00 голосов за00 голосов против

1 просмотров5 стр.rhty

Aug 10, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

rhty

© All Rights Reserved

1 просмотров

00 голосов за00 голосов против

rhty

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Jianfeng Dai State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power Gansu Communication Center for

School of Electrical Engineering Company Research Institute Power Dispatching

Southeast University State Grid Jiangsu Electric Power State Grid Gansu Electric Power

Nanjing, China Company Company

liuyuqian001@126.co m Nanjing, China Lanzhou, China

Abstract—Distributed static series compensator (DSS C) is a DSSCs are added to power system, which makes the analyze of

new type of distributed FACTS devices that can realize accurate its impact on system stability necessary.

control of power flow and enhance voltage stability. Thus, it

could be installed in stability-limited transmission systems widely. The steady state voltage stability of power system with

This paper presents a new capacity control model for DSS Cs and FACTS devices has been studied by many scholars. The

deduces the corresponding power flow equations. To illustrate analytical methods mainly include continuation power flow

the effect on system power voltage stability of DSSCs utilization, method and direct method. Co mpared with lumped FA CTS

a voltage stability index based on power flow of transmission line devices, a few works have been published related to the

is proposed. Numerical analysis on the standard IEEE test performance of D-FA CTS devices on system voltage stability.

system is conducted to examine the effect of DSSCs on the voltage In [9], impacts of static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)

stability index. The results indicate the effectiveness of proposed on power system based on the singular value calculation

control model and reveal that appropriate location and method. Reference [10] has investigated the effect of thyristor

compensation mode of DS S Cs improve system voltage stability. controlled series compensator (TCSC) by calcu late voltage

collapse proximity index and line stability index. Researches

Keywords—distributed static series compensator; control model; are mainly aimed at the voltage stability with traditional

voltage stability index; steady state voltage stability lu mped FACTS devices, which makes the contribution to the

analysis of DSSCs to some extent. However, there are still

I. INT RODUCTION some limitation, main ly manifested in two aspects: (1) single

With the construction of large-capacity ultra-high voltage operation mode of traditional FA CTS device cannot reflect its

direct current (UHVDC), centralized integration of new energy influence on the system voltage stability clearly; (2) location

sources and sharp increment of loads, the operation of the and capacity of devices are usually neglected, which makes the

power system approaches the ultimate state, which reduces the comprehensive assessment of system voltage stability with

system static voltage stability inevitably. Therefore, voltage DSSCs unavailable.

stability is becoming one of the major factors limiting power This paper focuses on the DSSCs performance with the aim

transmission. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the static voltage of enhancing the system steady state voltage stability. Thus, a

stability of the power system. capacity control model of DSSCs is proposed and

Application of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) corresponding power flo w equations are deduced. Secondly, a

is an important control method to improve the system voltage static voltage stability evaluation method is proposed based on

stability in modern power system [1-2]. Unfortunately, it power flo w calculat ion results. Finally, the influences on the

usually costs a lot by using the large power converter [3]. To static voltage stability with different installation locations,

overcome the disadvantage of FACTS devices, the concept of capacity and operation modes of DSSCs are analyzed.

distributed Flexib le AC Transmission System (D-FA CTS) was

proposed in [4] and design of distributed FACTS converters II. M AT HMATICAL M ODEL OF DSSC

was study in [5]. Researches indicate that the appropriate

access location of FACTS or D-FACTS device can not only A. Basic Structure of DSSC

optimize distribution of power flow [6], imp rove the available Distributed static series compensator (DSSC) is a new type

transfer capability [7], but also enhance the voltage stability of of distributed FACTS devices through transformation of SSSC.

power system [8]. As a new type of D-FACTS device, The capacity of each module is small (10kVA), wh ich

distributed static series compensator (DSSC) is widely applied overcomes the shortcomings of existing large-capacity lumped

in power system because of its simple structure. However, the FACTS devices. In order to meet the system operation

power system stability form becomes more co mplicate when

requirements instead of traditional FA CTS device, a large

U i T i I D U j T j U i T i P jQ Pjs jQjs U j T j

number of DSSCs are coordinated as a group.

