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Concrete Airport Pavement Workshop, Nov 4-5, 09

Cement-Stabilized
Cement Stabilized Base Courses
Fares Y. Abdo,, P.E.
Market Manager, Pavements
Portland Cement Association
Cement-Treated Base Courses
„ Fundamentals
„ Materials
„ Mix Design
„ Thickness Design
g
„ Construction
„ Case Studies
Cement-Based Pavement Materials
Roller-Compacted
Roller Compacted Pervious Conventional
Concrete Concrete Concrete

FAA
Econocrete
P-306
ent

FAA Soil-Cement
Cement Conte

C
Cement-Treated
tT t d Cement-
Base/Subbase Treated
Base
P-301 &
P-304 Flowable Fill
Full-Depth
Reclamation

Cement-Modified
Soil

Water Content
Definition
Cement-Treated Base – a intimate mixture of
native and/or manufactured aggregates with
measured amounts of portland cement (and
possibly other cementitious materials) and
water that hardens after compaction and curing
to form a strong durable paving material
What materials can be treated with cement?

„ Soils (sand, silt, clay)


„ Gravel
„ Shale
„ Crushed
C h d stone
t
„ Slag
„ Recycled HMA
„ Recycled concrete
Are all materials suitable for CTB?

Problem Soils
„Organic soils
„Acid soils
„Sulfate soils
„Uniform sands
Why Use CTB?
„ Economical pavement base
„ Decreased base thickness compared to
unbound aggregate base
„ Structural properties maintained under varying
moisture conditions
„ High stiffness inhibits fatigue cracking and
rutting of asphalt surface
„ Sustainable paving option
FAA Base/Subbase Approved
Materials
P
Purpose off Base/Subbase
B /S bb Courses
C
(FAA AC 150/5320-6E)
„ Flexible pavements Asphalt

„ Principal structural components Base


Subbase
„ Distribute the loads to the (Req. if CBR<20)
f
foundation
d ti Subgrade
Improved Performance in Rutting and Fatigue Cracking
P P

Cement-Treated Base
Unstabilized Granular Base
P
Purpose off Base/Subbase
B /S bb Courses
C
(FAA AC 150/5320-6E)
„ Flexible pavements Asphalt

„ Principal structural component Base


Subbase
„ Distribute the loads to the (Req. if CBR<20)
f
foundation
d ti Subgrade

„ Rigid pavements
Concrete
„ Provide uniform stable support
Subbase

Subgrade
Materials for Base Course
FAA AC 150/5320-6E Flexible Pavement Design
I
Item B
Base C
Course M G
Max. Gross LLoad,
d
lbs.
P-208
P 208 Aggregate Base 60 000
60,000
P-209 Crushed Aggregate Base 100,000
P-211 Lime Rock Base N/A
/
P-219 Recycled Concrete Aggregate Base 100,000
P-304 Cement Treated Base N/A
/
P-306 Econocrete Subbase N/A
P-401 Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements N/A
P-403 HMA Base N/A
Materials for Subbase Course
FAA AC 150/5320-6E Flexible Pavement Design
I
Item S bb
Subbase C
Course1 Frost Penetrating
F P i
Subbase
P-154
P 154 Subbase Course 9
P-210 Caliche Base Course 9
P-212 Shell Base Course 9
P-213 Sand Clay Base Course X
P-301 Soil Cement Base Course X

1. Materials acceptable for base course can also be used for subbase course
Materials for Sbbase Course
FAA AC 150/5320-6E Rigid Pavement Design
I
Item S bb
Subbase C
Course M G
Max. Gross LLoad,
d
lbs.
P-154 Subbase Course 100,000
,
P-208 Aggregate Base Course 100,000
P-209 Crushed Aggregate Base Course 100,000
P-211 Lime Rock Base Course 100,000
P-301 Soil Cement Base Course 100,000
P 304
P-304 Cement Treated Base Course N/A
P-306 Econocrete Subbase Course N/A
P-401 Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements N/A
P-403 HMA Base Course N/A
Engineering Properties of CTB
Property1
P FAA P-301
P 301 FAA P-304
P 304 PCA CTB
(Soil Cement) (CTB)
7-Day Compressive N/A2 Under PCC: 300 min.;
Strength, psi 500 min.; 1000 max. 800 max.
Under HMA:
750 min.; 1000 max.
Elastic Modulus, ksi 250 500 600-1000
Poisson’s Ratio 0.20 0.20 0.15

