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Lecture

Dr. Trushar B. Gohil


VNIT Department of Mechanical engineering
Nagpur trushar.gohil@gmail.com
Turbulent Flows

VNIT
Nagpur
Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Buoyant plume of smoke rising from a stick


of incense
Photo credit:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/jlhopgood/
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
License (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Buoyant plume of smoke rising from a


stick of incense
Photo credit: M. Rosic
Copyright on the images is held by the
contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission
must be sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Tugboat riding on the turbulent wake of a ship


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC 2.0)

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Turbulent waters
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Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Spring votex in turbulent waters


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Copyright on the images is held by the contributors. Apart from Fair Use,
permission must be sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Wake turbulence behind individual wind turbines


Photo credit: NREL's wind energy research group. Copyright on the images is held by
the contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission must be sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Von Karman vortices created when prevailing winds sweeping east across the northern
Pacific Ocean encountered Alaska's Aleutian Islands
Photo credit: USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. Copyright on the images is held
by the contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission must be sought for any other purpose.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Von Karman Vortex Streets in the northern Pacific Photographed from the
International Space Station''
Photo credit: NASA; Copyright on the images is held by the contributors. Apart from Fair
Use, permission must be sought for any other purpose.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Vortices on a 1/48-scale model of an F/A-18 aircraft inside a Water Tunnel


Photo credit: NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility.
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/armstrong/multimedia/imagegallery/FVF
Copyright on the images is held by the contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission must be
sought for any other purpose.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Wind Tunnel Test of New Tennis Ball


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Copyright on the images is held by the contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission must be
sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Bullet at Mach 1.5


Photo credit: Andrew Davidhazy. Rochester Institute of Technology.
Copyright on the images is held by the contributors. Apart from Fair Use, permission must be
sought for any other purpose

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Flow visualization over a spinning spheroid


Photo credit: Y. Kohama.
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sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Beauty and Complexity of
Turbulence

Flow around an airfoil


Photo credit: S. Makiya et al.
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sought for any other purpose.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Characteristics of Turbulent
flows
 High Reynolds numbers

 Diffusivity

 Dissipation

 Rotation and vorticity

 Irregularity

 3D Vorticity Fluctuations

 Continuum

 Turbulent Flows are Flows

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: high Reynolds
numbers
Turbulent flows always occur at high Reynolds numbers. They are caused by
the complex interaction between the viscous terms and the inertia terms in the
momentum equations.
Turbulent, high Reynolds
number jet

Laminar, low Reynolds


number free stream flow

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulent flows are chaotic
One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or randomness.
Turbulent flows are always chaotic. But not all chaotic flows are turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulent flows are chaotic
One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or randomness.
Turbulent flows are always chaotic. But not all chaotic flows are turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: diffusivity
The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and increased rates of
momentum, heat, and mass transfer. A flow that looks random but does not
exhibit the spreading of velocity fluctuations through the surrounding fluid is not
turbulent. If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: diffusivity
The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and increased rates of
momentum, heat, and mass transfer. A flow that looks random but does not
exhibit the spreading of velocity fluctuations through the surrounding fluid is not
turbulent. If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: dissipation
Turbulent flows are dissipative. Kinetic energy gets converted into heat due to
viscous shear stresses. Turbulent flows die out quickly when no energy is supplied.
Random motions that have insignificant viscous losses, such as random sound
waves, are not turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: rotation and
vorticity
Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero vorticity.
Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional vortices play a key
role in turbulence.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence: rotation and
vorticity
Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero vorticity.
Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional vortices play a key
role in turbulence.

Vortices

Turbulent Flow Lecture


What is turbulence?
 One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or
randomness.
 A full deterministic approach is very difficult.

 Turbulent flows are usually described statistically.

