectfully to students‘ contributions by using wrong answers as
teaching moments. Get others involved in understanding misconceptions and errors. Communication
strategies are employed in order to repair breakdowns in spoken communication and to improve the
effectiveness of communication. So it can be said that learning strategies are used in order to promote
learning, whereas communication strategies are used to promote communication. And it is
reasonable to say that language learning strategies contribute to the development of communicative
competence and communication strategies are one type of language learning strategies.
Although communication strategies are not directly related to cognitive learning of language, they
provide the learners with the input which is very important for the success of learning. In this case,
communication strategies can be employed in conversation in order to allow the learners to maintain
in conversation. So, learners get more opportunities to hear as well as to produce the target language.
Tarone, Fearch and Kasper in Brett (2001) propose that in order to remain in the conversation
learners must: (1) find way to continue producing the target language despite the limitation, (2)
recognize when their production has not been properly interpreted, and (3) indicate their reception of
the speakers‘ intentions. Related to this idea, many academics consider class participation evidence
of active learning or engagement that benefits learning, critical thinking, writing, appreciation of
cultural differences, time management and interpersonal, listening and speaking skills (Petress:
However, less vocal students may not have an incentive to participate, especially when the
teacher‘s classroom style is autonomous and students set the policies and procedures of the course
(Gomberg & Gray: 2000). Unlike some of the other forms of learning that take place in the
classroom, participation in the small-group environment is not an individual activity. How and what
students learn from listening to a lecture, reading a textbook, doing research, or studying for an exam
is quite different from what students can gain when students have immediate access to approximately
different, informed points of view on a single issue. Playing an active role in discussions involves
volunteering students opinion, asking questions, and listening carefully. The best discussions are the
ones that move beyond the simple questions and answers. Students will be rewarded for bringing up
more chal-lenging ideas and for trying to deal with them collaboratively with their classmates. To do

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

this effectively, teachers must have read all of the assigned material carefully. If they haven‘t, it will
become clear quite quickly.

In doing this case study research, the case that is the subject of the inquiry will be an instance
of a class of phenomena that provides an analytical frame — an object — within which the study is
conducted and which the case illuminates and explicates. According to J. Creswell (2009) One
approach sees the case study defined as a research strategy, an empirical inquiry that investigates a
phenomenon within its real-life context. Case-study research can mean single and multiple case
studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from
the prior development of theoretical propositions. As such, case study research should not be
confused with qualitative research, as case studies can be based on any mix of quantitative and
qualitative data.
This research was conducted at STMIK Jayanusa Padang which is located in Jl. Damar
No.69E Padang. The research is administered to the second semester students (63 students). Time
allocation for English course is 2 x 45 minutes per week.
The data were collected by doing direct observation as the main technique to find out what happen in
the classroom during the process of teaching speaking. While observing the teaching learning
process, the collaborator put a tick to the sheets of students‘ activities. After the lesson, the author and
collaborator discussed and took some notes into the research field notes because ideally, the notes
should be written as soon as possible after the lesson. To support the data collection in observation,
the author recorded the students‘ conversation at the end of every meeting.


Students’ Perception on Video Projects
The video projects discussed in this paper was my first attempt at collecting data about
students experiences and perceptions of doing the project. It included to allow different interests and
learning styles as the students take active ownership of a portion of their learning. The improvement
of students‘ involvement in learning process was analyzed from the data gained through observation
sheets and field-notes. The analysis of observation sheet and field-notes as stated in the finding
concluded that students was getting more involved in learning process, and had been able to show
their positive attitude toward learning this strategy. Related to this condition, Brown (2001) argues
that an analysis which identifies the requirements of the learners involved is a necessary first step in
teaching speaking.In this research, students worked in groups of four to five members and presented
the video project of english conversation in class on the last day before the mid-term of semester.
Students were given two weeks notice and they were not given any instruction on the use of video
recording and editing technology. They are only given a topic to be developed become a
conversation. After the videos were presented, students were given a survey asking them about their
experience with the video assignment. The survey included an open ended question and eleven Likert
scaled questions (rating questions 1-7, 1 strongly disagree – 7 strongly agree.) Sixty-three students
completed the Likert closed ended questions.
The results of the survey indicated that students enjoyed creating their video projects; they
thought the experience was both important and useful and enjoyed the project. These results were not
universal; for many of the questions, the responses were bimodal, some students scored the questions
very high and some very low, few in the middle. For the following questions, enjoyed the experience,
glad they completed the experience, creating videos was interesting and they would recommend the
project for future classes, the mode of the answers was a 7, strongly agree.

Table 1: the open-ended question of students‘ experience in making video project

Mean of All
Survey Questions

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

1. Creating videos is an important exercise 7,9

2. Creating videos is an enjoyable experience 7
3. Creating videos is a useful experience 7,3
4. Creating videos enhances learning content 10,1
5. Creating videos will enhance in the future 12,6
6. I am glad I created video 8,5
7. Participating in video project will help my career 6
8. I would recommend this project for future classes 28,5
9. The video project was the most useful project in class 7,1
10. I would rather do a different project than the video project 5

Of the open-ended questions, twenty-two were completely positive, thirty-two were left
unanswered and nine were mixed, containing both positive and negative thoughts. The negative
responses focused on lack of time and lack of technology skill and inability to coordinate schedules
with group members. It should be noted that prior experience with any outside student project,
especially at a college that is heavily commuter rather than residential, where 90% of the students are
working at least ten hours a week, will typically yield the same comments. A few students also
commented on the project not being relevant to their education and fail to see how this project would
serve any useful purpose in their future career.
On the positive side, the following comments were provided: These comments were
constructed before the students reviewed each other‘s work.
 It helped us learn how much actually goes into creating an english conversation
 I really enjoyed it, it was fun to do and gave me an opportunity to be creative
 It was great. It helped me learn a lot about how to build a real engsh atmosphere from a
 It was definitely useful to at least see how the process works…
 It was a fun way to spend ouside the class
 It was extremely funny
 It was a fun and a good experience
 I like the idea but many of us lacked the equipment
 I found the project to be enjoyable and educational
 The video project was definitely a great learning experience
 It allowed us to put what we learned in class on a real project and experience a real project
 I really enjoyed the project….it was pretty fun and really shows what goes into making a
 I enjoyed creating our project, because it is more than memorizing terms, it‘s using
 I really enjoyed making the video with my group, it was a fun experience. It really gives you
an idea
Although not mentioned directly, all students had an opportunity to develop some level of
video technology expertise which is expected to increase in relevance as they go forward in their
education and their work experience.The positive comments support the notions that students
appreciate: having an opportunity to exercise personal creativity; having educational activities that
are: experiential, active, and entertaining; having an opportunity to engage in social learning and
having an opportunity to gain familiarity and comfort with classmates.
The following categories emerged from the result of data analysis. Based on the data
gathered through three instruments; observation sheets, field-notes, and tape recording, the following
categories are the basis to report and understand the picture of the findings.
Students‘ Involvement in Classroom Conversation
The data gathered from observation sheets and the research field-notes were analyzed based on the
categories of; students‘ involvement in classroom conversation and students‘ participation in pair
work. There are three indicators in this category, namely; students‘ responsiveness to the teacher‘s
questions, students‘ initiation to speak English, and students‘ participation in pair work.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

From the data collected, it can be identified that students‘ lack of confidence and inability to employ
certain strategies in speaking are the causes of their unresponsiveness to the teacher‘s questions. They
were also not used to initiate speaking by using English. The author supposes that this condition caused
by their lack of confidence and being untrained to do so. Dealing with their participation in pair-work,
they had begun to show their better involvement the class conversation. They had given their
contribution to their pair to play their role. They seemed to be seriously prepared their dialog. And all
of the pairs performed their dialog in the meeting.
The improvement on students‘ participation in conversation in terms of the number of
exchanges they could produce in a conversation were showed in the tape-recording data. That is why,
before analyzing the conversation, it was important to determine what element of conversation
structure to be observed. Here, the author focused on the numbers of exchanges they can produce
because ‗an exchange is the basic unit of interaction‘ (Sinclair, 1975). So, the more the exchanges the
better the conversation is. This improvement is closely related to the idea of Bachman (1990: 84). He
states that students‘ mental capacity to implement their language competence in contextualized
communicative language use is needed to build their strategic competence. In the analysis, the
strategy appears as acknowledging move in elicit and Inform exchanges, and as eliciting move in
clarify exchange. Most of the students began to be more responsive to the teacher‘s questions, more
had tried to respond the teacher‘s questions, and their participation in pair work had been good. Their
involvement in pair work seemed better than their involvement in classroom activities. They felt free
to show their participation through working in pair. These data indicate that the students‘
involvement in teaching learning process had improved.
Students’ Conversation Exchanges in Classroom Conversation
In last meeting of the mid-term, the author tape recorded the students‘ conversation to be
transcribed and analyzed. The analysis of the students‘ conversation of the first cycle shows that
students had been able to converse with their pair based on the direction in the role-play card
distributed. Since one of the indicators of the improvement of students‘ participation in conversation
is the number of exchanges they could produce, the data can be summarized as follows:

No Numbers of Exchange Numbers of Pair

1 8 1(07%)
2 9 2 (14%)
3 10 4 (28%)
4 11 3 (21%)
5 12 3 (21%)
6 15 1 (07%)
Table 3.2: The Percentage of Students‘ Conversation Exchanges
It can be described that they could maintain their conversation more than 10 exchanges in average.
This number of had met the target of improvement targeted before. It implied that the author had
reinforced the students‘ concepts they have been exposed in the class convesation.
Students‘ Turn-Taking in Classroom Conversation
Based on the analysis of the recorded conversation, most of students had been able to
improve their own motivation to speak English as an utterance or marker to share their turns. As an
effort to take their turns, students learnt through talk in their video projects. They tried hard to make
their own input and demonstrate autonomy. They also utilize the knowledge they already had in
breaking their passive viewing habits. The data also showed that students‘ ability in managing their
turns to speak had gained improvement. The flow of their conversation began to be smoother even
though some incomplete exchanges still appeared in the transcript. The problems of the students‘
turn-taking were mostly caused by the current speaker‘s unawareness to distribute the turn to the next
speaker. And no data revealed that the problem caused by competing for the turn.
The improvement of students‘ turn-taking is also an indication of good participation in
conversation. If the participants of a conversation cannot manage their turns to speak, there will be
long pause or overlap. Yule (1998) states that long pause and overlap between turns are considered
awkward in a conversation. In accordance, Brett (2001) argues that learners‘ strategic competence
can be a problem solving in communication. Moreover, McCarthy (1991) states that conversation

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

participants should be able to provide responses of not taking turn when one has the opportunity.
There are signals to indicate that back-channel responses.
The students also claimed that learning speaking by using video projects motivated them to
improve and respond to others‘ statement or performance. It could be caused by the activities which
were conducted in the classroom. The students were not only required to think what to be uttered, but
also to understand other‘s utterances. It means that the students gained the opportunity to initiate oral
communication. It is not only conducting a dialog which had been previously prepared, but also
practicing the strategy in any possible situation. This statement is in accordance with Brown (2001)
who mentions that part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate conversations, to
nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversation and to change the subject. It means that in
communicative activities, it is important to strive for a classroom in which students feel comfortable
and confident, feel free to take risks and have sufficient opportunities to speak.
Students‘ Back-channeling in Classroom Conversation
Based on the data from the transcript of recorded conversation, few students had e
feed-backs or acknowledgments to their partner. It was also discovered that some students used other
devices as back-channels. It is supposed that the signals students make to give feedback to their
partner are likely to be unconscious. It can be transferred from students‘ L1 back-channeling. Based
on the data from the recording, some students also used back-channels like; okay, yeah, hmm, oh, I
see, no problem, etc. From the data above, it can be inferred that students made video projects can
be additional devices for students in back-channeling. The use of the strategy contributed to students‘
ability in giving back-channels to their partner in conversation.
The students liked if the teacher gave them opportunity to work in pair preparing a dialog to
be performed in front of the classroom. In addition, the students also admitted to use casual language
based on the situation given. Feedback and assessment from the teacher was also another factor that
motivated the students to improve their ability in speaking. It suggests that the teacher was able to
give appropriate feedback since in giving feedback, the adequate way and occasion should be taken
into consideration, how the teacher was able to correct the students without offending them. Even
though, the feedback was not only provided by the teacher, basically it was what the students
considered more. It is in relevance with Willing (1988) as cited in Nunan (1991) who states that in the
major investigation of the learning preference of learners, error correction by the teacher was one of
the most highly valued and desired classroom activities. Therefore, the fact that feedback given by
the teacher could motivate the students to speak indicated that the teacher could deliver her feedback
with proper ways. The increasing of students‘ motivation also influenced their involvement in
learning. From the observation result, it could be investigated that most of the activities were
dominated by the practice of language. It could come from the performance of the students
conducting conversation. In addition, the students believed that in the teaching and learning process,
the teacher had provided two-way communication which could help the students to be more
confident in speaking since this two-way communication could create a relax atmosphere in the
In the matter of their oral communication skill, the students mentioned in the interview that
they experienced the improvement in interacting with others, increasing self-confidence, and
showing their cooperation in speaking to others. It was in relevance with Murcia (1991) who states
that language students are considered successful if they can communicate effectively in their second
or foreign language. Therefore, the strategy provided the students‘ need to improve their oral
communication skill.

Basically, the ability in speaking was not only about the ability in say things a sophisticated
manner, but also to show participation, to maintain and develop conversation. The students claimed
that they appreciate for the video creation experience. The positive aspects about students created
video are; deeper learning; more enganging experience; more active learning; and more personal

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

involvment -by taking the ownership of their ability to acquire learning. Some of the students stated
that it helped them speaking because they did not need to get confused about what to say if they find
difficulties in managing conversation, and it could also broaden their knowledge. However, there
were still few students who mentioned that it confused them for its various functions. Since this
students video projects is not enough just to be known, students‘ opportunity to practice it is another
crucial thing to be considered. Therefore, it was kind of challenge for the teacher to improve their
teaching technique in order to avoid students‘ problems in their learning experience.

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Sinclair, J. McH and RM. Coulthard. (1975). Toward an Analysis of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford
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Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)



Ni Kadek Ary Susandi1, Ni Luh Putu Krishnawati2

Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Bali
(Institute of Health Sciences Bali)
Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Universitas Udayana
(English Department, Udayana University)

Language in the field of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is learnt to equip the learners for entry
into a more specific linguistic environment, thus the most prominent feature in ESP course design is
that the syllabus is based on an analysis of the students‘ needs (Basturkmen 2006). The aims of this
study are to explore the needs of nursing students, faculty members in the nursing department and
professional nurses to design an ESP syllabus for Indonesian nursing students; also to discuss the
implications for EFL teachers who teach English for Nurses. The needs analysis were conducted by
distributing questionnaires to and interviewing the respondents. The answers from the respondents
were analyzed based on comprehensive concept of need analysis proposed by Dudley-Evans and St.
John. The findings showed that most students consider themselves as poor in vocabulary and weak in
speaking, listening, writing and pronunciation. Hence, it is crucial to improve their skills to enable
them communicating effectively with foreign patients and avoiding misunderstanding which may
happen when interacting with foreign patients. The innovative ESP syllabus for Indonesian nurses
was then developed based on these findings and the theory of material development proposed by

Keywords: needs analysis, nursing students, ESP

Curriculum has been defined as an extensive statement of philosophy, purposes, design and
implementation of a whole language teaching program, whereas syllabus differs in that it refers more
specifically to the essential specifications and ordering of content within a course (Graves, 1996, as
cited in Basturkmen, 2006). Nevertheless, the processes of either curriculum or syllabus design both
involve the embracing of goals, methods and materials which may be specified in a lesson plan, be it
for future intentions or existing practices. The curriculum or syllabus is then designed based on a set
of values and beliefs about what students should learn. In any event, the curriculum or syllabus of a
tertiary institution should be inclusive of and in respond to the university's or college‘s graduate
capabilities framework.
The design of English for Specific Purpose (ESP) course can equip learners for professional
communication. Richardson (2001) stated that the ESP approach to language teaching is a response
to a number of practical matters, such as the need to prepare teaching materials to teach students who
have mastered the general English but then need to use English for a more specific working situation,
in this case, the nurses need to learn English in order to be able to communicate effectively with
foreign patients.
The background of the English course designed for the nursing field in Indonesia is cannot be
separated from the fact of Indonesia, especially Bali as a famous tourist destination. Bali local
government has been trying to improve its services not only by building its infrastructure, but also by
developing its people who involves in tourism and public services. One of its main concerns is the
health services for tourists and foreigners or expatriates who resides in Bali. There are several
international hospitals and clinics have been built for the past ten years, and the need of
English-speaking nurses then become very crucial and immediate.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Realizing the urgent needs of English-speaking nurses, an innovative syllabus of ESP is

needed to aid EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers in deciding what to teach and how to
implement the most suitable method to help learners achieving fulfilling learning experience.
According to Nicholls (1983, as cited in White, 1988), syllabus innovation can be considered as an
idea, object or practice, recognized as something new by individual(s), with the purpose to bring
about improvement to the current curriculum or syllabus. Innovation of a curriculum or syllabus is a
complex matter since it deals not only with the educational institution itself but also with the
individuals who are directly related to and affected by it, particularly teachers and learners (White,
The innovative syllabus presented in this paper is adapted from the existing syllabus of
English for Nurse of the Baccalaureate degree program and Diploma III (3 years) Nursing program in
the Institute of Health Sciences Bali (STIKES Bali). The innovation was implemented in order to
improve the current syllabus and more effectively to accomplish the goals of English language
teaching in this Institute. Although the current syllabus is fairly sufficient, according to the lecturers
involved, it is not entirely practical in terms of topic arrangement and is apparently difficult to
implement in classroom teaching. It is therefore important for improvements on the syllabus to be
made, so that a lack of suitability between the learner‘s needs and the items taught can be avoided,
and both teachers and learners can work together towards mutual goals.
Aims of Study
The study aims to address two main objectives:
1) To design an innovative ESP syllabus to improve Indonesian nursing students communicative
2) To discuss the implications for EFL teachers who teach English for Nurses.

English for Specific Purpose (ESP)
ESP is defined as ―an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and
method are based on the learner‘s reason for learning‖ (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987). ESP has a
long history in the field of language teaching, in which it was started in the 1960s when general
English course could not meet the needs of language learners. There are three common to the
emergence of ESP courses: the demands of Brave New World, a revolution in linguistics and focus
on the learner (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).
Celce-Murcia (2001) claimed that ESP is a movement based on the proposition that all
language teachings should be tailored to the specific learning and language use needs for identified
group of learners and also sensitive to the socio-cultural context in which these learners will use
English. ESP is generally known as a learner-centered approach, since it meets the needs of (mostly)
adult learners who need to learn a foreign language use in their specific fields, such as nursing,
science, technology, hospitality, academic learning, etc. Basturkmen (2006) stated that the most
prominent feature in ESP course design is that the syllabus based on analysis of the students‘ needs,
because in ESP language is learnt to equip the learners to entry a more specific linguistic
Needs Analysis
Needs analysis is generally considered the cornerstone of ESP course design
(Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998). It is the basis of language learning programs which leads to a
focused language learning course and aid the development and improvement on the programs.
Takaaki (2006) viewed needs analysis as a systematic collection and analysis of all relevant
information which meet the language learning requirements of learners within the context of
particular institutions involved in the learning situations.
A needs analysis includes all the activities used to collect information about the students,
learning needs, wants, etc. However, an issue in the students‘ needs analysis is that sometimes the
students do not know what they actually need. Kavaliauskiene and Uzpalience (2003) pointed out
that students often find it difficult to distinguish between the needs (the skills seen as being relevant
to himself/herself) and wants (the desired competence). One of some ways to find the students‘ needs

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

is by taking a survey or interviewing the lecturers involved, as the lecturers are more experienced
than the students and they also know better what the students‘ needs in order to be a professional
English-speaking nurse.
The process of needs analysis may also involves looking at the expectations and
requirements of other interested parties such as administrators, patients, employers and other people
who may be impacted by the language program. Moreover, having an expert in ESP area as a
consultant would also be very helpful to decide which the best is for the students. The information
gained from a needs analysis can be used to help the curriculum or syllabus developer to define
program goals. These goals can then be stated as specific teaching objectives, which in turn will
function as the foundation to develop lesson plans, materials, tests, assignments and activities.
Basically, a needs analysis serves as an aid to clarify the purposes of a language program. The
syllabus which designed based on the students‘ needs will have great relevance of what the students
Overview of the Current Syllabus
The nursing college has been highly committed to improve its students‘ abilities in using
English for communication. Consequently, several revisions on the syllabus had been carried out. In
2002 the revised curriculum required the students to take two semesters (Diploma program) and three
semesters (Bachelor program) of English as a compulsory subject; and based on the decision of the
Institute Foundation in 2006 English is now taught for three semesters in the diploma program and
four semesters in the Bachelor program. The additional English lesson is required in order to meet the
need for English-speaking nurses in tourist-friendly Bali. General English is offered for one - two
semesters in addition to two semesters of English for Nurses. The teaching-learning process is
conducted through several channels via lectures, seminars, discussions and clinical practice, with a
time allocation of six teaching hours per week (1 teaching hour is equal to 50 minutes).
The current ESP syllabus had been adapted from the syllabus of the School of Nursing of the
University of Indonesia. The syllabus presents a list of topics or themes which are based on the
communicative approach. As a result, English grammar and sentence patterns are not central aspects
of the language teaching and classroom materials and activities are often authentic so as to reflect the
real-life situations and demands present in nursing. For example, on the topic of checking vital signs,
a lesson will involve a series of meaning-based tasks followed by remedial teaching, rather than
being focused primarily on language. According to Richardson (2001), there are two kinds of tasks
which can be claimed as the basis in designing a task-based syllabus: pedagogical task and real-world
task. Real-world tasks are defined as those which are designed for learners ―to practise or rehearse
those activities that are found to be important in a needs analysis and that turn out to be important and
useful in the real world.‖ (Richardson, 2001: 162). A list of real nursing activities can be seen from
the syllabus items, such as Explaining medication, Asking and Showing Rooms in Hospital, Asking
and Reporting Health Problems, and so on.
The syllabus also has a functional/notional aspect. Brumfit and Finocchiaro (1983) stated
that the communicative purpose of a speech act is the major prominence in a functional/notional
approach which focuses on what people want to achieve through speech. This is illustrated within the
theme Establishing Relationship, in which the purpose is to teach students how to develop a
relationship with a patient, and so is taught by focusing on the language functions involved, such as
greetings and self-introductions.

The research used both quantitative and qualitative methods and was carried out to explore a
learner-centred specialized English curriculum for Indonesian EFL Nursing students. Quantitative
method was used to gain information from all respondents (nursing students, nursing lecturers and
professional nurses); meanwhile the qualitative method (interview) was used to gain more insight
from the professional nurses regarding the use of English in their daily life as a nurse in hospitals or
other health centres.


Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

The participant of this study were forty-one Indonesian nursing students selected randomly.
Twenty-one students were from the Bachelor Program and another twenty students were from the
Diploma Program in a tertiary institution, STIKES Bali, Denpasar, Indonesia. All students are native
speakers of Bahasa Indonesia, and have been learning English since junior high school for at least six
years. In addition to students, two teaching staffs and five professional nurses were also involved as
The participants were selected due to convenient accessibility and proximity to the
researchers. In addition, one of the researchers is an EFL teaching staff in this Institute (not involve as
participant of this study) and the innovation was implemented in order to improve the current
syllabus and more effectively to accomplish the goals of English language teaching in this Institute.
The data was collected from multiple sources, including the students, teaching staffs and
professional nurses to provide different points of view which enable the researchers to look at things
from a variety of perspectives for more comprehensive understanding on the matters investigated
(Wiersma and Jurs, 2009). For this study, there is one set of questionnaire used and distributed to all
respondents. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: (a) personal information of
respondents; (b) identification of current strength and weakness of their English proficiency; (c)
identification of the degree of importance of nursing skills/activities; and (d) identification of topics
that would interest the respondents.
Their responses on the section about their English proficiency were measured by five-point
scale, ranging from ―very weak‖ to ―very good‖; and on the section about the importance of nursing
activities, their responses were also measured by five-point scale ranging from ―little important‖ to
―highly important‖. On the section about the topics that interesting to them, their responses were
measured by a three-point scale ranging from ―It is not helpful‖ to ―It is important and it‘s interesting
to learn more about it‖.
An additional set of open questions was given to the professional nurses. Each interviewee
was asked five questions. Upon the implementation of the new syllabus, teachers were also given an
open question to gain information on the implication for them in designing classroom activities. All
interviews were carried out in both English and Indonesian to eliminate any possible
The needs analysis for innovation of the current syllabus was conducted by providing
questionnaires to the students in the classrooms and the questionnaire for nurses and lecturers were
sent through e-mail. The students‘ objective needs (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987), which are defined
as the language-related tasks and activities, was not included since the current syllabus had initially
been designed based on this analysis, through global observation on course lectures, labs, clinical
visits as well as through discussions with the academic staff. Thus in order to bring about innovation
to the current syllabus, the subjective needs (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987) were gathered and
determined by the analysis of student questionnaires, specifically students‘ opinions of the degree of
importance of each lesson topic and whether or not the topic is of interest to them.
In addition, target-situation analysis (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987) was also conducted
through phone and e-mail interview to five employed nurses in public hospital and private
international hospitals in Bali in order to ascertain the real target situation and activities as well as the
frequency of using English for communication in the target environment.
The data obtained from the needs analysis was interpreted to find out what learners would
want to learn from this module as well as their views on the current syllabus which is used in the
nursing college. This includes feedback from experts such as nurses in the hospital as well as
lecturers who teach this module.


Quantitative Data from the Questionnaire

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

The following section outlines the results from the questionnaire, which is divided into two
parts. The first part presents the participants‘ personal information and English proficiency (table 1
and 2). The second part describes the data about the topics needed and wanted by nurses to be
included in the ESP course (table 3 and 4).
Table 1 shows the personal information of the respondents (students and nurses).
Frequency Percentage

1. Gender Female 37 80.4 %

Male 9 19.6 %
2. Age 19 – 21 40 87 %
22 – 24 3 6.5 %
25 – 28 3 6.5 %

3. Studied English (English for Yes 46 100 %

Nurse) previously No - -
4. Make efforts to improve Yes 36 78.3 %
English No 10 21.7 %
5. Frequency of practicing English Not at all 11 23.9 %
outside of campus or work / 1 – 2 hours 27 58.7 %
week 3 – 5 hours 5 10.9 %
More than 5 hours 3 6.5%

Table 1 provides the personal information of students and nurses. Most of them are female
(80.4%), ranging from nineteen to twenty two years old for students and twenty two to twenty eight
years old for the professional nurses. All of them have studied English for Nurse previously, however
only 78.3% who make efforts to improve their English. Majority also stated that they practice English
outside campus or work (76.1%), ranging from one to more than 5 hours per week.

Table 2 illustrates what the students identified as their strength and weaknesses towards their English
Very weak Weak Fair Good Very

Grammar 12.2 % 31.7 % 46.3 % 9.8 % -

Vocabulary - 24.4 % 51.2 % 24.4 % -
Pronunciation - 22 % 43.9 % 34.1 % -
Speaking - 17.1 % 56.1 % 26.8 % -
Listening 2.4 % 34.1 % 36.6 % 24.4 % 2.4 %
Reading - 12.2 % 24.4 % 63.4 % -
Writing 9.8 % 24.4 % 39 % 26.8 % -

The data provided on table 2 describes that majority of students identifying their ability in
speaking and listening, mastering grammar, vocabularies, pronunciation and writing needs to be
improved. The students feel confidence with their English only on the Reading skill, in which 63.4%
identifies themselves as ―good‖ in Reading.

