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History

Since prehistoric times, snow and ice were used for cooling. The business of harvesting ice during
winter and storing for use in summer became popular towards the late 17th century.[4] This practice
was replaced by mechanical ice-making machines.

The basic concept behind air conditioning is said to have been applied in ancient Egypt, where reeds
were hung in windows and were moistened with trickling water. The evaporation of water cooled the
air blowing through the window

The first electrical air conditioning was invented by Willis Haviland Carrier in the
year 1902. He was also known as the Father of Modern Air Conditioning.

The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was established by him to


meet the demand of better productivity in the workplace

The discovery of Freon in 1928 by Thomas Midgley, Jr., a safer refrigerant to


humans compared to the toxic and flammable gases such as ammonia, propane
and methyl chloride sparks the invention of air conditioning systems for
residential, industrial and commercial applications.

Unfortunately, the use of CFC and HCFC refrigerants are causing the depletion
of ozone layer in our atmosphere that is causing harmful rays to penetrate our
earth. Newer ozone friendly refrigerants have been developed to replace
refrigerants such as R-11, R-12 and R-22 to name a few. Non-ozone depletion
refrigerant such as R-410a has been used in newer air conditioning systems.

History Of Air Conditioner and Refrigeration

 1820 Ice was first artificially made as an experiment.

 1824 Michael Faraday discovered the principles for the absorption type of
refrigeration.

 1834 Jacob Perkins invented the first artificial ice manufacturing machine
which led to our modern compression systems.

 1902 Willis Haviland Carrier invented the first air conditioner to control
the temperature and humidity of a printing company, marking the first
time effort taken to control the temperature of the surroundings. This
starts the history of air conditioning.
 1906 Stuart W. Cramer come out with the term "Air Conditioning." which
was later adopted by Carrier.

 1913 The first international refrigeration expo is held in Chicago.

 1928 The discovery of Freon refrigerant by Thomas Midgley, Jr.

 1930 The White House is air-conditioned.

 1946 The demand for room air conditioners began to increase with more
than 30,000 units produced on this year.

 1953 Room air conditioners sale exceed 1 million units. This is another
key milestone in the history of air conditioner.

 1953 The Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturers Association and The


Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Machinery Association are formed.

 1957 The first rotary compressor was developed hence making air
conditioning units smaller and more efficient compared to the
reciprocating type.

 1977 Heat Pumps equipment developed that allows cooling and heating
cycle using the same machine that can be used to provide cooling during
summer and heating during winter.

 1987 Montreal Protocol signed to protect the earth's ozone layer is signed
in Montreal, Canada. The Protocol establishes international cooperation on
the phase out of ozone depleting substances, including the
chlorofluorocarbon(CFC) refrigerants used in HVAC equipment.

 1990 Microprocessor control systems are used in all areas of refrigeration


and air conditioning due to the readily available semiconductor
technology.

 1992 The R-22 Alternative Refrigeration Evaluation Program (AREP)


starts to find alternative refrigerants to R-502 and R-22.

 1995 Chloroflourocarbon (CFC) manufacturing in the USA ends on


December 31.

 1997 Kyoto Protocol signed to protect the earth's climate by reducing


greenhouse gases that cause climate change.

 1998 Unitary air conditioners and heat pumps set a sale record of more
than 6 million units.
 2007 A State Council issued a circular to restrict the temperature of air
conditioning in public buildings to 26°C (78°F) or higher during summer
and 20°C (68°F) and lower during winter. Sale of low efficiency air
conditioning units are also outlawed.

Type of air conditioning


Window Air Conditioners
Portable Air Conditioners
Split (Ductless) Air Conditioners
Central Air Conditioning

Basic Refrigeration Cycle

Principles of Refrigeration
 Liquids absorb heat when changed from liquid to gas

 Gases give off heat when changed from gas to liquid.