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A Teaching and learning contexts


1. CELTA course will be conducted in a multilingual, fulltime, mixed gender, opengroup environment. The
class size may vary.The lessons will be taught mostly in groups. My colleagues will be from different parts
of the world with or without teaching experience.

2. I will be probably teaching one to one/ group lessons, multilingual/monolingual group. Classes will be
organized in daytime and the learners should have a bit of formal education.


B The learners’ cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds

1. Adults will be very focused on their goals. They are calmer and more willing to learn. Teaching adult
learners helps in bringing incredible amount of knowledge and experience to the class. Unlike children,
adult learners can get discouraged if they think they made little or no progress. I believe there is no
easiest age group to teach, as every level has its own unique challenges and rewards.

2 I am very passionate about teaching. I can share my own experience of learning a foreign language
(Dutch). It will lighten the mood and set ambience for an engaging lesson. I like to keep the class fun,
enthusiastic and friendly. Being empathetic and understanding allows room for discussion and learning. I
have always tried to create a no fear environment in classroom throughput my teaching career.

3 a) They are focused and motivated

b) They learn at a slower pace but have rich life experience

c) Mixed personalities with high expectations

d) Less open-minded


1. The following points need to be considered

a) Prior knowledge and learning experiences

b) Reasons for learning English
c) Age group and number of learners.
d) Background and ability of learners


a) Questionnaire can be prepared

b) Personal interviews
c) Students can write a small note about themselves as an introduction.
d) Pair interviews


C Motivation

Task 4

The most challenging learners would definitely be those with pressure from family/company. They will
never enjoy the learning process as they have no interest in the language. Also English is easier if one has
prior knowledge of a language with similar roots.

D The qualities and skills of a good language teacher

Task 5

a) Is friendly
b) Knows about language and learning
c) Explain clearly
d) Is enthusiastic and inspires enthusiasm
e) Is patient.

Task 6

 Rules of language
 Grammar exercises
 Parts of speech
 Pattern
 Function of a language
 Confusing.


1. Correct
2. I went to the movies last night
3. He often comes late.
4. Correct
5. Can I have a black coffee, please?
6. People with 12 items or fewer can queue here.

Task 8

ESL teachers need to know about grammar to provide clear explanation to the learners. To understand
where the learners are getting confused, to simplify a teaching point, teachers require explicit
knowledge of English grammar. Learners expect a teacher with sound knowledge of the language. A
good knowledge of grammar and terminology enables a teacher to correct the mistakes committed by
the learners during the process of learning

Task 9

1. Pronoun
2. Indefinite article
3. Coordinating Conjunction
4. Adverb


5. Adjective
6. Modal verb
7. Demonstrative determiner
8. Preposition
9. Verb
10. Noun

Task 10

1. Lexical
2. Lexical
3. Auxiliary
4. Auxiliary
5. Auxiliary
6. Lexical

Task 11

1. Lexical
2. Auxiliary
3. Auxiliary
4. Lexical
5. Lexical
6. Lexical
7. Auxiliary
8. Lexical

Task 12

1. C
2. E
3. B
4. A
5. E

Task 13

1. Past tense
2. ing form
3. 3rd person- present simple tense
4. Base form
5. Past participle

Task 14

 Hear, Heard, Heard

 Think, Thought, Thought
 Go, Went, gone
 Do ,did, done
 Take ,took ,taken
 Drink, drank, drunk


 Help, helped, helped

 Steal ,stole ,stolen
 Arrive, arrived, arrived


1. Past progressive
2. Modal,perfect
3. Present perfect
4. Past progressive passive
5. Past tense
6. Modal progressive

Task 16

1. Present continuous
2. Simple Past
3. Present
4. Past perfect
5. Present
6. Future perfect
7. Simple past, Past continuous
8. Present perfect continuous

Grammar and meaning

Task 17

1. Past
2. Future
3. Past to present
4. Present
5. Past,present,future

Task 18

 Am/is/are
 ing form

Task 19

 future
 past,present,future
 past

Task 20

1. Here the verb indicates a relationship. Cannot use ing form, only simple tense can be used
2. Verbs expressing likes and dislikes can also not be used with ing form
3. Similar to above examples, cannot be used in progressive form as it indicates a state
4. ing form cannot be used.