is is

which mainly consists of a single-phase inverter, a DC link bc r+jx bc bc r+jx bc

j j j j

2 2 2 2

capacitor, a single-turn transformer and a switch. By utilization

of sing-turn transformer that attached to the transmission

conductor, DSSC can be hang on existing transmission line Fig.3 T he power injection of DSSC equivalence mode

directly, wh ich makes it convenient for its installation. Thus,

DSSCs can be installed at the transmission line as needed [11], ID U D / ( r jx ) (1)

whereas lumped FACTS devices should be oversized designed

to accommodate load growth. The equivalent injected power Pis , Qis , Pjs , and Qjs at buses i

and j are given by

Each DSSC module can receive the instruction from

control center through wireless or power line co mmunication Pis =U iU D b + bc 2 sin(G D T i ) g cos(G D T i )

techniques to realize dynamical capacitive or inductive °

compensation of transmission line. The DSSC can reduce the °°Qis =U iU D g sin(G D T i ) b + bc 2 cos(G D T i )

transmission congestion effectively. With the increase of DSSC ® (2)

modules installed at the controlled line, the power flow control ° Pjs =U jU D g cos(G D T j ) b sin(G D T j )

°

°̄Q js =-U jU D b cos(G D T j ) g sin(G D T j )

becomes more flexib le. What’s more, the failure of each DSSC

module will not cause the failure of the entire power flow

control system, which enhances the power system reliability.

where g r (r 2 x 2 ) , b x (r 2 x 2 ) , r and x represent

B. Equivalent Circuit of DSSC resistance and inductance of line respectively, -jb c/2 represents

ground admittance of the line, UD and G D are amp litude and

To facilitate the combination with the traditional power

flow calculat ion, all DSSCs deployed a line are equivalent to a phase of DSSC respectively.

power in the power flow calculation. DSSC can generate or The real and reactive power flow, Pij and Qij , along the

consume reactive power by injecting a voltage orthogonal to transmission line with DSSC are given by

the line. When DSSC operates in capacitive compensation

mode, the phase of injected voltage lags the line current by 900 , Pij gU i2 U iU j ( g cos Tij b sin Tij )

°

° U iU D > g cos(T i G D )+(b bc 2) sin(T i G D ) @

which increases the amplitude of the line current and power of

the transmission line. On the contrary, DSSC provides a ® (3)

°Qij (b bc 2)U i U iU j ( g sin Tij b cos Tij )

2

desired leading quadrature voltage when it operates in

inductive compensation mode, thereby the power of the °

transmission line can be reduced. Figure 2 shows the DSSC ¯ U iU D > g sin(T i G D ) (b bc 2) cos(T i G D ) @

series injection voltage phasor diagram of three co mpensation

Outputs of DSSC are given by

modes.

Fig.3 shows DSSCs’ equivalent circuit d iagram changed PD gU D2 U jU D ªg cos(G D T j ) b sin(G D T j ) º

° ¬ ¼

fro m Norton's theorem and thus the current source can be

expressed as ° U iU D > g cos(G D T i ) (b + bc 2) sin(G D T i ) @

°°

Transmission line ®QD U jU D ª¬ b cos(G D T j ) g sin(G D T j ) º¼ (4)

°

° U iU D > (b + bc 2) cos(G D Ti ) g sin(G D T i ) @

°

°̄ (b + bc 2)U D

Draw-out power circuit Draw-out power circuit 2

K

Wireless

communication According to the relationship between in jected voltage and

transmission line current, the internal operating constraint

VSC

Controller equation of DSSC is given by

Fig.1 schematic representation of DSSC PD gU D2 U jU D ª¬ g cos(G D T j ) b sin(G D T j ) º¼

(5)

U iU D ¬ª g cos(G D Ti ) b+ bc 2 sin(G D Ti ) ¼º 0

Without U2 Capacitive U2 Inductive U2

compensation compensation compensation

U1 jXI

jXI jXI C. Power Equations with DSSC

δ

U1 δ

U1 δ U1

θ θ θ

UD The power equations of buses i and j with DSSC are g iven

I

I I

I by

Fig.2 Phasor diagram of injecting voltage of DSSC

1732

n Co mparing I L in (9) and (10), voltage equation can be

°'Pi Pi +Pis U i ¦ U j (Gij cos Tij Bij sin Tij ) written as

° j 1

° n

c1U 4j (c2 P c3Q Ui2 )U 2j c4 (P2 Q2 ) 0 (11)

