Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Research on steady state voltage stability of power

system with distributed static series compensator

Yi Tang, Yuqian Liu, Jingbo Zhao, Qun Li Kequan Liu

Jianfeng Dai State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Gansu Communication Center for
School of Electrical Engineering Company Research Institute Power Dispatching
Southeast University State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power State Grid Gansu Electric Power
Nanjing, China Company Company
liuyuqian001@126.co m Nanjing, China Lanzhou, China

Abstract—Distributed static series compensator (DSS C) is a DSSCs are added to power system, which makes the analyze of
new type of distributed FACTS devices that can realize accurate its impact on system stability necessary.
control of power flow and enhance voltage stability. Thus, it
could be installed in stability-limited transmission systems widely. The steady state voltage stability of power system with
This paper presents a new capacity control model for DSS Cs and FACTS devices has been studied by many scholars. The
deduces the corresponding power flow equations. To illustrate analytical methods mainly include continuation power flow
the effect on system power voltage stability of DSSCs utilization, method and direct method. Co mpared with lumped FA CTS
a voltage stability index based on power flow of transmission line devices, a few works have been published related to the
is proposed. Numerical analysis on the standard IEEE test performance of D-FA CTS devices on system voltage stability.
system is conducted to examine the effect of DSSCs on the voltage In [9], impacts of static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)
stability index. The results indicate the effectiveness of proposed on power system based on the singular value calculation
control model and reveal that appropriate location and method. Reference [10] has investigated the effect of thyristor
compensation mode of DS S Cs improve system voltage stability. controlled series compensator (TCSC) by calcu late voltage
collapse proximity index and line stability index. Researches
Keywords—distributed static series compensator; control model; are mainly aimed at the voltage stability with traditional
voltage stability index; steady state voltage stability lu mped FACTS devices, which makes the contribution to the
analysis of DSSCs to some extent. However, there are still
I. INT RODUCTION some limitation, main ly manifested in two aspects: (1) single
With the construction of large-capacity ultra-high voltage operation mode of traditional FA CTS device cannot reflect its
direct current (UHVDC), centralized integration of new energy influence on the system voltage stability clearly; (2) location
sources and sharp increment of loads, the operation of the and capacity of devices are usually neglected, which makes the
power system approaches the ultimate state, which reduces the comprehensive assessment of system voltage stability with
system static voltage stability inevitably. Therefore, voltage DSSCs unavailable.
stability is becoming one of the major factors limiting power This paper focuses on the DSSCs performance with the aim
transmission. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the static voltage of enhancing the system steady state voltage stability. Thus, a
stability of the power system. capacity control model of DSSCs is proposed and
Application of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) corresponding power flo w equations are deduced. Secondly, a
is an important control method to improve the system voltage static voltage stability evaluation method is proposed based on
stability in modern power system [1-2]. Unfortunately, it power flo w calculat ion results. Finally, the influences on the
usually costs a lot by using the large power converter [3]. To static voltage stability with different installation locations,
overcome the disadvantage of FACTS devices, the concept of capacity and operation modes of DSSCs are analyzed.
distributed Flexib le AC Transmission System (D-FA CTS) was
proposed in [4] and design of distributed FACTS converters II. M AT HMATICAL M ODEL OF DSSC
was study in [5]. Researches indicate that the appropriate
access location of FACTS or D-FACTS device can not only A. Basic Structure of DSSC
optimize distribution of power flow [6], imp rove the available Distributed static series compensator (DSSC) is a new type
transfer capability [7], but also enhance the voltage stability of of distributed FACTS devices through transformation of SSSC.
power system [8]. As a new type of D-FACTS device, The capacity of each module is small (10kVA), wh ich
distributed static series compensator (DSSC) is widely applied overcomes the shortcomings of existing large-capacity lumped
in power system because of its simple structure. However, the FACTS devices. In order to meet the system operation
power system stability form becomes more co mplicate when

978-1-5090-5157-1/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE 1731

requirements instead of traditional FA CTS device, a large
U i ‘T i I D U j ‘T j U i ‘T i P  jQ Pjs  jQjs U j ‘T j
number of DSSCs are coordinated as a group. 
is is