 Turbulent flows are always chaotic. But not all chaotic


flows are turbulent.
 Waves in the ocean, for example, can be chaotic but are
not necessarily turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


What is turbulence?
 The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and
increased rates of momentum, heat, and mass transfer.
 A flow that looks random but does not exhibit the
spreading of velocity fluctuations through the
surrounding fluid is not turbulent.
 If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

 The trail left behind a jet plane that seems chaotic, but
does not diffuse for miles is then not turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


What is turbulence?
 Turbulent flows always occur at high Reynolds numbers.

 They are caused by the complex interaction between


the viscous terms and the inertia terms in the
momentum equations.
 Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero
vorticity.
 Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional
vortices play a key role in turbulence.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


What is turbulence?
 Turbulent flows are dissipative.

 Kinetic energy gets converted into heat due to viscous


shear stresses.
 Turbulent flows die out quickly when no energy is
supplied.
 Random motions that have insignificant viscous losses,
such as random sound waves, are not turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


What is turbulence?
 Turbulence is a continuum phenomenon.

 Even the smallest eddies are significantly larger than the


molecular scales.
 Turbulence is therefore governed by the equations of
fluid mechanics.
 Turbulent flows are flows.

 Turbulence is a feature of fluid flow, not of the fluid.

 When the Reynolds number is high enough, most of the


dynamics of turbulence are the same whether the fluid is
an actual fluid or a gas.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Instability
 All flows become unstable above a certain Reynolds number.

 At low Reynolds numbers flows are laminar.

 For high Reynolds numbers flows are turbulent.

 The transition occurs anywhere between 2000 and 1e6,


depending on the flow.
 For laminar flow problems, flows can be solved using the
conservation equations.
 For turbulent flows, the computational effort involved in solving
those for all time and length scales is prohibitive.

 An engineering approach to calculate time-averaged flow


fields for turbulent flows will be developed.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Examples of simple
turbulent flows
 Some examples of simple turbulent flows are a jet entering a
domain with stagnant fluid, a mixing layer, and the wake behind
objects such as cylinders.

 Such flows are often used as test cases to validate the ability of
computational fluid dynamics software to accurately predict fluid
flows.

jet mixing layer wake


Turbulent Flow Lecture
Transition

 The photographs show the flow in a


boundary layer.

 Below Recrit the flow is laminar and


adjacent fluid layers slide past each
other in an orderly fashion.

 The flow is stable. Viscous effects lead


to small disturbances being dissipated.

 Above the transition point Recrit small


disturbances in the flow start to grow.

 A complicated series of events takes


place that eventually leads to the flow
becoming fully turbulent.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Transition
Laminar
(Low Reynolds Number)

Transition
(Increasing Reynolds Number)

Turbulent
(Higher Reynolds Number)

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Hydrodynamic stability of
laminar flows
 Two fundamentally different instability mechanisms operate,
which are associated with the shape of the two-dimensional
laminar velocity profile of the base flow.

 Inviscid instability

 Viscous instability

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Transition in a jet flow

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Large-scale vs. small-scale
structure

Small Large
structures structures

Energy Cascade Richardson


(1922)
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Transition in boundary layer
flow over flat plate

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulent boundary layer

Merging of turbulent spots and transition to turbulence


in a natural flat plate boundary layer.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Turbulent boundary layer

Close-up view of the turbulent boundary layer.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Is the Flow Turbulent?
Flows can be characterized by the Reynolds Number, Re

External Flows ρU L
where Re L =
Re x ≥ 500 , 000 along a surface μ
L= x , d , d h , etc .
Re d ≥ 20 , 000 around an obstacle Other factors such as free-stream
turbulence, surface conditions, and
disturbances may cause transition
Internal Flows to turbulence at lower Reynolds
Re d ≥ 2 ,300 numbers
h

2 3
Natural Convection β g L ΔT 3 ρ C p β g L ΔT
Ra Ra= = is the Rayleigh number
≥ 109 να μk
Pr where ν μ Cp
Pr= = is the Prandtl number
α k
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Origin of Turbulence
Generated by (i) the frictional forces at the confining surfaces.
(ii) the flow of layers of fluids with different velocities over one another.