°'Qi Qi Qis U i ¦ U j (Gij sin Tij Bij cos Tij )

° j 1

® (6) where a 1 =(1-XBc/2), a 2 =RBc/2, b 1 =R, b 2 =X, c1 a12 a22 ,

n

°'P P +P U

j ¦ U i (Gij cos T ij Bij sin T ji )

c2 =2(a 1 b1 +a 2b 2 ), c3 =2(a 1 b2 -a2 b1 ), c4 b12 b22 . Set x U 2j , so

° j j js

°

i 1

(11) can be simplified as

°

n

i 1

where n is the total number of system buses, Gij and Bij are the Equation (12) existing two real solutions means that the

real and imaginary parts of the element Yij in the nodal voltage of bus j is stable. In the vicinity of voltage collapse,

admittance matrix, respectively. two real solutions merge into one. Then the equation can be

According the operating principle of DSSC, it has many described as

control models such as active power flow control model and

reactance control model. Considering the flexible expansion of (c32 4c1c4 )Q2 2c2c3 PQ (c22 4c1c4 ) P 2

(13)

DSSC capacity and analyze the influence on system with 2c3Ui2Q 2c2U i2 P U 4j 0

different DSSC capacity, this paper uses capacity control

model wh ich controls the DSSC capacity to a constant value. The critical power curve of the line power can be obtained

The control function is described as by solving the voltage of the end bus. As shown in Fig.5, these

P and Q values create the P-Q boundary curve of load flow

QD Qref 0 (7)

solution. Therefore, the minimal distance from init ial point

where Qref is the specified capacity control reference of DSSC. (Q0 ɾP0 ) to critical point (Qcr ɾPcr ) can be defined as the

Two new variables, U D and G D are introduced when each

voltage margin of the line. Vo ltage margin of the line is

DSSC is connected to network and two more equations are calculated as

needed including internal operating constraint equation of

Pcr P0 Qcr Q0

2 2

DSSC and control function. d vc (14)

Therefore, a Newton-Raphson power flow algorith m with

DSSCs can be expressed as Since the power crit ical operating curve is derived fro m ( 13)

ª F ( X , X u )º ª J1 J 2 º ª 'X º with singular solution, the voltage stability index of the load

« » « »« » (8) bus j at the end of the line can be defined as

¬G ( X , X u ) ¼ ¬ J 3 J 4 ¼ ¬ 'X u ¼

where 'X is the mis match vector including amplitude and LVSIj = min(dvc1 , dvc 2 ,......, dvcN ) (15)

angle of the system bus voltage, 'X u is the mis match vector

where N is number of line end with bus j. Thus, the value of

including amp litude and angle of voltage in jected by DSSC, G voltage stability index reflects the stability of power system.

(X, Xu ) contains the internal operating constraint and control When LVSIj reduces to zero, it indicates that a line end with bus

objective. j is operating in the critical state. So if the power flow in this

line increases mild ly, voltage collapse will occur first at the bus

III. VOLT AGE ST ABILITY INDEX BASED ON POWER FLOW j. Therefore, the bus with the smallest value of LVSI is defined

OF TRANSMISSION LINE as the weakest bus of the system. The value of the LVSI in this

Simp lified line model in any complicated power s ystem can bus can reflect the static voltage stability of the system

be described as Fig 4. Where P and Q are the active power and effectively. So the static voltage stability index of the whole

reactive power flow of the line respectively. Therefore, the system is described as

voltage and current equations are given by

aVSI =min( LVSI 1 , LVSI 2 ,....., LVSIk ) (16)

Ui [(1 XBc 2)+j RBc 2]U j ( R jX ) I L (9)

P

IL ( P jQ) U*j (10)

d vc

U i T i U j T j

Q0 , P0

R+jX IL Qcr , Pcr

j Bc 2 j Bc 2 P jQ Q

Fig.4 Simplified line model of a power transmission network Fig.5 Power critical operating curve

1733

where k is the total number of load buses in the system. stability of power system to some extent. Simu lation results

According to the value of a VSI, it is convenient to determine the show that the installation of DSSCs at line 6-8 is the most

present steady state voltage stability of power system. effective way to reduce the power loss. From Table I, it can be

observed that optimizing the DSSC installation location can not

IV. CASE ST UDY only reduce the active power loss but also improve the system

static voltage stability.