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Table 3 ranks the nursing activities / skills that the respondent think as important
Students Nurses Teaching
Activities / Skills Staff

Social skills 82.9% 80% 100%

Interaction with patients 78.1% 100% 100%
Administering medication 78% 80% 100%
Giving advice 73.2 % 100% 100%
Cultural differences 73.2% 80% 100%
Interpreting medical terminologies / 73.2% 100% 100%
Interaction with fellow co-workers 70.7% 80% 100%
Report writing 70.7% 80% 100%
Presentation skills 65.8% 100% 100%
Giving instruction effectively 63.4% 100% 100%
Inquiring skills 63.4% 60% 100%
Reading and interpreting reports, prescription 60.9% 80% 100%
charts, etc.

Table 3 reveals that skills related to communication are the skills that the students think as
more important compared to others. Social skills, interaction with patients, administering
medication, giving advice and talking about cultural differences are those on the top of the list. These
findings corroborate the findings gained from the professional nurses and teaching staffs.
In addition to speaking skill, interpreting medical terminologies is also considered to be very
important by students, nurses and teaching staffs. On the other hand, inquiring skills which are
considered to be highly important by teaching staffs apparently is not highly important according to
the professional nurses and students. This could be because nurses in hospitals mostly doing the same
routine procedures on a daily basis, thus requiring new skills are something rare to do and then
considered to be less important.
Table 4 illustrates the topics that interesting to them and want to be included in the ESP
Students Nurses Teaching
Topics staff

Giving injection 87.8% 80% 50%

Applying an infusion 87.8% 80% 100%
Body parts 85.4% 80% 100%
Patient Assessment 3: eyes and ears 85.4% 80% 50%
Asking and reporting health problems 80.5% 60% 100%
Taking the lab sample 2: sputum, faces, urine 80.5% 80% 100%
and phlegm sample
Pronunciation and description of medical 78% 80% 50%
Taking the lab sample 1: blood sample 78% 80% 100%

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Patient Assessment 2: nose, sinus, mouth and 78% 80% 100%

Giving directions 75.6% 80% 100%
Inquiring and explaining vital signs 75.6% 60% 100%
Explaining medication to patients 73.2% 80% 100%
Asking the dimension of symptom 73.2% 80% 100%
Promoting Hygiene 1: complete bathing 73.2% 60% 100%

Sharing observation 73.2% 80% 100%

Starting intervention 70.7% 80% 100%
Patient Assessment 1: head, face and neck 70.7% 80% 100%

Promoting Hygiene 2: oral hygiene and 70.7% 60% 50%

denture care
Promoting Hygiene 3: assisting with 70.7% 60% 50%
elimination (bowel movement and
Explaining diet programs to patients 68.3% 80% 50%
Building relationship with patients 65.9% 80% 100%
Giving instructions / guidance to patients 63.4% 80% 50%
who need crutch walk.
Discharge instruction 61% 80% 50%
Filling up forms; e.g.: pain assessment form. 58.5% 80% 50%

General duties of a nurse 51.2% 80% 50%

Obtaining personal data for admitting 48.8% 60% 100%
Introduction and objective of this module 48.8% 80% 50%

Ensuring mutual understanding 43.9% 60% 100%

General assessment: collecting demographic 43.9% 60% 100%
data and health status
Description of time, date and doctor‘s 41.5% 100% 100%

There are twenty five topics among thirty topics that are considered to be interesting and
wanted by most students to be included in the ESP course (51.2% and above). Topics that seemed to
be less interesting to the students are: obtaining personal data for admitting patients; introduction of
module; ensuring mutual understanding; collecting demographic data and health status; also
description of time, date and doctor‘s schedule. Further investigation is needed to elicit the reason
behind this opinion; however, there is a possibility that students have had enough knowledge on these
topics and poses relatively good English for these topics, thus learning these topics become less
interesting to them.
Result from the Interview
A set of additional questions was given to five professional nurses through e-mail. In
addition, interview through telephone calls was also conducted in order to get more detailed
information. Four nurses reported that they serve a foreign patient every day. Their patients come
from many different countries such as Australia, UK, USA, Holland, Austria, Japan, India and Arab.
The nurses explained that conversation with foreign patients mostly deal with general nursing care
such as obtaining information about the patient‘s personal data and medical history (to fill the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

patients‘ record), explaining medications, explaining procedures such as laboratory tests, X-Ray and
checking vital signs.
One nurse who work in a government-owned mental hospital mentioned that she doesn‘t
serve foreign patient every day, because there are not so many foreign patients who are hospitalized
in the mental hospital. However, she have had the experience in handling several foreign patients
previously and during the patients‘ hospitalization, she had to communicate with the patients on a
daily basis for nurse-patient counseling session. The patients came from Bulgaria, Russia and
Argentina. The foreign patients that she had took care of were suffering from bipolar disorder.
All five nurses also reported that they feel excited when communicating with foreign
patients. They enjoy talking to patients and they have enough confidence because their English
proficiency is good enough. The only problem that they have when interacting with foreign patients
is pronunciation. Sometimes, they have the difficulty in understanding the patients due to the
patients‘ pronunciation. Patients who are not the native speakers of English and especially those who
use English as a foreign language (EFL) often pronounce English words incorrectly. There are also
foreign patients who do not speak English well enough and often cannot understand what the nurse
say, thus misunderstanding commonly happen under these circumstance.


The learning-centered approach was adopted to present the planning stage of designing the
innovative syllabus. The approach was also used to collaborate with the core of an ESP module
which focuses on the specific needs learners require in the learning process. The evaluation will be an
important aspect as learners‘ performances which can be obtained through performance-based tests
and feedback will be required to give a more qualitative perspective on the effectiveness of the
curriculum once it is implemented.
Material Development for the ESP Syllabus
Material development in teaching ESP is very essential; it shows the creativity and the
awareness of the teacher towards the subject. Materials can be defined as anything or any source that
can be used to assist the student in the process of language learning. It can be textbooks, workbooks,
audio video, photocopied handouts, paper cutting or anything that informs the language being
learned (Tomlinson, 2008). Material too can also be in the form of instructional, experiential,
elucidative or exploratory (Tomlinson, 2008).
In designing the material, the designer has to ensure that the material meets the needs of the
learners. Harding (2007, 10-11) suggested three recommendations to consider in designing the
1) Use context, texts, and situations from the student‘ subject area – whether they are real or
stimulated they will naturally involve the language the student need.
2) Exploit authentic materials that students use in their specialism or vocation – do not put off by the
fact that it may look like ‗normal English‘.
3) Make the task authentic as well as the tasks – get the student doing things with the materials that
they actually need to do in their work.
In the case of nursing students, the materials used for these students are materials integrated
with the real world situation, their working situation as nurses in hospital or other health centers.
However with the limited amount of time in each meeting, designing an appropriate material and
syllabus for the proposed time frame are relatively complicated.
The findings on this study revealed that it is necessary to improve the students‘ English
proficiency (see Table 2). The first English proficiency that needs to be improved is the speaking
skill. Students identified that their speaking skill is not good enough; mostly answered that their
speaking ability is weak and fair (73.2%). Further, it was also found that the important nursing skills
according to the students are those which require communication with foreign patients (see table 3).
During their working hours, communicating to the patient is a must in order to administer
medication, give advice and/or obtain and deliver any information regarding the condition of the
patient. Thus, it is obvious that students need to improve their speaking skill in order to be able to
interact with their future patients.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

In addition to thirty topics included on the current syllabus, some students suggested that the
topic ―Referring patient‖ should be included in the course. Referring patient is transferring a patient
to another hospital due to some reasons; for instance because of the lack of facility in the hospital or
the availability of specialized doctor for a specific case.
When, this kind of situation emerges, nurses must be able to communicate with the patient
effectively to avoid misunderstanding and bad effect on patient‘s psychology. Therefore in order to
improve their speaking skill, especially concerning ―Referring patient‖, it would be important to add
the topic on ―politeness‖ and ―apologizing‖. These two topics will aid student to express their
apology towards patient who needs to be referred to a different hospital due to the lack of facility in
the hospital or other reasons.
Research findings also show that listening is also one of important skills to be improved.
Listening is essential because communication will not happen as it should when nurses could not
listen to their patients correctly. Nurses have to deal with many patients from all over the world with
different accent. Generally, Indonesians are familiar with American and Australian accents but have
difficulties in understanding other English accents. The teaching staffs currently use the
medical-related audio tape and video to teach English for Nurse. Most of the listening materials only
expose students to American and British accent and the numbers are quite limited. To fulfill the needs
of students, a wide range of collection for audio and video is significantly needed. In order to solve
the accent issues, a specific task will be designed for students. Student are assigned to look for
foreigners whose second language is English and bring them to class. In the classroom, students and
the foreigner will do a role play such as nurse-patient conversation and students will have to take a
note for words they cannot hear well and/or understand. It will be a group task and the student will do
it for 3 weeks (2 meetings per week), in which there will be 3 groups doing the role play each week.
This task will also aid students in practicing correct pronunciation. Integrating the pronunciation
practice with speaking and listening practice through a role play is a good scenario. Students can
directly know whether or not they have pronounce the words correctly when the foreigner cannot
understand them. The foreigner will be the indicator in assessing the pronunciation of the student.
Further, the third English proficiency that needs to be improved is the writing skill. Based on
the result describes on table 2, majority of students identifying their ability in mastering grammar and
writing is not good enough. 12.2% students reported that their grammar knowledge is very weak and
9.8% students said that their writing skill is very weak. In the real working world, nurses will have to
write down patient assessments, such as patient‘s health history and physical assessment; also
writing some reports in English. Students realize that their capability in grammar is weak, thus it is
crucial to improve their ability in grammar. Composing a good writing and using the right grammar
will avoid misunderstanding and minimalize the incident of wrong report and/or diagnosis. In order
to improve the writing and grammar skills, topics regarding writing for description and expositor
writing will be developed. It is expected with this two new topics student will be able to write an
explanatory text describing and providing information not only to patients but more importantly to
their fellow nurses and doctors. Some tasks to fill in some reports will also be given to enrich their
vocabularies, especially the medical terminologies and abbreviations.
Assessment is divided into two types of tests, a discrete point test and performance test. The
discrete-point test has a constructed response format, and is conducted in order to assess several
components of English knowledge, such as reading comprehension and listening (McNamara, 2000).
On the other hand, the performance test demonstrates real language performance in writing and
speaking skills. The writing test could be conducted by giving the students a particular task, such as
writing a brief nursing report. The speaking test could be set as a role-play test held in a nursing
laboratory, in order to create a real-world nursing situation, as well as to give the opportunity for the
students to perform and communicate while performing typical nursing procedures.
Implication to teachers and suggested solutions
As with any new development in an already-existing curriculum, it would not be realistic to
assume that a change – innovative or otherwise – would automatically proceed without
complications. After the implementation of the innovative syllabus in the classroom teaching,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

teachers were interviewed in order to gain information on the positive sides of the syllabus and
whether they experienced any difficulty in implementing the new syllabus in the classroom setting.
One obvious issue stated by the teachers that a significant problem within the new
curriculum is that concerning the fairly large number of students that will be present within a single
classroom (around fifty per class). Considering that the curriculum is geared towards being one that
is highly communicative in nature in terms of role plays and discussions – among others – it would be
ideal (as it would be in any learning situation) to get every student involved and participating in all
the activities. Given that this is already a problem even with much smaller class sizes, and taking
further into account the cultural context that the curriculum will be implemented in, the practical
concerns are considerable.
Large numbers of learners within a single classroom is not an uncommon issue in any
learning situation. The most common solution is to hold group activities so as to minimise time as
well as effort on the teacher‘s part. The problem with this, however, is that often not all learners get
the opportunity to truly be involved in the class activities, as there will most likely be learners who
are more dominant and will ‗take charge‘ of the task and hence carry out all the work, as well as those
individuals who are more than happy to let the other group members be more actively involved. One
possible method to prevent this, however, is to appoint one student to be the spokesperson of a
particular group on a rotational basis, so that there will be different ‗leaders‘ of a group each week or
class period. This way, by the end of the term or semester, all students will have been actively
involved and interacting with other course-mates. This particular method is really good to be
implemented in the speaking listening class; it will ease the teacher‘s job in assessing the student and
knowing the development of each student.
This will be in contrast when it comes with teaching writing for a large number of students.
The teachers reported that this is a significant issue since writing involved a detail assessment in
order to know the development of the learners‘ writing skill. The assessments include communicative
aims, range of vocabulary, accuracy and organization. The possible method to be applied in the
writing class is by conducting two follow up sessions. The first session will look at the issue
concerning students writing performance in class. Students will be given a topic and hits on how to
compose a good writing. The second session will be conducted by selecting 10 pieces of writing with
different level of mistake as a representation of the works. This session will give the learners the
opportunity to discuss the writing issues further. Applying this method will give a great implication
to teachers; it will show a steady improvement of the writing result.

The purposes of changing an existing syllabus are many and varied, but two of the more
commonly referred purposes are that of adapting the material to the real needs as well as interests of
both teachers and learners alike, and also to bring the material up to date in terms of current theories
and also degree of authenticity.
McGrath (2002) makes the further point of adapting the material according to what he terms
as appropriacy and also to transform the learning environment into one which motivates the learner
and leads to higher levels of achievement. The innovation developed on behalf of the existing
curriculum at STIKES Bali was developed according to these principles and although the results and
hence true effectiveness of the new syllabus can only be observed upon its overall implementation, it
is hoped that these purposes were indeed met within all aforementioned areas.

Basturkmen, H. Ideas and Options in English for Specific Purposes. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates Publishers. 2006.
Brumfit, C. & Finocchiaro M. The Functional-Notional Approach: From Theory to Practice. New
York: Oxford University Press. 1983
Celce-Murcia, M. Language Teaching Approaches: An Overview. In Calce-Murcia, M. (Ed.).
Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 2001

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Dudley-Evans T. & St. John, M. J. Developments in English for Specific Purposes: A

Multi-diciplinary Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 1998.
Harding, K. English for Specific Purposes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2007.
Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A. English for specific purposes: A learning-centred approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1987.
Kavaliauskiene, G. & Uzpalience, D. ―Ongoing Needs Analysis as a Factor to Successful Learning‖.
Journal of Language and Learning, 1.1 (2003): 1-6.
McGrath, I. Materials Evaluation and Design for Language Teaching. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press. 2002.
McNamara, T. Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2000.
Richards, J.C. Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. 2001.
Takaaki, K. ―Construct Validation of a General English Language Needs Analysis Instrument‖.
Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 10.2 (2006): 1-9.
Tomlinson, B. English Language Teaching Materials. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
White, R. V. The ELT Curriculum. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Ltd. 1988.
Wiersma, W. & Jurs, S. G. Research Methods in Education an Introduction. Boston: Pearson
International Edition. 2009.

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ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9



Ni Ketut Ayu Widianingsih1), Ingatan Gulö2)


STBA Teknokrat

Grammatical rule is among other difficulties found in the process of learning other languages. this
truth also applies to those who are studying english in different levels of education. second
language learners usually make mistakes in certain grammatical rules. this research aimed to
identify and analyse such grammatical difficulties in order to give a contribution to the study of
linguistics and help students in identifying grammatical errors commonly made by second language
learners of english. the data taken for the purpose of this research were from second language
students. the writings of the students were copied both from them and from their teachers to be
analysed. reading the papers to find grammatical errors was the first thing to do. after under lining
those mistakes, the next step was to take notes on the kinds of the errors found. this led the
present researchers to group the data into smaller classifications, based on the characteristics the
data showed. the data were then analysed in details in order to answer the research question. the
result of this research shows that the major kinds of errors made by the students are related to plural
markers, articles, verbs, and tenses. hopefully these findings would be beneficial to those studying and
teaching english to l2 learners.
Keywords: article, grammatical error, plural marker, tense, verb agreement

As English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia, it has generally been learned by
students since they were in basic levels of education. Most of the teaching process focuses on
mastering the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. All of the skills are to be
improved in the process of learning English. Emmaryana (2010) emphasizes that in the process of
learning English, writing ability is the most difficult and complicated language skill to be learned
almost by the students in every level of education. In addition to that, another author says that for the
most part, within the classroom, any mention of grammar causes the student moments of discomfort
and sometimes even terror (Al-Mekhlafi, 2011).
Because grammar has so far become one of problems faced by second language learners when
studying other languages, the researchers were interested in digging out English grammatical issues
that the students are having difficulties with. The purpose was to pose those difficulties to researchers
and teachers so that further research could be done either to find the factors or to take action to
overcome the problems.
In the effort of language learners studying other languages, there have been problems and
theories found as well as other issues coming therewith (Bhela, 1999; Galasso, 2002; Lekova, 2010).
Thus, dealing with students with this problems at the university level brought the present researchers
to find out specific grammatical difficulties they encounter in their effort to learn English as their
second language.


This research is a decriptive qualitative one based on the theories set forth by Pit Corder and
Larry Selinker (Lightbown, 2011: 79-81). However, the aim of the research was not to predict further
difficulties like the ones done by those holding Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis or CAH (Henderson,
1985; Yu, 2011), but to simply find out the errors made by the language learners. Thus, the notion of

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

difference between errors and mistakes was not addressed specifically in this research. It focuses more
on error analysis theory in its nature.
The data sources were naturally written materials copied from both students and teachers of
third and fourth year students studying at a foreign language college. The writings were about the
students‘ general opinion about what was going on around them in the society. Having the data source
copied, the researchers began to read and collect relevant data related to the mistakes or errors the
students made. After that, the researchers classified the data gathered into similar characteristics they
had. The last step was to analyse the data in order to formulate the findings. having the data processed
systematically, the researchers prepared to report the result in an analytical, descriptive-qualitative


Among the mistakes found from the data the researchers have analysed, below are the issues
occuring the most. They cover issues about plurality, articles or determiners, verbs, and tenses.
Plural Markers
One of the problems found related to plural markers is the omission of the linguistic element
that marks the plurality of a given noun. Some examples are presented in the following.
[1] Many Indonesian ....
[2] ... already seven month.
[3] There are so many cultural aspect that we need to consider.
Seen from the data presented above, the students did not put the plural marker -s where it is
necessary like in the ends of Indonesian in [1], month in [2], and aspect in [3]. According to English
grammatical rules, the words used here should be Indonesians, months, and aspects respectively. In
addition to this common issue of plural markers, the data processed also show that the learners face
this kind of difficulty in irregular plural markers, indicated by clauses [4] and [5] in the following
[4] There are many child ....
[5] They became career woman ....
Linguistic elements like are and many in [4] and They in [5] require the nouns child and woman
in plural forms children and women. However, the data found revealed that many students failed to
realise this rule correctly. There is another case that attracted the researchers‘ attention during the data
analysis process; examples are given below in [6] through [8].
[6] I am a Javanese people.
[7] ... a useful things.
[8] This words is very essential.
It is interesting that in their effort to apply the grammatical rules that they know, there are
students who use the plural markers incorrectly. While in data [1] through [5] above they omitted or,
in this case, did not add the plural marker -s, they used it incorrectly in [6], [7], and [8]. In the first
datum from the group above, the plural noun people should be either replaced by a singular noun
person or completely omitted from the sentence. In the second, the presence of the article a indicates
that the noun things should be singular. In the last datum, the words This and is suggest that the plural
marker in words is not needed. This increases the varieties of difficulties the students encounter akin
to plurality.
From the data gathered for the purpose of answering the question underlying this research, it
was found that the students, in their effort to learn English as their foreign language, have difficulties
in using determiners. The first type of mistake is related to the learners‘ ability in referring to a fact, an
object, an idea, or a person that has already been introduced in the discourse and in introducing a new

[9] Some years ago I saw the man walking....

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At glance, the clause in [9] is well-formed. However, the context from which the datum was
taken does not show any indication that the noun man being talked about has been previously
discussed. The student here is introducing the person for the first time. It is then obvious that the
presence of determiner the here is not needed. The data presented below are still about determiners but
with another type of mistake.
[10] ... because in the end, the women will have to stay at home.
[11] It is one of the negative culture ....
[12] ... able to make decision in wise way.
In datum [10], the student is talking, from context, about women in general. This means that
there is no any intention to refer to certain group of women. So, the determiner the before the plural
noun women causes the clause to be ill-formed. Datum number [11] is in a similar case with the
previous one. A determiner is used before the phrase negative culture where it is not grammatically
necessary. In addition to that, the phrase‘s head culture has to be in plural form.
[13] I think this is a something bad ...
That in [13] is provided here as it shows another type of mistake made by the students in their
writings. The word something in the construction implies that the article a should not be there. Cases
found during the research process reveal the tendency of the learners to make a lot of mistakes related
to the usage of determiners.
Verbs or Predicates
Grammatical difficulties encountered by the students about verbs seen from the data are often
in relation to other issues like tenses and syntactic categories. The term predicate is employed by the
writers here in relation to terms of Indonesian syntactic function as the learners‘ linguistic
background. Some of errors are brought forward in the data below.
[14] Actually my father tired.
Among typical difficulties encountered by the students related to how verbs are used is the
absence of verbs. This often occurs in nominal sentences or constructions. In [14] above, the possible
verb was or to be is not inserted by the student between the subject my father and the complement
tired. Another case found is demonstrated by constructions [15] and [16] in the following cluster.
[15] I don‘t patient to go there.
[16] I asking to my father, ....
In contrary to the case discussed in number [14], these two data contain linguistic elements
that might be considered by the students as verbs used correctly. However, although [15] contains
don‘t as an element that is usually used with verbs, there is no verb in the sentence. The other
construction in [16] has asking as a word possible to be counted as verb but it is in an incorrect form.
Among possible corrections, putting asking in its simple past form asked is the most acceptable one to
make it a grammatically accurate clause. The following data also contain problems about verbs but it
is more about the agreements between the subjects and the verbs.
[17] Maybe it‘s look silly but ...
[18] These has the same perspective.
[19] It also help Indonesia ....
Datum [17], for example, has its verb look but the letter s, which should structurally be placed
with the verb, was misplaced and attached to the previous word. In this form, it‘s look or it is look is
ungrammatical in the construction. Number [18] and [19] prove that the students sometimes use
incorrect form of a verb or violate the subject-verb agreement rules. In other words, they use has
where it has to be have and help where it has to be helps or helped.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Problems with tenses were also found a lot from the data sources. Most of the time, the
students used present tense to express distinctions of time. Five examples are elaborated in the
In [20], the student made two mistakes related to tense; first with is which should be was and
second with want which should be wanted. The data in [21] and [22] also demonstrate the same issue
in which am and is are used for was. Using simple past form is the right choice here as the propositions
in the clauses refer to the past. The action expressed by the verb learn in [23] should be learned
because it is about a past event but the student used the present form instead.
Related to the notion of tenses, in many cases, students will have to be able to identify whether
certain clauses should be in present or past tenses. That in number [24], for instance, needs a logical
understanding that the action in the clause was in the past, so the verb became is the correct form.
[20] That is me. I always want to ask questions.
[21] When I am a child, ...
[22] Who is the first fisherman?
[23] After I learn to read ...
[24] This thought become philosophy because ...
Apart from the common mistakes above, it is not impossible that the learners will use a past
form where they need to use the present. The sentence below shows this kind of tendency. The verb
knew is used instead of know.
[25] We knew a lot of cultures.
This sentence looks acceptable grammatically at glance, but it is not when the context is
brought into discussion. The researchers looked at the context in which the sentence was used and
found out that the student was talking about the fact that we nowadays know various cultures. Other
data also show the same problem with tenses.

The representations of the errors elaborated above underline grammatical difficulties
encountered by the students in learning English as their second language. The researchers tend to hold
that the difficulties, like the lack of subject-verb agreement, plural markers, or rules related tenses,
might be caused by the linguistic backgrounds of the learners but as the objective of this research was
to simply identify the difficulties the students face, the researchers would leave the questions related
to factors of and predictions about the errors for further research. English teachers and researchers,
however, have to be aware of the issues brought up here so that solutions might be found or emphases
could be made in order to minimize the mistakes and maximize the learning process.

Al-Mekhlafi, A.M. dan R.P. Nagaratnam. ―Difficulties in Teaching and Learning grammar in an ElF
Context.‖ International Journal of Instruction (2009): Vol. 4(2), 69-92.
Bhela, Baljit. ―Native Language Interference in Learning a Second Language.‖ International
Education Journal (1999): Vol. 1(1), 22-31.
Fajariani, Emmaryana. An Analysis in the Grammatical Error in Students' Writings. Jakarta: Syarif
Hidayatullah State Islamic University, 2010.
Galasso, Joseph. Interference in Second Language Acquisition: A Review of the Fundamental
Diference Hypothesis. Northridge: California State University, 2002.
Henderson, Michael M.T. ―The Interlanguage Notion.‖ Journal of Modern Language Learning
(1985): Vol. 21, 23-27.
Lekova, B. ―Language Interference and Methods of Its Overcoming in Foreign language Teaching.‖
Trakia Journal Sciences (2010): Vol. 8(3), 320-324.
Lightbown, Pasy M. dan Nina Spada. How Language Are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
Yu, Weihua. ―A Review of Studies of the Role of Native Language.‖ Journal of Language Teaching
and Reasearch (2011): Vol.2(2), 441-444, March 2001.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9



Nindy Chairani1), Zulhermindra2), Yulnetri3)

IAIN Batusangkar
IAIN Batusangkar
IAIN Batusangkar

One of many roles of English teachers in the classroom is facilitating communication. An indication
that communication has been facilitated is the expansion of student talk. Expansion is a type of
clause complex in logio-semantic relation of Systemic Functional Linguistics (Halliday and
Matthiessen, 2014). However, in spite of many theories which promote the importance of student
talk, classroom discourse is still dominated by English teachers. Phenomena which commonly found
are the English teachers use mother-tongue language with the students, talk too much, and do not
provide students sufficient time to response their statements and questions. Consequently, students
use their mother tongue freely and give a single word or phrase in responding the teacher. However,
brighter phenomena happened in two senior high schools in Tanah Datar Regency. Expanded
student talk could be observed because the English teachers applied certain strategies. This paper
aimed to describe strategies applied by English teachers in expanding student talk in classroom
interaction. This paper employed qualitative method. The data were taken from interview result from
14 students 3 English teachers from two state senior high schools in Tanah Datar. To check the data
trustworthiness, the source triangulation was employed. The result of this study revealed that there
were eleven strategies applied by the English teachers: (1) Giving motivation, (2) Stating
expectation, (3) Establishing rapport, (4) Giving meaningful feedback, (5) Holding discussion based
activity, (6) Using interesting material, (7) Using understandable English language, (8) Asking
referential question, (9) Establishing supportive environment, (10) Using body language, and (12)
Extending wait time.

Keywords: Teacher‘s Strategies, Student Talk, Expanding Language, Classroom Interaction.