Wall Turbulence

Free Turbulence

Free-Stream Turbulence

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Effect of Viscosity
Morehomogenous and less
Effect of Viscosity on Turbulence ⇒
dependent ondirection

Homogenous Turbulence
Isotropic Turbulence

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Homogeneous, decaying,
grid-generated turbulence

Turbulence is generated at the grid as a result of high stresses. The turbulence is


made visible by injecting smoke into the flow at the grid. The eddies are visible
because they contain the smoke. Beyond this point, there is no source of
turbulence as the flow is uniform. The flow is dominated by convection and
dissipation. For homogeneous decaying turbulence, the turbulent kinetic energy
decreases with distance.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Effect of Viscosity

Stationary and Non-stationary Turbulence

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Scales inTurbulence
 Spatial and Temporal scales: Length scales and Time
scales. Velocity scales: Length scale/Time scale
 Largest scale: dimensions of the flow field (spatial) and
corresponding period of the large eddies
 Smallest scale: governed by the diffusivity action of the
molecular viscosity
 At the smallest scales viscosity can be effective in smoothing
out velocity fluctuations
 Generation of small-scale fluctuations is due to the non-linear
terms in the Navier-Stokes equations
 Viscous terms prevent the generation of infinitely small scales
of motionby dissipating small scale energy into heat
 Rate of energy supplied = rate of energy dissipation

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Energy Cascade
 ⇒ length scale of the largest eddies of size range which are comparable
to the flow scale L
u ⇒ u (  ) ≡ characteristic velocity
12
u′ ≡ ( 2 3 k )
≡ comparable to
average flow velocity
u
Re = is very large
ν
Direct effect of viscosity are
negligibly small

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Energy Cascade

Large eddies are unstable ⇒ breakup transferring their energy to


somewhat smaller eddies

These smaller eddies undergo similar breakup process and transfer their
energy to yet smaller eddies.

Continues until the Reynolds number is sufficiently small that the eddy motion
is stable and molecular viscosity is effective in dissipating the kinetic energy.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Energy Cascade
Parameters governing large scale motion
(i) Size of the domain and (ii) imposed velocity (volumetric
flow rate)

Parameters governing small scale motion


(i) Dissipation rate, ε , (m2 Sec-3)

(ii) Kinematic viscosity,ν , (m2 Sec-1)

Kolmogorov’s microscales

Length scale Velocity scale Time scale

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Energy Cascade

Quite Viscous

Viscous dissipation adjusts itself to


the energy supplied by adjusting
length scales

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Statistical Description of
Turbulent Flow
Irregularity or randomness of turbulence makes impossible
to use deterministic method to describe turbulence
Average Values: Time Average:

Space Average:

Ensemble Average of N Experiments:

Where ni is the frequency of occurrence of its velocity


For stationary and homogenous turbulence

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Statistical Description of
Turbulent Flow
Moments: Mean values of various power of u is called moment

The first central moment is zero.

The mean square difference from the mean value ū is called variance
or Second (central) moment.

The square root of the variance,σ , is called standard deviation (rms amplitude)

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Statistical Description of
Turbulent Flow
Third Moment:

= Normalised third moment = measure of asymmetry called skewness

Fourth Moment:

= Normalised fourth moment = Kurtosis or flatness

Skewness

Flatness

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Statistical Description of
Turbulent Flow
Temporal (Eulerian) Correlations: A simple measure of the degree of dependence
of the signal amplitude at one time on the amplitude at other times is provided by the
following correlation functions:
Longitudinal auto correlation Lateral auto correlation

Cross correlation

Scalar auto correlation

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Statistical Description of
Turbulent Flow
Spatial (Lagrangian) correlations: It is possible to determine those regions of the
flow field in which the fluid motions have a certain connection with each other.