In order to validate the proposed model of DSSCs and their

influence on steady state voltage stability of power system, Co mpared with the large capacity lumped FACTS devices,

IEEE 30-bus is examined based on the voltage stability index DSSCs have advantage in flexibility and mobility of

proposed. This system contains 41 transmission lines; 24 loads; installation. Table II presents the voltage stability index of

six generators, where bus 1 is considered as the slack bus. system with DSSC installed at different locations and tested for

two compensation modes. Table II indicates that different

To testified the validity of index of steady state voltage

operation modes and locations of DSSC have different

stability, values of the index in init ial state and critical state are

influences on the voltage stability of power system. Voltage

analyzed in this case. Vo ltage stability index of each load bus

stability of system improves obviously when DSSC is installed

is based on load flow calculation results. Load growth strategy

in the weakest branch and operates in inductive compensation

adopted in this paper is to increase the loads of the whole

mode.

network in equal proportion and keep its power factor

unchanged. The increment of generators is the same as the Further test has been carried to analyze the enhancement of

increment of loads and the deviation of the power loss is voltage stability, maximu m load scale factor and a VSI with

undertaken by the slack bus. different DSSCs’ capacity located at line 27-30 are studied.

After the deployment of DSSCs, the loads and generators

Fig.7 shows the calculation results of voltage stability index

gradually increase to the power transmission limit according to

of all buses in initial state and critical state. From Fig.7, it can

the load growth strategy proposed in this section. Table III

be observed that the lowest LVSI value appears in the load bus

indicates that with the increase of DSSCs’ capacity, the a VSI

24 (bus 30), and the value reduces to zero first in the critical

and voltage margin of weakest load bus increase gradually,

state. Therefore, it is reasonable to use this index of steady state

which manifests that access of DSSCs in weakest load bus

stability proposed above to evaluate the voltage stability of

makes contribution the ability to withstand more loads.

power system.

Therefore, in order to delay the investment of equipment and

The power flow d istribution can be optimized to eliminate enhance the economic operation of power grid, it is reasonable

the transmission congestion and reduce the power loss after the to increase the capacity of DSSCs at the weakest bus to

installation of DSSCs, which will affect the steady state voltage effectively improve the steady s tate voltage stability of system.

BEFORE AND AFTER ACCESS OF DSSCS

Operation Mode Power Loss/MW aVSI

Without DSSCs 5.3518 0.3110

With DSSCs 5.3203 0.3137

T ABLE II. VALUE OF VOLTAGE STABILITY I NDEX UNDER DIFFERENT DSSCS

ACCESS MODES

aVSI

Capacity and Location of

Capacitive Inductive

DSSCs (bus-bus)

Compensation Compensation

Fig.6 IEEE 30-bus test system

90kVA in 3-4 0.3110 0.3110

90kVA in 2-6 0.3110 0.3110

3.5

Initial State 90kVA in 6-10 0.3108 0.3112

3 Critical State

90kVA in 6-28 0.3115 0.3100

2.5

90kVA in 27-30 0.3063 0.3171

2

LVSI

1.5 T ABLE III. LOAD SCALE FACTOR AND VOLTAGE STABILITY I NDEX WITH

DIFFERENT DSSCS’ CAP ACITY

1

Maximum Power

0.5 Capacity of aVSI in Initial Power

of Load Margin of

0 DSSCs State Loss/MW

0 5 10 15 20 25 Scale Factor Bus 30/MW

Number of Load Bus

0 2.95 20.67 0.3110 5.3518

Fig.7 Calculation results of voltage stability index of all buses in initial load 30kVar 3.06 21.83 0.3128 5.3530

condition and critical voltage point 90kVar 3.08 21.94 0.3171 5.3600

1734

(3) Improvement of steady state voltage stability and the

0.35

Centralized Access ability to withstand loads become more significant when

Distributed Access capacity of DSSCs increase.

0.3

(4) Impacts of DSSCs in distributed access mode on voltage

0.25 stability is more evident compared to the centralized access

aVSI

mode.

0.2

A CKNOWLEDGMENT

0.15

This research is supported by National Natural Science

0.1 Foundation of China (NO.51577030) and Project of State Grid

1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4

Load Scale Factor Jiangsu Electric Power Co mpany Research Institute (Name:

Research on flexible A C power flow control technology of

Fig.8 Comparison of impact on voltage stability index between centralized transmission network based on distributed power flow

and distributed access modes when load scale factor varies controller, Grant No. 8516000700).