Studies on classroom communication and interaction have repeatedly shown that classroom
interaction is often dominated by teacher. Precisely, teacher talk makes up for about 70 % of
classroom talk (Nunan: 1991, Xiao-Yan: 2006). Excessive amount of teacher talk can result some
negative effects on students. If the teacher spends large amount of time for talking, students become
passive and student talk will be restricted (Xiao-Yan, 2006; Kareema, 2014).
Meanwhile, it is crucial for students to get ample opportunity to use the target language in English as
Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. In case of students, since they do not live in an English-speaking
environment, they only use English in the classroom, and the language is not used at their home.
Therefore, students should be provided an environment in which students can contribute to learning
activities and maximize their use of the language. The potential environment and perfect chance to
practice the target language is in the classroom interaction.
However, preliminary research conducted in some senior high schools in Batusangkar has
not yet showed expansion of student talk. Students rarely raised hands to answer teacher‘s question
or even proposed questions to the teacher. If a question was given by the teacher, the question was
translated to Bahasa Indonesia soon without giving students time to think it in English and the
English teacher even answered his own questions. Therefore, student talk that could be observed
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

during the class was only chorus answer resulted from teacher‘s close ended question or one single
word or phrase which was resulted from teacher‘s question in Bahasa Indonesia.
Another observation in SMA X in Batusangkar, Tanah Datar regency, showed inverse phenomena.
During an English class, it could be observed that the students could expand their talk. It could be
seen from students‘ willingness to speak English, students‘ frequency in proposing questions in
English to their teacher, students‘ courage to answer questions from the teacher, and students‘
participation which was almost even. The most important thing is they could elaborate their talk by
using conjunctions and details. The most common conjunctions used by the students are: and, also,
but, I mean, for example, and etcetera.
The researcher also had taken note on the students‘ name who have been expanded their talk.
After the class, the researcher interviewed them one by one. The researcher asked them what make
them could elaborate their talk. From the result of interview, the researcher got an interesting result.
The students kept on mentioning the way of their current English teacher in teaching English as a
factor that make them talk more in the classroom. Because of this repeated answer, the researcher is
eager to know about what strategies applied by this English teacher in expanding student talk in
classroom interaction. Therefore, this research investigates strategies applied by english teachers in
expanding student talk in classroom interaction that may initiate students to use English actively in
the classroom.


Expansion System of Student Talk
Boyd and Rubin (2006: 2) define student talk as student‘s oral output or a student‘s verbal
production. Meanwhile, Mulyati (2013: 3), defines students talk as the language that is used by the
children to interact with the teacher or their peers in classroom interaction. In conclusion, student talk
can be defined as student language which is meant to converse or discuss with their teacher or peers
in the classroom interaction which is done for educational purpose.
Expansion system is a type of clause complex in logio-semantic relation of Systemic
Functional Linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004). There are three ways of expanding the
language. They are elaboration, extension, and enhancement of the language which is realized
through conjunction system. In this study, the expansion systems are used as theoritical based for
finding out the lingusitic features of how student talk has been elaborated, extended, or enhanced.
The main idea of elaboration is one clause elaborates on the meaning of another by further
specifying or describing it (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2014: 460). Indication of elaborated language
is the use of: in other words, that is (to say), I mean (to say), for example, for instance, thus, at least,
by the way, anyway, in particular, to resume, briefly, and actually. In extension, one clause extends
the meaning of another by adding something new to it (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2014: 471). The
conjunctions that commonly appeared in extended conversation are and, also, moreover, in addition,
nor, but, yet, and on the other hand. In enhancement, one clause enhances the meaning of another by
qualifying it in one of a number of possible ways: by reference to time, place, manner, cause or
condition (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2014: 476). The commonly found conjuctions in enhanced
student talk are then, next, afterwards, until, at the same, before, after, a while, likewise, similarly, in
a different way, so, then, therefore, consequently, hence, because of that, for, in consequence, as a
result, if, it, not, otherwise, yet, still, and even though.

Teacher’s Strategies in Expanding Student Talk

Jones and Barlett (n.d. :164) state that teaching strategies refer to the structure, system,
methods, techniques, procedures, and processes that a teacher uses during instruction. A various
number of teaching strategies are utilized and used in the classrooms for many circumstances.
Among others, the strategies of expanding student talk are: supportive environment strategy,
expectation strategy, discourse strategy, and body language strategy.

1. Establishing Supportive Environment

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Learning environment can be conditioned, for that reason teacher can make some efforts to
provide best setting for student learning to take place. The seating best arrangement which
accommodates students for talking is semi-circle, U shape, circle, or anything similar (Haggarty and
Postlethwaihe, 2007; McGraw, 2015; St. Louis, 2013; Garcia, 2012; Chong, 2012). Besides the
classroom seating, teacher position is also important since teacher trying to be ‗with‘ the students.
Teacher can sit with the students to encourage peer-to-peer discussion (Haggarty and Postlethwaihe,
2007: 459), stay centralized (Chong, 2012: 2), seat on the side of the seminar table (McGraw, 2015:
1), or move the chair to the end of the class (St. Louis, 2013: 2). Furthermore, having related
vocabulary or sentence frames where they can be easily accessed is critical to increase student talk
(Garcia, 2012: 3).
2. Stating Expectation
This strategy suggests the teacher to uphold high expectations for student participation
(Mohr and Mohr, 2012: 10). The teacher should make clear from the beginning that he expects
anyone to contribute. The next, the teacher should also consider whether he will assign a grade to
student performance in discussions so that they understand the importance of participating. If the
teacher determines to do so, the important things to be considered is the evaluation of frequency and
quality of student contributions, and the effectiveness of student respond toeach other (St. Louis,
2013: 2).
3. Using Discourse Strategy
Discourse strategy can be defined as verbal strategies that people employ to understand each
other within the context of a particular conversation (Gumperz, 1982). In classroom context,
discourse strategy refers to particular strategy employed by a teacher in their classroom talk which is
used in asking, responding, evaluating, conversing, or discussing with students. There are five major
strategies recommended by Gibbons (2002): (1) Discussion-based activity; (2) authentic questions;
(3) extended wait time; (4) good rapport; and (5) meaningful feedback. In other words, discourse
strategies that can be applied to expand student talk are: conducting a pair work, small group work, or
whole-class work, give extended wait time since it is not realistic to expect every student to reply
promptly and accurately, create warm athmosphere with establishing appropriate relationship with
their students, and give variation in giving feedback: keeping the error correction to a minimum in
oral fluency practice activities (Anderson, 2012: 2), and uptake that involve restating student
response or turning it into questions in order to encourage further elaboration (Aisah and Hidayat,
2012: 45).
4. Using Body Language
Using non verbal strategy in enhancing student talk in the classroom is as important as using
the verbal one. For that reason, teacher‘s body language in the classroom is crucial. This strategy
promotes certain behaviors which can be practiced by the teacher to value, and enhance student talk.
Giving eye contact, smiling, and affirmative nods while interacting with students is strongly
suggested (Haggarty and Postlethwaithe, 2007; Mohr and Mohr, 2012). The teacher can also try
sitting down or squatting to be on the same level as the student when speaking to students on
one-to-one basis. St. Louis (2013: 4) also suggests to move to a part of the room where quiet students
are sitting; smile at and make eye contact with these students to encourage them to speak up. Moving
from the front of the classroom is also encouraged (Watson, 2014: 2). It means teacher should not
stay on the same place, for instance near the board or even behind his desk all day because it will not
encourage student talk.

This research was a qualitative research. The participants of this research were students and
the English teachers at two state senior high schools in Tanah Datar Regency. The number of the
participants was 17 (14 students and 3 English teachers). All the participants of this research were the
English teachers who applied certain strategies in expanding student talk in their classroom
interaction and the students who has been taught by these English teachers.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

The student informants were selected through classroom observation. Therefore, the first informant
in this research was the students who had been observed in the classroom and were known to be able
to expand their talk in the classroom interaction. Then, the first teacher informant was the English
teacher who taught these students. Other teacher informants were decided by the use of snowball
sampling. For applying this method, the researcher asked the current informant at the end of the
interview to suggest the researcher another informant who applied certain strategies in expanding
student talk in their classroom interaction.
The data were collected over one week on February 2016 through interview. The interview
was done in students‘ mother tongue (Minangkabau Language) and Bahasa Indonesia. To check the
data trustworthiness, source triangulation was employed. Furthermore, in order to check the
credibility of the data, the researcher compared the result of interview from both teachers and
students. The data of this research were analyzed by using three activities: data reduction, data
display, and data conclusion and verification.


After analyzing the data, the researcher found that there were eleven strategies which were
applied by state senior high school English teachers in expanding student talk in classroom
interaction. Those strategies are: giving motivation, stating expectation, establishing rapport, giving
meaningful feedback, holding discussion based activity, using interesting material, using
understandable English language, asking referential question, establishing supportive environment,
using body language, and extending wait time. Those strategies were described as follows:
1. Giving Motivation
In the classroom interaction, some English teachers were known to give motivation to their
students. This verbal motivation, according to the students, made them expand their talk. The
researcher also interviewed I.3, which was also a student of I.5, on Monday, February 15th 2016 in X
IPS 2 Classroom at 10: 40 a.m. The result was:

Informants Excerpts

I.3 ―Karena I.5 itu terus memberikan motivasi. Dia bilang kalau ingin
diterima di perguruan tinggi itu nilai Matematika sama Bahasa Inggris
harus tinggi. Ee, yang pertama kali dilihat oleh universitas itu nilai
Bahasa Inggris sama Matematika.”

[Because I.5 keeps on giving motivation. She said if we want to be

accepted in the university, the Math and English grade should be high.
Ee, the first subject which is ranked by the university is the math and
English grade]

It was shown in the result of the interview above that the student could expand his talk
because he was given motivation verbally. The English teacher reminded the student about the
enrollment of a university. She said that if they did good jobs on English subject, they would get a
better chance to enroll to a university. By giving motivation, the student will feel motivated in
expanding their talk. Motivation can be given orally during classroom interaction. The English
teacher can remind students about the importance of English, promise a better grade, or tell students
that English will ease their way to enter a university.
2. Stating Expectation
This strategy suggests the teacher to uphold high expectations for student participation
(Mohr and Mohr, 2012: 10). The teacher should make clear from the beginning that he expects
anyone to contribute. The result of interview with I.5 on Monday, February 15th 2016 in Vice Head
Master Office of SMA X at 03: 05 a.m. revealed:

Informants Excerpts

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

I.5 ―Yang pertama, supaya mereka lebih aktif, walaupun nanti mereka disuruh
untuk kerja kelompok, tapi penilaiannya tetap, kalau untuk berbicaranya
tetap seseorang, personal”.

[The first, to make them more active, even though later they are asked to do a
group work, but the assessment for speaking is for individual].

It is clear from the result of interview that the English teacher stated her expectation at the
beginning of the learning process. She clearly stated that she would assign grade for individual. For
example, even though the students had a group task in doing presentation, she would grade them
individually. Consequently, the students should make their best effort in participating in the
classroom and expanding their talk. In conclusion, in applying expectation strategy, the English
teacher can make learning contract at the beginning of the semester, assign grade for individual, and
assign grade for each participation.
3. Establishing Rapport
To expand student talk, english teachers should also create good relationship with the
students. Some excerpts of interviews which promote the strategy are displayed in the table below:
Informants Excerpts
I.1 ―Gurunya itu gak seluruhnya serius, diajaknya bercanda kak, jadi nggak
terlalu tegang sama guru itu.”

[The teacher is not always serious, we are involved to joke around, so we do

not feel tense with the teacher]
I.12 ―Jadi yang kita harapkan dari dia itu sudah ada kemauan untuk berbicara
dalam Bahasa Inggris dan tidak ada perasaan malu dan takut didengar oleh
orang bahwasanya itu mereka berbuat salah dalam speaking. Itulah
tujuannya. Sehingga kita mendekatkan diri dengan mereka”.

[So what we expect form them is they alredy have willingness to speak in
English and there is no feeling of shy and fear that their English will be heard
by other people in making mistakes in English. That is the goal. So we should
be closed with them]

From the excerpts of interview, it can be concluded that rapport can be achieved with some strategies.
When the English teachers knew their students‘ name, listen to students, give the same chance for
each students to talk, use proper amount of joke to reduce rigid atmosphere, it means the English
teacher already had rapport strategy.
4. Giving Meaningful Feedback
Previous research has focused on some variety in giving feedback: keeping the error
correction to a minimum in oral fluency practice activities is to reduce interruption and ‗maintain the
flow‘ (Anderson, 2012: 2), and uptake that involve restating student response or turning it into
questions in order to encourage further elaboration (Aisah and Hidayat, 2012: 45). Some excerpts of
interviews are displayed in the table below:
Informants Excerpts
I.5 ―Setelah mereka selesai presentasi baru diterangkan, dikasih tahulah oo
pronunciationnya itu seperti ini, tapi tidak selalu fokus ke pronunciation, kita
lebih fokus kepada speakingnya kalau ada hal yang seperti itu”

[After they do presentation, the students are informed the correct presentation,
however, we do not always focus on pronunciation, we more focus on the
speaking activity]
I.12 ―Kalau dia salah, tetap saja kita beri ‘very good’, ‘very good’ itu tujuannya
untuk mereka sudah mau bicara dan sudah mau mengungkapkan. Nanti
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

kesalahan mereka itu kita perbaiki bersama kembali.‖

[If the student is wrong, we still say very good‘, ‗very good‘ is meant to their
willingness to talk and express their ideas. Later, the errors will be corrected
I.13 ―I.17 tu apresiasinya ke kami itu bagus kak. Hampir gak pernah I.17 itu
menjatukan muridnya, I.17 itu selalu mengasih semangat kepada

[I.17 gives good appreciation to us. It almost never I.17 makes the students
down, I.17 always gives spirit to his students]

To sum up, one strategy which was applied by English teacher in expanding student talk is
using meaningful feedback to students. Ways to give meaningful feedback is to focus the correction
on the message of student talk rather than their grammatical error or mistake and give positive
attitude or words given by English teacher even though the student had talked something wrong.
5. Conducting Discussion Based Activity
Discussion-based activity is an activity which sets the classroom as social interaction and
ensures all students are given opportunities and support to speak and think (Moore, 2013; McGraw,
2015, St. Louis, 2013, Pesce, 2014).
Informants Excerpts
I.5 ―Sebetulnya yang pertama mereka disuruh bekerja dalam kelompok, mereka
diskusi kelompok, itu juga berbahasa inggris dan setelah itu semua siswa
secara bergantian disuruh presentasi dan menjawab pertanyaan yang
diajukan oleh temannya tentang presentasi tersebut‖.

[Actually for the first the students are asked to work in group, they have a
group discussion, that is all in English and after that all students are asked to
do presentation and answer the question which is proposed by their friend
about the presentation.]
In conclusion, one strategy which was applied by English teacher in expanding student talk is
holding discussion based activity such as asking the students to do presentation, having discussion
with their chair mate, having group discussion, and etcetera.
6. Using Interesting Material
This strategy suggests English teachers to use interesting material in expanding student talk.
The interesting materials can be defined in many ways; it can be something that is close with
students‘ life, something new, something peculiar, or something that they like.
Informants Excerpts
I.4 ―Guru tu ngajarinnya pandai. Trus materinya tu menarik dan nggak
membikin ngantuk dalam pelajaran.‖

[The teacher is good in teaching English. Then the material is interesting, and
it it doesn‘t make us become sleepy in learning].
I.5 Kalau mau menarik, jadi mungkin gerakannya ada, kemudian materinya juga
dicarikan yang lebih menarik.”

[So, to become more interesting, there is certain movement, but the materials
should be given the interesting one]
7. Using Understandable English Language
This strategy encourages English teachers to make their language in English understandable
enough for the students so that they can expand their talk in responding what the teacher has said.

Informants Excerpts

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

I.8 ―I.12 itu memberikan suatu kalimat, kalimat itu terkadang siswa itu nggak
mengerti, nggak tahu apa yang harus dijawab, jadi I.12 itu memberikan
contoh lain, jadi siswa itu terpancing, menjadi lebih mengerti, dan
mengeluarkan pendapat mereka.‖

[I.12 gives a sentence, the sentence sometimes cannot be understood by the

students, the students don‘t know what to answer, so I.12 gives another
example, so the students are stimulated, they become better in comprehending
the sentence, and express their opinion]

I.13 ―Karena kosa-kata yang digunakan tidak terlalu tinggi, udah biasa
diucapin jadi udah biasa aja gitu‖.

[Because the vocabulary is easy to understand, familiar, so we are able to

comprehend that]
I.15 ―Terus I.17 menyuruh kita mencari kosa kata bahasa inggris, jadi nggak I.17
yang menunjukkan. Trus kita yang mencari. Kalau nggak dapat, I.17
mendiktekan sesuatu yang mendekati kalimat tersebut. Misalnya kata buku,
bahasa inggrisnya book, kan? I.17 bilang: yang bisa kita tulis? Yang dijual di
kopsis? ooo jadi didiktekan dulu. Jadi nggak ditujukan dengan langsung. Jadi

[Then I.17 asks us to search English vocabulary, so I.17 don‘t tell us. We
should search it. If we don‘t get the meaning, I.17 dictates something which
indicates to the sentence. For example, the word buku in English is book, isn‘t
it? I.17 says: what is thing that we can write? What is sold in student‘s shop?
So we were dictated first. He don‘t show us the meaning directly. So we can

I.17 ―Menggambar itu karena teksnya, karena sebahagian anak tidak mengerti
sehingga membantu anak. Oh ini yang namanya collision namanya,
tabrakan. Ada anak yang lemah, ada anak yang cepat, jadi agar lebih mudah
diberi gambar. Itu juga agar anak lebih mengerti”.

[Drawing is because of the text, because some students cannot understand so

we help those students. Oh, this is what we call as collision. There is slow
learner as well as fast learner, so to ease us we draw. It is aimed to make
students understand]

Therefore, using understandable English language emphasizes the use of comprehensible language in
interacting with the students. There are some ways to make English teacher‘s language can be
comprehensible, which are: using examples, using picture, using familiar vocabulary, and giving
series of question.
8. Referential Question
There are two kinds of questions: display questions are questions that teachers know the
answer, and referential questions are the questions that teachers do not know the answers to. Asking
referential question will require longer answers, while asking display or close-ended questions the
teacher basically will get yes, no, or maybe answers (Faruji, 2011; Chong, 2012; Darn, 2009; Pesce,
2014; Walsh, 2006; Moore, 2013; Mohr and Mohr, 2012; McGraw, 2015).

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Informants Excerpts
I.3 ―Who, why juga, how kadang-kadang”

[who, also why, and sometimes how]

I.8 ―Kadang-kadang kan kenapa. Kan awalnya ‗apa’ terus ditanya sama murid,
trus baru ditanya ‘kenapa jawabannya itu’”.

[Sometimes is why. In the beginning is ‗what‘ then it is aked to the students,

after that the students are asked ‗why is that the answer‘]
To sum up, one strategy which was applied by English teacher in expanding student talk is using
referential questions to students. Referential questions which were used by the English teachers are
often started with ―Why‖ and ―How‖. By using referential question, the english teachers can expand
student talk rather than using yes/no question.
9. Establishing Supportive Environment
This strategy is actually based from the notion that a comfortable environment should be
provided for the students to support their engagement and therefore increase their willingness to
expand their talk in the classroom. Learning environment can be conditioned, for that reason teacher
can make some efforts to provide best setting for student learning to take place. There are three
aspects that should be emphasized according to this theory: student seating arrangement, teacher‘s
position, and the placement of visual aid (Haggarty and Postlethwaihe, 2007; McGraw, 2015; St.
Louis, 2013; Garcia, 2012; Chong, 2012).
Informants Excerpts
I.5 ―Didepan kelas, dipantulkan ke papan tulis, kemudian siswa presentasi
memakai in focus‖.

[At the front of the class, it is projected to the white board, then the students do
the presentation by using in focus]
The strategy above is supported by (Garcia, 2012: 3) which states that having visual aid where they
can be easily accessed is critical to increase student talk. Here, the students could easily see the slide
even though they sat at the back row. Therefore, they could use the visual to talk about the material
being discussed.
10. Using Body Language
Body language strategy in verbal interaction with students is important. Giving eye contact,
smiling, and affirmative nods, try sitting down or squatting to be on the same level as the student
when speaking to students on one-to-one basis, moving from the front of the classroom are some
body language suggested by experts (Haggarty and Postlethwaithe, 2007; Mohr and Mohr, 2012;
Louis, 2013; Watson, 2014).

Informants Excerpts
I.6 Gerakan tertentu? Mungkin agar murid berbicara, I.12 akan
menghampiri bangku murid tersebut. Sehingga dengan gerakan
seperti itu siswa merasa lebih wajib untuk menjawab pertanyaannya.”

Certain movement? Maybe when the student is talking, I.12 will

approach student‘s chair, so that the student feels answering the
question is a must]
I.7 ―Iya misalnya dengan gerakan tangan gitu lah kak, kedipan mata juga

[Yes, for example with hand movement and also winking eye]
―Bicaranya itu gak loyo, pakai mimiknya itu enak juga‖

[The way of speaking is not weak, the facial expression is good too]
I.17 ―Gerakannya tidak, hanya I.17 berusaha untuk lebih ceria saja,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

sehingga anak pun menjadi lebih bersemangat. Tadi kita kan belajar
jam dua, kan jam mengantuk, jadi gimana caranya berkeliling dikelas,
kadang pegang bahu, kadang nunjuk tangannya, kadang
menggerakkan meja, gitu caranya agar mereka bersemangat”.

[There is no movement, I.17 just try to be more cheerful, so the students

can have high spirit. We studied at two p.m., it is an hour for sleeping, so
I walked around the classroom, sometimes touched student‘s shoulder,
moving the table, anything that make them have high spirit]
In conclusion, one strategy which was applied by English teacher in expanding student talk is using
body language. Body languages that can expand student talk are: smiling, using hand movement,
approaching student‘s chair, and so forth.
11. Extending Wait Time
Wait time is teacher wait between asking question and getting a response. This pause time is
important since it is not realistic to expect every student to reply promptly and accurately. It is
actually the case because students need time to understand and process what the teacher has said or
asked (Pesce, 2014: 1).

Informants Excerpts
I.9 ―Menunggu dulu. Paling lama tu sekitar 10 menit kak. Pernah
dihitung, hehe”.

[Wait first. The longest wait time is about ten minutes. I have ever
counted it, hehe]

From the result of interview above it can be concluded that the english teacher waited for students‘
answer so that they have time to think and can elaborate their talk.

Based on the data collection, it was found that there were eleven strategies applied by state
senior high school English teachers in expanding student talk in classroom interaction. They are: (1)
giving motivation, (2) stating expectation, (3) establishing rapport, (4) giving meaningful feedback,
(5) conducting discussion based activity, (6) using interesting material, (7) using understandable
English language, (8) asking referential question, (9) establishing supportive environment, (10) using
body language, and (11) extending wait time.

Aisah, Eneng Elis and Deden Rahmat Hidayat. ―Teacher Talk on Expanding ESL Primary Classroom
Discourse (A Case Study in an International School in Bandung)‖.
UPI, 2012. Web. 5 March. 2015.
Anderson, Marc. ―Five Tips for Getting the ESL Student Talking‖. N.p., 2013. Web. 5
March 2015.
Boyd, Maureen & Don Rubin. 2006. ―How Contingent Questioning Promotes Extended Student
Talk: A Function of Display Questions‖. Journal of Literacy Research 38 (2006): 141–169.
Chong, Chia Suan. ―The CELTA Trainer‘s Diary Part 6-Increasing Student Talking Time‖. N.p., 2012. Web. 10 March. 2015.
Darn, Steve. ―Teaching English: Eliciting‖. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 March.
Faruji, Laleh Fakhraee. 2011. ―Discourse Analysis of Questions in Teacher Talk‖. Theory and
Practice in Language Studies 1, (2011). Print.
Garcia, Lisa Ann de. ―How to Get Students Talking! Generating Math Talk That Supports Math
Learning‖. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 March. 2015.
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Gibbons, P. English Learners Academic Literacy and Thinking. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2009.
Haggarty, Linda and Keith Postlethwaite. ―Strategies for improving communication between
Teachers and School Students about Learning: a University/ School Collaborative Research
Project‖. Eduction Action Research Volume 10 Number 3 (2002). Print.
Halliday, M.A.K and Christian M.I.M Matthiessen. Halliday‘s Introduction to Functional Grammar.
USA: Routledge, 2014. Print.
Jones and Barlett. Active Teaching Strategies and Learning Activities. USA: Unpublished, No Date.
Kareema, Ms. M.I.F. 2014. ―Increasing Student Talk Time in the ESL Classroom: An Investigation
of Teacher Talk Time and Student Talk Time‖. Proceedings in 04th International
Symposium SEUSL
Mohr, Kathleen A.J. and Eric S. Mohr. ―Extending English Language Learners‘ Classroom
Interactions Using the Response Protocol‖. N.p., 2012. Web. 10April.
Moore, Chris. ―Teaching English Communicatively-Teacher Talking and Student Talking‖. N.p., 2013. Web. 9 April. 2015.
Mulyati, Ami Fatimah. 2013. ―A Study of Teacher Talk and Student Talk in Verbal Classroom
Interaction to Develop Speaking Skill for Young Learners‖. Journal of English and
Education 1(1), (2013): 1-10. Print.
Nunan, David. Language Teaching Methodology: a Textbook for Teachers. New York: Prentice
Hall, 1991. Print.
Pesce, Claudia. 2014. Seven Techniques that Will Increase Student Talk Time Exponentially. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 April. 2015.
―Increasing Student Participation‖ N.p., n.d. Web. 10 April. 2015.
Watson, Angela. ―Eight Ways Teachers Can Talk Less and Get Kids Talking More‖. N.p., September 12th 2014. Web. 09 April. 2015.
Weddel, Kathleen Santopietro. ESL Teacher Language (Teacher Talk) for Effective Classroom
Interactions. USA: Nothern Colorado Development Center, 2008. Print.
Yan, Xiao. ―Teacher Talk and EFL in University Classrooms‖. Diss. Chonqing Normal University
and Yangtze Normal University China, 2006. Print.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Nita Maya Valiantien, M.Pd., (1) Ririn Setyowati, M.Hum., (2) Setya Ariani, M.Pd.(3)
Universitas Mulawarman

Until recent decades, the effort on diminishing students‘ feeling of anxiety and less self-efficacy
toward the writing activities in academic writing course still becomes a great concern for the
teachers or practitioners of writing skill especially when dealing with students from multilingual
society. These students, who learn English as a foreign language, often demonstrate the influence of
their first language when composing a writing, even in a simple paragraph. Facing this situation, the
teachers are forced to give attention more to students‘ grammatical composition, and as a result of
this most of the students give excessive attention only to revise the grammatical mistakes. Based on
this situation, they develop ―mental block‖ towards writing and have less interest in writing. To deal
with this situation, many studies suggest that teachers need to foster students‘ motivation since it is
as crucial as developing students‘ writing skills through practice. Hence, this paper aims to describe
the effectiveness of giving journal writing task and providing comments to students‘ writing in the
task as a simple but useful way to ignite students‘ motivation in writing. The object of the research is
the students of academic writing course in Faculty of Cultural Studies of Mulawarman University
Samarinda. List of questions were given to the students after they experienced the task to figure out
how much the task and the comments influence students‘ motivation in writing.