Longitudinal auto correlation

Lateral auto correlation

Cross correlation

Scalar auto correlation

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Thank you

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Simulation of
Turbulent Flow
VNIT
Nagpur
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Introduction
 The velocity field is 3D, time-dependent and random.
 Large range of time-scale and length-scale.
 The largest turbulent motions are almost as large as
characteristic width of the flow, and consequently directly
affected by the boundary geometry (not universal).
 The Kolmogorov time-scale decreases as Re-1/2 relative to the
largest scales and the Kolmogorov length-scale as Re-3/4
relative to the largest scales.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Methods for Solving
Turbulent Flows
 Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)
 Theoretically, all turbulent flows can be simulated by numerically
solving the full Navier-Stokes equations.
 Resolves the whole spectrum of scales. No modeling is required.
 But the cost is too prohibitive! Not practical for industrial flows.
 Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
 Solves the spatially averaged N-S equations. Large eddies are
directly resolved, but eddies smaller than the mesh are modeled.
 Less expensive than DNS, but the amount of computational
resources and efforts are still too large for most practical
applications.
 Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models
 Solve ensemble-averaged (or time-averaged) Navier-Stokes
equations
 All turbulent length scales are modeled in RANS.
 The most widely used approach for calculating industrial flows.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Methods for Solving
Turbulent Flows

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Reynolds Average Navier Stokes
Equations
Navier Stokes
Equations

Reynolds Decomposition:

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Reynolds Average Navier
Stokes Equations
Reynolds Average Navier Stokes Equations

This equations can be solved subject to availability of boundary


conditions and the values of

The Reynolds stresses are additional unknowns introduced by the


averaging procedure, hence they must be modeled (related to the averaged
flow quantities) in order to close the system of governing equations.

Energy Equation

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The Closure Problem
The RANS models can be closed in one of the following ways
(1) Eddy Viscosity Models (via the Boussinesq hypothesis)

Boussinesq hypothesis – Reynolds stresses are modeled using an eddy


(or turbulent) viscosity, μT. The hypothesis is reasonable for simple
turbulent shear flows: boundary layers, round jets, mixing layers, channel
flows, etc.
(2) Reynolds-Stress Models (via transport equations for Reynolds stresses)

Modeling is still required for many terms in the transport equations.

RSM is more advantageous in complex 3D turbulent flows with large


streamline curvature and swirl, but the model is more complex,
computationally intensive, more difficult to converge than eddy viscosity
models.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Calculating Turbulent
Viscosity
Based on dimensional analysis, μT can be determined from a turbulence time
scale (or velocity scale) and a length scale.

Turbulent kinetic energy [L2/T2] ⇒

Turbulence dissipation rate [L2/T3] ⇒


Specific dissipation rate [1/T] ⇒

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Eddy Viscosity Model
Zero Equation Model (mixing Layer model)

In the core, there are two regions:

χ is called Von Karman constant


For 2D Flow

For 3D Flow

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Eddy Viscosity Model
Zero Equation Model (mixing Layer model)

Disadvantages:

They cannot switch from one type of region to another (e.g. from a boundary layer
to a free shear layer) within a single flow.

They do not consider the process of convective or diffusive transport of


turbulence, i.e., the history effects of turbulence.

They require adhoc prescription of  in each problem.

They do not compute any turbulent quantities, even the turbulent kinetic energy.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Spalart - Allmaras one -
equation model
 Solves a single conservation equation (PDE) for the turbulent viscosity:
 This conservation equation contains convective and diffusive
transport terms, as well as expressions for the production and
dissipation of νt.
 Developed for use in unstructured codes in the aerospace industry.
 Economical and accurate for:
 Attached wall-bounded flows.
 Flows with mild separation and recirculation.
 Weak for:
 Massively separated flows.
 Free shear flows.
 Decaying turbulence.
 It has relatively narrow use.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
 The k-ε model focuses on the mechanisms that affect the turbulent
kinetic energy (per unit mass) k.
 The instantaneous kinetic energy k(t) of a turbulent flow is the sum of
mean kinetic energy K and turbulent kinetic energy k:

