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 Mutiny- REBELLION AGAINST THE PROPER Manila to start an all-out uprising against

AUTHORITIES, ESPECIALLY BY SOLDIERS the Spanish.


AGAINST THEIR OFFICERS
 Once word of the uprising in Cavite reached
Carlos de la Torre the Spanish in Manila, the Spanish army
 The governor general before Rafael quickly sent an entire regiment to Cavite led
Izquierdo by General Felipe Ginovès. The Spanish laid
 Because of his style of ruling, he was siege to the captured fort until all of the
accused by his fellow Spaniards for letting mutineers surrendered.
the Filipino rebel.  Once the fort was back under Spanish
control, Ginovès all mutineers to be
Rafael Izquierdo executed.
 Spanish Governor- General  Mutineers were imprisoned. The prisoners
 Conservatism was added in his style of were later exiled to the Philippine island of
ruling. Mindanao.
 All the projects and reforms of de la Torre
was removed by Rafael. GOMBURZA
 He introduced new reforms including a tax  Executed on February 17, 1872
of Filipinos serving in the Army, requiring In Bagumbayan Field in Manila during
them to pay a tax for their service and force Cavite mutiny in the 19th century.
them into labor.
 Garrote was a barbaric Spanish
Principal organizers of Cavite itself method of execution in which an
 Sgt. Fernando La Madrid iron collar was tightened around the
-Mestizo sergeant prisoner’s neck until death
-Killed in the suppression in the revolt. occurred.)
 The fathers Gomez, Burgos and
 Cavite mutiny was on January 20, 1872 Zamora were very active when it
 In January of 1872, when the soldiers came to pushing for changes in the
received their pay with the new tax taken way the church was run in colonial
out, all hell broke out as they were furious Philippines. At that time, the church
with the new change. was still heavily led by Spanish friars
 At Fort San Felipe (Spanish Arsenal in and religious orders despite the
Cavite), the soldiers began their uprising. declaration of secularization of
 200 Philippine soldiers proceeded to take 1774. The priests were also aware of
the entire fort, killing 11 Spanish soldiers in the unfair treatment of Spain
the process. toward ordinary Filipinos and did
 Octavo’s confession not hesitate to voice out their
- Octavo testified that the rebellion was concerns through demonstrations
scheduled to begin on January 20. and publications.
 The three martyr priests were
-However, Octavo testified that he did not members of the Committee of
know any signal agreed upon for the start of Reformers that campaigned for
the rebellion. changes in the way the country was
run. Because of their consistent
 The Philippine soldiers were under the clash with Spain’s ideals, they were
belief that they would have support from considered filibusteros or agitators.
However, they were popular figures
and priests to boot, it was not so regulars.
easy for Spain to just put them in  Asserted that the Filipino priest were
front of a firing squad. qualified to administer the parishes.
 Appealed to the Spanish Queen (Queen
Mariano Gomez (1799-1872) Isabella II) to give the Filipino priest the
 Born in Sta. Cruz, Manila on August 2,1799 chance to prove that they could equal the
 Parents: Francisco Gomez and Spanish regulars.
Martina Custodio.
 Aged 25, designated as the head priest of Purpose of the Cavite Revolt
Bacoor, Cavite. The purpose was to put to death all Spaniards and
 Fr. Gomez was responsible for publishing to proclaim a provisional government under Father
the newspaper La Verdad, meaning The Burgos, to prepare the way for a more permanent
Truth. Served as the voice of the Filipino government.
propagandists against the Spanish
colonizers. The Spanish Perspective of the Cavite mutiny
 First to be executed on February 17, 1872.  Causes were enumerated by them including
the Spanish Revolution which overthrew
Jacinto Zamora (1835-1872) the secular throne, dirty propagandas
 Born on August 14, 1835 proliferated by unrestrained press,
 Born in Pandacan, Manila democratic, liberal and republican books
 Parents: Venancio Zamora and Hilaria del and pamphlets reaching the Philippines,
Rosario and most importantly, the presence of the
 He was a Filipino secular priest. native clergy who out of animosity against
 Led a campaign against the abusive Spanish the Spanish friars, “conspired and
friars and fought for equal rights among supported” the rebels and enemies of
priests. Spain.
 The Filipino priests loved and admired
Father Zamora. But the Spanish friars Anonymous letter sent to Izquerdo
detested him. They hatched a plan to get
even with him “I make known to you that, as I was informed this
 They accused him of collaborating with the very night, in the market here (Cavite) and in the
rebels who led an uprising in Cavite. walls (Intramuros) on Friday or Saturday of this
week they will fire a cannon shot in the fort of
Jose Apolinario Burgos (1837-1872) Manila, the sign of a revolt against the Spaniards.
They are taking this occasion since the squadron is
 Born on February 9, 1837 in Vigan, Ilocos
not here. The one who is acting as head of the
Sur
revolt is the Very Reverend Father Burgos in
 His father was Jose Burgos, a Spanish
Manila, and in Cavite the artillery sergeants and the
lieutenant in the Spanish militia of the
corporate of the native marines. “
Ilocos, and his mother was Florencia Garcia,
a native of Vigan.
 Izquierdo had no need of such a story to put
 Last victim that morning wherein his death
him on the alert, for on Jan. 19 he had
was the most dramatic.
already received an anonymous letter, as
 Continued the struggles started by his