Keywords: motivation in EFL, writing skill, journal writing, teacher‘s comments

Teaching English in multicultural society always encounter with a dilemma that the learners
who typically have insufficient knowledge about English have to master English in limited period
and inadequate environment that can support the learning. Particularly when learning writing skill,
the condition of being a part of multicultural society with limited English background cause the
leaners to demonstrate the influence of their first language when composing a writing, even in a
simple paragraph. Facing this situation, the teachers are forced to give attention more to students‘
grammatical composition, and as a result of this most of the students give excessive attention only to
revise the grammatical mistakes. Based on this situation, they develop certain level of anxiety that
lead to the construction of their own ―mental block‖ (Liu; MacIntyre & Gardner in Shang, 2013)
towards writing and have less interest in writing. To deal with this situation, many studies suggest
that teachers need to foster students‘ motivation first in learning second or foreign language since it is
as crucial as developing students‘ writing skills through practice.


A. Motivation in learning EFL
Various definitions have been constructed to define what motivation is. In general,
motivation is defined as an interest for doing something and the need or reason for doing something.
Specifically, motivation in the context of learning EFL is defined as a kind of internal effort which
encourage the learners of EFL to take part in the course which offer the EFL learning, be responsible
to initiate the learning, and be persistent in the learning process over the long and difficult times
(Dörnyei in Ghenghesh, 2010). In addition to this definition, Harmer describes motivation as some
kind of internal drive which forces someone to do things in order to achieve something and points out
that the motivation that brings students to the task of learning English can be affected and influenced
by the attitude of a number of people, including the teachers (Harmer, 2007).
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Although motivation is described as individual interest or internal drive, in fact there are two
main division of motivation: extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is
the kind of motivation which is influenced by the outside factors of an individual, for example the
need to pass a test, the possibility to study abroad, and the hope of financial reward. On the other
hand, intrinsic motivation is a kind of motivation which comes from within the individual such as
individual enjoyment of the learning process to make themselves feel better. The division of
motivation provides information that motivation is not always the conscious interest which comes
from inside, but it can also be influenced by some factors outside the individual. However, most
researchers on motivation point out that intrinsic motivation is seen as the more important for
encouraging success (Harmer, 2007)
Researches to examine the influence of motivation in learning EFL have been conducted for
a long time and have come to a crucial conclusion related to the influence of motivation in learners.
One of the most well-known studies is from Gardner in 1985 which is noticeable by the invention of
AMTB. Regarding the role of motivation in learning second language, Gardner claims that students
who has higher levels of motivation will do better than students with lower levels, and if they are
motivated, they will have strong reasons for to make themselves involved in the relevant learning
activities, show desires to achieve the goal, and enjoy the activities (Gardner in Al-Tamimi and Suib,
2009). In addition to this view, Dörnyei points out that motivation has an important role in language
learning consequently without appropriate motivation, students‘ achievement cannot be realized
(Dörnyei in Ghenghesh, 2010). These views are also in line with Harmer‘s view which proposes the
idea that for most field of learning, motivation is essential to success because the basic thing is we
have to want to do something to succeed at it and without motivation, we will almost certainly fail to
do the necessary effort (Harmer, 2007). The latest study was conducted by Anjomshoa and Sadighi
(2015) who suggested that in EFL setting, without students‘ motivation, the class can be less
attractive and even boring. Motivation is one of the important aspects of second language acquisition.
Motivation is a kind of desire of learning. It is very difficult to teach a second language in a learning
environment if the learner does not have a desire to learn a language. The strategy that the teachers
use in teaching strategy will have an effect toward motivation, in which an enthusiastic approach is
more effective to motivate than a gloomy approach. The importance of the teacher factor in having a
high level if motivation in SLA cannot be ignored. Therefore, teachers need to know the type of
motivation and the sources of motivation to meet the students‘ particular needs.
B. Teachers’ role in developing students’ motivation in learning writing
Writing is similar to speaking in terms of its kind as a productive skill. However, contrast to
speaking, writing is rather complex since it is less spontaneous and more permanent. It is also
obvious that in writing, unlike in conversation, we cannot interact with the listeners and adapt as we
do the process of writing. It makes writing less flexible than conversation, and the language used in
writing is more standardized (Broughton et al., 2003). In addition to this complexity, Cheng points
out that writing is an emotional as well as cognitive activity, in which we think and feel at the same
when produce particular writing. (Cheng, 2002). Since writing is a complex activity, Bruning and
Horn claim that it requires close attention to the conditions for developing motivation and skill
(Bruning and Horn, 2000). This view is confirmed by the view of Brinton, Snow, and Wesche who
emphasize that motivation plays a role in learning complex language structures, hence students with
low motivation may have problems in language acquisition because it blocks language stimulation
from reaching the brain. On the other hand, high motivated students result in an increased ability to
learn and use a new language (Brinton, Snow, and Wesche in Hill, 2006) Consequently, the role of
teachers in writing is not only to teach the skills, but it is more important that teachers can act as
motivator where the teachers create the right conditions for the generation of ideas, encourage the
students of the usefulness of the activity, and boost the students to make as much effort as possible
for maximum benefit. This effort, therefore, should be carried out as a sustained effort on the part of
longer process-writing sequences (Boscolo and Gelati, 2007).
According to Broughton et al. (2003), language learners are best motivated when the learners
experience the language learning truly communicative, in which the learning is appropriate to its
context and involve the teachers‘ skills to move them to a fuller competence in the foreign language.
The importance of teachers‘ role in raising students‘ motivation is related to several matters. The first

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

matter is motivation is related to teachers‘ beliefs about writing which can influence the ways in
which the teachers organize the writing setting and instructional practices. The second one is
motivation is related to the following aspects: interest, collaboration, and evaluation. Therefore,
writing instruction requires the teacher to choose tasks, activities, and strategies carefully and focuses
in particular on the aspects. As a result of this, teachers as motivator become the dominant aspect that
determine the motivation that the student will develop when learning.
The importance of the teacher factor in having a high level of motivation in second language
acquisition is very important. The way that the teacher implement in teaching strategy will give an
effect toward motivate, that is an excited approach is more likely to motivate than a gloomy approach
(Anjomshoa and Sadighi, 2013). Related to motivation in learning writing, Graham (2007) suggests
that to successfully engaged the students to have motivation in writing, teachers are required to have
appropriate believe in writing. Teachers have to believe that writing is not only an important subject
or ability in the curriculum, but an important experience that enable the students to find a personal
meaning in learning practices through teachers‘ guide. It is also important that teachers‘ view of
writing also influences students‘ motivation to write. When teachers view writing as a basically
individual ability, they tend to stimulate motivation mainly through assigning interesting topics when
When motivation is viewed and considered as an attitude to be developed and improved
through meaningful activities, the setting of writing tasks will be clearly different. It is obvious that
writing tasks sometimes can be boring, predictable, and the results of doing the task sometimes are
not noticeable. Therefore, to help the students become a competent writer, it requires both students‘
involvement and teachers‘ authority in setting up the exercises. While students view writing in the
classroom as consisting of meaningful experiences, they may also view less challenging tasks as
important, not necessarily boring aspects of their becoming writers. This balance should also
characterize the use of group versus individual writing in the classroom. The meaningful writing
activities that teachers arrange to promote and sustain students‘ motivation to write may be isolated
moments of classroom life for students, interesting and enjoyable but not sufficient to create a
continuing attitude toward writing. It is teachers‘ responsibility to create continuity among these
moments, such as by pointing out the contributions of individual students, showing the value of the
results accomplished, and inviting students to find new and challenging writing tasks (Boscolo and
Gelati, 2007).
Regarding the role of motivation in learning writing, it is obvious that the students with high
motivation are those who value and are willing to use writing as a valuable activity or means of
expression, communication, and elaboration. This kind of students are realistically self-confident
about their ability to use writing successfully, and by having this self-confident, they develop the
source for feeling satisfied and engaged when writing. Therefore, the problem of having lack of
motivation is not always triggered by unattractive writing task, but it is more about how students are
assisted during the learning to develop their self-confident on their writing so that they are able to
raise their motivation to write. Together with beliefs about writing, students also develop
self-perceptions and beliefs about themselves as writers, their writing competence, and their ability to
manage writing tasks. (Boscolo and Gelati, 2007)
Bruning and Horn (2000) suggest four groups of activities that should be established by the
teachers to develop students‘ motivation to write. These groups are interrelated to each other and
teachers are responsible to create activities that can cover the four groups of activities. The groups
include the activities to promote students‘ beliefs about writing as a useful activity for the students,
raise students‘ interest toward writing through authentic writing goals and contexts, provide a
supportive context for writing, and build a positive emotional environment. For each groups of
activities, Bruning and Horn also offer the details of the activities, which of course not only limited to
the following offers, but also are possible to be developed by the teachers. The details of the activities
are as follow:
1. When promoting proper beliefs that writing is a useful activity for the students, teachers
may begin with:
a. Creating a classroom community that can support writing activities

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

b. displaying the ways that teachers use writing personally

c. find writing tasks that can help the students to achieve their success in writing
d. give opportunities for students to find out and build their own ability in areas they
will write about
e. use simple daily writing activities to encourage regular writing
f. Encouraging writing in a wide variety of genres.
2. To foster students‘ interest toward writing through authentic writing goals and contexts,
teachers can initiate several ways that include:
a. Requesting students to find examples of different kinds of writing
b. Encouraging students to write about topics of personal interest
c. Having students write for a variety of audiences
d. Establishing improved communication as purpose for revision
e. Making connection between writing and other instruction in other disciplines
3. The need to provide a supportive context for writing can be accomplished by conducting
several efforts such as:
a. Breaking complex writing tasks into parts
b. Encouraging goal setting and monitoring of progress
c. Supporting students in setting writing goals that are neither too challenging nor too
d. Teaching writing strategies and helping students learn their use
e. Giving feedback on progress toward writing goals
f. Using peers as writing partners in learning communities
4. To create a positive emotional environment, teachers can do the following efforts that
a. Modeling positive attitudes toward writing
b. Providing a safe environment for writing
c. Giving students choices about what they will write
d. Providing feedback allowing students to remember control over their writing
e. Using natural outcomes as feedback source
f. Training students to engage in positive self-talk about writing
g. Helping students to deal with their feeling of anxiety and stress as natural arousal.
C. Journal writing task and teachers’ feedback
According to Scrivener (2005), many writing tasks are designed with less of direction and
less of audience. As a consequence, many students only consider writing task as an activity that they
have to finish in order not to get penalty from the teacher. If the students are in this situation, there is
no doubt that they will have low motivation, and the quality of writing may not be satisfying because
they will have no clear idea why the writing is being done. Scrivener suggest the following strategies
for the teachers to make writing tasks more interesting:
1. Using task types, contexts and situation which directly relevant to students.
2. Let the students know what will happen when they finish the task since if students
know who will read their text and what that reader may need or expect from it, then
they have a clear idea of the purpose of the writing. Later, it will strongly influence
many other decisions they take in the writing.
3. It is not recommended to mark and give feedback only on accuracy of language.
Include attention to the question to of whether the writing is appropriate for the task
type and is well targeted at the probable reader.
4. It is important to select writing tasks that are likely to reflect things that many students
may need to write in real life.
Various tasks are available for the students to be completed as writing activity which enable
them to develop motivation and skill in writing. It is the teachers‘ responsibility to choose or design
appropriate tasks that suitable with their goals, students interest, or setting. Related to the effort in
developing students‘ motivation in writing, the simple way is to ask them to write as many as
possible in the most enjoyable situation. Especially when the learning happens in EFL context,
motivation is really crucial to be improved. One of the well-known task is to ask the students to have

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

journal writing. According to Oshima and Hogue, journal writing is an activity that can allow the
students to expand their vocabulary in writing through constant repetition, trial, and may error in
nonthreatening environment. Journal writing facilitates the students to develop the language that they
need in your everyday life (Oshima and Hogue, 2007). There are some reasons why journal writing
can help the students in acquiring a level of fluency in written language without having anxious on
the result of their writing as follow:
1. In journals, quantity is more important than quality. Writing everyday will help the
students become fluent
2. In journal, students can write about topics that are interesting and relevant to their life.
Students are practicing to express their ideas and feelings
3. Journals can help the students develop their ideas that can be used later in their paragraphs or
4. Writing a journal can be a very enjoyable activity because students do not have to worry
about using a dictionary or checking grammar or organization, and students do not have to
write several drafts. Students just need to concentrate on the content. (Oshima and Hogue,
Although journal writing is seen a simple task that can be done by the students, it can be a
great way that can help students to practice elaborating their ideas in the form of structured writing.
Undeniably, the success of using journal writing in developing students‘ motivation in writing
depend on how the teachers can provide appropriate comments or feedback to the students. Teachers
should express enthusiasm and positive opinions about writing since positive feedback on the content
of learners‘ writing can do a lot to increase the amount of writing that learners do and to improve their
attitude to writing. (Boscolo and Gelati, 2007; Nation, 2009). When teachers provide comments to
students‘ writing, they tell the students that their work is being read, is understood, and interests the
reader. Nation points out that especially with younger learners, it is important not to discourage
writing by always giving feedback that show the errors in the writing. There should be a place in a
writing course for feedback on errors but this kind of feedback needs to be very carefully balanced
against the positive encouragement to write more, and these two kinds of feedback need to be
separated. The motivation to write is most helped by learners doing a lot of successful writing
(Nation, 2009).
Particularly when learning writing in EFL context, Lee suggests that it is important to
consider what kind of comments would help students most and how students can be helped to use
teacher comments. Lee also emphasizes that students‘, no matter how proficient they are, need for
more written comments because they like to have more information about their written performance,
separately from feedback on errors (Lee, 2008).

This paper aims only to describe particular phenomenon using qualitative approach. There
was no statistical data used in this research, and the way the writers draw conclusion is based on the
information gained through the responses from the participants toward some lists of enquiries. The
use of qualitative approach in this research influence the way the writers present their discussion and
draw the conclusion in descriptive style. Therefore, the elaboration in this part will be presented in
the form of describing the detail condition of the participants.
In this research, the participants were selected based on the situation that they were given the
task and comments by the lecturer. Through the questionnaire, they responded about their own
experience of doing journal writing task and receiving the comments from the lecturer. The
participants were taken from two different classes who are the students enrolled in academic writing
course in semester four at the faculty of Cultural Sciences Mulawarman University. The two classes
were chosen as the participants because in these classes the lecturer asked the students to do journal
writing task and give comments to their writing. The total number of the participants was sixty-one
students from two different classes. The students in this class were asked to write on their journal
writing about the topic that had been determined by the lecturer and they had to submit the journal
every week on the day of the course. The lecturer was responsible to give different topics every week,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

read the students‘ journal and provide comments and motivation to the students‘ writing. The
comments from the lecturer are only related to the content of students‘ writing and motivation to the
students to keep practicing writing through their journal. The positive comments were directly
assigned to what the students wrote in their journal, such as ―I like your idea about…‖, ―I agree with
your opinion that…‖, ―It is interesting to know about your story‖. The lecturer also provided
responses to the questions that the participants enquired through their journal.
After 6 weeks of completing the task of journal writing, students are asked to answer the
questions related to the influence of journal writing and lecturer‘s comments in increasing their
motivation to write. Six questions were developed in the questionnaire to know whether the students
have motivation to write after they complete the task and read the comments from the lecturer. The
list of questions enquire how students feel when learning academic writing in terms of the feeling of
interest and motivation, how are their motivation in doing the journal writing task, their opinion
towards the way the lecturer gave comments and whether the comments are able to rise their
motivation to write, and what kinds of comments that they expect from the lecturer to be given in
their writing.
The result of the questionnaire showed that all of the students have positive attitude about
learning academic writing. They emphasize that the course is really important to develop their skill in
writing by learning how to write appropriately and correctly. In relation to students‘ motivation to
learn academic writing, one student responded that she needs more attractive learning activity in
order to rise her motivation. However, all participants generally responded that they feel motivated
because they want to know the right thing to do in their writing, particularly because they feel that
they still have some problems in their grammar. In addition to this respond, some students point out
that they feel motivated to learn academic writing because the lecturer was able to give clear
explanation about the materials in the class and the lecturer keep providing supporting motivation in
their task.
Towards the journal writing task, almost all of the participants responded that they were
really interested with the task because the task helps them to practice writing. Only a few of the
participants point out that sometimes the task made them stress out because it was hard for them to
brainstorm the ideas about what to write even the topic of the task had been determined by the
lecturer. Most of the participants also like the way the lecturer gave comments toward their writing
and they pointed out that they were really appreciated by the lecturer because their writing was read
and given comments. Some students even cannot wait to read the comments from the lecturer
because the comments make them feel motivated to write the next journal. One student however
responds differently that he thought that the teachers comment is similar to one another therefore he
expects that the teacher provides diverse comments. In the questionnaire, the participants also point
out their expectation to what kind of comments that they expect from the lecturer. The following
items are the responses from the participants regarding the kinds of comments that they are expecting
from the lecturer:
1. Detail comments about their grammatical error in their writing since they have doubt about
their grammar skill
2. Comments that contain more motivational words because they find the source of their desire
to write from such comment
3. Some students chose not to be given bad or critical comments on their writing because they
felt it can lower their motivation to write. On the other hand, it is not a problem for some
students to have any kind of comments, either positive or critical comments since they can
use the comments to motivate them to make more writing
4. Comments should be different between one student to another student.
Apart from the kinds of comment that the students expected from the lecture, there is also an
expectation that the lecturer can provide more interesting activity in learning process, such as
learning through games activity and give more challenging topic to the students. In addition, lecturer
is also expected to be more enduring with the students in the class because of the diversity of
background of the students.


Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Motivation as the crucial factor that influence a person in doing something must be seen as
primary aspect that needs to be developed and maintain, especially when discussing about the way to
help the EFL learners to be successful learners. The findings of this research is only the brief
evidence that to build students motivation can be done through simple task, but the point is that the
feedback or comments from the teachers are the crucial factor that can raise students‘ motivation to
write. It is definitely not a generalization to only use single task, that is journal writing, as a media to
develop students‘ motivation to write. Yet, it is worthwhile to try giving positive and motivational
comments in every students‘ task as Nation‘s view that positive feedback on the content of learners‘
writing can be very useful to develop the amount of writing that the students do and to improve their
attitude toward writing (Nation, 2009).

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C.A. Macarthur, & J. Fitzgerald (eds.) Best Practices in Writing Instruction (pp.202-221) NY:
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Cheng, Y.-s. (2002), Factors Associated with Foreign Language Writing Anxiety. Foreign Language
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Language Teaching, 3 (1), 128-141
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Virginia: ASCD
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Journal of Second Language Writing, 17 (2008), 144–164
Nation, I.S.P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL Reading and Writing. NY: Routledge
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Writing Anxiety. International Journal of English Language Teaching. 1 (1). 1-12

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Nurul Atma1), Nosmalasari 2)
Halu Oleo University, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia
State University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia

Since English is not used as a means of communication in daily life interaction, students usually get
difficulties to use it which could possibly trigger their language learning anxiety. This case leads
them to use certain strategies in order to keep the conversation going on which so-called
communication strategies. In relation to this issue, this survey study aims at investigating
communication strategies employed by EFL students pursuing Speaking I course. It attempts to find
out whether high-anxiety students employ different communication strategies from that of
low-anxiety students. Questionnaire is used to measure the students‘ level of anxiety and identify
their communication strategies. Identification of communication strategies could train the students
to be a strategic learner which is required in foreign language learning.

Keywords: communication strategies, language learning anxiety

In performing oral-related activities, students are required to be spontaneous in expressing
their thought. The problem might arise when it comes to speaking by using the Second Language
(L2) due to limited linguistic repertoire as well as limited exposure toward the language. Students
have to understand what the interlocutor is saying and how they should respond to it. In other words,
it requires them not only to understand the input (comprehension) but also to produce the output
(production). Once the speaker and listener realize that they do not share a mutual understanding, and
need to repair problems or modify the conversation, they have to use tricks which so-called
communication strategies. Thus, speaking and communication strategies are interrelated.
Communication strategies have caught the researchers‘ interest since they were introduced
by Canale and Swain (1980) as part of communicative competence (Dörnyei, 1995). Thereby,
communicative competence could probably be gained by developing an awareness to employ
communication strategies. Furthermore, Nakatani (2006) proposes that fluency in speaking depends
not only on knowledge about the language but also on ability to make use of communication
strategies. In a nutshell, language competence only is not sufficient to be competent in
communication. Interestingly, communication strategies also contribute positively to the students‘
willingness to communicate. A study conducted by Yousef, Jamil, & Razak (2013) found that the
regression coefficient of the use of communication strategies and willingness to communicate was
significant which means that the students willingness to speak improved as they used communication
strategies, particularly, negotiation of meaning strategy. Research evidence has shown the beneficial
role of enhancing the students‘ awareness of communication strategies (Brown, 2007; Dörnyei,
1995). Willems (1987) cited in Mirzaei and Heidari (2012) argues that familiarizing the students with
communication strategies assists them to ―develop a feeling of being able to do something with the
Nevertheless, students are mostly not aware of the communication strategies they use. In
fact, awareness of communication strategies facilitates them to cope with the difficulties they
encounter in speaking. Besides, it is believed that successful language learners are those who use a
wide range of strategies in learning. Thus, teachers are expected to familiarize the students with
communication strategies.

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The main aim of communication strategies is ―to manage communication problems‖

(Dörnyei & Scott, 1997). It means that communication strategies serve as devices for keeping the
conversation going on and/ for solving communication breakdown. It plays a role in negotiating
meaning, leading to a mutual understanding.
A growing number of studies have been conducted to investigate communication strategies
employed by students in performing communicative tasks. Some employed quantitative research by
distributing questionnaire (Chuanchaisit & Prapphal, 2009; Ugla, Adnan, & Abidin, 2013) and
compared the strategies used by high and low proficient students (Nakatani, 2006; Teng, 2011;
Yaman, Irgin & Kavasoğlu, 2013; Najafabadi, 2014). Some others were qualitative research by
observing the classroom interaction (Cervantes & Rodriguez, 2012) and comparing the strategies
used by students with high and low degree of communication apprehension (Tiono & Sylvia, 2004;
Bijani & Sedaghat, 2016) as well as comparing students with different proficiency level (Mirzaei &
Heidari, 2012).
Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope (1986) point out that one of the factors affecting the use of
communication strategies is language learning anxiety. In this case, there is a tendency for anxious
students to avoid participating in the classroom activities. It is confirmed in a study conducted by
Grzegorzewska (2015) that anxious and non-anxious students reacted differently when facing
difficulties in speaking. Anxious students tended to use avoidance strategy in approaching the task.
On the contrary, non-anxious students tried to take the risks by trying to convey a message despite the
Language learning anxiety is a type of anxiety specifically associated with learning L2.
Further, speaking is seemingly considered as the most anxiety provoking situation due to the ―on the
spot‖ nature of the tasks. Horwitz, et al. (1986) has conceptualized anxiety as ―subjective feeling of
tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous
system‖. Thus, it could be inferred that anxiety is related to psychological tension that is experienced
by students in learning English as a L2.
Tiono & Sylvia (2004) conducted a study on how students with different degree of
communication apprehension as one of the components of language learning anxiety used different
kind of communication strategy. They found that while students with low degree of communication
apprehension tended to use approximation, there was a tendency for students with high degree of
communication apprehension using repetition more frequently. Moreover, the number of strategies
used by students with high degree of communication apprehension exceeded those of low degree of
communication apprehension. This finding is consistent with a recent research conducted by Bijani
& Sedaghat (2016) suggesting that in spite of having a high degree of communication apprehension,
the students attempted to cope with their difficulties when performing communicative tasks. Their
apprehension in speaking does not hinder them to use communication strategies in order to survive in
communication. A contrast finding is found in Grzegorzewska‘s study (2015) in which there was a
statistically significant difference in the number of strategies used by high and low-anxiety students.
It turns out that low-anxiety students used bigger number of communication strategies compared to
their high-anxiety counterpart. Thus, Grzegorzewska (2015) came up to the conclusion that anxiety
hinders the use of communication strategies.
In spite of extensive research on communication strategies, the findings are diverse requiring
further study. This study aims at investigating the use of communication strategies of students with
different degree of language learning anxiety. Specifically, it compares the communication strategies
used by high-anxiety and low-anxiety students. The main questions to be addressed in this study are
formulated as follows:
1. What kind of communication strategy most frequently and least frequently used by
students with high degree of language learning anxiety?
2. What kind of communication strategies most frequently and least frequently used by
students with low degree of language learning anxiety?


Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

This part describes the review of related literature consisting of the notion of communication
strategies and language learning anxiety.
Communication Strategies
The term communication strategies were firstly proposed by Selinker in 1972, which refers
to the approach that a learner employs for communication with another speaker (Dörnyei, 1995). The
insight came up with the recognition that the difference between the speakers‘ linguistic repertoire
and the intended message leads to a systematic language phenomenon which aims at solving
communication difficulties or breakdowns (Dörnyei & Scott, 1997). Following Selinker‘s definition,
Corder (1978) in Dörnyei (1995) defines communication strategies as ―a systematic technique
employed by a speaker to express his [or her] meaning when faced with some difficulty.‖ Færch and
Kasper (1983) cited in Brown (2007) defined communication strategies from a psychological
perspective as ―potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a
problem in reaching a particular communicative goal.‖ Therefore, it could be implied that
communication strategies are any techniques used to help the participants of the conversation solving
communication difficulties.
There are various taxonomies of communication strategies. Surapa and Channarong (2011)
state that the taxonomies of communication strategies have been classified differently following the
principles of terminology and categorization of different researchers. Despite the varied taxonomies,
they actually refer to similar thing which means that they are overlapping one another. What makes it
differ is on the terminology used (Bialystok, 1990, in Dörnyei & Scott, 1997).
Broadly speaking, communication strategies are divided into two categories, namely achievement or
compensatory strategies and reduction or avoidance strategies (Dörnyei & Scott, 1997). The
categorization is based on how the students‘ deal with difficulties that they encounter during
speaking. Achievement or compensatory strategies are considered as effective strategy in which the
students try to maintain the conversation for the sake of achieving communicative goals. In contrast,
reduction or avoidance strategies refer to strategies for avoiding the communication difficulties,
which in turn affects the interaction negatively.
In 2006, Nakatani (2006) developed Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI) based on the
students‘ self report questionnaire on communication strategies. Besides, it combines features from
many of the previous taxonomies making it more comprehensive. Due to the interactive nature of
speaking which takes form not only in expressing ideas but also in comprehending the message, the
OCSI is divided into 2 main parts, namely strategies for coping with speaking difficulties and
strategies for coping with listening difficulties.
The followings are strategies for coping with speaking difficulties:
- Socio-affective strategies
- Fluency-oriented
- Negotiation for meaning whilst speaking
- Accuracy-oriented
- Message reduction and alteration
- Non-verbal strategies whilst speaking
- Message abandonment
- Attempt to think in English

Strategies for coping with listening difficulties consist of:

- Negotiation for meaning whilst listening
- Fluency-maintaining
- Scanning
- Getting the gist
- Non-verbal strategies whilst listening
- Less active listener
- Word-oriented
Some of the aforementioned strategies (socio-affective, fluency-oriented, fluency-oriented,
negotiation for meaning whilst speaking, accuracy-oriented, non-verbal strategies whilst speaking,
attempt to think in English, negotiation for meaning whilst listening, fluency-maintaining, scanning,

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

getting the gist, non-verbal strategies whilst listening, and word-oriented) are classified as
achievement strategies. Some others, such as message reduction and alteration, message
abandonment, less active listener belong to reduction strategies.
Language Learning Anxiety
Language learning anxiety is a common phenomenon experienced by foreign language
learners. It stems from the students‘ fear of being failed to achieve their goals making them feel
uneasy, frustrate, self-doubt, apprehension and worry.
Anxious students tend to feel insecure, and uncomfortable to the learning environment. This
phenomenon leads to students‘ discouragement, loss of ability, and have less willingness to use the
target language. In fact, students‘ active involvement is required in language learning context. Since
anxiety interferes with the students‘ ability to process information, it influences both fluency and
accuracy of speaking. Students could probably get difficulty either to learn the language or to speak
by using the language. It indicates that language learning anxiety has debilitating effect on learning
by preventing the students using the language which in turn limits their participation. It, therefore,
could be safely deduced that language learning anxiety is one of the plausible reasons why some
students are more successful in learning a language than the others in spite of learning in a same
Horwitz, et al. (1986) classified language learning anxiety into communication
apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, and test anxiety. Difficulty in speaking to others is the
symptom of having communication apprehension. Communication apprehension seems to be
increased in relation to the students‘ negative self-perception caused by their inability to understand
others and make themselves understood (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1989). Fear of negative evaluation
refers to afraid of being judged negatively by others. Young (1991) argues that students who are
experiencing fear of negative evaluation are more concerned about how their errors are corrected
than whether the errors should be corrected. Finally, afraid of being failed is the manifestation of test
anxiety. It is considered as one the components of negative motivation. Students might likely feel
more pressure when asked to perform in a second or foreign language. Such feeling is augmented by
the fact that they need to recall and coordinate many points at the same time during the limited test
To sum up, both students and teachers play a crucial role in either raising or reducing
language learning anxiety.