The schematic representation of DSSC is shown in Fig.1,

which mainly consists of a single-phase inverter, a DC link bc r+jx bc bc r+jx bc
j j j j
2 2 2 2
capacitor, a single-turn transformer and a switch. By utilization
of sing-turn transformer that attached to the transmission
conductor, DSSC can be hang on existing transmission line Fig.3 T he power injection of DSSC equivalence mode
directly, wh ich makes it convenient for its installation. Thus,
DSSCs can be installed at the transmission line as needed [11], ID U D / ( r  jx ) (1)
whereas lumped FACTS devices should be oversized designed
to accommodate load growth. The equivalent injected power Pis , Qis , Pjs , and Qjs at buses i
and j are given by
Each DSSC module can receive the instruction from
control center through wireless or power line co mmunication ­ Pis =U iU D b + bc 2 sin(G D  T i )  g cos(G D  T i )
techniques to realize dynamical capacitive or inductive °
compensation of transmission line. The DSSC can reduce the °°Qis =U iU D g sin(G D  T i )  b + bc 2 cos(G D  T i )
transmission congestion effectively. With the increase of DSSC ® (2)
modules installed at the controlled line, the power flow control ° Pjs =U jU D g cos(G D  T j )  b sin(G D  T j )
°̄Q js =-U jU D b cos(G D  T j )  g sin(G D  T j )
becomes more flexib le. What’s more, the failure of each DSSC
module will not cause the failure of the entire power flow
control system, which enhances the power system reliability.
where g r (r 2  x 2 ) , b  x (r 2  x 2 ) , r and x represent
B. Equivalent Circuit of DSSC resistance and inductance of line respectively, -jb c/2 represents
ground admittance of the line, UD and G D are amp litude and
To facilitate the combination with the traditional power
flow calculat ion, all DSSCs deployed a line are equivalent to a phase of DSSC respectively.
power in the power flow calculation. DSSC can generate or The real and reactive power flow, Pij and Qij , along the
consume reactive power by injecting a voltage orthogonal to transmission line with DSSC are given by
the line. When DSSC operates in capacitive compensation
mode, the phase of injected voltage lags the line current by 900 , ­ Pij gU i2  U iU j ( g cos Tij  b sin Tij ) 
° U iU D > g cos(T i  G D )+(b  bc 2) sin(T i  G D ) @
which increases the amplitude of the line current and power of
the transmission line. On the contrary, DSSC provides a ® (3)
°Qij (b  bc 2)U i  U iU j ( g sin Tij  b cos Tij ) 
desired leading quadrature voltage when it operates in
inductive compensation mode, thereby the power of the °
transmission line can be reduced. Figure 2 shows the DSSC ¯ U iU D > g sin(T i  G D )  (b  bc 2) cos(T i  G D ) @
series injection voltage phasor diagram of three co mpensation
Outputs of DSSC are given by
Fig.3 shows DSSCs’ equivalent circuit d iagram changed ­ PD gU D2  U jU D ªg cos(G D  T j )  b sin(G D  T j ) º 
° ¬ ¼
fro m Norton's theorem and thus the current source can be
expressed as ° U iU D > g cos(G D  T i )  (b + bc 2) sin(G D  T i ) @
Transmission line ®QD U jU D ª¬ b cos(G D  T j )  g sin(G D  T j ) º¼  (4)
° U iU D > (b + bc 2) cos(G D  Ti )  g sin(G D  T i ) @
°̄  (b + bc 2)U D
Draw-out power circuit Draw-out power circuit 2

communication According to the relationship between in jected voltage and
transmission line current, the internal operating constraint
Controller equation of DSSC is given by
Fig.1 schematic representation of DSSC PD gU D2  U jU D ª¬ g cos(G D  T j )  b sin(G D  T j ) º¼ 
U iU D ¬ª g cos(G D  Ti )  b+ bc 2 sin(G D  Ti ) ¼º 0
Without U2 Capacitive U2 Inductive U2
compensation compensation compensation
U1 jXI
jXI jXI C. Power Equations with DSSC
U1 δ
U1 δ U1
θ θ θ
UD The power equations of buses i and j with DSSC are g iven
I by
Fig.2 Phasor diagram of injecting voltage of DSSC

­ n Co mparing I L in (9) and (10), voltage equation can be
°'Pi Pi +Pis  U i ¦ U j (Gij cos Tij  Bij sin Tij ) written as
° j 1

