You are on page 1of 128

Power System

Written by
U Aung Ko Htay
Power System Department
Power System
CONTENT

Sr. Describtion Page

1. CT Polarity for OC,EF Relay 1

2. CT polarity and DC supply for Multifunction meter 2

3. CT polarity for Differential Relay 2

4. CT Ratio Changing 4

4. CT burden & accuracy 6

5. Raised Floor 9

6. Double Bus 11

7. Transmission Line Panel Design 13

8. TELE-PROTECTION(TRANSFER TRIP) 17

9. The Beauty of Wye 20

10. PRIMARY & BACK UP PROTECTION 22

11. Insulation Resistance Test ( Megger Test ) 25

12. Cable Megger Test 27

13. Grounding Resistance 29

14. RADIAL SYSTEM 33

15. SUBSTATION EARTHING DESIGN & SIMULATION VIA ETAB 35

16. MAXIMUM & MINIMUM FAULT LEVEL 36


U Aung Ko Htay Page 1
Power System
CONTENT

Sr. Describtion Page

17. Short circuit test 41

18. Redundant Power Supply 44

19. Inrush Current (2nd Harmonic) 46

20. Zero sequence current elimination 48

21. Auto-Reclosing 51

22. X/R ratio 53

23. THE BENEFITS OF USING FAULT RECORDER 53

24. Load Flow Sign 55

25. Benefits of using Fault Recorder 57

26. Distance Relay ( Impedance Relay ) 59

27. DC parallel source 62

28. Delta Widing 63

29. Grounding Transformer 64

30. Fault Location in Distance Relay 65

31. Ferranti Voltage Raise 68

32. Single phase auto-reclosing 70

U Aung Ko Htay Page 2


Power System
CONTENT

Sr. Describtion Page

33. Transmission Line Protection Scheme 72

34. Transformer Connections 74

35. ATPDraw (EMTP) 75

36. Fault recorder 77

37. 77

38. Bus Bar Protection (Single-Bus) 81

39. Main and Transfer Bus 83

40. Bus configurations Vs Costs 85

41. Ring Main feeder system 86

42. DOUBLE BUS SINGLE-BREAKER SUBSTATION SCHEME 87

43. Smart Grid 89

44. Directional OC/EF(67/67N) 94

45. Breaker-and-a half configuration 96

46. Topology of Power System 98

47. Ring-Main Topology 100

48. Interlocking 104

U Aung Ko Htay Page 3


Power System
CONTENT

Sr. Describtion Page

49. MHO Vs QUADRILATERAL 106

50. The doubled DC system 108

51. Fault Calculation 110

52. Raised floor and MIMIC 111

53. Current Transformer Wiring and Polarity 112

54. CT's secondary unused terminal 114

55. Control Circuit Drawing 115

56. 116

57. Interference in Distance relay Testing 118

58. Transmission Line Voltage Calculation 119

59. SCADA and SAS Installation 120

60. End to End testing 121

61. Analog and Digital kWh Meter 122

U Aung Ko Htay Page 4


Power System

CT POLARITY

Bus Sid Secondary

S1

U Aung Ko Htay Page 1


Power System

SCADA CT installation ၊ metering testing Control


Panel Design follow up

1-CT polarity (Bus side P1 ,S2 star)


2-DC supply for Multifunction meter

(၂) Black
SCADA screen
-------

SMART GRID MEANS SMART SUBSTATION AUTOMATION


2.away from the object

U Aung Ko Htay Page 2


Power System

Thanks

Ref: Differential Protection Manual by OMICRON

U Aung Ko Htay Page 3


Power System

Secondary Change ( 1S1, 1S2,1S3 support

# Primary Changeover

The rated output and rated over current factor remain unchanged. The rated
thermal short-time current (Ith) and rated dynamic current (Idyn) decrease in
direct proportion to the primary current.