This study primarily aims at finding out whether students with different degree of anxiety
employ different communication strategies. To obtain the answer of the research questions, a survey
study was conducted toward 51 students of Halu Oleo University pursuing Speaking I course. Their
age ranges from 18 years old to 19 years old. They have been learning English for about 8 years. The
students were firstly divided into high-anxiety and low-anxiety group based on their response to the
language learning anxiety questionnaire. The maximum score is 100 indicating the highest degree of
anxiety and the minimum is 25 indicating the lowest degree of anxiety. The students whose total
score were above the average were considered as having a high degree of anxiety and those below the
average considered as having a low degree of anxiety. Based on the computation, there were 24
students considered as having high degree of language learning anxiety, and 27 others belonged to
low-anxiety group.
In order to get the answer of the research question, a close-ended questionnaire was
distributed. It is a 4-point Likert scale consisting of 37 items for communication strategies
questionnaire, and 25 items for language learning anxiety questionnaire. OCSI developed by
Nakatani (2006) was used to identify the communication strategies the students use, while language
learning anxiety questionnaire was adapted from Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale
developed by Horwitz, et al. (1986). Those two questionnaires were used because they have been
used widely in many different contexts. The students were required to choose one of the options
ranging from ―always‖ to ―never‖ for OCSI, while language learning anxiety ranges from ―strongly
agree‖ to ―strongly disagree‖.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Before taking the real data for the purpose of this study, the questionnaires were tried out first
toward 13 students who were not belonging to the sample of this study. It aims at ensuring the
reliability of the questionnaires. After computing the raw data, it was found that the score of
Cronbach‘s alpha for language learning anxiety questionnaire is .831, while the OCSI is .806 which
suggest that the questionnaires were reliable enough and could be used to collect data for this study.
The questionnaires were distributed before the Speaking class was ended. It took around 45 minutes
for them to complete those two questionnaires. The questionnaires were, then, collected by that time.
The data of the questionnaires were then analyzed by using Ms. Excel. The score of the questionnaire
range from 4 indicating ―always‖ or ―strongly agree‖ to 1 indicating ―never‖ or ―strongly disagree‖.
For language learning anxiety questionnaire, the score of some items was reserved when the
statement is negative. The answer of the research questions were based on the mean score of the
strategies. The highest the mean score, the most frequently the strategy is used.


This part presents findings of the research followed by discussion which is divided into
communication strategies used by high- and low-anxiety students.
Communication Strategies Used by High-Anxiety Students
The tables below illustrate communication strategies used by high-anxiety students.
Table 1. Communication strategies for coping with speaking difficulties
Order of
Kinds of strategy N Mean
Socio-affective strategies 24 3.36 3
Fluency-oriented 24 3.13 6
Negotiation for meaning whilst speaking 24 3.40 1
Accuracy-oriented 24 3.31 4
Message reduction and alteration 24 3.10 7
Non-verbal strategies whilst speaking 24 3.21 5
Message abandonment 24 2.68 8
Attempt to think in English 24 3.38 2

As could be seen from the above table, of the eight strategies used for coping with speaking
difficulties, the most frequently used strategy by high-anxiety students is negotiation for meaning
whilst speaking indicating by the highest mean score (M = 3.40). It indicates that those students more
concern about the accomplishment of communication. They tend to focus more on speaking
comprehensively rather than speaking fluently. They also attempt to increase their participation by
conquering their weaknesses through negotiation with the interlocutor, for instance, by repeating
what s/he has said or by checking the listeners‘ understanding. Al-Mahrooqi and Tuzlukova (2011)
state that negotiation of meaning plays a role in reducing the students‘ anxiety and providing them
with an enjoyable learning environment as students have to work with others to achieve mutual
understanding. While the least frequently used is message abandonment indicating by the lowest
mean score (M = 2.68). Grzegorzewska (2015) reports that high-anxiety students also tend to use
reduction strategy, but, in the form of topic avoidance. As the name suggest, message abandonment
means that the students cannot continue the conversation. They have no choice besides ending the
conversation, for instance, by giving up when s/he cannot make her/himself understood or by leaving
the message unfinished. Since this strategy ceases the communication, it is not recommended to be
used. Nakatani (2006) proposes that message abandonment is commonly used by low-proficient

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Table 2. Communication strategies for coping with listening difficulties

Kinds of strategy N Mean Order of
Negotiation for meaning whilst listening 24 3.26 4
Fluency-maintaining 24 2.92 7
Scanning 24 3.17 5
Getting the gist 24 3.08 6
Non-verbal strategies whilst listening 24 3.29 3
Less active listener 24 3.42 2
Word-oriented 24 3.58 1

As shown in Table 2, of the 7 strategies used for coping with listening difficulties, the most
frequently used by high-anxiety students is word-oriented strategy (M = 3.58). Word-oriented
strategy could be in the form of paying attention to the words which the speaker slows down or
emphasizes or trying to understand every word that the speaker uses. Students who use this strategy
seem like ―have formed the habit of using words to get the meaning of speech‖ (Nakatani, 2006).
The least frequently used strategy is fluency-maintaining (M = 2.92). Paying attention to the
speakers‘ pronunciation and intonation is one of the manifestations of fluency-maintaining strategy.
Communication Strategies Used by Low-Anxiety Students
The tables below illustrate communication strategies used by low-anxiety students.
Table 3. Communication strategies for coping with speaking difficulties
Order of
Kinds of strategy N Mean
Socio-affective strategies 27 3.21 7
Fluency-oriented 27 3.48 1
Negotiation for meaning whilst speaking 27 3.46 2
Accuracy-oriented 27 3.43 3
Message reduction and alteration 27 3.26 5
Non-verbal strategies whilst speaking 27 3.22 6
Message abandonment 27 2.70 8
Attempt to think in English 27 3.37 4

The above table shows that the most frequently used strategy for coping with speaking difficulties
used by low-anxiety students is fluency-oriented (M = 3.48), and message abandonment is the least
frequently used strategy (M = 2.70). Fluency-oriented strategy could be in the form of paying
attention to the pronunciation and intonation, and taking more time to express what the speaker wants
to say. It means that low-anxiety students focus more on the flow of conversation and clarity of their
speech for the sake of enhancing the listener‘s comprehension. This strategy is found to be one of the
most frequently used by high-proficient students (Nakatani, 2006).
Table 4. Communication strategies for coping with listening difficulties
Kinds of strategy N Mean Order of
Negotiation for meaning whilst listening 27 3.17 5
Fluency-maintaining 27 2.90 7
Scanning 27 3.31 2
Getting the gist 27 3.19 4
Non-verbal strategies whilst listening 27 3.22 3
Less active listener 27 3.15 6
Word-oriented 27 3.54 1
As shown in Table 4, the most frequently used strategy for coping with listening difficulties
for low-anxiety students is word-oriented (M = 3.54). Moreover, the least frequently used strategy is

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

fluency-maintaining (M= 2.90). Surprisingly, this finding is similar with that found in high-anxiety
In a nutshell, having analyzed the data, it was generally found that the communication
strategy used by high-anxiety students for coping with speaking difficulties and listening difficulties
were similar from that of low-anxiety students, except the most frequently used strategy for coping
with speaking difficulties. Further, the finding of this study shows that regardless their different
degree of anxiety, both of the groups regarded message abandonment as the least frequently used
strategies for coping with speaking difficulties. It turns out that the students try to maintain their
conversation no matter whether they are anxious or not.
It is interesting to note the strategies used for coping with listening difficulties in which case there is
not any difference in the most and the least frequently used strategy by both of the groups. Both of the
groups regarded word-oriented strategy as the most frequently used strategy suggesting that the
students tend to focus on the word the interlocutor uses.

Communication difficulties are inseparable part of L2 communication which could be
tackled through the use of communication strategies. Due to the important role of communication
strategies in foreign language learning, teachers are supposed to familiarize the students with the
communication strategies. For the students, especially those who suffer from a high degree of
language learning anxiety, they are expected to make use of communication strategies in order to
improve their speaking performance. Based on the research findings, it could be concluded that
language learning anxiety could likely influence the strategy used for coping with speaking
difficulties, but not for coping with listening difficulties.
Since this study only relies on questionnaire to collect the data, it is advisable for future research to
conduct a similar study by using multiple data collection procedures for further validating the
findings of this study.

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Different Levels of Communication Apprehension in EFL Context.‖ Theory and Practice in
Language Studies 6.2 (2016): 366-371. Web. 5 Apr 2016.
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Cervantes, Carmen A.R., and Ruth R. Rodriguez. ―The Use of Communication Strategies in the
Beginner EFL Classroom.‖ Gist Education and Learning Research Journal 6 (2012):
111-128. Web. 30 Mar 2016.
Chuanchaisit, Suttinee, and Kanchana Prapphal. ―A study of English Communication Strategies of
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Apr 2016.
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55-85. Web. 30 Mar 2016.
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Grzegorzewska, Larysa. ―The Relationship between Anxiety and the Use of Communication
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Theoretical Clarification.‖ Language Learning 39 (1989): 251-275. Web. 5 Apr 2016.
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(Non) Fluent L2 Speakers.‖ The Journal of Asia TEFL 9.3 (2012): 131-156. Web. 2 Apr

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Najafabadi, Nasrollah K. ―The Use of Speaking Strategies by Iranian EFL University Students.‖
International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research 3.5 (2014): 10-24. Web.
14 Apr 2016.
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Journal 90 (2006): 151-168. Web. 30 Mar 2016.
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Communication Problems Employed by Thai University Students Majoring in English.‖
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2010 Conference Proceedings. Tokyo: JALT, 2011. Print.
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Students with Different Communication Apprehension Levels in English Department of
Petra Christian University, Surabaya.‖ K@ta 6.1 (2004): 30-46. Web. 5 Apr 2016.
Ugla, Raed Latif, Nur I. Adnan, and Mohamad J.Z. Abidin. ―Study of Communication Strategies
Used by Iraqi EFL Students.‖ International Journal of Evaluation and Research in
Education (IJERE) 2.1 (2013): 44-50. Web. 8 Apr 2016.
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Anxiety Research Suggest?‖Modern Language Journal 75 (1991): 425-439. Web. 5 Apr
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Web. 14 Apr 2016.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Okri Ronaldo
Graduate student of English Department Universitas Negeri Padang and Education Staff of STKIP PGRI
Email :

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the teaching material of English subject at Vocational High
School by referring to ESP approach because, theoretically, teaching English in Vocational High
School should relate and support the specific skill which is studied by its students. This is descriptive
research by using qualitative inquiry. This study was conducted in SMK N 2 Sijunjung where the
sources of data is the teaching material that be given by the English teachers to their students in
academic year 2014/2015. After analyzing the data, it was found that English teaching material in
SMK N 2 Sijunjung does not follow of ESP approach for each specific study in that school yet. The
data show that most of content and context of teaching material are still too general for Vocational
High School students. It can be concluded that the implementation of ESP in Vocational High School
could not run well yet. Hence, the practitioner and English teacher are expected to develop English
teaching material for Vocational School students that relate and support their certain skill in order to
make their English competence could help their career in the future. In addition, it also stimulus them
in learning English because teaching material which given in the English class relate to their topic in
their specific study in the workshop or laboratory.

Keywords: ESP, teaching material, Vocational School

Teaching English for Specific purposes in Vocational High School becomes a crucial issue at
the present where the students are expected to master the English subject in order to support their
career in the future. By using English for specific purposes approach, it can help students to
understand the language very well. In other words, it makes them more enjoyable when studying
English because the teaching English is designed appropriately with their study. In addition, teaching
English in Vocational High School should refer to English for specific purposes where the students‘
needs focus on communicating in their field study as universal.
According to Tomlinson (2003:306), English for Specific Purposes is an umbrella term that
conveys the teaching of English to students who are learning the language for a particular work or
study-related reasons. Moreover, teaching English for Specific Purposes is more emphasized to
students who learn specific skill in their study and gives significant contribution in learning English
toward students who learn in specific skill. It can be very useful for the learners because the teaching
English refers to their specific studies and help them to realize the language. it is also given to the
learners who need English for their work or their specific studies.
In Teaching English, one of important point is teaching material. Teaching material becomes
crucial issue because it gives significant impacts toward reaching of teaching and learning objectives
by the learners. Its purpose is to reach the objectives of teaching learning so that the learners get
benefit of teaching learning process. Hence, teaching material in ESP should relate to students‘ needs
in their workplace such as: Automotive engineering, Building engineering, Electrical engineering,
and so on. Inappropriate of teaching material will not help them to reach the objectives of
teaching-learning. In other word, teaching material becomes one of the main problems faced in
teaching learning process at Vocational high school today. Therefore, the English teacher needs to
create interesting materials for student in order that they can enjoy to study especially learning
English. Meanwhile, the teacher sometimes could not apply their role as materials developer so that
the materials that are given to students become monotonous and inflexible. In addition, English
teachers just use one textbook without using the current sources as reference in teaching materials.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Because of the importance of teaching material in teaching English, especially in English for
Specific Purposes, the researcher interested to study it. The researcher tried to explore the English
teaching material which is applied in a Vocational High School, SMKN 2 Sijunjung, as source of
data for the research. In this chance, the researcher focuses to the question,―How is English teaching
material development for first grade at SMK N 2 Sijunjung in the first semester academic year
2014/2015?‖. Therefore, the researcher would try to investigate the teaching material which taught in
the school. It was analyzed by referring to the theory of the English for Specific Purposes itself. Then,
this research gave the factual information about the English teaching material in the Vocational High


2.1. Definition of English for Specific Purposes
English for Specific Purposes refers to way of teaching English for specific learners who
study for certain workplace. It provides teaching English which relate to learners‘ need in their
workplace. According to Tomlinson (2003:306), English for Specific Purposes is an umbrella term
that conveys the teaching of English to students who are learning the language for a particular work
or study-related reason. Moreover, English for Specific Purposes is more emphasized to students
who learn specific skill in their study and gives significant contribution in learning English toward
students who learn in specific skill.
It is also supported by Hutchinson and Waters (2006:19), English for specific purposes is an
approach which is based on learners‘ need or it is not a product of language. English for Specific
Purposes is not also methodology in teaching English. It means that English for Specific Purposes
refers to a way to teach English based on the students‘ need. It helps students to master English skill
more closely with their field-study. Hence, English for specific purposes is not a result of English
teaching learning process, but it reflects to process of English teaching learning for certain learners.
As reinforcement, English for Specific Purposes is a learner-centered approach which expect
to learner‘s need to study English. Its purpose is to improve students‘ knowledge toward English
which relate to their specific subject such as; technology, management, Economic, Business, and so
on. It is expected to give significant influence to students‘ motivation in order to study hard and
teaching learning process will run well. Satya (2008:61) states English for specific purposes is a
learner-centered approach in teaching English as foreign language or second language. It can be
English for Business, Tourism, technology, and so on.
Then, English for Specific Purposes also relates to process of teaching and learning of
English for Occupational Purposes or work. It hopes learners to get language experience that relate to
their specific subject. It refers to Byram and Hu (2013:223), they mention that English for Specific
Purposes refers to the teaching and learning of English for work or study-related purposes. In other
words, English for Specific Purposes is based on an analysis of learners‘ needs which relate to
learners‘ target discipline , work place, and profession.
Dealing with the experts above, the researcher concludes that the definition of English for
Specific Purposes is a learner-centered approach of teaching English as foreign language. It is
applied in teaching and learning English to students who learn in particular or specific skill. The aims
of English for Specific Purposes consist of giving English teaching material which useful for the
learner and help the learners become more closely with the English. In other word, English for
Specific Purposes will focus on teaching language and skills of direct relevance to the learners‘
real-world needs.
2.2. Teaching English for Specific Purposes
According to Dudley and Jo (2007:4), teaching English for Specific Purposes should reflect
the students‘ need in order to make students become more interest to the teaching-learning process
and it should have more specific interaction between teacher and learners. In other words, teaching
English for Specific Purposes is a practical discipline in which the main focus on helping students to
learn. ESP teacher has certain methodologies in teaching learning process. It makes students more
understanding and comfortable to learn. Then, the interaction both of teacher and students become
more specific than interaction in teaching General English because the content of teaching English

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

relate to their specific needs. In addition, teaching English for Specific Purposes has its own teaching
methodology to help teacher and students in teaching learning process.
Then, it is also supported Knapp and Seidlhofer (2009:517) who state that teaching English
for Specific Purposes is to be more expected on the process of social learning that take places when
people cooperate and communicate in specific or professional contexts. Teaching English for
Specific Purposes is way to acquire language which will be needed by learners in their workplace,
especially English. Process of teaching English for Specific Purposes should be more expected to
social learning. For example, teaching English is built from cooperative and communication in
specific contexts such as; in doctor-patient communication, shopkeeper-costumer communication,
and Technician-costumer communication.
In addition, teaching English for Specific Purposes also relates to process of getting language
experience in students‘ workplace. The teacher is expected to do communication with people who
have a large knowledge about students‘ specific skill. For example; English teacher who teaches in
automotive subject should often interact with a teacher who teaching automotive skill. Its purposes
create synchronizing between English learning and students‘ need in their specific study. As Byram
and Hu (2013:225) explain that teaching English for Specific Purposes makes a numerous of demand
for language teacher. One of them, English teacher should make a good relationship with people who
have knowledge about students‘ specific study because the teacher has to develop an understanding
values of communication in the disciplinary area such as workplace for the students.
From the experts‘ statement above, the researcher cites the a view that teaching material in
English for Specific Purposes more expect to the synchronizing between the language learning and
the students‘ field studies. It should bring a context that related to the their field. Besides they study
about language, they also study how to use the language in their field study. It would be useful for
their future and carrier. In addition, it also stimulate them to learn English better because the context
in the teaching material is suitable with their specific study.
2.3 Teaching Material Development in ESP
Teaching material development as an aspect in teaching English for Specific Purposes has
purpose to analyze the students‘ need and conduct teaching material in order to get synchronize
between students‘ need and teaching material itself. Byram (2000:286) argues that teaching material
development is a process to find out of students‘ need and to tailor of design material to fit those
needs. It means that teaching material development in English for Specific Purposes not only focus
on providing material but also analysis of students‘ need. Hence, the material which is given will fix
and support students to reach their needs in workplace.
Then, teaching material development is known as one of main part of teaching learning
process such as; learning material. Especially, teaching English for specific purposes, it is more
complexity responsibility for ESP teacher. According to Mishan and Chambers (2010:1), teaching
material development in teaching English as foreign language is one of important part in teaching
learning process. In other word, it is not an extra option that can be skipped by the English teacher.
Therefore, teaching material becomes significant aspect in teaching learning process. It should get
much attention from English teacher when develop teaching material.
In addition, teaching material development is also a process to compile a field of study and a
practical undertaking. First, a field of study refers to principles and procedures of designing teaching
material, implementation, and evaluation of language teaching material. Second, a practical
undertaking is anything which is done by the ESP teacher to provide sources of language input for the
students. As Tomlinson (2011:2) points out that teaching material development is a process which is
built up from a field of study and a practical undertaking by the teacher.
Based on experts‘ explanation above, the researcher concludes that teaching material
development is an activity in English teaching learning process to find out the synchronizing between
material and students‘ needs. It should be done by the teacher because teacher is a person who has
closed relation with the students and teaching material. Hence, teacher should create a suitable
teaching material that generates English competence of students toward their specific subject because
by giving material which relate with their field-study, it will stimulus them to learn English well

2.3.1. Principles of Teaching Material in ESP

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In this case, there are many experts who state about the principles of teaching material in
English for Specific Purposes. All of them expect to the synchronizing between the context in the
material and the students‘ field study. The first one comes from Raman (2004:65) who states that
there are several regulations of developing teaching material in English for specific purposes. They
a. Specified objectives of teaching
Material loads of objectives of teaching that are specified. Objectives of teaching become crucial
attention when teacher design teaching material. The material should be a bridge to reach the
objectives of teaching and stimulus students to be interested in teaching learning process.
Therefore, the objectives of teaching must be specified in order to make clear the material.
b. Clearly purpose of teaching
Material also consists of purpose of teaching English that should be clearly identified. In teaching
learning process, students are expected to realize the purpose of learning. It means that they can be
more interested to study hard, because they know that it is important for their perspective in the
future. Thus, teacher should begin the teaching process by giving information about purpose of
teaching. In other word, the purpose of learning is delivered at the beginning of learning
c. Consist of communication needs
Material should consist of communication needs of the learner. It means that the material is
designed by need analysis of workplace demand. Its purpose is to find out the suitable material for
the learners who need English that related to their field-study. Thus, ESP teacher is expected to
collaborative with experts in specific subject of students to create suitable teaching material.
d. Stress to language as communication.
Teaching material should be stressed to put on language as a communication system and not as a
grammatical system. ESP material is more focused on communication system that uses language
to deliver information or feeling than grammatical system that emphasize to master language by
exploring the regulation of the language. In other word, teaching material is built from language
used in the workplace so that students become attractive in teaching learning process.
e. Stimulus students‘ activities in teaching process.
The preoccupation should be built in teaching material. Teaching material should interest for the
students in order that they become comfortable in teaching learning process. In addition, the
teaching material also challenge for learners. It can be done by providing topic material that
makes learners enjoying on discussing it. For example, teacher gives brainstorming about current
issue with relate to students‘ field-study.
f. Using learner-centred approach.
Material is designed by learner-centered approach because learner-centered approach is suitable
for teaching English for specific purposes. Its purpose is to make students more active in teaching
learning process and gives contribution to improve the students‘ critical thinking. Thus, teacher
should design material which can be applied in learner-centered approach in the classroom.

In addition, Dudley and Jo also suggest several points to develop teaching material in
English for specific purposes. Its aims help the teachers when they are writing English materials.
Dudley and Jo (2007:185) mention that there are several points in developing teaching materials in
English for specific purposes such as:
a. Flexibility
Material is more flexible. It is indicated that the material that is given by the teacher in teaching
learning process should be acceptable by the learners and makes them to be comfortable in
progressing. In addition, material is suited by students‘ knowledge level. For example, average of
learners in secondary school generally has language competence in intermediate level because
they have learned English when they were in junior high school and elementary school or they
have taken an English course. Giving hard or simple material will make students feel boring in
teaching learning process.
b. Clear explanation

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Material is expected to provide clear explanations. As we know that English for Specific Purposes
has discourse meaning based on the context. Thus, the material is prepared as well as possible to
help learners more understanding. The material also forces ESP teacher should have a large
knowledge about the material. It hopes the teacher can give clear explanation in the material along
teaching learning process. Hence, learners are expected to realize the material as well as possible
and they will reach the objectives of teaching very well.
c. Practice of communication needs
Material should consist of much practice about their nature communication in workplace. It will
give them language experience to communicate in their workplace future. In addition, giving
much practice will make students become active in teaching learning process because a good
material never makes students to be passive in teaching learning process, but it expects to make
students more active in teaching-learning process.
d. Supported by relevance references.
Material is emphasized from good supporting references. It is important to keep validation of the
material. Available of sources books now days have been maintained by school and government
to support teaching learning process. In addition, Searching and browsing teaching material from
internet is permitted. Nevertheless, it should come from a valid sources and it should be adapted
by considering social-culture of students.
e. Consider the sociological or culture of learners.
Material should consider the sociological or cultural of the students because English as foreign
language comes from different culture. ESP teacher should be able to provide a good material
without giving negative impact toward students‘ sociological. It is important for ESP teacher to
maintain the pure culture of students and give understanding about cross-culture.
f. Relate to learners‘ knowledge.
Material is founded from learners‘ knowledge. Knowing learners‘ knowledge becomes important
in developing material because the materials should be suitable with the students‘ level. The
purpose is to increase students‘ skill continually. It also make them relax and comfortable to
g. Building knowledge and awareness
Core of material should build a large knowledge and awareness which is then applied in more
specific material. Thus, the students will think that English is crucial aspect in reaching their
career. For example, giving motivation about the advantages of English for their future in
teaching learning process will increase their awareness in teaching learning process. It can be
done by providing current issue and information which relate with students‘ field-study and
English application. In other word, it will make students have awareness that English is important
for them.

Then, the principles of teaching material in ESP are also proposed by Hutchinson and Water
(2006:106),they mention teaching material becomes the most characteristic form of English for
specific purposes in teaching learning process. Hutchinson and Waters recommended several
principles in defining objectives of teaching material development such as:
a. Provide a stimulus to learning.
The materials are expected to give good effect in encouraging students‘ motivation to learn. Good
material will consist of interesting text, enjoyable activities, and opportunities for learners to use
their background knowledge. In other word, teaching material should be synchronized with their
field-study and it can create a warm interaction whole teaching learning process. For example,
teacher gives brainstorming which relate to student‘s field-study and making a warm interaction
while teaching learning process.
b. Help to organize teaching learning process.
Materials help to organize the teaching-learning process by providing a suitable way to learn
complex language. The material should be a brige for learners to reach the learning objectives.
Material is also arranged structurally to help teacher in delivering the material. Avoiding the
difficulties and confusing in developing material should be done by the teacher in order to create a

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

useful material. In addition, teaching material should be useful in increasing students‘

achievement and language skills.
c. Use nature of language and learning
Materials should point to the nature of language and learning. When teacher creates teaching
materials, teacher is expected to hold the pure of language learning. It helps students to
communicate in the workplace naturally and pay attention to the students‘ skill in learning
d. Provide nature of learning task
Material reflects the nature of the learning task. The materials should be able to fix with level
knowledge of students. Task of learning not only focus on writing text which relate to examples or
drill to practice it but also force to create a new topic in writing or new dialogue for practice. In
addition, teaching material also provide a clearly example to make students more understanding.
e. Broadening the teachers‘ knowledge.
Material does not only focus on improving students‘ need but also expect to improve teacher‘s
knowledge. For example, teacher should master a new topic before the teacher teaches in the
classroom by looking for many sources to support teaching material and apply a new technique
that suitable with teaching material and learners‘ ability.
f. Provide correct and appropriate language use.
Material should provide models of correct and appropriate language use. The materials should be
arranged as well as possible in order to help learners more attraction. In other word, the material
should consist of discourse meaning of vocabulary that relate to students‘ field-study.
Generally, all of the experts deal to inform about principles of teaching material should relate
to the students‘ specific skill. It accommodates the students to have competence in English based on
their field study. In short, the principles of teaching material have important aspect in teaching
English for Specific Purposes. Thus, English teacher should apply the principles of teaching material
which is recommended by experts above. Hence, in this study, the researcher evaluated the English
teaching material that was taught to the students based on one of the expert proposed above. The
researcher took the principles of teaching materials which formulated by Hutchinson and Waters
because the researcher assumed their explanation is more suitable with the condition of the field
study. Their principles of teaching material would be used by the researcher as the indicators or
standard value to analyze the teaching material which proposed to the students.