° n
c1U 4j  (c2 P  c3Q  Ui2 )U 2j  c4 (P2  Q2 ) 0 (11)
°'Qi Qi  Qis  U i ¦ U j (Gij sin Tij  Bij cos Tij )
° j 1
® (6) where a 1 =(1-XBc/2), a 2 =RBc/2, b 1 =R, b 2 =X, c1 a12  a22 ,
°'P P +P  U
j ¦ U i (Gij cos T ij  Bij sin T ji )
c2 =2(a 1 b1 +a 2b 2 ), c3 =2(a 1 b2 -a2 b1 ), c4 b12  b22 . Set x U 2j , so
° j j js

i 1
(11) can be simplified as

°̄'Q j Q j  Q js  U j ¦ U i (Gij sin T ji  Bij cos Tij ) ax2  bx  c 0 (12)

i 1

where n is the total number of system buses, Gij and Bij are the Equation (12) existing two real solutions means that the
real and imaginary parts of the element Yij in the nodal voltage of bus j is stable. In the vicinity of voltage collapse,
admittance matrix, respectively. two real solutions merge into one. Then the equation can be
According the operating principle of DSSC, it has many described as
control models such as active power flow control model and
reactance control model. Considering the flexible expansion of (c32  4c1c4 )Q2  2c2c3 PQ  (c22  4c1c4 ) P 2
DSSC capacity and analyze the influence on system with  2c3Ui2Q  2c2U i2 P  U 4j 0
different DSSC capacity, this paper uses capacity control
model wh ich controls the DSSC capacity to a constant value. The critical power curve of the line power can be obtained
The control function is described as by solving the voltage of the end bus. As shown in Fig.5, these
P and Q values create the P-Q boundary curve of load flow
QD  Qref 0 (7)
solution. Therefore, the minimal distance from init ial point
where Qref is the specified capacity control reference of DSSC. (Q0 ɾP0 ) to critical point (Qcr ɾPcr ) can be defined as the
Two new variables, U D and G D are introduced when each
voltage margin of the line. Vo ltage margin of the line is
DSSC is connected to network and two more equations are calculated as
needed including internal operating constraint equation of
Pcr  P0  Qcr  Q0
2 2
DSSC and control function. d vc (14)
Therefore, a Newton-Raphson power flow algorith m with
DSSCs can be expressed as Since the power crit ical operating curve is derived fro m ( 13)
ª F ( X , X u )º ª J1 J 2 º ª 'X º with singular solution, the voltage stability index of the load
« » « »« » (8) bus j at the end of the line can be defined as
¬G ( X , X u ) ¼ ¬ J 3 J 4 ¼ ¬ 'X u ¼
where 'X is the mis match vector including amplitude and LVSIj = min(dvc1 , dvc 2 ,......, dvcN ) (15)
angle of the system bus voltage, 'X u is the mis match vector
where N is number of line end with bus j. Thus, the value of
including amp litude and angle of voltage in jected by DSSC, G voltage stability index reflects the stability of power system.
(X, Xu ) contains the internal operating constraint and control When LVSIj reduces to zero, it indicates that a line end with bus
objective. j is operating in the critical state. So if the power flow in this
line increases mild ly, voltage collapse will occur first at the bus
III. VOLT AGE ST ABILITY INDEX BASED ON POWER FLOW j. Therefore, the bus with the smallest value of LVSI is defined
OF TRANSMISSION LINE as the weakest bus of the system. The value of the LVSI in this
Simp lified line model in any complicated power s ystem can bus can reflect the static voltage stability of the system
be described as Fig 4. Where P and Q are the active power and effectively. So the static voltage stability index of the whole
reactive power flow of the line respectively. Therefore, the system is described as
voltage and current equations are given by
aVSI =min( LVSI 1 , LVSI 2 ,....., LVSIk ) (16)
Ui [(1  XBc 2)+j RBc 2]U j  ( R  jX ) I L (9)
IL ( P  jQ) U*j (10)
d vc
U i ‘T i U j ‘T j
Q0 , P0
R+jX IL Qcr , Pcr

j Bc 2 j Bc 2 P jQ Q

Fig.4 Simplified line model of a power transmission network Fig.5 Power critical operating curve