# Secondary tappings

The rated output in classes 0.1 to 3 decreases approximately as the square of


the reduction in primary current, and in protection classes 5P to 10P roughly
in direct proportion to this reduction. Ith and Idyn remain the same.


U Aung Ko Htay Page 4


Power System

:-):-):-)

Ref: ABB Switchgear Manual

U Aung Ko Htay Page 5


Power System

CT burden & accuracy


VA

၊ power consumpt


- ၊

P.S

U Aung Ko Htay Page 6


Power System

200-40 - - ၊

၊ -

5P10

ALF ( Accura

( s

Tr pri

၊ saturated

U Aung Ko Htay Page 7


Power System

>> ALF
-------

U Aung Ko Htay Page 8


Power System

TIRA THAI transformer ,

Raised Floor

၊ ၊ NCC )

Control
၊ ၊

control building
z ၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 9


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 10


Power System

Double Bus

- ၊

- Double Bus

- ၊ - ၊

-

U Aung Ko Htay Page 11


Power System

:-):-)

U Aung Ko Htay Page 12


Power System

Transmission Line Panel Design

protection sche

Main protection -
Line Differential relay

-
Speed, Selectivity , Accuracy)

Backup protection -
Distance relay
( OC/EF prot

Main - Distance relay


Backup - OC/EF relay

- Areva BCU

U Aung Ko Htay Page 13


Power System

- ၊ ၊

-
၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 14


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 15


Power System

photo credit - SIEMENS

End To End Test

Line differential Relay

# Stability Test
# Trip Test

- kV line

U Aung Ko Htay Page 16


Power System

TELE-PROTECTION
(TRANSFER TRIP)

MEPE ( TEST

Mode - PUTT ZONE-2


Relay - Distance Relay
Communication Medium - PLC
Function - Both Side Trip

TRANSFER TR ၊


U Aung Ko Htay Page 17


Power System



(Auto Reclosing)

:-):-)

# PUTT - Permissive Under-Reach Transfer Trip


# POTT - Permissive Over-reach Transfer Trip

Thanzaw Myo Protection setting ,Relay testing engineer communication


engineer

U Aung Ko Htay Page 18


Power System
Aung Ko Htay Yes bro

Kyaw Tun Protection eng. Communication eng.

Aung Ko Htay Transmission Line re-closing


transient stability analysis line
voltage magnitude
re-closing forced to synchro

Aung Ko Htay 3-pole re-closing

Thanzaw Myo AR

Aung Ko Htay Loop network

Kyi San Lin 33 kV Single reclosing


tie line apply Tie lie Permanent fault

Aung Ko Htay

3-pole AR

Aung Ko Htay synchro

Permanent fault

U Aung Ko Htay Page 19


Power System

Thanzaw Myo permanent fault fault level fault point setting

Aung Ko Htay

The Beauty of Wye

Four quadr
RYB three
-



vector group

R,Y,B,N

" 230/400V system "

U Aung Ko Htay Page 20


Power System

Because of 120' Phase displacement

400/230= root3(1.732)

Three

U Aung Ko Htay Page 21


Power System

PRIMARY & BACK UP PROTECTION

fir - ၊ ၊


back up


U Aung Ko Htay Page 22


Power System

SPEED
SELECTIVITY
SENSITIVITY


1- Differential protection
2- Distance protection
-

Primary Protecti

Overcurrent & Earth fault relay


Fault Current > Setting Current (Trip)

Distance relay
Fault Z < Setting Z (Trip)
U Aung Ko Htay Page 23
Power System

Differential relay
Current 1 not equal Current 2 (Trip)

OC/EF relay


( Discriminat ၊

၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 24


Power System

Insulation Resistance Test ( Megger Test )

leakage ၊


>

Factory " IR = CE / square root of KVA "


Ref: Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance and Testing


by Paul Gill

U Aung Ko Htay Page 25


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 26


Power System

Cable Megger Test

Cable

q
၊ ၊

၊ ၊

Thanks

U Aung Ko Htay Page 27


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 28


Power System

Grounding Resistance

Lightning

RG < Ri

Where,
RG = Grounding Resistance
Ri = Isolator Resistance

U Aung Ko Htay Page 29


Power System

RG (ohm) = LIWV / Is Level

Where,

LIWV = Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage

Is Level = Isokeraunic Level


(unit in kA)

For example, grounding resistance for 230 kV Line


Ohm = 1050/50
= 21
So, RG should be less than 21 ohm.