The design of this research was descriptive research because the researcher wanted to
describe about English teaching material in English teaching learning process by English teacher at
SMK N 2 Sijunjung in academic year 2014/2015. It is supported by Parse (2001:57), qualitative
descriptive research is to study intensely a phenomenon to discover pattern and themes about live
events, social sciences, and discipline-specific theoretical perspective in education. In other word, by
conducting this descriptive research, the researcher described deeply the factual information about
English teaching material development in English teaching learning process by English teachers of
SMK N 2 Sijunjung.
Source of data in this research were document which consisted of teaching material in lesson
plan in the first semester of tenth grade students. The data were divided into three kinds of text such
as: transactional, functional and monologue. The researcher focused to analyzed the content and
context in the data and used the principles of teaching material which proposed by the Hutchinson
and Waters.
The researcher used document checklist or form as instrument to help the researcher in
analyzing the data. It should be prepared as well to get the validity information. According to Yusuf
(2007:252), the form should be prepared as well and refers to the study demand in order to get the
truth finding. It means that researcher created a form or document checklist as well before analyzing
the document as the data in this research. It would be synchronized with the topic which investigates
before doing analysis.
The example of form could be generalized as a follow:

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Indicator Item Checklist Yes No Explanation Notes

A. Provide a 1. Teaching material
stimulus to consists of interesting
learning text which
appropriate with
students field study
2. .............

B. ........... 1. ..........
Then, the data was analyzed by referring to Gay and Airasian theory in analyzing the data.
According to Gay and Airasian (2000:239), there are several steps in analyzing qualitative data. They
consist of data managing, reading/memoing, describing, classify, interpreting, and representing the
finding or writing report. To support the validity of the information of this research, the researcher
also did interview to the English teacher who taught in the school. The questions referred to the
teaching material which was analyzed by the researcher. In other words, the researcher did
triangulation in this study by doing interview to the English teacher there


In this section, the teaching material was analyzed by indicators of principles of teaching
material from the theory. The researcher explored the appropriateness of teaching material with the
principles of it. It was discussed by following explanation.
a. Provide a stimulus to learning
Teaching material which has been applied by English teacher could not be able to provide a
stimulus to learning at Vocational High School‘s students. There were several points which related to
stimulus to learning such as; the first, teaching material should consist of interesting text that refers to
students‘ field study. In fact, referring to researcher‘s instrument, this point did not fulfilled in the
teaching material because this point just found to one field study, Building Engineering, and it was
also very limited. In other word, the text that given was not suitable with the students‘ field study. It
made the teaching material did not appropriate with the teaching English for Specific Purposes in the
school. It referred to the analyzing result below:

Figure 1
b. Help to organize teaching and learning process
Referring to document checklist‘s result, the indicator about help to organize teaching and
learning process was not also reached completely. Although most of points which related to the
indicator were available for each field-study such as; the teaching material referred to objectives of
learning. It could be shown in document checklist‘s result and the data were collected. Nevertheless,
the context of text did not show the specific context to students‘ field-study. It means that the
teaching material did not suitable with the concept of ESP. It become useless for students in their
workplace later. It was supported by the finding below:

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Figure 2
c. Embody a view of nature of language learning
After analyzing the data, the researcher found there were many inappropriate contents and
contexts in the teaching material. The researcher stated that teaching material which was applied in
the school did not fulfill to embody a view of nature of language learning. It was caused all of points
supported the indicator were not reached by teaching material. It showed that there was a long gap
between the students‘ field study and the teaching material in teaching learning process. It related to
the research finding in the data analyzing as follow:

Figure 3
d. Provide nature of learning task
This indicator could not be available completely. In analyzing the data, the researcher found
that some points could not exist in the teaching material. Some of the points were available because
they were also found both of general English and English for Specific Purposes. In other words, this
indicator was not valuable in the English for Specific Purposes because it just referred to the General
English not to English for Specific Purposes. It can be showed in the following document:

Figure 4

e. Broadening the teachers’ knowledge

Teacher as a person who teaches the material to their students was expected to have a large
insight in order that the teacher was able to overcome the problem which engaged the students in
mastering the teaching material. In other word, teaching material should enrich the teachers‘
knowledge. To reach it, there were several points that should be completed in teaching material
likely, teaching material must be attracted teacher to be more creative in teaching. It should
synchronize the teaching strategy in reaching the objectives of teaching and learning language. In
addition, teaching material should enrich teachers‘ insight toward ESP. Then, teaching material
expected teacher to use new technique in teaching learning process. In fact, each of the points which
relate to enrich the teachers‘ knowledge was not found in the teaching material because the result
showed the limitation of the teaching material in broadening teachers‘ knowledge itself. This
statement was supported by the information below:
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Figure 5
f. Provide correct and appropriate language use
From the data analysis, the researcher could state that teaching material did not provide
correct and appropriate language use. It was caused there was not point which related to the
indicators reached in teaching material. It caused teaching material did not stimulus the students.
They would think that language learning could not give beneficial to their specific study so that they
became lazy and underestimate toward English.

Figure 6
From the discussion above, the researcher concluded that there was no principle of developing
teaching material could be fulfilled completely. Most of them indicated that teaching material was
not suitable with the principles of developing teaching material in English for specific purposes. This
data showed that teaching material which was applied in the field of this research did not refer to the
teaching material in English for specific purposes. It also was supported by the interview‘s result to
triangulate the data. Thus, the researcher was surely confident that It could give scientific answer to
the research question about how the English teaching material in SMK N 2 Sijunjung at the first
grade students in the first semester, academic year 2014/2015.


5.1. Conclusion
Teaching material is a crucial thing in educational progress in this country. Ideally, it was the
teachers‘ responsibility in their duty. The teachers were expected to deliver an appropriate teaching
material for their students while teaching learning process. Thus, the researcher had interested in
doing investigated about this part. To explain this issue, the researcher conducted a study about
teaching material development in Vocational High School in which it should be appropriate with the
ESP concepts because the students was prepared to master a specific field-study.
In this research, the researcher explained about how English teaching material development
in the school. To collect the data, the researcher did Document analysis with document checklist as
instrument and unstructured interview to triangulate the data. Document in this research was the
teaching material given by the teacher to their students in first grade at first semester, academic year
2014/2015. From the analysis document, the researcher concluded that teaching material
development in the school was not appropriate with the concepts of ESP because the data showed
that the teaching material was too general and did not close to the students‘ field study. Therefore, it
should get impressed attention for many educators; stakeholder, teacher, applied linguists, and

5.2 Suggestion
After doing this investigation about the English teaching material, the researcher states
insightful suggestions toward elements of educational at the following points. Firstly, the researcher

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

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suggests the English teacher who taught in Vocational High School in order to introduce English in
their specific skill because it is very useful for them when they come to their workplace in the future.
Introducing English through specific approach will make students interested in learning English. It
helps them to synchronize what they had done in the workshop and what they have learned in the
English subject.
Secondly, the researcher also recommends a teaching approach for Vocational High School
in English subject to the curriculum developer. The researcher hopes the curriculum developer could
consider about the recommendation. It is caused the researcher has known from the experts‘
statement about English for specific purposes. ESP is not a product of teaching learning process but it
expects to an approach in teaching learning process. In other word, the government should revise
about the teaching guiding book in order to make it more specific for Vocational High School.
Overall, this research informs to the readers about the factual information of English teaching
material for Vocational High School, especially in SMKN 2 Sijunjung and gives the useful insight
about teaching material which related to the ESP concept. The researcher also asks additional
information from the others about the issue above in order to enrich our insight in English for specific
purposes. Therefore, it could be very useful for the readers and enrich our understanding in teaching

Byram, Michael. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. New York:
Routledge, 2000.
Byram, Michael and Adelheid Hu. Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning.
New York: Routledge, 2013.
Dudley, Tony Evans and Jo, Maggie ST Jhon. Developments in English for Specific Purposes A
Multi-Disciplinary Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print
Gay, L.R. and Airasian, Peter. Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Applications.
New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,Inc, 2000. Print
Hutchinson, Tom and Waters, Alan. English for Specific Purposes A Learning-Centred Approach.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print
Knapp, Karlfried et al. Handbook of Foreign Language Communication and Learning. Berlin:
Hubert&co, 2009.
Mishan, Freda and Chambers, Angela. Perspectives on Language Learning Material Development.
Bern: Peter Lang AG, 2010.
Parse, Rosiemarie Rizzo. Qualitative Inquiry the Path of Sciencing. London: Jones and Bartlett
Publisher, 2001.
Raman, Meenakshi. English Language Teaching. New Delhi: Atlantic Publisher and Distributors,
Satya, R.K. Modern Methods of Teaching. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation, 2008.
Tomlinson, Brian. Developing Material for Language Teaching. New York: Cromwell Press, 2003.
.Material Development in Language Teaching Second Edition. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2011.
Yusuf, A Muri. Metodologi Penelitian. Padang: UNP Press, 2007.Print

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Dr. Rahmah Apen, M. Si.
Faculty of Language and Arts
State University of Padang

This paper is aimed at getting a deep understanding of the process and results in improving grammar
mastery in learning English through problem solving technique. It reports the action research
involving 30 students of English Education Study Program at Language and Arts Faculty in State
University of Padang who took Structure I Subject. The instrument used were questionaire, students‘
portofolios, observers‘ and reseacher‘s journals, pre-test and post-test.The data were analyzed by
using descriptive statistics in the form of mean and percentage, and the validity of the data was
checked by using triangulation technique.The result shows that (1) The process of using problem
solving technique is chalanging, and it makes the students active, thinks critically, improves the
students‘ learning result, and gradually makes the students become autonomous learners.(2) The
result of grammar mastery varied within the three cycles of different instructional activities
conducted. The indicators are seen from the pre- to post-test results of each cycle. The results of
grammar mastery through classical instructional activities improved from 28.53 to 67.0. In group
discussion activities the improvement is from 69.53 to 77.13. Meanwhile, the improvement is seen
from 77.06 to 83.23 in pair work instructional activities. Based on the result, the learning process
through problem solving technique improved the learning result of grammar mastery.

Keywords : improving, English grammar mastery, problem solving technique

English learners are demanded to be able to use English well in the four language skills
(Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing). There are several language components to master when
the learners want to use good English. One of them is mastering grammar beside mastering other
language components. Without having knowledge about grammar, it is imposible for someone to use
the language well. If English instructors/teachers want their students to be able to use English well,
they have to pay attention to students‘ grammar mastery.
Related to the the ideas above, English instructors/teachers have tried to use many kinds of
techniques in teaching English grammar. In English Education Study Program of English
Department at Language and Arts Faculty in State University of Padang, although the instructors
have tried many efforts in teaching grammar, their result is still unsatisfied. Based on the writer‘s
empirical observation, The students‘ mastery in using grammar is still low. This fact can be seen
through the students‘ performance in using English in writing. After trying to investigate the
students‘ mastery in using grammar in writing, it was found that among 10 students‘ thesis, 80
percents of them still have mistakes in using grammar. This fact is also stated by Syarif (2014). In her
research, she concludes that the students of English Education Study Program at Language and Arts
Faculty in State University of Padang find difficulties in using correct grammar in writing English.
The dominant difficulty is related to syntaxt.
Related to the above fact, most of English instructors/teachers believe that learning language
components should be done integratively in listening, speaking, reading and writing which is called
Communicative Language Learning (Murcia, 2001, Amato 2010). In conrast to this idea, Nassaji and
Fotos (2011), dan Ur (2012) have the conclusions of their research that the students who are taught
English grammar explicitely, their grammar mastery is better than those who are not taught English
grammar ecplicitely.
In relation to that condition, in order the students of English Education Study Program at
Language and Arts Faculty in State University of Padang have good matery in grammar, one of the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

demands in teaching English is the needs in using the appropriate techniques that can motivate the
students to learn grammar. One of them can be problem solving technique. English
instructors/teachers should try to practice the appropriate technique in teaching grammar explicitely
when they want their students to master grammar well. In other words, in order to make grammar
class interesting, effective and beneficial, an instructor/teacher has to use well-developed and
fascinating technique in the classroom. It is common to hear that the students‘ success in learning
grammar also depends on the creativities of the intructors/teachers in choosing the appropriate
technique in teaching grammar.
As mentioned above, problem solving technique is one of the techniques that can motivate
the students to learn. It is a technique in which learning and teaching process are done by involving a
certain problem and how to solve it which needs students‘ cooperativeness in small group or large
group (Brown, 2001). Then, problem solving technique makes the students have self confidence in
learning. Learning through problem solving technique, make the students try to solve the problems
until they are able to solve them and they are sure with the grammar concept of what they have
learned. Besides, Moore, (2005), said that problem solving technique is an effort to eliminate the
sudents‘ doubtness through teaching and learning process. Since grammar consists of many rules,
and the rules also have exception, it makes the students find difficulties or confused in learning
grammar. Using problem solving technique is helpful to the students to avoid their doubtness. In this
paper, problem solving technique activities are provided.

1. The Concept of Grammar in Learning English
Grammar in a simple definition is a knowledge about language. Someone‘s knowledge that
enable him to use a language is called grammar (Veit,1986). In learning and teaching process, when
the students master grammar well, it will enable them to understand what they read, and listen, and
make them able to speak and to write. Besides, Callerson (1995) states that grammar is the way to
arrange a certain language. Related to this, Ur (2012) also says that grammar is the arrangement of
words to make correct sentence.
The above ideas can be concluded that the grammar of a language is the feature of rules to
create a sentence in a certain language. It is the way of how to arrange words to produce the correct
sentences. The grammar mastery is needed in language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading and
writing), because there is no language skills which can be developed without mastering grammar. In
this research, grammar is limited to marphology and syntaxt.
a. Grammar Learning
Murcia (2001) states that grammar learning is the learning process that make learners
understand the way to analyze the rules, meaning, function and grammar form. By understanding the
rules, the sudents are able to use or to apply the rules in creating good English sentences. When the
students can produce good sentences they can use them in speaking or writing English, and help them
to understand what they read and what they listen.
Based on the ideas above, it can be said that grammar mastery is very important in learning
English. Lack of grammar mastery can make the students find difficulties in the four language skills.
Their understanding about what they read and listen will be far from adequate. Their speaking and
writing ability will be in low grade. So, teaching grammar explicitly can be one of the ways to learn
English grammar.
Related to the mentioned ideas above in teaching English, Hadley (1993) states that grammar
teaching can be done through two approaches, namely, deductive and inductive. Through deductive
approach, grammar teaching is initiated by the explanation about the rules of grammar, then, in
teaching and learning process the students are asked to create their own sentences. In the other ways
around, through inductive approach, the teaching and learning process is done by giving enough
examples to the students first. Then the students and the teacher formulate the concept about the rules
of grammar. He also says that inductive approah is more preferable, because it is more suitable for
language acquisation in natural way, it is suitable with the development of concept among languages,
it enable the students to get comunicative feeling, and it increases intrinsic motivation. Besides,

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Harmer (2007) also suggested the same approaches in teaching grammar, namely, 1) deductive
approach, in this approach the students are given explanation about the rules or grammar rules, based
on these rules the students are asked to to create their own examples; 2) inductive approah, in
contrast, teaching and learning process is begun by giving enough good examples, it can be through a
text, then the students are requested to formulate the rules. At the end, the students are asked to create
different examples, and discuss their examples.
Related to the above approaches in teaching grammar, Harmer (2001) states two models in
teaching grammar, namely: 1) Task, Teach, and Task Model (TTT Model). 2) Presentation, Practice,
and Production Model (PPP Model). In the TTT Model, the teaching and learning process is initiated
by the task, it is continued by the teaching and learning activities, and finally by giving the task again.
In the PPP Model, the lesson is begun by presentation, then the students are asked to practise the
rules, at last, the teaching and learning activiy is continued to production activities. In this research
the writer combined TTT Model with the last part of PPP Model. The model used was Task,Teach,
and Task combined with Production. It can be called TTTP Model (task, teach, task, and production
Based on the model discussed above, the activities in teaching grammar by using the TTTP
model are as Follows:
a. The students are given two texts or dialogs. Text/dialog A contains sentences with grammar
problems. Text/dialog B contains sentences with correct grammar. The students are asked to
compare the two texts/dialogs. By comparing them, the students are suggested to identify
and to know whether the sentences in text A have gramatical problems, if there is problem in
the sentences, they are asked to identify in which part it is found. After identifying and
knowing the problems, the students are asked to find out the corect grammar form of the
sentences with grammatical problems by comparing them with sentences in the text which
contains correct sentences (text/dialog B). This is called task stage.
b. Then, the instructor discusses them with the students in order the students understand the
gramatical rules or gramatical concept until the students master the rules or concept and
know how to use it. This is called the teach stage.
c. After the students are sure with the concept of grammar rules and and know how to use them,
or after they are able to identify which part of the sentence has problem, and know the correct
form of that parts, the students are asked to do the task again. In this stage the task consists of
the text/dialog which contains sentences with gramatical problems only without giving the
text/dialog which contains sentences with correct grammar as the comparison. This step is
aimed at training the students in order they can solve the grammar problems in the sentences
given, and simultaniously to check whether the students have mastered the grammar being
taught. This step is called the task stage.
d. After the instructor is sure with the students‘ mastery of grammar, the students are asked to
produce or to create sentences. It can be orally, or written. This step is called production
By doing such activities repeatedly and continuously in grammar teaching and
learning process, from cycle 1 to cycle 3 in this action researh, they will be challanging to the
students, and they will make the students able to use correct grammar in writing or speaking.
Besides, they also help the students to understand what they read and what they listen. So
that, in this research the writer used inductive approach and TTTP model (Task, Teach, Task
and Production model) in teaching grammar.
b. Grammar Evaluation.
The grammar evaluation is done by giving the grammar test. The grammar test used is taken
from Harmer‘s ideas. Harmer (2001) divides grammar test into two categories, namely, 1) descrete
item test, and 2) performance test. Descrete item test means the test to check the students‘ matery in
grammar or the students‘ grammar knowledge. Performance test is the test to check the students‘
performance in using the language. The two kinds of the test were given to the students.

2. The Concept of Problem Solving Technique

a. Problem Solving Technique

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Kolesnik (1976) defines problem solving as reorganization of concepts to overcome

difficulties or obstacles to reach the goal. Besides, (Ausubel, 1978, Gagne, 1985, and Gagne 1987)
stated that problem solving is a teaching and learning process which needs much knowledge and
experience. Besides, Aururah (2014) states that the skills in problem solving is an important
element to obtain academical success in several science. Then, Ngalimun (2014) says that problem
solving is an effort to find out the ways to solve problem such as to find out pattern and the rules. In
using problem solving technique the students try to identify, to investigate and to search the patterns
or the rules presented in group until they get the solution.
Related to the ideas above, Gick in McIntosh (1995) states that there are three things in
processing information in problem solving, namely, 1) problem approaches, 2) a logic solution
process, and 3) communication. Besides, Marzano et. al. (1988) states that there are some ideal
process in problem solving, namely, 1) identifying the problem, 2) defining the problem, 3) exploring
the strategy, 4) action on ideas, and 5) looking for the effects. Then, Heine (2010) states that there are
several real implicit actvities in problem solving which can be known, namely, 1) recognize or
identify the problem, 2) define and present the problem mentally, 3) develop a solution strategy, 4)
organize his or her knowledge about the problem, 5) be ready physically and mentally to solve the
problem, 6) monitor his or her progress toward the goals, 7) evaluate the solution for the accuracy.
Actually, the sequence is not exactly like that, as far as the description of the mental activities occur
at the time of solving the problem, it will be useful. In accordance with it, Kalhotra (2014) proposed
several steps in implementing problem solving technique, namely, 1) identify the problem, 2)
evaluate the resource, 3) set the objective, and 4) plan the development.
From the ideas above, it can be concluded that 1) problem solving technique is a teaching and
learning technique as a reorganization of concepts to overcome the obstacles to reach a goal. Problem
solving technique is a learning activity that need much knowledge and experience, and problem
solving is a success in uniting the concepts in order to understand the rules by broadening knowledge
mastery that is aimed at making the students active in finding, and using information related to the
problem to be solved, and it is an effort to find the way to solve the problem such as to find patterns
and rules. 2) the steps in implementing problem solving namely, (a) problem posing, (b) problem
approach, (c) problem solution, (d) communication. There are also other steps, such as (a) identifying
the problem, (b) defining the problem, (c) exploring strategy, (d) acting on ieas, and (e) looking for
the effects.
Based on the above conclusions, the concept, the steps, and the ways to develop problem
solving skills the writer implemented are taken and symplified from the mentioned experts above,
namely, problem solving is the success in uniting the concepts in order the learners are able to
broaden their knowledge mastery which is aimed at making the learners active in finding out and
using information related to the problem to be solved, and they get the patterns and the rules of
grammar. Then, the steps of problem solving technique implemented in this research are: 1)
identifying the problem, 2) knowing the problem, 3) analyzing the problem, 4) solution process, and
5) communication. Identifying the problem was done related to the activities of teaching in TTTP
model, namely, by giving two texts or dialogs. Text/dialog A contains sentences with grammar
problems. Text/dialog B contains sentences with correct grammar. The students are asked to compare
the two texts/dialogs. By comparing them, the students are suggested to identify and to know whether
the sentences in text A have gramatical problems, if there is problem in the sentences, they are asked
to identify in which part it is found, until they know where the problems are. After identifying and
knowing the problems, the students are asked to find out the corect grammar form of the sentences
with grammatical problems by comparing them with sentences in the text which contains correct
sentences (text/dialog B). Knowing the problem was done after the students have identified whether
the sentences in text A have gramatical problems. They will know which parts of the sentences in the
text have problems. After knowing the parts which have grammatical problems, the students analyze
the problems by investigating what grammar problems are found in the sentences by comparing
them with the text that contains sentences with correct grammar. Then, they tried to create sentences
with correct grammar (solution process). Finally, in communication process, they use the sentences
which are correct gramatically. It can be orally or written.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

b. Problem Solving Characteristics

Actually, in understanding problem solving fully, someone has to know its characteristics.
Kolesnik (1976) states that the characteristics of problem solving is the conscious efforts to find out
the answers or the conclusions intentionally, or the solutions that individual needs to reach the goal.
Besides, Pizzini and Shepardson (1992) say that Problem solving is a technique which encourage the
learners to interact. Teaching and learning model which gives the chance to the learners to interact,
will help the learners develop their attitude toward learning to improve their prestation. Then,
Kalhotra (2014) says that problem solving is a process to find out the way out to the obstacles faced
by the students when the students find difficulties to reach the objective.
Based on the ideas above, it can be concluded that the characteristics of problem solving are,
1) problem solving is characterized by a conscious effort to find out answers or conclusions or
solution needed by the students to reach the learning goals. Problem solving encourages the learners
to interact which can improve the learners‘ prestation. In this researh the characteristics of problem
solving used is Kolesnik ideas, Pizzini and Shepardson ideas, namely, problem solving is the
conscious efforts to find out the answers or the conclusions consciously, or to find out the solutions
that individual needs to reach the goal in learning grammar. Problem solving encourages the learners
to interact which will help the learners develop their attitude toward learning to improve their
prestation. Cruickshank (2006) also states that the development of effective teaching materials is by
giving the students new situation or problem solving in teaching and learning process. It can make the
students work hard to reach the goals of learning grammar. Problem solving technique is newly used
in teaching English. Relevant studied shows that problem solving technique are mostly used
successfully in teaching exact science. Since English grammar has the rules to be learned, like exact
science, it is also good to use it in teaching grammar.
c. Problem Solving in Teaching and Learning Grammar
Slack and Steward in Okebukola (1993) state that problem solving technique in teaching and
learning process is a kind of educational valuable goals in knowledge gaining. The ability in solving
the problem determines how a learner can be successful in finding out the solution to the challange in
his daily life. In this research the use of problem solving technique determine the learners ability in
facing the challange in grammar learning. Besides, using problem solving technique in teaching and
learning process can improve the students‘ ability to solve their own problems in using the language.
Reigeluth (2009) says that problem solving regards that in learning a language, the learners learn the
content of the language and thinking strategy. Then, Schiller (1999) says that problem solving is one
of brain training which is favorite for the learners. By doing problem solving repeatedly and with
pleasure, especially in learning grammar, it is assumed that the learners will have motivation and
skill in using the language.
Related to the above illustration, Wiggins and McTighe in Greenwald (2000) state that they
agree with the idea that the best teaching and learning process happen when a learner wants to study
the subject deeply in order he/she can find out the meaning of learning and get the understanding of
what he/she learns. Understanding is a kind of learning something deeply to obtain the knowledge in
higher level. It means, understanding requires thinking activity, finding the proof, and interprate
information in a new way. In this case, of course the grammar learning is also included. Kronberg
and Griffin (2000) also state the same ideas that the learners will be motivated to be active in teaching
and learning process when it is effective, and when refflection happen in problem solving context.
From the ideas above, when related to grammar teaching and learning process, it can be
concluded that problem solving technique is a teaching and learning technique where mastering the
concept can make the learners improve their understanding and thinking ability to a higher level, and
at last it can make the learners critical in doing their task including grammar task that is required to
finish their study. The ability to solve the problem is very important for the learners. So that, problem
solving ability is supposed to make the learners be able to transfer their knowledge from one subject
to another subject. Then, they are hoped to be able to solve problems in their daily life. Dwiyogo
(1997) states that the learning result through problem solving technique is the highest skill in thinking
and intelectual skill. So that, educational objective is not only knowledge gaining but also the
improvement in solving the problem.

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This research is an action researh, namely, the research which is started from the information
about the problems happen in teaching and learning process currently. Action research approach
supports the instructors/teachers in teaching. it improves the instructors‘/teachers‘ competence and
proffesional autonomy in evaluation, because the action research point is the development of
instructors‘/teachers‘professional in evaluation, Hopkins (2002). The essential point of this research
is the intructors‘/teachers‘ development in teaching and evaluating. The objectives of the research are
to get a deep understanding about the process and results in improving grammar mastery in learning
English through problem solving technique. The instruments used in collecting the data were
questionaire, students‘ portofolios, observers‘ and reseacher‘s journals, pre-test and post-test. The
data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics in the form of mean and percentage, and the
validity of the data was checked by using triangulation technique. Problem solving technique was
implemented in three cycles. In cycle 1, the learners were taught classically, in the second cycle they
were taught in group, meanwhile in the third cycle they were taught in pairs.