All these are examples of verbs that cannot be used in progressive form as they express a state
rather than an action.

B Vocabulary

Task 21

 Spelling
 Definitions
 Synonyms : similar meaning words
 Pronunciation
 Connotation
 Example of sentences
 Parts of speech

Task 22

1. He’s the tallest person [ refers to physical height of a person hence use tall]
2. I think I’ll go to bed now. I’m feeling a little tired [ enervated is a formal word]
3. It is an extremely good essay. The ideas in it are original and honest. [ pretentious gives a
negative idea, here the sentence is a positive feedback so pretentious can be replaced by word
4. Her grandfather gave a loving pat on her face. [ A slap is not associated with loving]
5. Footing is an incorrect word. Walking/jogging can be an alternative

Task 23

1. Adverb adjective collocation : strikingly handsome

2. Verb-noun: make bed ; do housework
3. Adverb adjective collocation: absolutely fabulous
4. Verb-preposition : depend on each other
5. Adverb adjective collocation: Highly emotional
6. Adjective-Noun: Vicious circle

C Phonology

Task 24

1. B
2. C
3. A

Task 25

1. B
2. C
3. A

Task 26


1. Their
2. South
3. Language
4. Peaceful
5. Young
6. Cool
7. Sear
8. Equation
9. Sugar

Task 27

1. Guar+an+tee
2. Cav+al+ry
3. Mech+a+ni+sa+tion
4. Lan+guage
5. Re+treat
6. Spec+ul+at+ive
7. Suc+cess
8. Bal+ance
9. I+den+ti+ty
10. Ar+tic+ul+ate

Task 28

1. Photograph
The word stress changes though they belong to the same word family hence non-native speakers
can get confused
a) To record/a record
b) To increase/ an increase
c) To present/ a present
d) To import/an import
All these are two syllable verb and noun pairs. The verbs have stress on the last syllable
and the nouns on the first syllable

Task 29

Mother, forget, announce, tonight, notable, mention, patrol, indicative

Section 3: Language Skills: Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing


Task 30

 I decided to read the prescribed grammar book to improve my knowledge in phonetics and word
stress. (intensive reading)

 Compared the nutritional benefits offered by two brands of oats [SCANNING]

 I read the Brussels travel brochure [skimming]

Task 31

1. The article can be gist rad first and later in detail for information
2. Scan reading to locate the name and number
3. Try to understand the author’s point : Reading to infer, Also read it in detail as we are interested
in the topic.
4. We will go through the advertisement to get a general idea and later read it in detail ( Skim +

Task 32

 It takes a long time to understand each word.

 Difficult to understand the meaning of a long paragraph as the learner gets concentrated on the
meaning of individual words
 It is inefficient

Task 33

 Difference in accents
 The varying speed of the texts spoken
 When they listen, they have no visual information to help them understand the text
 Information cannot be double checked so they may misinterpret a word

Task 34

 I listened to the landlord on phone regarding the utility expenses (intensive listening)
 I listened to the radio station as I drove my car. I scanned through the stations until I found my
favorite song (Scan listening)
 I listened to my neighbors as they discussed about the ongoing match between Belgium and
England in the FIFA World cup. The topic was interesting to me and I listened to understand their
views as a fan (Listening to infer)

Task 35

1. Intensive listening/listening to infer meaning

2. Skim listening
3. Scan listening
4. Intensive listening
5. Listening to infer meaning


6. Skim listening

C Speaking

Task 36

 Non native speakers have tendency to speak their mother tongue in their day to day life. They do
not practice English as much as they speak their mother tongue
 They lack confidence to speak while memorizing all the rules of language hence they are less
 They need to practice speaking to improve pronunciation of English and to communicate
effectively in real world scenario