Credit to : Mr. Ranco ( Colenco )


Ko Than Naing Linn
Ko Nay Zar (PTP)

---------------

P.S
Keraunic Level

The keraunic number is a system to describe lightning activity in an area


based upon the audible detection of thunder. It is defined as the average
number of days per year when thunder can be heard in a given area, and the
likelihood thereby of a thunderstorm. An isokeraunic map plots contours of
equal keraunic number. The keraunic number has been used to set standards
for safe design of electrical systems in structures connected to the local power
grid.

U Aung Ko Htay Page 30


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 31


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 32


Power System

RADIAL SYSTEM

# Distribution Line is mostly Radial System

# Load Current flow from


System Network to load by only
one direction

# Even fault occurs, fault current also flow from System Network to
fault point by only one direction

# Non-direction OC/EF relay can use

U Aung Ko Htay Page 33


Power System

Primary Substation ၊

Transmission


U Aung Ko Htay Page 34


Power System

SUBSTATION EARTHING
DESIGN & SIMULATION VIA ETAB

U Aung Ko Htay Page 35


Power System

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM FAULT LEVEL


U Aung Ko Htay Page 36


Power System


၊ short ckt rating

၊ relay settin

Topology
၊ system im

maximum condition ( fault curre
၊ ၊
sy

U Aung Ko Htay Page 37


Power System

၊ -
minim

:P)

၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 38


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 39


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 40


Power System

" Short circuit test "

load losse

Tr secondary ၊

00V supply
rated current

short circ

Short circuit impedance voltag

၊ c ၊

၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 41


Power System

Ref: Saya Dr Tun Naing's post

U Aung Ko Htay Page 42


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 43


Power System

Redundant Power Supply

Two source
Double Busbar
Bus coupler
Tr double bank & parallel operation

U Aung Ko Htay Page 44


Power System

Meter Testing

၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 45


Power System

Inrush Current (2nd Harmonic)

float char


z

I1 not
equal I2 z

Digital

U Aung Ko Htay Page 46


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 47


Power System

Zero sequence current elimination

Dyn11, YNyn

side effe z q

Outg

q -

Ze q

I
q

U Aung Ko Htay Page 48


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 49


Power System

Accuracy Class of Meters ( India regulation )

Wiring and Logic

NO, NC
Digital "0" = Control "NO"
Digital "1" = Control "NC"
Parallel
Series

U Aung Ko Htay Page 50


Power System

Auto-Reclosing

- -

remote
control

U Aung Ko Htay Page 51


Power System

TAUNGDWINGYI-SHWEDAUNG
DOUBLE CIRCUIT LINE

U Aung Ko Htay Page 52


Power System

X/R ratio

Short circuit calculation ၊

X/R val

THE BENEFITS OF USING FAULT RECORDER

Abstract

Fig- ၊
၊ ၊ q

Fig- ၊
solid

U Aung Ko Htay Page 53


Power System

၊ z
z q

Lesson Learned

z q Fig-3

** TRANSLATED **

U Aung Ko Htay Page 54


Power System

Load Flow Sign

Fig-1
+ve sign
-ve sign

Fig-2
inductive load
capacitive load

Fig-3

U Aung Ko Htay Page 55


Power System


# current & volta

U Aung Ko Htay Page 56


Power System

Benefits of using Fault Recorder

- ၊


fault analysis section

-Fault type and cause of fault


-fault clearing time
-response of power system
-performance of protective devices
( fail to trip, delayed clearing )
-CB status (unequal pole close/trip )

U Aung Ko Htay Page 57


Power System

Fault waveform re


relay disturbance r

U Aung Ko Htay Page 58


Power System

Distance Relay ( Impedance Relay )

positive sequence impedance, Z1


zero sequence impedance, Z0

-

ca
၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 59


Power System

Thanks

Ye Kyaw line impedance factory data

Aung Ko Htay

Aung Ko Htay impedance test lab

Tin Maung Maung Oo how about accuracy of measure euipment?