where k is the total number of load buses in the system. stability of power system to some extent. Simu lation results
According to the value of a VSI, it is convenient to determine the show that the installation of DSSCs at line 6-8 is the most
present steady state voltage stability of power system. effective way to reduce the power loss. From Table I, it can be
observed that optimizing the DSSC installation location can not
IV. CASE ST UDY only reduce the active power loss but also improve the system
static voltage stability.
In order to validate the proposed model of DSSCs and their
influence on steady state voltage stability of power system, Co mpared with the large capacity lumped FACTS devices,
IEEE 30-bus is examined based on the voltage stability index DSSCs have advantage in flexibility and mobility of
proposed. This system contains 41 transmission lines; 24 loads; installation. Table II presents the voltage stability index of
six generators, where bus 1 is considered as the slack bus. system with DSSC installed at different locations and tested for
two compensation modes. Table II indicates that different
To testified the validity of index of steady state voltage
operation modes and locations of DSSC have different
stability, values of the index in init ial state and critical state are
influences on the voltage stability of power system. Voltage
analyzed in this case. Vo ltage stability index of each load bus
stability of system improves obviously when DSSC is installed
is based on load flow calculation results. Load growth strategy
in the weakest branch and operates in inductive compensation
adopted in this paper is to increase the loads of the whole
network in equal proportion and keep its power factor
unchanged. The increment of generators is the same as the Further test has been carried to analyze the enhancement of
increment of loads and the deviation of the power loss is voltage stability, maximu m load scale factor and a VSI with
undertaken by the slack bus. different DSSCs’ capacity located at line 27-30 are studied.
After the deployment of DSSCs, the loads and generators
Fig.7 shows the calculation results of voltage stability index
gradually increase to the power transmission limit according to
of all buses in initial state and critical state. From Fig.7, it can
the load growth strategy proposed in this section. Table III
be observed that the lowest LVSI value appears in the load bus
indicates that with the increase of DSSCs’ capacity, the a VSI
24 (bus 30), and the value reduces to zero first in the critical
and voltage margin of weakest load bus increase gradually,
state. Therefore, it is reasonable to use this index of steady state
which manifests that access of DSSCs in weakest load bus
stability proposed above to evaluate the voltage stability of
makes contribution the ability to withstand more loads.
power system.
Therefore, in order to delay the investment of equipment and
The power flow d istribution can be optimized to eliminate enhance the economic operation of power grid, it is reasonable
the transmission congestion and reduce the power loss after the to increase the capacity of DSSCs at the weakest bus to
installation of DSSCs, which will affect the steady state voltage effectively improve the steady s tate voltage stability of system.



Operation Mode Power Loss/MW aVSI

 Without DSSCs 5.3518 0.3110
  With DSSCs 5.3203 0.3137



  Capacity and Location of
Capacitive Inductive
DSSCs (bus-bus)
Compensation Compensation
Fig.6 IEEE 30-bus test system
90kVA in 3-4 0.3110 0.3110
90kVA in 2-6 0.3110 0.3110
Initial State 90kVA in 6-10 0.3108 0.3112
3 Critical State
90kVA in 6-28 0.3115 0.3100
90kVA in 27-30 0.3063 0.3171

Maximum Power
0.5 Capacity of aVSI in Initial Power
of Load Margin of
0 DSSCs State Loss/MW
0 5 10 15 20 25 Scale Factor Bus 30/MW
Number of Load Bus
0 2.95 20.67 0.3110 5.3518

Fig.7 Calculation results of voltage stability index of all buses in initial load 30kVar 3.06 21.83 0.3128 5.3530
condition and critical voltage point 90kVar 3.08 21.94 0.3171 5.3600

(3) Improvement of steady state voltage stability and the
Centralized Access ability to withstand loads become more significant when
Distributed Access capacity of DSSCs increase.
(4) Impacts of DSSCs in distributed access mode on voltage
0.25 stability is more evident compared to the centralized access