K = 12 U 2 + V 2 + W 2 
 
k = 12  u '2 + v'2 + w'2 
k (t ) = K + k
 ε is the dissipation rate of k.
 If k and ε are known, we can model the turbulent viscosity as:

1/ 2 k 3/ 2 k2
νt ∝ ϑ  ∝ k =
ε ε
 We now need equations for k and ε.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
 The equation for the mean kinetic energy is as follows:
∂ ( ρK )
+ div( ρKU) = div(− PU + 2 µUEij − ρUui ' u j ') − 2 µEij .Eij − (− ρ ui ' u j '.Eij )
∂t
(I ) (II ) ( III ) ( IV ) (V ) (VI ) (VII )
 Here Eij is the mean rate of deformation tensor.
 This equation can be read as:
(I) the rate of change of K, plus
(II) transport of K by convection, equals
(III) transport of K by pressure, plus
(IV) transport of K by viscous stresses, plus
(V) transport of K by Reynolds stresses, minus
(VI) rate of dissipation of K, minus
(VII) turbulence production.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
The k-ε Model
 The equation for the turbulent kinetic energy k is as follows:

∂ ( ρk )
+ div( ρkU) = div(− p ' u' + 2 µ u' eij ' − ρ 12 ui '.ui ' u j ') − 2 µ eij '.eij ' + (− ρ ui ' u j '.Eij )
∂t
(I ) (II ) ( III ) ( IV ) (V ) (VI ) (VII )
 Here eij’ is fluctuating component of rate of deformation tensor.
 This equation can be read as:
– (I) the rate of change of k, plus
– (II) transport of k by convection, equals
– (III) transport of k by pressure, plus
– (IV) transport of k by viscous stresses, plus
– (V) transport of k by Reynolds stresses, minus
– (VI) rate of dissipation of k, plus
– (VII) turbulence production.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
 The equation for k contains additional turbulent fluctuation terms,
that are unknown. Again using the Boussinesq assumption, these
fluctuation terms can be linked to the mean flow.
 The following (simplified) model equation for k is commonly
used.

∂ ( ρkk))  µt 
+ div( ρkU) = div  grad k  + 2µ t Eij .Eij − ρε
∂t σ k 

Rate of Rate of
Convective Rate of
increase Diffusive destruction
transport production
transport

 The Prandtl number σk connects the diffusivity of k to the eddy


viscosity. Typically a value of 1.0 is used.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
 The equations look quite similar.
 However, the k equation mainly contains primed quantities,
indicating that changes in k are mainly governed by turbulent
interactions.
 Furthermore, term (VII) is equal in both equations. But it is
actually negative in the K equation (destruction) and positive in
the k equation: energy transfers from the mean flow to the
turbulence.
 The viscous dissipation term (VI) in the k equation −2μe'ij .e'ij
describes the dissipation of k because of the work done by the
smallest eddies against the viscous stresses.
 We can now define the rate of dissipation per unit mass ε as:

ε = 2 ν eij ' .e ij '

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
 A model equation for ε is derived by multiplying the k
equation by (ε/k) and introducing model constants.
 The following (simplified) model equation for ε is commonly used.

∂ ( ρε )  µt  ε ε2
+ div( ρεU) = div  grad ε  + C1ε 2 µ t Eij .Eij − C2ε ρ
∂t σ ε  k k

Rate of Convective Rate of Rate of


increase transport Diffusive destruction
production
transport

 The Prandtl number σε connects the diffusivity of ε to the eddy


viscosity. Typically a value of 1.30 is used.
 Typically values for the model constants C1ε and C2ε of 1.44 and
1.92 are used.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
The k-ε Model
Calculating the Reynolds stresses from k and ε
 The turbulent viscosity is calculated from:
k2
µt = Cµ C µ = 0.09
ε
 The Reynolds stresses are then calculated as follows:
 ∂U i ∂U j  2 2

− ρ ui ' u j ' = µ t  +  − ρkδ ij = 2 µ t Eij − ρkδ ij

 ∂x j ∂xi  3 3
δ ij = 1 if i = j and δ ij = 0 if i ≠ j

 The (2/3)ρkδij term ensures that the normal stresses sum to k.