U Aung Ko Htay Page 60


Power System

Myo Thant Calculation actual

Aung Ko Htay up to 30% � �

Myo Thant Simulation ?

Aung Ko Htay 30%

Myo Thant distance relay location

Aung Ko Htay distance relay impedance


relay Z=V/I CT, CVT error

Myo Thant

Su Su Phyu Distance relay earthing


Distance relay
earth

Aung Ko Htay Śñö ăñđá Line-Ground fault relay point


earth return path compensate ၊ k0 ၊
formula k0= ( Z0-Z1) / 3Z1 … k0 vale relay fault resistance
၊ fault location kilometer

Su Su Phyu kilometer ko value


relay setting

Aung Ko Htay formula

U Aung Ko Htay Page 61


Power System

DC parallel source

circula ၊ ၊
၊ ၊


contr -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 62


Power System

Delta Widing

Fig-2
-

Fig-1

Tr d

- relay
z q

relay

U Aung Ko Htay Page 63


Power System

Grounding Transformer

# Y-open delta
# Zigzag- star

Y-

၊ z -

၊ z -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 64


Power System

Fault Location in Distance Relay

- -
- fig-1

- Line-2
fig-2

U Aung Ko Htay Page 65


Power System

- faul
- -
၊ Zone-

Fault Location in Distance Relay

- - Distance rel
- fig-1

- -
fig-2

fault volta

-
- -
၊ Zone-

U Aung Ko Htay Page 66


Power System

After tripping on a fault, it is normal procedure to reclose the breaker at one


‘ ’
other and is then under the control of a synchronism check relay element for
‘ ’

# Line fault ၊

Credit: EEP

U Aung Ko Htay Page 67


Power System

Ferranti Voltage Raise

charging curre

U Aung Ko Htay Page 68


Power System


U Aung Ko Htay Page 69


Power System

Single phase auto-reclosing

Transmission Line protection


- - z -
၊ - z - z -
setting t

- z -

-

Tran

Thanks

U Aung Ko Htay Page 70


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 71


Power System

Transmission Line Protection Scheme

# Main, Backup
# Main1, Main2

# Main, Backup Scheme

- DC bank1, bank2
- Trip coil1, Trip coil2
-
-

For Main ၊
- ၊

For Backup ၊
- ၊

# Main1, Main2 Scheme

- DC bank1, bank2
- Trip coil1, Trip coil2
- -1, distance relay-1 (Let say Areva)
Line differential relay-2, distance relay-2 (Let say SIEMENS )

U Aung Ko Htay Page 72


Power System

For Main-1
၊ Line differen - -
- -

For Main-2
၊ Line differential relay-2, di -
- -

- - Extra High Voltage


bank1 c ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 73


Power System

Transformer Connections

U Aung Ko Htay Page 74


Power System

ATPDraw (EMTP)

( Line impedance calculation software )

Data inpu
q

U Aung Ko Htay Page 75


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 76


Power System

Fault recorder


credit:EEP

- ၊



(fig-1)

-
3 -1000 KVA

U Aung Ko Htay Page 77


Power System

North Ameri -

volta
၂ ၊

-
11/0.4kV Dyn11 Transformer) -
- - -

Cost

U Aung Ko Htay Page 78


Power System

- ၊ -

Safety

-
touch voltag high
imp

U Aung Ko Htay Page 79


Power System

Electrical Power Distribution Handbook by T.A.Short

U Aung Ko Htay Page 80


Power System

Bus Bar Protection


(Single-Bus)