had the acting commander of the navy,
professor (Fr. Pedro Pelaez-died in an
telling of a revolt planned for that night or
earthquake that destroyed the Manila
the next, simultaneously in Manila and
Cathedral in 1863.)
Cavite, and he was still on alert.
 Exerted all efforts to defend the Filipino
clergy from all attacks by the Spanish
 The Izquierdo deemed that the event of  Two officers: Morquecho and Jose
1872 was planned earlier and was thought Montesinas – commanded the revolting
of it as a big conspiracy among educated artillerymen
leaders, mestizos, Abogadillos or native  Izquierdo blamed the unruly Spanish Press
lawyers, residents of Manila and Cavite and for “stockpiling” malicious propagandas
the native clergy. They insinuated that the grasped by the Filipinos.
conspirators of Manila and Cavite planned  He reported to the King of Spain that the
to liquidate high-ranking Spanish officers to “rebels” wanted to overthrow the Spanish
be followed by the massacre of the friars. government to install a new “hari” in the
likes of Fathers Burgos and Zamora.
 When the news reached the iron-fisted Gov.
Izquierdo, he readily ordered the Trinidad Pardo de Tavera
reinforcement of the Spanish forces in  Born on April 13, 1857 and Died on March
Cavite to quell the revolt. The “revolution” 26, 1925
was easily crushed when the expected  Filipino scholar and researcher
reinforcement from Manila did not come  In his point of view, the incident was a mere
ashore. mutiny by the native Filipino soldiers and
laborers of the Cavite arsenal who turned
Jose Montero y Vidal out to be dissatisfied with the abolition of
 Born on January 28, 1851 their privileges.
 Went to Madrid, to study jurisprudence  Indirectly, Tavera blamed Gov. Izquierdo’s
 Worked in the Ministry of Development and cold-blooded policies such as the abolition
Overseas. of privileges of the workers and native army
 Developed an essay and literary work members of the arsenal and the prohibition
focused on the history, geography and of the founding of school of arts and trades
ethnography of the Philippines, an area in for the Filipinos, which the general believed
which he stood out as one of the greatest as a cover-up for the organization of a
specialists of the last third of the 19th political club.
century.  Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and
 Is a prolific Spanish historian documented Izquierdo used the Cavite Mutiny as a
the event and highlighted it as an attempt powerful lever by magnifying it as a full-
of the Indios to overthrow the Spanish blown conspiracy involving not only the
government in the Philippines. native army but also included residents of
 Permanent War Council immediately Cavite and Manila, and more importantly
conducted investigation. the native clergy to overthrow the Spanish
 Spanish hit Zamora because of his relation government in the Philippines.
with Burgos, and had conflict once with the  Tavera sadly confirmed that the Madrid
friars at Church. government came to believe that the
 Longest and closest in time to the events of scheme was true without any attempt to
the mutiny. investigate the real facts or extent of the
 His version was considered as the “official alleged “revolution” reported by Izquierdo
version” and the friars.
 Cavite was part of a larger revolution  Convicted educated men who participated
planned by Burgos, Gomez and Vidal in the mutiny were sentenced life
 “Some individuals of the navy” imprisonment while members of the native
clergy headed by the GOMBURZA were
tried and executed by garrote.
A Response to Injustice: The Filipino
Version of the Incident by Trinidad Pardo  According to someone else the flag was
de Tavera white (upper stripe ) and red ( lower stripe).
 In his point of view, the incident was a mere  The white and red flag probably was not a
mutiny by the native Filipino soldiers and rebel flag, was simply the flag of the
laborers of the Cavite arsenal who turned Marictime Province of the Philippines who
out to be dissatisfied with the abolition of flown on the Spanish Arsenal de Cavite.
their privileges.
 Indirectly, Tavera blamed Gov. Izquierdo’s
cold-blooded policies such as the abolition
of privileges of the workers and native army
members of the arsenal and the prohibition
of the founding of school of arts and trades
for the Filipinos, which the general believed
as a cover-up for the organization of a
political club.
 Tavera believed that the Spanish friars and
Izquierdo used the Cavite Mutiny as a
powerful lever by magnifying it as a full-
blown conspiracy involving not only the
native army but also included residents of
Cavite and Manila, and more importantly
the native clergy to overthrow the Spanish
government in the Philippines.
 It is noteworthy that during the time, the
Central Government in Madrid announced
its intention to deprive the friars of all the
powers of intervention in matters of civil
government and the direction and
management of educational
institutions. This turnout of events was
believed by Tavera, prompted the friars to
do something drastic in their dire desire to
maintain power in the Philippines.
 Tavera sadly confirmed that the Madrid
government came to believe that the
scheme was true without any attempt to
investigate the real facts or extent of the
alleged “revolution” reported by Izquierdo
and the friars.
 Convicted educated men who participated
in the mutiny were sentenced life
imprisonment while members of the native
clergy headed by the GOMBURZA were
tried and executed by garrote.

 According to some oral accounts the flag of


the rebels was red with a square field.