1. Refer to FAA AC 150/5320-6E for durability requirements


2. FAA recommendations for P-301 are based on wet-dry and freeze-thaw tests
and strength should increase with age
CTB Mix Design
Strive
St i for
f a Balance
B l Between
B t
Strength
g and Performance
Mixture Design-Step 1
„ Determine moisture-density relationship
„ Select expected median cement content
(e.g. 6% by estimated dry weight)
„ Perform standard or modified Proctor test
(ASTM D558 or ASTM D1557)
„ Construct moisture-density curve
„ Determine optimum moisture content and
maximum dry density
Moisture-Density Relationship
Mix Design-Step 2
„ Mold specimens for compressive strength testing
„ Select range of cement contents
(
(e.g. 4%
4%, 6% andd 8% b
by d
dry weight
i ht off material)
t i l)
„ Use percent OMC from Step 1 and Mold two
specimens per cement content (ASTM
D559/560 or ASTM D1632)
„ Perform compressive strength testing
(ASTM D1633)
„ Plot cement content versus compressive
strength
Strength Testing
Strength vs. Cement Content
1000
ngth, psi

900

800
7-dayy Compresssive Stren

700

600

500

400

300

200
3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Cement Content, %
Mix Design-Step 3
„ Determine moisture-density relationship of target
cement content
„ Perform standard or modified Proctor test
(ASTM D558 or ASTM D1557)
„ Construct moisture-density curve
„ Determine optimum moisture content and
maximum dry density
Durability Testing
„ Specimens containing various cementitious
contents molded per ASTM D558 and tested per:
„ ASTM D559; wet-dry cycles
„ ASTM D560; freeze
freeze-thaw
thaw cycles
„Select min. cement content that meets weight
loss limits set by agency having jurisdiction
Thickness Design
Thickness Design
■ FAA: FAARFIELD Computer Program
■ PCA Methods of Thickness Design
■ Experience
■ Mechanistic-Empirical
M h i ti E i i l M Methods
th d
■ AASHTO MEPDG (guide accepted)
■ PCA-Pave (near completion)
Thickness Design
■ Factors
■ Subgrade Strength
■ Pavement Design Period
■ T ffi
Traffic
■ Typical Thickness
■ Heavy traffic: 6 to 9 inches
■ Highways
g y and airport
p runways
y and
taxiways: 6 to 12 inches
Construction
Construction

■ Two methods
■ Plant Mix
■ Road Mix (in-place)
(in place)
Plant Mix: Puggmill
„ High production
„ Usually close or on-site
„ Mob/demob cost
Continuous Pugmill Mixing Chamber
Plant Mix: Central Concrete Batch Plant
■ Highly accurate
proportioning
■ Local availability
■ Smaller output
capacity
■ Longer mix times than
conventional concrete
■ Frequent cleaning
■ Dedicated production
Plant Mix: Dry Concrete Batch Plant
■ Highest local availability
■ Desirable method for the
smaller-sized jobs
■ 2-step process
■ Feed into transit mixers
■ Discharge into dumps
■ Low production
■ Frequent cleaning
■ Segregation
S i
Construction - Road Mix
■ In-situ or mixed in place materials
■ Wider variety of materials
■ Dryy or
o slurry
s u y cement
ce e t application
app cat o method
et od
Road Mix Method

1. Spread cement
2. Add water if necessary and mix
3. Compact
p
4. Grade
5
5. Cure
Portland Cement Addition

Dry spread

Slurry spread
Addition of Water

Gravity dump and mix

Via drum of mixer


Road Mixing

With water

Without water
Plant vs. Road Mix Considerations
„ Traffic loading/agency requirements
„ FAA P-304 spec includes plant mix only
„ Qualityy of in-situ materials
Q
„ Cost
„ Haul distances: material sources, p
plant, jjobsite
„ Design thickness (one or multiple lifts)
„ Sustainable considerations (Reduce, Reuse and Recycling)
Plant vs. Road Mix Considerations
„ Dust controls/location of project