Single-Bus arrangement
(

- z ၊ z

z
-
- z z
z - -

- z -
- z -
-
၊ - -

z
z Zone-
1&2& Fig-3) -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 81


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 82


Power System

Main and Transfer Bus

(Fig-1)
1. DS-1 open
2. DS-2 and DS-3 close
3. CB-1 close
open

1. DS-1 close
close
3. Bus Tie CB close
4. CB-1 open
5. DS-2 and DS-3 open

U Aung Ko Htay Page 83


Power System

Trans z

Ref: Design Guide for Rural Substation

U Aung Ko Htay Page 84


Power System

Bus configurations Vs Costs

U Aung Ko Htay Page 85


Power System

Ring Main feeder system

�These are most common in urban and industrial environments.�Whilst the


start and finish ends of the ring are at the same location, power is delivered
by both pathways of the ring into substations located around the
ring.�Should a fault occur on a feeder cable at any point around the ring the
faulty section may be isolated by the operation of the protecting circuit
breakers, at the same time maintaining supply to all substations on the
ring.�In typical urban/suburban ring-main arrangements, the open ring is
operated manually and loss of supply restored by manual switching.�Current
‘ ’
restoration in the feeder rings is done automatically by centrally-controlled
supervisory systems.�This gives the advantages of ring main systems as line
voltage drops are reduced at the various load Substati ‘ ’
supply (ie an alternative path is available if the primary one fails) to each load
substation.
Ref: Design overhead distribution systems

U Aung Ko Htay Page 86


Power System

DOUBLE BUS SINGLE-BREAKER SUBSTATION SCHEME

- -

- - -

၂- - -

-
-၂

B - -
- -

၊ ၊
maintenanc feeder

U Aung Ko Htay Page 87


Power System

- -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 88


Power System

Smart Grid

၊ AMR to AMI )

Glossary: automatic meter reading (AMR) advanced metering infrastructure


(AMI)

Thailand prepares for 2018 smart grid pilot launch

The Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA) of Thailand is set to rollout a smart


grid pilot project in Pattaya by early 2018 in a bid to improve citywide energy
efficiency.

According to the Bangkok Post, the 1 billion baht AMI project is the first in
Thailand, and will allow PEA to understand consumer behaviour and utilise
behavioural data to improve service delivery.

Under the project, PEA will install 120 000 smart meters in homes, and
construct a data centre for the processing of data.

The project will allow consumers to access reports of their energy



aimed at encouraging consumers to adopt energy-efficiency measures that
can help them save money on their energy bills and offset price increases.

U Aung Ko Htay Page 89


Power System

Introduction
၊ 3


3

MeteringHistory
၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 90


Power System

acc ၊
၊ ၊

accurac

MeteringPoints

၊ ၊

(fig-1)


(fig-2)


fig-3 )

AMRsystem

(fig-4)

U Aung Ko Htay Page 91


Power System

rep

FutureAMR


dial
up (PSTN or GSM) a

: ’
Energy Meter Department
Control and Protection System Division

U Aung Ko Htay Page 92


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 93


Power System

Directional OC/EF
67/67N

# parallel feeders
# Transmission Lines
# Generation sides

side ( forward or

Maximum Torque Angle( MTA


angle between IA (lets say faulted phase) and Vbc
OR angle between IA (lets say faulted phase) and Va
(

faul setting current

U Aung Ko Htay Page 94


Power System

Thanks

U Aung Ko Htay Page 95


Power System

Breaker-and-a half configuration

- -

- - ၊

fig-1

U Aung Ko Htay Page 96


Power System

Bay centerline spa

၊ ၊

Thanks

U Aung Ko Htay Page 97


Power System

Topology of Power System

# Radial systems
# Ring-main systems
# Meshed systems

Radial Systems
fig-a)