Research results are as follows:
1. The process of teaching and learning grammar which can improve grammar mastery through
problem solving technique implemented in this reserch is challanginng, makes the students
active, think critically, and gradually make the students become autonomous learners, and all
of these process give impact to improvement of the learning result.
2. The results in grammar mastery improve. Based on the action which has been done from
cycle 1 to cycle 3, it is seen that the results of students‘ mastery in teaching grammar through
problem solving technique varied within the three cycles of different instructional activities
conducted. The indicators are seen from the pre- to post-test results of each cycle. The results
of grammar mastery through classical instructional activities improved from 28.53 to 67.60.
In group discussion activities the improvement is from 69.30 to 77.13. Meanwhile, the
improvement is seen from 77.06 to 83.23 in pair work instructional activities. This result can
be seen in the following table.
Table 1
The Comparison of the Mean in Grammar Post-Test in Cycle I, Cycle II, and Cycle III

The mean of The mean of The mean

No. U. Indicator post-test post-test in post-test
in Cycle Cycle in Cycle
1. Gramatika 67,60 77,13 83,23

To make it clear, it can be seen in the following diagram:

Diagram 1
The Comparison of the mean in Grammar Post-Test in Cycle I, Cycle II, and Cycle III

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Based on all of the above illustrations it can be concluded as follows: Teaching and
learning process that can improve grammar mastery of the students in Education Study Program at
Language and Art Faculty in State University of Padang can be done by implementing problem
solving technique. In brief, from process point of view, this technique is challanginng, makes the
students active, think critically, and gradually make the students become autonomous learners, and
all of these process give impact to improvement of the learning result. From the result point of view,
the results of students‘ mastery in teaching grammar through problem solving technique varied
within the three cycles of different instructional activities conducted. The implementation of problem
solving technique which is done classically, in groups, and in pairs give good effect in improving
learning result.

A. Patricia, dan Amato – Richard. Making It Happen From Interactive to Participarory Language
Teaching : Evolving Theory and Practice. New York: Pearson Education, Inc. 2010.
Aurah, Catherin M. et. al. Predicting Problem Solving Ability From Metacognotion and
Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Cross Validateded Sample, Journal Published by European Center for
Research Training and Development UK. Vol. 2. No. 1. 2014.
Brown, H. Douglas. Teaching by Prinsiples : An Interactive Approach to Pedagogy. New York :
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001.
Callerson, John. English Grammar a Functional Approach. Australia: Primary English Association.
Cruickshank, Donald R. The Act of Teaching. New York : Mc Graw-Hill Companies. 2006.
Dwiyogo, W. D. Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving. Jurnal Teknologi Pembelajaran: Teori
dan Penelitian, 5 (1): 13-21.1997.
Gagne, R.M .& Brigges, L.J. Principles of Instrucitnal Design. New York: Holt, Rinehart &
Winston. 1979.
Greenwald, Nina L. Learning from Problem. The Science Teacher, 67 (4): 28-32. 2000.
Hadley, Alice Omaggi. Teaching Language in Context. Boston: Stanley J. Galek. 1993.
Harmer, Jeremy. How to Teach English. England: Pearson Education Limited. 2007.
Heini, Lena. Problem Solving in a foreign Language: A study in Content and Language Integrated
Learning. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co.KG. 2010.
Hopkins, David . A Teacher‘s Guide to Classroom Research. : Buckingham: Open University Press.
Kalhotra, Satish Kumar. A Study of Problem Solving Behavior of Eight Class Students in Relation
to Their Creativity- Journal, International Invention Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, Vol.
1 (1). 2014.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

Kolesnik, Walter B. Learning, Educational Application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc. 1976.
Kronberg, J.R. dan Griffin, M. S. Analysis Problem—A Means to Developing Students‘
Critical-Thinking Skills. Journal of College Science Teaching (JCST), 29 (5): 348-352. 2000.
Marzano, R.J, et. al. Dimension of Thinking. A Framework of Curriculum and Instruction.
Virginia:Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1988.
McIntosh, Thomas G. Problem Solving Processes. The Science Teacher, 62 (4): 16-19. 1995.
Moore, Kenneth D. Effective Instructional Strategies : From Theory to Practice, California: Sage
Publication, Inc. 2005.
Murcia, Marianne Celce. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language, Singapore : Thomson
Learning. Inc. 2001.
Nassaji Hossein dan Sandra Fotos, Teaching Grammar in Second Language Classroom : Integrating
Form-Focus Instruction in Communikative Context. New York: Routledge Taylor& Francis
Group. 2011.
Ngalimun. Strategi dan Model Pembelajaran Yogyakarta : Aswaja Pressindo. 2014.
Okebukola, Peter Akinsola. Can Good Concept Mappers be Good Problem Solvers in Science?
Research in Science & Technological Education, 10 (2): 153-170. 1993.
Pizzini, E.L. dan Shepardson, A Comparison of the Classroom Dynamics of a Problem-Solving and
Traditional Laboratory Model of Instruction Using Path Analysis. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 29 (3): 243-258. 1992.
Reigeluth, Charles M. dan Carr-Chelman Alison A. Instructional–Design Theories and Models
:Building a Common Knowledge Base, New York: Taylor & Francis. Reigeluth, Charles M. dan
Carr-Chelman Alison A. 2009. Instructional–Design Theories and Models :Building a Common
Knowledge Base, New York: Taylor & Francis. 2009.
Schiller, Pam. Start Smart. Belesvile : Gripton House, Inc. 1999.
Syarif, Hermawati. 2014. ―Grammatical Interference Patterns in the English Deparments Studens‘
Writing: Indonesian to English Grammar, ‖ Elxir Appl Ling. 68.
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Veit, Richard. Discovering English Grammar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1986.

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)


Resa Yulita, S. S, M. Pd.
Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Payakumbuh

Students of multilingual speakers need a good course book to help them improve their performance
in English language. A good course book means a book that can fulfill student‘s needs as well as
relevant with the curriculum of the course. From need and situation analysis, it was found that,
Politani students need a book which is interesting and communicative. Unfortunately, the present
course book does not fulfill their needs. Aside from that, the present course book was also not
relevant with the curriculum used. As the result, most of students have a poor performance in
English. They have difficulty in using English as means of communication. On the basis of these
phenomena, an R and D research was conducted by using four-D model. This model consists of
define, design, develop and disseminate stages. Due to limited time, in this research, disseminate
stage was not conducted. The aim of the research is to produce a new course book which was
designed by using Task-Based Approach. This approach is considered to be one of communicative
approaches. The book was designed to be used by semester II student of Food Crops study program.
The result of the research shows that the book is valid and practical to be used for students of
semester II Food Crops study program at Politani.

Keywords: multilingual speakers, course book, R and D, Task-Based Approach

Course book continues to play an important role in English language teaching. For teachers,
it helps them control teaching and learning process. Meanwhile, for students, it becomes a valuable
tool in guiding them learning English language. Therefore, the use of course book in a language
classroom is something obligatory. There are three kinds of course books commonly used in a
language classroom. The first kind and which is globally used is commercial or global course book.
Another kind is adapted course book. Then, the last one is teacher made course book. Any kind of
course book will be possible to be used in a language classroom so long as it fits with the curriculum
of the course, students‘ level, age, need and interest.
In Polytechnic of Agriculture, teacher made course book is used in their English course. The
book is expected to help Politani students as multilingual speakers to communicate in English.
Unfortunately, the use of the book does not seem to be effective in increasing students‘ performance
in English. Data from 2009-2010 showed that more than 50% students from four study programs in
Food Crops Department got C for English subject. In addition to it, based on the interview conducted
to the students and the English lecturers at Politani, it was found that both the students as well as the
lecturers did not satisfy with the old course book. The students expected for more helpful, interesting,
communicative, and easy to learn course book while the lecturers were unsatisfied with the content
and the way the materials were presented in the course book. Besides, the course book was felt to be
irrelevant with the curriculum of Politani.
In support of this, Hutchinson and Waters (1987) assert that course book or material
encourages learners to learn, helps organize teaching and learning process, and provides models of
correct and appropriate language use. It implies that when the course book used does not encourage
learners to learn, does not help lecturers organize teaching and learning process, and does not provide
students with appropriate models of language use, students may have poor performance in English
In the case of fulfilling the students‘ expectation for having a communicative course book, a
Task-Based approach is going to be used. Task-Based Approach (TBA) is a teaching framework

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

which promotes the use of authentic materials by focusing classroom activities around the
completion of tasks. The focus of this approach is on exposing students to real life communication.
Richards and Rodgers (2004) state that in Task-Based Approach, task are used as the main unit for
planning and instruction. It implies that by using TBA, teacher plans kinds of tasks that will foster
their students to a better comprehension on English language and uses tasks as a mean to deliver the
language features ought to be learned as well.
Furthermore, the use of Task-Based Approach is to enable students to communicate fluently
in the target language in real life communication. Hongkong Ministry of Education (1999:41) states
the more specific aim of Task-Based Approach as giving opportunities for learners to negotiate
meaning through speaking and writing activities by using authentic, practical and functional features
of language. It is obvious then that the ultimate objective of TBA is to guide students to have a
meaningful communication through their performance on some tasks which at the end will have
effect in increasing their speaking, reading, listening and writing skills.


1. English Teaching at Polytechnic of Agriculture
Polytechnic of Agriculture or Politani is a vocational college which is aiming at producing
qualified graduate on agriculture. As a vocational college, English teaching at Politani can be
regarded as teaching English for Specific Purposes or ESP. According to Hutchinson and Waters
(1987), ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are
based on the learner‘s reason for learning. Therefore, the aim of English teaching at Politani is to
fulfill the learner‘s needs in this case the needs of students to use English in agricultural contexts.
As one of compulsory subjects, English course at Politani is offered in semester 1 and 2 with 2 (two)
credits for each semester. Some study programs offer this subject for three or even four semesters
while in Food Crops study program English subject is offered for three semesters. The focus of
semester 1 and 2 are on improving students‘ understanding on grammar while the focus of semester 3
is on improving students‘ speaking ability. Speaking skill is chosen because according to Ur (1996)
speaking is the most important skill among four skills and people who know a language are referred
to as speakers of the language.
With 2 (two) credits offered each semester, English subject has 8 (eight) meetings for lecture
activity and 16 (sixteen) meetings for labor activity. Materials for each meeting are organized by
using structural syllabus. They are arranged and presented from simple to complex, from introducing
words as a single unit into combining words to become a sentence. Meanwhile, lexical structures,
vocabulary and grammar are the central focus of this syllabus.
Three English lecturers are responsible for teaching English subject for 10 (ten) study programs.
They come from non-educational background. Even though Nation and Macalister (2010) remark
that when teacher has a low level of training, they might not be able to handle the activities in the
The students of Politani come from different region with different ability on English. All of
them have learned English for about 6 (six) years or even more than 6 (six) years. Some of them come
to study to Politani with their own will while some others do not.
1. Course Book
Course book is a major common material used in English language teaching. The use of it is
a must in a language classroom at vocational college. According to Tomlinson (1998), course book
can be defined as a textbook which provides the core materials for a course. It aims to provide as
much as possible in one book and is designed so that it could serve as the only book which the
learners necessarily use during a course. Such a book usually includes work on grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation, functions and the skills of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Furthermore,
Prucha (1997:273) considers course book as curricular object, the source of knowledge for students
and teaching material for teachers. In brief, course book is a guide book for students to learn as well
as for teacher to teach. For students, task and exercises help them learn English easily meanwhile the
organization of the materials provide teacher assistance in controlling their teaching and learning

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

Since course book is one of elements in English language teaching, it tends to cover many
things. Cambridge University Press (1996) proposes some things to be covered by a course book.
They are pronunciation practice, introduction of new vocabulary and practice, grammar explanation
and practice, recordings for listening practice, listening and speaking communicative tasks,
mixed-skills communicative tasks, short and long reading texts, dictionary work, review of
previously learnt material, and some entertaining or fun activities. Although a course book can cover
things mentioned above. Some of the book might reduce some things such as pronunciation practice
and previously learnt material as well as add another thing if necessary.
2.Course Book Development
The procedure of materials development, in this case course book development, includes the
design, implementation, and evaluation of language teaching materials. Before designing materials,
course book developer needs to do need analysis and situation analysis (environment analysis). Need
analysis is related to the student‘s needs meanwhile situation analysis concerns the environment
where the course book is going to be used. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) divide needs into target
needs and situation needs. Target needs can look at necessities (what is necessary in the learner‘s use
of language, lacks (what do the learner‘s lacks), and wants (what do the learner wish to learn). The
target needs can be analysed by using interview, questionnaire and checklist.
Besides need analysis, environment analysis is also of importance to be conducted in the
process of materials development. In Tessmer words (1990), environment analysis involves looking
at the factors that will have strong effect on decisions of the goal of the course, what to include on the
course and how to teach and assess it. Environment analysis includes student‘s background,
lecturer‘s profile and facilities in the college.
The procedure of materials development is usually reflected in the framework used. There
are many frameworks offered by researchers related to materials development. Dick and Carey
(1990) suggest ten components of the system approach model namely identify an instructional goal,
conduct an instructional analysis, identify entry behavior and characteristics, write performance
objectives, develop and/or select instructional materials, design and conduct the formative
evaluation, revise instruction, and conduct summative evaluation. Unlike Dick and Carey,
Hutchinson and Waters (1989: 90-94) offer four approaches of course design process. They are a
language-centered approach, a skill-centered approach, a learning-centered approach, and post hoc
For this research framework from Jolly and Bolitho is going to be used. This framework is
proven to be useful, easy to follow because it gives a step by step process of material‘s writing. Jolly
and Bolitho (1998) formulate the framework in a diagram as follows:

Identification by teacher or learner(s) of a need to fulfill or a

problem to solve by the creation of materials

Exploration of the area of need/problem in terms of what

language, what meanings, what functions, what skills etc.

Contextual realization of the proposed new materials by the

finding of suitable ideas, contexts or texts with which to work

Pedagogical realization of materials by the finding of appropriate

exercises and activities and the writing of appropriate instructions
for use

Physical production of materials, involving consideration of layout,

type size, visuals, reproduction, tape length etc.

Students use of materials

Evaluation of materials against agreed objectives

Figure 1 :Jolly and Bolitho’s framework for material’s writing

First, teacher identifies the need of the students and the problem they face in teaching and
learning process. Then, teacher explores and decides what kind of language function and skills that
the learner is going to need. After that, the suitable material or context is looked for followed by

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

finding appropriate exercises and tasks with. After the exercises have been decided, the performance
of the course book should be considered, the lay out, the type size, and the visuals are also important.
As soon as the book is fully written, the use of it is observed and evaluated whether the book has met
the instructional objective or not and whether the course book is practical enough to be used or not.
According to Sukardi (2009:52), practicality of a course book has some indicators such as easy to be
used, easy to be understood by other lecturers and easy to get. By using the criteria, it will be easy to
determine whether the course book is effective enough to be used or not.
3. Task-Based Approach
Task-Based approach is an approach that promotes the use of task in assisting students
acquiring English language. Through task students are encouraged to communicate in English.
Richards (2001), specifically defines Task-Based approach as an approach which is based on the use
of tasks as the core unit and planning instruction in language teaching.
As an approach, task-based has certain characteristics. Nunan (1991: 279) outlines five
characteristics of a task-based approach to language learning:1) an emphasis on learning to
communicate through interaction in the target language. By studying through interaction, students
will get some benefit such as proposed by Nation (1989). The benefits are group work provides
opportunity for learners to get exposure to English, allow students to develop fluency in the use of
language features that they have already learned and help them to learn communicative strategies,2)
the introduction of authentic texts (teaching materials) into the learning situation, 3) the provision of
opportunities for learners to focus not only on language, but also on the learning process itself, 4) an
enhancement of the learner‘s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to
classroom learning, 5) an attempt to link classroom language learning with language activation
outside the classroom. Clearly, when classroom activities posses the characteristics, the teacher can
be said to have applied task-based approach in their teaching.
There are some perspectives about task. Nunan (1989: 10) views the task as ―a piece of
classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting
in the target language while theirattention is principally focused on meaning rather than form. The
task should also have a sense of completeness, being able to stand alone as a communicative act on
its own right‖
In line with Nunan, task is defined by Willis (1996:23) as activities where the target language
is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve outcome. Meanwhile,
Ellis (2003) proposes task as a work plan that requires learners to process language pragmatically in
order to achieve outcome that can be evaluated in terms of content rather than language. In short, task
can be regarded as an activity which is designed by teacher to be completed by learner in a language
classroom. The focus of the task is not on the language being used or the form of the language but on
how and in what context the language is used or the meaning of the language. Furthermore, the aim of
the task is to help learners achieve their communicative purposes or to help learner convey their
message in certain communicative setting.
4. The Design of Task-Based English Course Book
The design of task based English course book adopts Willis‘ framework (1996) as the
framework is complete and systematic. All language skills are to be included with more emphasis on
speaking skill. The following is the phases of Willis‘ framework in course book design.

Introduction to topic and task
Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

students understand task instructions and prepare. Students may hear a recording of others
doing a similar task
Task cycle
Task Planning Report
Students do the task, in pairs or Students prepare to Some groups present their
small groups. Teacher monitors report to the whole class reports to the class, or
from a distance (orally or in writing) exchange written reports,
how they did the task, and compare results
what they decided or
Students may now hear a recording of others doing a similar task and compare how they all
did it
Language Focus
Analysis Practice
Students examine and discuss specific Teacher conducts practice of new words,
features of the text or transcript of the phrases and patterns occurring in the data,
recording either during or after the analysis

Figure 2 : Willis’ framework for Task-Based approach

To make it more practical, this study is also going to adopt the model of unit structure which is
used by Jianbin and Yue (2013) in designing their task-based course book.

a. Small story/eye-catching
pictures/interesting video or
Section A-1
b. Aim: introduce background, arouse

c. Brainstorming in group: question

Section A-2 and tips
Language activation d. Aim: prepare topic-related language

e. (1) task instruction

(2) task sample: text, recording,
Section A-3
Task sample
f. Aim: guide students to perform the
following task

g. Sub-task A, sub-task B, …(sub tasks

cover various language skills with
Section B-1
respective focuses
Accomplish task
h. Aim: improve comprehensive
language abilities

i. (1) direction of the report

(2) knowledge support
Section B-2
(3) review and discuss
Task Review and Report Preparation
j. Aim: focus on accuracy; help
students make preparation

Section B-3 k. (1) make report and share views

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Report and Share l. (2) questions to think

m. (3) note taking
n. Aim: enhance language skills
through report and idea exchange

Section C-1 o. Review the language forms used in

Examine and Analyze task cycle:
p. Aim: improve language accuracy in

 Repetition/matching/sentence
Section C-2 completion/memory challenge…
Language Practice  Aim: consolidate knowledge,
reinforce language forms

Figure 3 : Model of Unit Structure

The type of the research is Research and Development (R&D). Borg and Gall (1983) explain
Research and Development or Educational Research and Development as ―a process used to develop
and validate educational products‖. Educational product to be developed in this study is a course
book which is based on Task-Based Approach.
1. Research Procedure
For this study, four-D is used as a model of instructional development. Four-D model is a
model proposed by Thiagarajan (1994). This model comprises of four stages namely (1) Define, (2)
Design, (3) Develop, and (4) Disseminate. This study only focuses on define, design and develop
phases meanwhile disseminate is not going to be conducted as it takes a long time and requires lots of
sample. The procedure by using this model is as follows:

1. Define
In this phase, two kinds of analysis were conducted. They are need analysis and situation
a. Need analysis
In need analysis, a questionnaire was distributed to semester II students of Food Crops study
program at Politani and English lecturers. According to Nation and Macalister (2010), need analysis
is conducted to find the answer to the students‘ necessities, lacks and wants. In this study, need
analysis were conducted to find out the needs of students and lecturers‘ on English teaching material.
b. Situational analysis
In situation analysis, a questionnaire was also distributed to students of semester II and
English lecturer. The purpose of the analysis is to find out the situation or environment where the
course book is going to be used. This analysis covers analysis of student‘s profile, analysis of English
lecturer‘s profile, analysis of facilities at Politani related to English teaching, analysis of syllabus,
analysis of course book, and analysis of literature.
2. Design
The result of defining phase is going to be used in designing phase. The course book is
written for 16 (sixteen) meetings. Each chapter is described in a theme and each meeting focuses on
certain language function. Classroom activities are organized based on Task-Based Approach by
using Willis framework and model of unit structure proposed by Jianbin and Yue.
3. Develop
This phase concerns with validation and practicality of the course book.
a. Validation
There are two kinds of validation used in this study. They are:
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

1. Content validation, whether or not the course book designed is relevant to the syllabus of
English for semester II and to Task-Based principle
2. Construct validation, whether or not the component of the course book is relevant to the
indicators stated
To validate the course book, expert judgment in related field is needed. In this study, the Task-Based
course book is going to be validated by Dr. Desmawati Rajab, M.Pd, and Dr. Lely Refnita, M.Pd.
Their opinions are obtained through discussion and the activity of filling in the form of course book

Table 2: Course book Validation

No. Aspects Methods of Data Instrument
1. Materials in a course Distributing Validation
book validation form to form
2. Presentation expert in English
3. Language use course
4. Writing mechanics

b. Practicality
To find out the course book‘s practicality, observation and interview are performed in try
out. The try out itself was conducted to one class of semester II students of Food Crop study program
in Politani for 3 (three meetings). Revision is conducted when the course book has not been
considered to be valid and practical. Some aspects of course book practicality are listed in the
following table:

Table 3: Course book Practicality

Aspects Method of Data Instrument
Materials in a course
Observation Observation form
Language use Interview with students Interview guidance
Writing mechanics
2. Try out
Try out was conducted to semester II students of Food Crops study program for 3 (three)
meetings. The researcher herself did the teaching. The schedule of try out can be seen below:
Table 4: Schedule of try out
Day/Date Topic
Thursday/26 June 2014 I Like to be Agricultural Students
Friday/27 June 2014 Plant Products
Monday/30 June 2014 Save Our Water

C. Subject of Try Out

Subject of try out in this study is semester II students of Food CropS study program atPayakumbuh
State Polytechnic of Agriculture.There are 25 students will be taught by using Task-Based course

3. Data
There are two kinds of data in this study:
1. Qualitative data
Qualitative data are obtained from observation sheet, interview result, and textbook evaluation

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

2. Quantitative data
Quantitative data are obtained from the questionnaire of need analysis, situation analysis and
validation form.
4. Instrumentation
There are 4 (four) kinds of instrument used in this study: (1) questionnaire (2) interview, (3)
observation, 4) validation, and (5) textbook evaluation checklist.
1. Questionnaire
Need analysis questionnaire measures student‘s needs on English teaching materials
through three indicators namely student‘s perception, problem and expectation. Meanwhile, situation
analysis questionnaire measures situation of English teaching at Politani from lecturer‘s profile,
student‘s profile and facilities of English teaching.
Both questionnaires contain close and open-ended questions. The respondent of the
questionnaire was 50 students of Food Crops study program.

2. Interview
In this study, semi structured interview was conducted. Two students were interviewed
after try out. One student is representing students with high academic achievement in English subject
while the other one is representing students with low academic achievement. There are 4 (four)
indicators of the interview guidance namely the materials of the course book, the presentation, the
language use, and the writing mechanics of the book. The purpose of the interview is to find out the
practicality of the course book in the classroom.
3. Observation
Observation can be used for research data collection. In this study, the kind of
observation used was a non-participant observation with in-class observation notes technique.
Observer observed classroom activity in try out by filling in observation form. The observer for this
study was Fadilla Taslim, M.Pd. from STKIP Abdi Pendidikan Payakumbuh.
4. Validation
Validation was conducted by experts in English language teaching. Validators in this
study can be seen in the following table.
Table 5: List of validators
No. Item Validators
1. Questionnaire Dr. Desmawati Rajab, M.Pd.
Dr. YenniRozimela, M.Ed,
2. Course book Dr. Desmawati Rajab, M.Pd.
Dr. Lely Refnita, M.Pd.
3. Interview guidance Dr. Desmawati Rajab, M.Pd.
4. Observation form Dr. Desmawati Rajab, M.Pd.

The purpose of validation is to see the validity of the instruments and the course book before
1. Textbook Evaluation Checklist
Textbook evaluation checklist is used to see the quality of the old course book. The
criteria used in this checklist were adapted from the criteria of textbook evaluation checklist
developed by Dr. Montasser Abdul Wahab checklist. The book was evaluated from four aspects
namely its performance, learning objectives, learning teaching content, and language skills.

5. Technique of Data Analysis

1. Quantitative data
For quantitative data from questionnaire, data were tallied and then tabulated in data tabulation
form (see appendix 1). After tabulated, frequency and percentage of each data were summed up
by using formula from Sudijono (2009: 43).

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

P = _f_ x 100%

Then, data were presented in the form of chart. Meanwhile, quantitative data from
validation checklist was first presented in table. Then, the following formula was used to
count the mean:

(Muliyardi, 2006:82)
R = mean of validator judgement
Vi = score of validator judgment
n = number of validator
to decide the validity of the course book, the following criteria is used :
a. If mean is > 3,20 then course book is very valid
b. If 2,40 < mean ≤ 3,20 then course book is valid
c. If 1,60 < mean ≤ 2,40 then course book is valid enough
d. If 0,80 < mean ≤ 1,60 then course book is not really valid
e. If mean ≤ 0,80 then course book is not valid

2. Qualitative data
Data from interview were analyzed by following step by step data analysis proposed by
Miles and Huberman (1994). First, the recording is listened and transcribed. Second, transcript
is read several times to get familiar with what is being said. Third, coding is conducted by
identifying some themes. Fourth, a summary of coded data is written. Fifth, a memo is written
which ties together the themes.
Data from observation are analyzed descriptively. Student‘s and lecturer‘s activity
in try out were described based on the observation form filled by the observer. Meanwhile, data
from textbook evaluation checklist were presented in the form of table based on each indicator
of textbook evaluation checklist.