This research is supported by National Natural Science
0.1 Foundation of China (NO.51577030) and Project of State Grid
1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4
Load Scale Factor Jiangsu Electric Power Co mpany Research Institute (Name:
Research on flexible A C power flow control technology of
Fig.8 Comparison of impact on voltage stability index between centralized transmission network based on distributed power flow
and distributed access modes when load scale factor varies controller, Grant No. 8516000700).
DSSCs have the characteristic of distributed access in the REFERENCES
actual engineering application. In order to co mpare their effects [1] Y. Xu, Z. Y. Dong, C. Xiao, R. Zhang and K. P. Wong, "Optimal
on voltage stability in centralized and decentralized access placement of static compensators for multi-objective voltage stability
modes. In case 1, nine DSSCs are installed at the line 6-8 enhancement of power systems," IET Generation, Tran smission &
intensively while n ine DSSCs are installed at lines 2-6, 27-30 Distribution, vol. 9, no. 15, pp. 2144-2151, Nov 2015.
and 28-27 respectively in case 2. These results of two cases [2] F. Berrouk, B. Ali Rachedi, A. Lemzadmi, K. Bounaya and H. Zeghache,
under different load scale factors are presented in Fig.8. "Applications of shunt FACT S controller for voltage stability
improvment," International Conference on Electrical Sciences and
It can be seen from Fig. 8 that the effects of DSSCs in T echnologies in Maghreb (CIST EM), Tunis, 2014, pp. 1-6.
distributed access is more obvious than in centralized access in [3] N. Hingorani, “Flexible AC transmission,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 30, no.4,
initial state. However, the difference narrows between two pp. 40–45, Apr. 1993.
access modes with the increase of load scale factor. The reason [4] D. M. Divan, W. E. Brumsickle, R. S. Schneider, B. Kranz, R. W.
is that the performance of the same capacity of DSSC is weak Gascoigne, D. T. Bradshaw, et al. "A Distributed Static Series
Compensator System for Realizing Active Power Flow Control on
under heavy load, which weakens DSSC’s ability to maintain Existing Power Lines," in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22,
the stability of steady state voltage. In the future, when a large no. 1, pp. 642-649, Jan. 2007.
scale DSSCs are connected to power system, the DSSCs can be [5] H. Johal and D. Divan, "Design Considerations for Series-Connected
decentralized to the relatively weak line, which could improve Distributed FACT S Converters," IEEE Transactions on Industry
the steady state voltage stability of power system effectively. Applications, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1609-1618, Nov.-dec. 2007.
[6] A. Rathi, A. Sadda, L. Nebhnani and V. M. Maheshwari, "Loss
minimization with D-FACT S devices using sensitivity based technique,"
V. CONCLUSION 2012 IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics
In this paper, a new constant capacity control model of (IICPE), Delhi, 2012, pp. 1-5.
DSSC for power flow analysis is proposed. Furthermore, a [7] B. Sookananta, S. J. Galloway, G. M. Burt and J. R. McDonald,
‘Employment of power transfer distribution factor for the optimal
voltage stability index based on power flo w of transmission placement of FACT S devices’. IEEE Conf. Power Engineering, Dec.
line is proposed which could reflect the steady state voltage 2007, pp. 569–573.
stability of power system. Simulat ion cases are considered in [8] K. M. Rogers and T . J. Overbye, "Some applications of Distributed
IEEE 30-bus in this study and the main conclusion are as Flexible AC T ransmission System (D-FACT S) devices in power
follows systems," 40th North American Power Symposium, Calgary, AB, 2008,
pp. 1-8.
(1) The voltage stability index proposed can reflect the
[9] Wu Jiekang, Qin Lihan, Hu Wenxia. "Singular value calculation
voltage stability of system effectively. Besides, power loss methods for voltage stability and index calculation of power system with
decreases effectively and steady state voltage stability of static synchronous series compensators," Power System Technology,
system improves when DSSCs are added. 2009, 33(5):6-10(in Chinese).
[10] M. Rani and A. Gupta, "Steady state voltage stability enhancement of
(2) DSSCs installed in weakest line make contribution to power system using facts devices," 6th IEEE Power India International
steady state voltage stability apparently when they operate in Conference (PIICON), Delhi, 2014, pp. 1-6.
inductive compensation mode. [11] F. Kreikebaum, D. Das and D. Divan, "Reducing transmission
investment to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards using Controlled
Energy Flows," Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT),
Gaithersburg, MD, 2010, pp. 1-8.