U Aung Ko Htay Page 98


Power System

(fig-b)
Load Break Switch



U Aung Ko Htay Page 99


Power System

Ring-Main Topology

-
-
fig-1

disconnecting point

U Aung Ko Htay Page 100


Power System

radial -

optimum s

-
(fig- -main with cross link system (fig-

common
-

capac

fig-5

Ref: Power System Engineering by


Jurgen Schlabbch & Karl-Heinz Rofalski

U Aung Ko Htay Page 101


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 102


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 103


Power System

Interlocking

substation autom

Q1, Q2 - Bus DS
Q0 - Circuit Breaker
Q9 - Line DS
Q8 - Line Earthing Switch
Q15, Q25 - Bus Earthing switch
Q51, Q52 - Maintenance Earthing Switch

ON
၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 104


Power System

၊ ၊

4. Bus-tie Circuit Breaker Q0 close

Bus earthing switch Q1, Q2


open/

8.

tie-breaker

U Aung Ko Htay Page 105


Power System

Ref: ABB Switchgear Manual

MHO Vs QUADRILATERAL

z q

q
z

relay ( e.g Mitsubishi) rela

U Aung Ko Htay Page 106


Power System

mho z
q
z ၊ ၊
zone

U Aung Ko Htay Page 107


Power System

The doubled DC system

- ၊ -
fig-1

supp

- - - ၊
- - - -
၊ DC circ - -

- -

r ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 108


Power System

- - ၊ -
- -
- - ၊ -
- -

CB local
- - (Fig-2)

ref: ABB-Distribution Automation Handbook

U Aung Ko Htay Page 109


Power System

Fault Calculation

three phase dead short fault

1-Tr vector group


2-Location ( near generation source)

-
- ၊

၊ ၊

fa
၊ q

U Aung Ko Htay Page 110


Power System

Raised floor and MIMIC

U Aung Ko Htay Page 111


Power System

Current Transformer Wiring Circuit and Polarity

Credit: U Aye Min Thu

=====================
- - - -

- -
-

CT (3)Phase
-
- -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 112


Power System

U Aung Ko Htay Page 113


Power System

Voltage Levels & Enterprises

CT's secondary unused terminal

- - -

# Meter-> 100 - ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 114


Power System

-> - ၊


- -


Control Circuit Drawing


Drawing Drawing

( ၊ )

U Aung Ko Htay Page 115


Power System

Drawing 230kV
33kV switch bay ၊ 11kV switchgear
installations Drawing
maintenance installation

Drawing ၊ new installation q


၊ GCB trip coil ၊

GCB control

- ၊

spa

၊ ၊ according

U Aung Ko Htay Page 116


Power System

control cable
1-Lot

control design
၊ point to poi

၊ -

U Aung Ko Htay Page 117


Power System

Interference in Distance relay Testing

q
negative sequence voltage-V2, negative sequence current-

Switch on

negative sequence & SO

၊ -

Just for knowledge!!

U Aung Ko Htay Page 118


Power System

Transmission Line Voltage Calculation

U Aung Ko Htay Page 119


Power System

SCADA and SAS Installation


control &

U Aung Ko Htay Page 120


Power System

# End to End testing #

( For Distance relay, Tele-protection testing)

1- Obtain and review all test case


2- setup the GPS antenna
3- Isolate the equipment under test
4- Relay Input and Output connections
5- Connect test equipment to replace CT's and PT's
6- Apply a meter test
7- Apply the test plan
8- Evaluate the results
9- Repeat step 7-8 for all test
10- Return Protection System to service
11- Prepare Test Report

U Aung Ko Htay Page 121


Power System

Analog and Digital kWh Meter

၊ ၊
analog meter

U Aung Ko Htay Page 122


Power System

၊ ၊ ၊ ၊

၊ commu


၊ ၊

U Aung Ko Htay Page 123