DSSCs have the characteristic of distributed access in the REFERENCES

actual engineering application. In order to co mpare their effects [1] Y. Xu, Z. Y. Dong, C. Xiao, R. Zhang and K. P. Wong, "Optimal

on voltage stability in centralized and decentralized access placement of static compensators for multi-objective voltage stability

modes. In case 1, nine DSSCs are installed at the line 6-8 enhancement of power systems," IET Generation, Tran smission &

intensively while n ine DSSCs are installed at lines 2-6, 27-30 Distribution, vol. 9, no. 15, pp. 2144-2151, Nov 2015.

and 28-27 respectively in case 2. These results of two cases [2] F. Berrouk, B. Ali Rachedi, A. Lemzadmi, K. Bounaya and H. Zeghache,

under different load scale factors are presented in Fig.8. "Applications of shunt FACT S controller for voltage stability

improvment," International Conference on Electrical Sciences and

It can be seen from Fig. 8 that the effects of DSSCs in T echnologies in Maghreb (CIST EM), Tunis, 2014, pp. 1-6.

distributed access is more obvious than in centralized access in [3] N. Hingorani, “Flexible AC transmission,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 30, no.4,

initial state. However, the difference narrows between two pp. 40–45, Apr. 1993.

access modes with the increase of load scale factor. The reason [4] D. M. Divan, W. E. Brumsickle, R. S. Schneider, B. Kranz, R. W.

is that the performance of the same capacity of DSSC is weak Gascoigne, D. T. Bradshaw, et al. "A Distributed Static Series

Compensator System for Realizing Active Power Flow Control on

under heavy load, which weakens DSSC’s ability to maintain Existing Power Lines," in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 22,

the stability of steady state voltage. In the future, when a large no. 1, pp. 642-649, Jan. 2007.

scale DSSCs are connected to power system, the DSSCs can be [5] H. Johal and D. Divan, "Design Considerations for Series-Connected

decentralized to the relatively weak line, which could improve Distributed FACT S Converters," IEEE Transactions on Industry

the steady state voltage stability of power system effectively. Applications, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1609-1618, Nov.-dec. 2007.

[6] A. Rathi, A. Sadda, L. Nebhnani and V. M. Maheshwari, "Loss

minimization with D-FACT S devices using sensitivity based technique,"

V. CONCLUSION 2012 IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics

In this paper, a new constant capacity control model of (IICPE), Delhi, 2012, pp. 1-5.

DSSC for power flow analysis is proposed. Furthermore, a [7] B. Sookananta, S. J. Galloway, G. M. Burt and J. R. McDonald,

‘Employment of power transfer distribution factor for the optimal

voltage stability index based on power flo w of transmission placement of FACT S devices’. IEEE Conf. Power Engineering, Dec.

line is proposed which could reflect the steady state voltage 2007, pp. 569–573.

stability of power system. Simulat ion cases are considered in [8] K. M. Rogers and T . J. Overbye, "Some applications of Distributed

IEEE 30-bus in this study and the main conclusion are as Flexible AC T ransmission System (D-FACT S) devices in power

follows systems," 40th North American Power Symposium, Calgary, AB, 2008,

pp. 1-8.

(1) The voltage stability index proposed can reflect the

[9] Wu Jiekang, Qin Lihan, Hu Wenxia. "Singular value calculation

voltage stability of system effectively. Besides, power loss methods for voltage stability and index calculation of power system with

decreases effectively and steady state voltage stability of static synchronous series compensators," Power System Technology,

system improves when DSSCs are added. 2009, 33(5):6-10(in Chinese).

[10] M. Rani and A. Gupta, "Steady state voltage stability enhancement of

(2) DSSCs installed in weakest line make contribution to power system using facts devices," 6th IEEE Power India International

steady state voltage stability apparently when they operate in Conference (PIICON), Delhi, 2014, pp. 1-6.

inductive compensation mode. [11] F. Kreikebaum, D. Das and D. Divan, "Reducing transmission

investment to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards using Controlled

Energy Flows," Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT),

Gaithersburg, MD, 2010, pp. 1-8.

1735

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.