 Note that the k-ε model leads to all normal stresses being equal,
which is usually inaccurate.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


The k-ε Model
Advantages:
 Relatively simple to implement.
 Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily.
 Reasonable predictions for many flows.
Disadvantages:
 Poor predictions for:
 swirling and rotating flows,
 flows with strong separation,
 axisymmetric jets,
 certain unconfined flows, and
 fully developed flows in non-circular ducts.
 Valid only for fully turbulent flows.
 Simplistic ε equation.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
More two - equation models
 The k-ε model was developed in the early 1970s. Its
strengths as well as its shortcomings are well documented.
 Many attempts have been made to develop two-equation
models that improve on the standard k-ε model.
 We will discuss some here:
 k-ε RNG model.
 k-ε realizable model.
 k-ω model.
 Algebraic stress model.
 Non-linear models.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Improvement: RNG k- ε
 k-ε equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical
technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous
Navier-Stokes equations.
 Similar in form to the standard k-ε equations but includes:
 Additional term in ε equation for interaction between turbulence
dissipation and mean shear.
 The effect of swirl on turbulence.
 Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number.
 Differential formula for effective viscosity.
 Improved predictions for:
 High streamline curvature and strain rate.
 Transitional flows.
 Wall heat and mass transfer.
 But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
RNG k-ε equations
 Turbulent kinetic energy:

∂k ∂  ∂k  1  ∂Uj ∂Ui 
ρU i 2
= µt S + α k µ eff  − ρε where S ≡ 2SijSij , Sij ≡  + 
∂xi  ∂xi  ∂xi   2  ∂xi ∂xj 

  Generation Dissipation
Convection Diffusion

 Dissipation rate:
∂ε ε  ∂  ∂ε  ε2 
ρU i 2
= C1ε   µ t S + α ε µ eff  − C2ε ρ   − 
R


∂xi 
  k  
   ∂xi  ∂xi 

k 
 Additional term

Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction related to mean strain
& turbulence quantities
αk,αε ,C1ε ,C2ε are derived using RNG theory

 Equations written for steady, incompressible flow without body forces.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Improvement: realizable k-ε
 Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the
standard k-ε model.
 Improved equation for ε.
 Variable Cμ instead of constant.
 Improved performance for flows involving:
 Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading
correctly).
 Boundary layers under strong adverse pressure
gradients or separation.
 Rotation, recirculation.
 Strong streamline curvature.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Realizable k- ε equations
 Distinctions from standard k-ε model:
 Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity:
k2 where C µ 1
is now variable.
µ t ≡ ρC µ =
ε U *k
Ao + A s
ε
 (A0, As, and U* are functions of velocity gradients).
 New transport equation for dissipation rate, ε:

Dε ∂  µt  ∂ε  ε2 ε
ρ =  µ +   + ρc1Sε − ρc2 + c1ε c3ε Gb
Dt ∂x j  σε  ∂x j  k + νε k

Diffusion Generation Destruction Buoyancy

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Realizable k- ε equations
 Eddy viscosity computed from:

k2 1
µ t = ρCµ , Cµ =
ε U *k
A0 + As
ε

U * ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij

1
A0 = 4.04, As = 6 cos φ , φ = cos −1 6W
3
( )
S ij S ji S ki ~
W= ~ , S = S ij Sij
S

Turbulent Flow Lecture


k-ω model
 This is another two equation model. In this model ω is an
inverse time scale that is associated with the turbulence.
 This model solves two additional PDEs:
 A transport equation for ω.
 The turbulent viscosity is then calculated as follows:
k
μt = ρ
ω

 Its numerical behavior is similar to that of the k-ε models.