Tuscaloosa, AL Palo Verde, AZ


Spreading/Placing
Grading/Compaction
Compaction
■ High density is critical
for strength and
durability
■ Steel-drum
■ Rubber-tire roller
■ Sheepsfoot roller
Curing
■ Required for surface durability and normal strength
g
gain
■ Needed to retain moisture
■ Three methods:
▪ Moist Cure
▪ Concrete Curing Compound
▪ Asphalt Emulsion
Moist Cure

■ Continuous
operation
■P
Preventt excessive
i
drying
Concrete Curing Compound

■ White-pigmented
concrete curing
compounds
■ Provide adequate
coverage
■ May form a bond
breaker
Bituminous Curing Compound

■E
Excellent
ll t
moisture barrier
■G
Goodd for
f asphalt
h lt
cap
Applications
Where are stabilized materials used?
„ L volume
Low l roadways
r d
„ Residential streets
„ State routes
„ Interstate highways
„ Airport runways and taxiways
„ Parking lots
„ Industrial storage facilities
„ Port facilities
„ Truck terminals
In other words…
„ Commercial sites
any pavement structure!
Residential Streets

Bells Crossing, Mooresville, NC, 2008


Example: County Road Value-
V l
Original Engineered
■ Upgrade 2-lane to 4-lane route Design Option
■ Value-Engineered
Value Engineered Option Asphalt Int. & Asphalt Int. &
■ $900,000 savings on Surface Surface
238,000 SY ($3.78/SY)
■ Faster construction ((5 months 3.5” Asphalt Base
Crushed
C
Cement-t
savings) 8” Stone Base
Treated Base
■ Less mined and processed
materials
8”
8 Crushed
Stone Base
Subgrade

Subgrade

SC County Road 5
Parking Areas
Design/Bid As Sustainable Contributions
Section Constructed ■ Reduced
export/import/fuel use
Asphalt
4”
4 6” 8” RCC
6”-8” ■ Less mined and
processed materials
Crushed
6”
6 Soil-Cement ■ Reduced excavation
12” Stone Base ■ Faster construction
Base
■ Cooler pavement
Subgrade
■ Used in-situ
in situ materials
Subgrade ■ Less damage to area
roads

BMW, SC, 2009


Washington Dulles
Airport
p Runwayy 4,, 2008

18” PCC w/
dowelled transverse
j i t att 20 ft
joints

6” CTB, 6% cement

12” Cement-
Stabilized Subgrade,
5% cement
Washington Dulles
Airport
p Runwayy 4

■ Runway 4 completed in 2008


■ Runway 12 was completed in
2004
FedEx Hub at Alliance
Airport Fort Worth, TX,
1997
Taxiway & Ramp

Truck Terminal &


14” PCC C t i
Container St
Storage
g

10” JRCP
9” CTB

9” Cement-Treated 6” Cement-Treated
Subgrade Subgrade
FedEx Hub at Alliance Airport Fort Worth, TX

■ 50-yr design life


■ C
Completed
l t d in
i 1997
■ 330,000 yd2
■ Cement-treated subgrade
■ 7 % cement, 250 psi,
reduced PI from 38 to less
than 12
■ Cement –treated
treated base
■ 750 psi at 28 days
DFW SE Perimeter
Taxiway,
y, 2008
■ First perimeter taxiway in U.S.
■ Built for safety and reduce
congestion delays

18” CRCP
18

12” CTB

12” Lime-Treated
Subgrade
DFW SE Perimeter
Taxiway
■ Completed in 2008
■ 225,000 yd2
■ Data will be analyzed before
building the remaining 3 loops
McGhee Tyson Airport
Knoxville, TN, 2008
■ Completed in 2008
■ 9,000 yd2
■ CTB per FAA PP-304
304

16” PCC

6” CTB, 5% (C+FA)

8” Lime-Treated
Subgrade
Charlotte-Douglas
Airport, 2008
■ Completed in 2008
■ 256,000 yd2
■ CTB per FAA PP-304
304
Dover AFB, Delaware,
2008
■ Old concrete and asphalt
crushed and recycled
■ 50% recycledl d and
d 50% iin-situ
i
soil; sandy clays and clear
sand
■ CTB 1212” thick
■ 42 to 80 lb/SY depending on
the in-situ and recycled
materials
■ 300,000 SY
■ 58 days
M Information
More I f ti

www.cement.org/pavements
fabdo@cement.org

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