From situation analysis it was found that majority of the students prefer to study through
interaction. Unfortunately, the old course book did not really engage students to interact with each
other. Learning activities in the book are grammar exercises which do not require student to do
communication with their friends. Aside from that, lecturers come from non-educational
background. That is why the course book they produced did not fulfill students and lecturer‘s needs.
The findings also show that the structural syllabus which is used in English II course does not help
students to possess communicative ability. In structural syllabus, the materials are organized without
giving the social context where the language will occur. As the result, students only memorize certain
grammatical pattern without understanding where and when to use it for communication. Unlike
structural syllabus, Task-Based syllabus encourages students to do active communication. In this
syllabus, materials are organized in a series of tasks which should be accomplished by the students.
The tasks itself simulate real-life communication that can help students to communicate in real-life
From need analysis the findings show that Politani students need English a course book
which can help them improve their speaking skill. This skill is believed to help them get a good job
after graduating. In addition to it, they also need a book with materials that can connect them with
their life experience. Unfortunately, the old course book does not improve students‘ speaking skill.
Learning activities in the book do not require students to speak a lot. Even though students are
provided with speaking activity, the activity does not resemble real-life communication. In other

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

words, the book does not connect students with their life experience as individual or as agricultural
students. As the result, students have difficulty in communicating which is admitted by the students
themselves. However, having difficulty in communicating may limit their chances to get a good job
which becomes their ultimate goal of learning English. To make it worse, the old course book is not
interesting according to the majority of the students because it lacks of interesting visuals in it.
The needs of the students above can be met by applying Task-Based Approach in designing
the new course book. This approach offers students opportunity to improve their speaking skill
through the completion of series of tasks. In each phases of TBA students are required to speak, to
reason and to express their opinion. Not only that, they also have to write their opinion before
conducting presentation. The ability of speaking and writing are sufficient enough to support their
job searching after graduating.
In terms of the materials, TBA promotes the use of materials that are closely related to the
students‘ experience. In line with this, Nunan asserts that TBA attempts to link classroom language
learning with language activation outside the classroom (1991:279). In other words, the language
which is learned in the classroom is the language which is closely related with their daily life and
their life as agricultural students.
In terms of the performance of the course book, TBA promotes the use of many visuals in
order to attract students‘ attention or trigger students to think before coming to discussion. Students
are also stimulated to use visuals to support their presentation.
Based on the findings, the form of English course book needed by the students has the
following criteria. First, the performance is interesting, the objective of each unit is practical and
applicable, the content of the book combine general and agricultural knowledge and the focus of the
language skill is speaking and reading. Since the old course book does not fulfill those criteria, the
Task-Based course book fulfills those criteria in the following ways.
Task-Based course book uses interesting pictures related to Politani and agriculture as the
cover of the book. Visuals are provided in the content of the book to support students‘ understanding
on the material. Language functions are used as the objective of each unit. At the end of each unit
students are expected to be able to use certain language function such as ‗offering help‘ instead of
being able to make ‗simple sentence‘. This kind of objective is more practical and can be directly
applied in their life. Although their environment does not require them to speak English,
understanding language functions and when to use it will help them to understand communication
performed by native speakers in media such as television and internet. Thus, it helps building their
speaking skill.
In terms of the content of the book, TBA course book uses reading materials which are
related to Politani students. Since agriculture covers horticulture, animal husbandry, agribusiness,
food crops and management food production, the materials are not far from those fields. At the end of
the course book, students are provided with materials which are not related to agriculture. The
materials are how to do public speaking and how to make application letter. Those materials are
expected to prepare them to get a job after graduating.
In terms of language skill, learning activities in TBA course book engage students more on
speaking and reading. Below is the description of how activities are organized around each phases. In
pre-task, activities are started with speaking for example in the form of brainstorming, then reading
and vocabulary. Activity in pre-task is then ended up with speaking in which students do simulation
of how to conduct the task or how to use the expression that they will use in task phase. Meanwhile,
in task phase, the activity is started with writing activity followed by speaking in which students do
presentation in front of the class in group or in pairs. In post-task, students are given grammar
exercises which are accompanied by speaking or reading activities. The organization of learning
activities in this book shows that TBA also pays attention to grammar as the basic knowledge for
Findings related to the expert judgment on the design of Task-Based English course book
show that the book is very valid in four components of validation namely the content, the language
understanding, the presentation and the writing mechanics. The book was designed by considering
the needs of the students as well as taking consideration of the situation where the book is going to be

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

used. This is in line with Hutchinson and Waters‘ (1987) opinion that in ESP all decisions as to
content and method are based on the learner‘s reason for learning. Thus, the design of Task-Based
English course book is also based on the learner‘s reason for learning.
Findings about the practicality of Task-Based English course book show that the book is
practical to be used for semester II students of Food Crop study program at Politani. Both students
from high level and low level of competency in English subject share the same opinion that the book
is interesting, easy to be used and easy to get. This is in line with Sukardi criteria of a practical course
book (2009:52). Although students consider the book interesting, student from low level of
competency still have problem in task phase because they are lack of vocabulary to do presentation.

Based on the findings and discussion, several things can be concluded. First, the situation of
English teaching at Politani shows that lecturers did not have sufficient educational background,
students did not have a good achievement, and the curriculum did not support students to have
communicative competence in English. Second, students as well as lecturers need a course book
which is focused on improving student‘s communicative skill in this case speaking skill. In other
words, a course book which requires them to have interaction while communicating. Third, a new
course book has been developed by using Task-Based Approach in which all activities in the book is
organized around tasks. The book has been tried out and positive feed-back has been elicited from the
students. Fourth, expert judgments on Task-Based course book have proven that the book is valid in
four components in validation checklist. And the last one, the book is considered to be practical based
on the observation and interview conducted to the students.

Borg & Gall. Educational Research, An Introduction. New York and London: Longman Inc.
Dick, W and Carey, L. 1990. The Systematic Design of Instruction.Third Edition. Tallahassee:
Harper Collins Publishers.
Ellis, R. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. 2003.
Hutchinson and Waters. English for Specific Purposes. A Learning-Centred Approach. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 1987.
J Huang, Y Zhao. The Design of Task-based College English Coursebooks: A study from the
perspective of task-based language teaching. Retrieved February 13th, 2014, from 2013.
Jolly, D., & Bolitho. R. A Framework for Materials Writing. In Brian Tomlinson (Ed.)
Materials Development in Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. Qualitative Data Analysis: an Expanded Sourcebook.
Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage. 1994.
Muliyardi. Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Matematika Menggunakan Komik di Kelas 1
Sekolah Dasar. Disertasi tidak diterbitkan. Surabaya: Universitas Negeri Surabaya. 2006.
Nation and Macalister. Language Curriculum Design. New York and London: Routledge. 2010.
Nunan, David. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Sydney: Cambridge
University Press. 1989.
Nunan, David. Language Teaching Methodology. Prentice Hall. 1991.
Prucha, J. Modernipedagogika.Praha: Portal. 1997.
Sukardi. Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan (Kompetensi dan Praktiknya. Jakarta: Bumi
Aksara. 2009.
Tomlinson, Brian. Materials Development in Language Teaching. United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press. 1998.
Ur, Penny. A Course in Language Teaching: practice and theory. United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press. 1996.
Willis, Jane. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Italy: Longman. 1996.

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9


Reski Oktaviani Yuned
University of Bengkulu

Coherence is one of the characteristic of good abstract that represent the whole content of research
article in order to be able to show what messages want to be expressed. This study investigated the
English abstract International conference in applied linguistisc written by Indonesian speaker in its
coherence by analyzing the theme and rheme. This study focuses on (1) identifying thematic
progressions which are dominantly used in 2015 International conference article abstracts written by
non-native speaker of English (2) finding out coherences‘ quality of the research article abstract
section in 2105 International Conference article abstracts in applied linguistic based on thematic
progression. This study was designed by using descriptive qualitative with content anlysis approach.
The results show that Zig Zag (Simple Linear) pattern in thematic progression is dominantly used in
International Conference Article Abstract then followed by reitaration (Constant) theme, and the last
Multiple (Split) pattern. None of the abstracts use Derived TP pattern. Most of the research article
abstracts section in International Conference abstracts in applied linguistic have fair quality, just a
few included to less quality, none of them was catagorized as good and poor quality. It can be
concluded that 2015 International conference article abstracts in applied linguistisc written by
Indonesian speakers can be catagorized as good abstract based on their coherence.

Keywords: Abstract, Coherence, Theme, Thematic Progression

Abstract is one of the important parts or sections of an academic writing due to the fact that it
is a kind of short condensed text to represent the whole text or overview of a research article it is
located in the first section of research article. This is the point that determines whether readers will
continue to read the next section or not. It is important for the researcher to write the abstract
interesting in order to make the reader want to continue to read the abstract (Belcher, 2009).
Therefore, a good abstract must be created by the writers as worth as the whole content of research
article in order to be able to represent what messages want to be expressed in the abstract. Abstract
lets the readers who may be interested in the paper to quickly decide whether it is relevant to their
purposes and whether they need to read the whole paper.One the characteristics of good abstract is its
coherence. Writing an abstract with its coherence is not only difficult for university student but also
hard for lecturers. Creating a coherent and cohesive academic writing is also complicated for students
at the tertiary level. In fact, most university students would agree that academic writing
particularly writing a research thesis is the hardest task to complete (Evans & Gruba, 2002;
Emilia, 2008). Meanwhile, several well-established researches recommends that analyzing students‘
writing with the emphasis on meaning and function, Theme-Rheme, and textual metafunction of
text have provided an effective framework for identifying coherence in students‘ texts (Vande
Kopple, 1991; Bloor & Bloor, 1992; Eggins, 2004; Schleppegrell, 2004, 2009; Christie & Dreyfus,
2007; Wang, 2007). As a result, it has been suggested that analysis on textual coherence using
Theme Rheme progression can be useful for academic writing
Many researchers had analyzed about abstract in many aspect. Safnil (2014) conducted the
Rhetorical of abstract. According to Safnil (2014) reviewed clearly about many researchers‘ ideas
about rhetorical of abstract. In his Research Article stated that there are four possible moves of
abstracts (problem, aims, method, and results), only three are considered compulsory (aims, method
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

and results) while problem is optional. In his research article, he focused to analyze social-humanity
field. On the contrarty, the researcher takes another field, non-native speaker of English, to analyze in
this research. Similar idea, Bathia suggests that an abstract consist four aspect of research; they are
1) the purpose, 2) the method, 3) the results, and 4) the conclusion. In addition, it should present the
purpose of the work to the reader and also to encourage the reading of the complete work. Scientific
texts (papers, reports, theses, etc.) have a well-defined structure that can be categorized as:
Introduction, Development, and Conclusion (Safnil, 2014; Swales, 1990)
Another researcher had conducted the coherence analysis in another section of research
article. With regard to students‘ ability to create a coherent and cohesive writing, several studies have
been conducted to investigate the coherence and cohesiveness in students‘ academic writing. One of
them is conducted by Emilia et al (2008 and 2010) that reports students‘ difficulties in writing discussion
chapter of a research thesis coherently and critically. To overcome the problem, Emilia proposes a
teaching program with a view to nurture students‘ ability in writing a discussion chapter so that they
have the capability in writing a thesis critically and coherently.
Another study which focuses on coherence and cohesiveness in students‘ academic writing is
also conducted by Watson, Khongput, and Darawasang (2007). They found that student‘s essays
lack coherence and cohesion and suggested to write comments, feedback, or side notes on students‘
academic essay particularly to guide the students in recognizing the lack of coherence and
cohesion in their essays.
The relevant study by Souza and Feltrim (2011) which was conducted an analysis of textual
coherence in academic abstracts written in Portuguese. The main purpose of their work is to propose
four dimensions of analysis concerning textual coherence in academic abstracts. These dimensions
take into consideration the rhetorical structure of abstracts, as proposed by Feltrim et al (2003).
abstracts from Bachelor theses written in Brazilian Portuguese were analysed according to the
proposed dimensions and the results for each of them were presented. By taking into account the
manual analysis performed on the corpus, Feltrim observed that from the four proposed dimensions,
at least three can be automated by means of computational resources: Dimension Title, Dimension
Purpose and Dimension Gap-Background. In these three dimensions, he have observed the existence
of patterns concerning the rhetorical structure and aspects of coherence, he differently from the
fourth dimension, Dimension Linearity-break. He observed in Dimension Title that the sentences
with a higher semantic relationship with the title of an abstract were the sentences of Purpose
category. Moreover, he observed problems of coherence in abstracts in which the relationship of the
title and the sentences of the Purpose are low. Both categories of sentences, title and Purpose,
summarize the main purpose of the work, each in its proportion and, therefore, a high relationship
between these sentences is expected to led to a greater level of coherence.
The importance of academic writing in International conference is important for the
researchers because it is a medium for research article publication in academic writing. It is also a
medium for them to convey their ideas and to share with another researchers. One of them is
Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia (TEFLIN). TEFLIN publish the research in
international area, so it must be have some characteristic to pass the selection of TEFLIN itself, one
of them is the coherence of the text. Thus, based on the previous study had been done, there are many
researchers had conducted the research about the analysis of abstract in other aspect and conducted the
coherence analysis in other aspect of research article. So, it is the main reason for the researcher to
analyze coherence in abstracts especially in International conference article in applied linguistisc
written by Indonesian speaker espeially in TELFIN.


Coherence is continuity in meaning and context and concerns with underlying
phenomenon in the text. Coherence refers to the way a group of clauses or sentences relate to its context
or in other words coherence in a text refers to their contextual property which means the way in
which it relates to and makes sense in the situation in which it occurs (Halliday and Hasan 1976 in
Eggins, 2004; Paltridge, 2006).
In addition, according to Systemic Functional Linguistics, coherence embodies two
aspects of context: the outer context of text is acknowledged as context of culture which is known as

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

generic coherence and the inner context of text is known as situational or registerial coherence (Butt
et al, 2000; Eggins, 2004). Context of culture or generic coherence refers to a possible meaning that
represents and is influenced by its broader socio-cultural environment, such as ethnic group,
institution, ideology, or social convention or in other words a generic coherence occurs in a
particular communicative context, event, or genre. This means that generic coherence is used to
identify its social purpose from the clauses or the coherence properties included in the text (Butt et al,
2000; Eggins, 2004).
The latter term, situational or registerial coherence refers to the language use in a more
specific situation or the situation where the text occurs, accordingly; the situation shapes the
function and the meaning of the text (Butt et al, 2000; Eggins, 2004). In terms of the situational or
registerial context of coherence, Eggins (2004: 29) describes three different systems of grammar: field,
mode, and tenor system. Field system is used to point out the language used to talk about what is
happening, what will happen, and what has happened. Mode system reflects the role of language that
is employed in the interaction, and tenor system associates with the role of relationship between the
interactants (Butt et al, 2000; Eggins, 2004).
As explained above, the three parameters of context of situation (field, tenor, and mode)
affect linguistic choices of the speaker or writer in the sense that these parameters reflect major
functions of language and these functions manifest in different grammatical features of text (Butt et al
2000, Eggins, 2004). The three parameters above are instilled in the three distinct modes of
meaning:1) ideational, 2) interpersonal, and 3) textual. These three functions are then known as the
linguistic system of metafunctions which represent different purposes in the development of the
text ( Butt et al, 2000; Eggins, 2004; Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Emilia, 2010).
Theme and Rheme system is a basic form, a source for organizing and constructing the
clause message, and also for assigning textual prominence to elements within the clauses in
textual organization (Halliday, 1983; Matthiessen, 1992). Thus, by organizing and examining the
patterns Theme and Rheme, the meaning of the whole text and how clauses are organized or
combined can be understood. With regard to Theme and Rheme as the clause message system, Halliday
and Matthiessen (2004) define the practical implementation of Theme and Rheme in the sentences.
Sentence may be divided in terms of given information (Theme) and new information (Rheme) which
means Theme typically holds several old or given information and provides particular setting as a
mean to keep the contextual unity in the sentences. Furthermore, Halliday (1994: 39) elaborates that
Theme is what the speaker has in mind to start with and also organizes the clause as message,
but the position is not what defines the Theme: it is a mean which realizes the function of the
In addition, McCarthy (1990: 55) explains that Theme is noun (phrase) that signal the
topic in the sentence, yet, do not tell about the rest of clause or topic, and what comes after Theme
or the rest of the clause is known as Rheme or comment that develops the topic or Theme. Gerot
and Wignell (1997: 103) also define Theme as an element which comes first in the clause and
commonly immediately precedes the main verb of the clause and Rheme as the element which
includes the main verb and all other remaining constituents of the sentences.
There are three different types of Theme: topical (experiential), interpersonal, and textual
element (Emilia, 2010). Topical element of the clause is to which a transitivity function can be
assigned or the first element of transitivity in the clause (Gerot and Wignell, 1994: 132; Eggins, 2004:
32). According to Martin, Matthiessen, and Painter (1997: 22), topical (ideational) Theme can be
recognized as the first element in the clause which expresses kinds of representational meaning that
attaches a transitivity role such as actor, behaver, senser, carrier, or circumstance. In other words,
topical or ideational Theme is technically a function from the transitivity structure of the clause and
it might be a participant, process, or circumstance in the first element of the clause. Thus, to consider
whether the first Theme is topical, it should fulfill the slot that functions as participant, process, or
circumstance (Butt et al, 2000: 136). .
Interpersonal Theme is when a constituent is labeled as a mood in the beginning of a
clause Interpersonal Theme deals with modal/comment, adjunct, finite verbal operator in yes/no
interrogative, mood, polarity or any combination of vocatives or personal names The constituents

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

that can function as interpersonal Themes are: The finite, Modal adjunct as in Mood Adjunct and
Comment adjunct, Mood Adjunct, Vocative Adjunct, and Wh Elements or Polarity Adjunct. (Martin,
Matthiessen, and Painter, 1997; Eggins, 2004; Emilia, 2010).
Textual Theme is the constituents which do important cohesive work in relating clause to its
context (Eggins, 2004). The Textual Theme covers continuatives (small set of discourse items
which signal that a new move is beginning such as: yes, no, oh), structural elements (coordinates
and subordinates), conjunction, and conjunctive adjunct which relate the clause to the preceding text
(e.g., in other words). In addition, the use of Textual Theme such as conjunction and the like indicates
that the text is highly written (Emilia, 2010). In particular, Textual Theme is important in structuring
the texts because the Theme operates at sentence or clause complex level (Gerot and Wignell, 1994).
According to Martin, Matthiessen, and Painter (1997: 25), Textual Themes are: Structural
Conjunction (Linking two clauses in a coordinating relation or marking one clause as dependent on
another), Conjunctives (Providing a cohesive link back to previous discourse), Continuative (continuity
adjunct as Theme and the commonest continuity items).
Thematic progression (TP) as a theory was first propounded by Frantisek Danes in1974, who
argue that ‗the paragraph is a content unit delimited by its boundaries and its inner coherence‘. Thematic
progression is Theme Rheme development employed in the text to organize the ideas through the
Theme which is employed in the clauses (Butt et al, 2001: 134). Thus, how thematic elements succeed
each other can be observed through its development pattern (Eggins, 1994: 324). Furthermore, thematic
progression is a important aspect to trace the global flow of information throughout the text. In
addition,Eggins (2004:326) divided them into three patterns are Theme reiteration, Zigzag pattern, and
Multiple Rheme pattern.
In the reiteration pattern, the same element appears repeatedly and is used frequently as
a starting point of message in the sentences, but is rarely used to develop the Rheme. However, the
Theme reiteration is used to create a strong topical focus (Eggins, 2004). The Zigzag pattern ties a
text with a sense of continuous development because new information in the preceding clause
becomes the starting point of the following clause (Vande Kopple, 1991; Eggins, 2004; Emilia, 2005;
Christie and Dreyfus, 2007). The third pattern is multiple - Rheme pattern. This pattern occurs when
the Theme of one clause introduces a number of different pieces of information then the different
pieces of information are written as the Theme in following clause in sequence paragraph in the text
(Eggins, 2004: 325). The multiple Rheme pattern can be used to organize a paragraph, but this pattern
can also occur across paragraphs.
Additionally, Danes in 1974 divided Thematic Progression into four main patterns: first, Zig
Zag theme contains two or more sentences in which each rheme becomes the theme in next sentence.
Second, constant theme which he also referred to as theme reitaration. In this, (theme reitaration or
constant theme) pattern is picked up and repeated at the beginning of next clause, signaling that each
clause will have something to say about the theme. Thus, it consists of two or more sentences with the
same theme. Third is Multiple (Split) pattern. It has a certain rheme which is divided or split into two or
more parts, each of which is developed separately as the theme of the following sentences. The last is TP
with derived T‘s which is ―hypertheme‖ develops individually different theme of each sentences. The
last,to know how coherence‘s quality in International Conference abstract, the researcher use The
Parameter of Coherence Proposed by Eggins.
This research will reveal 2 questions. The first is the types of thematic progression pattern are
dominantly applied in 2015 International conference article abstracts in applied linguistisc written by
Indonesian speaker. The second is the coherence‘s quality of the conference abstract section in 2015
International conference article abstracts in applied linguistisc written by Indonesian speaker.

This research used descriptive qualitative method. The researcher will describe the
coherence of abstract written by Indonesian author‘s research article. According to Gay (2009), a
descriptive research involves collecting data in order to answer questions concerning the current
status of the subject of the study. Moreover, it determines and reports the way things are as the
representative about current condition.Thus, descriptive research is a method to collect the data in the
group of people, an object, a set of condition and other in order to answer questions concerning the

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

current status of the subject of the study. The analysis of thematic progression is used to answer the
questions in this research. The quality of abstract will be analyzed by using parameter of coherence
proposed by Eggins.

Table 1. The Parameter of Coherence Proposed by Eggins (2004)

No Level of Coherence Explanation
Good If the type of thematic progression is constant in one
type each paragraph.
Fair If the type of thematic progression is inconstant or
change from one type to others type each paragraph.
Less If new theme(s) is/are created in the middle of
Poor If there is no thematic progression used.


The analysis on Thematic Progression used by the researchers in International conference of
English abstracts in applied linguistics written by Indonesian speaker. Based on Theme choices
employed by the researchers in International conference of English abstracts in applied linguistics
written by Indonesian speaker, the data showed that there are three thematic patterns found in the
abstracts section, namely Continuous (Reiteration) pattern , (Simple Linear) Zig Zag pattern, and
Multiple or Split Theme. The analysis in this section concerns with the flow of information from
Theme to Rheme. The analysis also deals with the development of Theme and Rheme which is
used to convey their ideas in the abstracts section. The table below shows types of thematic
progression pattern is applied in International conference of English abstracts in applied linguistics
written by Indonesian writer
Table 2 Thematic Progression of abstracts
Types of Thematic Progression Frequency Percentage
Continous (Reiteration) Pattern 62 38%
Zig Zag ( Simple Linear)
89 55%
Multiple (Split) Pattern 12 7%
Tp with Derived (T’s) Pattern 0 0%
Total 163 100%

Table 2 presented the data of Thematic Progression was used in International conference of English
abstracts in applied linguistics written by Indonesian writer. In the first position, Zigzag (Simple
Linear) Pattern as the basic pattern of Thematic Progression was applied 89 times or it is about 55%
from 100%. In the second position of single pattern is Continuous (Reiteration) Pattern. It is applied
62 times from 100 abstracts or it is baout 38 %. The last and the less of Thematic Progression was
applied is Multiple (Split) Pattern. It was only appeared 12 times from 100 abstracts. None of
researchers use Derived TP in their abstracts

The example below is the example of Theme Reiteration in the abstract section:

C1 T1 R1
Children are easier to interpret the meaning of a sentence without having to
understand the meaning of each word

C2 T2 R2
children are very creative in using the language

C3 T3 R3
they like to repeat the words
Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

C4 T4 R4
they do not understand and put these words in their sentences,

C5 T5 R5
children have a good capacity in learning indirectly

C6 T6 R6
and they also have a strong ability to play.

From the example above, the researcher use the same Theme in his abstract. The word ―Children‖
appears three times. It is from T1 to T6. He used the same Theme continuously in his abstract.
Moreover the researchers use ―they‖ as the pronoun or personal reference of children as the subject.
If the Rheme of the abstract have different one to another, the Theme always repeat again and
again. It means the researcher attempted to provide a focus in his/her writing in order to be clear with
the topic being discussed.

Zig Zag pattern can be. Here is the example of zigzag pattern from the International
conference of English abstracts in applied linguistics written by Indonesian speaker.
The example of Zig Zag Pattern.

Clause 1 T1 R1
There are many ways to promote the students to have fun in speaking

Clause 2 T2 R2
One of them is travelport.

Clause 3 T3 R3
Travelport is the collaboration of two words, namely travelling and report.

Clause 4 T4 R4
It needs students to go to the tourism destination at their region.

The example above is taken from abstract 29. It is indicated that the researcher use Zigzag (Simple
Linier) Pattern. It can be seen in the example above that T9 is same with T11. ―lack of knowledge
which part of the articles should be underlined ― as R11 become Theme in clause12. While R12 that
is ― provide some suggestion‖ is become T in clause 13. It is happened again in the next sentence.
The words ―should receive more attention‖ as R13 become T in clause 14. It is important to use
Zigzag pattern in research or academic writing because this is a way make their writing have a
consistent flow of information and to provide logical connection between their writing.
There are new information in the beginning of every clause. Clause 2 shows that the element which is
introduced in the Rheme of first clause is established as a Theme in the following clause 2.
Multiple or Split pattern can be found in International conference of English abstracts in
applied linguistics written by Indonesian speaker. Here is the example of Multiple or Split pattern
from the International conference of English abstracts in applied linguistics written by Indonesian

Igniting a Brighter Future of EFL Teaching and Learning in Multilingual Societies

ISBN: 978-602-74437-0-9

The example of Multiple or Split Pattern

Clause 5 T5 R5
The aspects
of speaking skill which are used as indicator in assessing the
development are vocabulary, pronunciation,
structure, fluency, and comprehension.

Clause 6 T6 R6
The improvement
of vocabulary significantly comes from noun, adjective, and verb category.

Clause7 T7 R7
The improvement
from pronunciation aspect can be seen from the correct pronunciation of /
ʃn /and / r /.

Clause 8 T8 R8
The improvement of structure can be seen from the use ofadverboffrequency
and past tense verb (V2).

Clause 9 T9 R9
The improvement
of comprehension, student is able to understand some of the
teacher‘s expressions which could not be
understood before.

From the example above ( taken from abstract 7) , it can be described that R5 ―are used as indicator in
assessing the development are vocabulary, pronunciation, structure, fluency, and comprehension‖
introduces a number of different pieces of information, the R5 are written as the Theme in clause 6
until clause 9. ―The improvement of vocabulary ― be the Theme in clause 6, ―The improvement of
pronunciation― becomes the Theme in clause 7, ―The improvement of structure― be the Theme in
clause 8, and ―The improvement of vocabulary ― becomes the Theme in clause 9.
Coherences’ Quality
Coherences‘ quality of the research article abstract section in International Conference
abstracts in applied linguistic is based on thematic progression. The result showed that there are two
coherences‘ quality is indicated in this research. They are fair and less quality. The table below shows
the result of coherences‘ quality of the research article abstract section in International Conference
abstracts in applied linguistic based on thematic progression.
Table 3. The level of coherence in abstracts section
Coherence Quality Frequenc Percentage
Good 0 0
Fair 94 94%
Less 6 6%
Poor 0 0
Total 100 100%

In table 3, it is shown that from 100 number of abstract, none of them can be categorized as
good coherences. About 94 abstracts or 94 % of theme can be categorized as fair coherences‘ quality
and only 6 abstracts are included as less coherences‘ quality. None of the abstracts can be categorized
as poor coherences‘ quality. It can be concluded that the coherence quality of 2015 International
Conference article abstract can be categorized as fair coherence quality. Here are some examples of
abstract in the level of fair quality

Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar onEnglish Language and Teaching (ISELT-4)

The Example of fair quality of abstract section

(Extract abstract 49)
Clause 1 T1 R1

The washback effect

of a high stakes test may vary in different situations.

Clause 2 T2 R2

It can be either positive or negative, and strong or weak.

Clause 3 T3 R3

One of the factors influencing

the washback of a high
stakes test is the suitability of the curriculum implemented with the
test content.
Clause 4 T4 R4

This study is aimed at investigating the English teachers‘

perception on the washback effect of the English
National Examination as a high stakes test.
Clause 5 T5 R5

Moreover, the way teachers keep abreast with the demands of curriculum and the
test and will be revealed.
From the example above, the researcher use two thematic progressions; Reiteration Pattern
and Zigzag Pattern. This abstract is included in fair quality of abstract because the researcher use
inconstant thematic progression, he change his pattern from Reiterat