Task 37

1. The student has used proper grammar, but he is unable to communicate clearly to the
2. Incorrect grammar.But he is successful in conveying the message
3. Incorrect grammar. Message conveyed properly
4. A has asked correctly, but B’s answer is not very clear(whether B refers to the future or past)

Task 38

1. Transactional
2. Interactional
3. Interactional
4. Interactional
5. Transactional
6. Interactional

Task 39

 Promotes socializing and confidence

 Improves vocabulary and speaking skills
 They can practice what they have learnt.
 Provides a lively classroom which promotes learners to take more responsibility for their own

D Writing

Task 40

1. Spoken language
2. Written language
3. Spoken language
4. Spoken language
5. Written language
6. Spoken language
7. Spoken language
8. Written language
9. Written language


10. Written language

11. Written language
12. Spoken language

Task 41

1. Through- threw
Court- caught
Spelling mistake though the words sound the same(pronunciation identical)
2. Brther-brother
Spelling mistake. Learner tried to match spelling with the way the word sounds
The unstressed word is missing here
3. However hard I try it never works.
Punctuation is incorrect. Learner thinks however should always be followed by comma
4. First of all, he invited me to sit down. After that, he offered me a coffee. I was very surprised by
his politeness.
Learner lacks knowledge of written punctuation.

Task 42

1. The learner lacks knowledge of punctuation.

2. The uppercase and lower case confusion
3. Left to right style of writing and the wrong way of holding pen
4. Writing on the line
5. The learner gets confused with words that have similar sounds but different spelling and meaing
Eg: lit,late

Section 4: Planning and Resources

Task 43

a) 3
b) 6
c) 1
d) 5
e) 2
f) 7


1. f
2. g
3. b
4. e
5. i
6. h
7. d
8. c
9. a


Section 5: Developing Teaching Skills and Professionalism

Task 45

1. The word “jot” may not be familiar for the learners. So another way to give the same
instruction would be “Write this”
2. A long sentence which can be confusing for a new learner.
“Look at the question number 4 and answer”
3. The instructions should be split to avoid confusion
a) Read the text on page 4 and answer one,two and three
b) Compare answers with the person next to you.
c) Write a short summary of the story and discuss with your partner
4. “Read the question at the end of the page and answer it”. Instruction must be clear. Should
they think or answer?

Task 46

1. I will stress on the importance of group work. Also by listening to other’s mistakes prevent
you from making more mistakes. Only through group work one can create a social and
interactive classroom.
2. I will explain that the language of classroom is English and our goal is towards increased
fluency in English. But students can use dictionaries for reference.
3. The student can be asked to work with another student. But later group activities can be
organized which can lead to the interaction between the two students in a group. A class on
racism can be conducted for the students to get comfortable with each other.
4. I will explain the benefits of all skill sets and the use of different learning styles.

Task 47

The assistants (say the class strength is 10,the number of assistants will be 5) will have a number (desk
Assistant number 1 to assistant number 5)attached to their desk. The desks will be arranged in the form
of parallel lines with teacher in the center. Teacher can monitor easily when she/he is in the
center.Other students move from one desk to to other to gather information. Students are given 3
minutes to spend at each desks (end of three minutes is indicated with a random sound/music) .The last
five minutes can be used by them to create a conclusion.Assistants are given handouts with pictures
illustrating their individual course (animation course can be indicated with a picture of cartoon etc)

Issues that may arise :

a) Learners may not be able to complete the task on time

b) Information passed by the assistants may not be clear if the assistants are unsure about their
c) Learners may be a bit hesitant at first

Task 48

1. Slim has a positive idea to the word ,while thin has a negative connotation
A picture of an attractive person can be compared with a picture of a skinny person


2. The difference can be shown by miming.

3. The first sentence is in the past while the second is something the speaker does presently.
Picture of a school kid with the habit of getting up early can be shown. Then, show the picture of
same child who has to get up early for his office as an adult. The child is an adult now, who finds
it difficult to get up late even on weekends as he is used to getting up early for office.
4. Nervous/upset: Ask the learners about what they felt on their first day of class versus how they
feel when their teacher/parent /boss scolds.
5. 4 weeks ago is in the past.It is a time expression to count back from present, while before is used
with past perfect tense to count back from a past moment
He died 4 weeks ago
He was ill for 4 weeks before he died.
The above sentence difference can be illustrated by a time graph
6. Splitting and Repeating the word as I will do it
7. Explain with an example the tense. The past tense word is explained to be pronounced as colour
8. Pronounce for the learners and may be explain a bit on phonemes
9. For nouns stress on first syllable while stress on second syllable for verbs
10. Explain the difference in stress “I”by pronouncing

Task 49

1. It is not sure whether all students have read the text completely as parts of the text are
read in turn. Also students may have encountered words unfamiliar words which may
result in lose of interest on the topic discussed in the text.
Activities to improve the Reading
 The teacher should mark the unfamiliar words and explain the meaning and
pronunciation before the reading session
 The synonyms for the unfamiliar words can be written on the board
 A similar topic can be given beforehand (as a homework to read) to create
interest in the class

2. In this situation, it is difficult to identify students who are weak. The activity doesn’t
allow whole classroom participation.
Activities to improve Speaking
 Instead of asking other students to listen, the entire class should be divided to
pairs/groups (for /against group).
 Each pair/group should be given allotted time to speak out their summarized
 The students should be instructed to go through the topic again (so that they get
enough time to think) and submit more points as homework.
 Video/recording on the same topic can be played before the discussion

Task 50


 Confidentiality
Teachers need to keep the information of students/private affairs of the institution they
are working confidential. Students should be able to trust their teacher
 Setting standards
Students spend most of their time with teachers. They learn from teachers. Hence it is
necessary for teachers to hold high standards to create a better society
 Punctuality
The teachers should be punctual so that the students learn the same from them. Easier
to maintain order and discipline if the teacher enters the classroom early. If the teacher
is not smart enough to be organized and punctual, valuable time will be wasted. So
punctuality and good time management will produce a class that is well focused and
 Course planning/review
To achieve the objective course planning is a must. It helps the teacher to be well
prepared and boosts the confidence of the teacher. Lessons can be delivered in a given
time frame via course planning. Review helps in understanding the modifications to be
made to make the course effective
 Record keeping
To study the progress of student’s record keeping is a must. Teacher can identify areas
where extra attention is needed and if the teaching methods are effective
 Assessment
It helps to check whether the goals of our lesson plans are achieved. It is a kind of
feedback that can help teacher to measure various skills of the students
 Curriculum development
The teacher needs to know the content to employ instructional methods and
procedures. It informs teachers what kind of skills should be taught at each grade level.
It also helps students because they understand the importance of subjects they learn in
each grade
 Pastoral care
Teachers should support students. A student may have different talents even if he is
weak in academics. A better rapport can be developed by recognizing and supporting his
skill. Students tend to work better for teachers who understands them the best.
 Team work
Only through teamwork classroom activities can be arranged and be a success. It is
important for students as well as teachers.
 Relationship with students
Teachers with stronger classroom bonds can achieve higher level of academic success. A
lot of behavioral problems can be avoided through positive teacher student relationship.
 Self-development
Teachers need to refine their techniques through self-examination. Watching other
colleagues, getting feedback from students, reading different books on education etc are
some of the activities that can help this process.
 Cultural awareness


Cultural awareness becomes central when we have to interact with students from other
cultures. A Global awareness encourage students as well as teachers to see things from
different perspectives. Teachers should make classrooms a space where students of all
cultures feel supported to learn and succeed.
 School/college policies and rules:
 Membership/contribution to different professional bodies.
These professional organizations helps in connecting with other educators. Teaching
skills can be improved. It provides a platform to know latest news and research on the
topic one is passionate about. Employment opportunities and chance to publish
research papers are other benefits
 ESOL/EFL Teacher training research and development worldwide
Teacher training programs are beneficial to new teachers to understand different ways
how a subject can be presented to students. Teachers receive a lot of resources to
improve their method of teaching.ESOL/EFL training programs provide insight to non-
traditional techniques in classroom environment