 It suffers from some of the same drawbacks, such as the
assumption that μt is isotropic.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Reynolds stress model
 RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by
solving additional transport equations for the six independent
Reynolds stresses.
 Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of
the momentum equations with a fluctuating property.
 Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation.
 Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided.
 Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.
 RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows.
 Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain
rates.
 Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows.
 Rotating flow passages, secondary flows.
 Flows involving separation.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Reynolds stress model
 The exact equation for the transport of the Reynolds stress Rij:
DRij
= Pij + Dij − ε ij + Π ij + Ω ij
Dt
 This equation can be read as:
– rate of change of Rij = ui ' u j ' plus
– transport of Rij by convection, equals
– rate of production Pij, plus
– transport by diffusion Dij, minus
– rate of dissipation εij, plus
– transport due to turbulent pressure-strain interactions πij, plus
– transport due to rotation Ωij.
 This equation describes six partial differential equations, one for the
transport of each of the six independent Reynolds stresses.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Reynolds stress model
 The various terms are modeled as follows:
 Production Pij is retained in its exact form.
 Diffusive transport Dij is modeled using a gradient diffusion
assumption.
 The dissipation εij, is related to ε as calculated from the standard ε
equation, although more advanced ε models are available also.
 These include Pressure strain interactions πij, are very important.
due to eddies interacting with each other, and due to interactions
between eddies and regions of the flow with a different mean
velocity. The overall effect is to make the normal stresses more
isotropic and to decrease shear stresses. It does not change the
total turbulent kinetic energy. This is a difficult to model term, and
various models are available. Common is the Launder model.
Improved, non-equilibrium models are available also.
 Transport due to rotation Ωij is retained in its exact form.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Reynolds stress model

 ∂U j ∂U i 
Production exact : Pij = −  Rim + R jm 
 ∂x m ∂x m 

∂J
ijk
Diffusive transport exact : D =
ij ∂x
k
J = u ' u ' u ' + p′(δ u '+δ u ' )
ijk i j k jk i ik j

∂  ν t ∂Rij   νt 
Diffusive transport model : Dij =   = div grad ( Rij ) 
∂xm  σ k ∂xm  σ k 
ν t is the turbulent kinematic viscosity calculated in the standard way

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Reynolds stress model
∂ui ' ∂u j '
Dissipation exact : ε ij = 2 µ Dissipation model : ε ij = 23 εδ ij
∂xk ∂xk

 ∂ui ' ∂u j ' 



Pressure strain exact : Π ij = − p '  + 
∂x ∂x 
 j i 
ε
Pressure strain model : Π ij = − C1 ( Rij − 23 kδ ij ) − C2 ( Pij − 23 Pδ ij )
k
P is the pressure

Rotational term (exact) : Ω ij = − 2ω k ( R jm eikm + Rim e jkm )


eijk is − 1, 0, or 1 depending on the indices
ω k is the rotation vector
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Setting boundary
conditions
 Characterize turbulence at inlets and outlets (potential backflow).
 k-ε models require k and ε.
 Other options:
 Turbulence intensity and length scale.
 Length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most
of energy.
 For boundary layer flows, 0.4 times boundary layer thickness
 For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l ≈ opening
size.
 Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter.
 Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows.
 Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio.
 For external flows:
1< µ /µ
t
< 10

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Comparison of RANS
Turbulence Models
Model Strengths Weaknesses
Spalart- Economical (1-eq.); good track Not very widely tested yet; lack of submodels
record for mildly complex B.L. (e.g. combustion, buoyancy).
Allmaras type of flows.
Robust, economical, average results for complex flows with severe
reasonably accurate; long pressure gradients, strong streamline
STD k-εε accumulated performance curvature, swirl and rotation. Predicts that
data. round jets spread 15% faster than planar jets
whereas in actuality they spread 15% slower.
Good for moderately complex
Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy
behavior like jet impingement,
RNG k-εε separating flows, swirling
viscosity assumption. Same problem with
round jets as standard k-ε.
flows, and secondary flows.
Realizable Offers largely the same Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy
benefits as RNG but also viscosity assumption.
k-εε resolves the round-jet
anomaly.
Physically most complete Requires more cpu effort (2-3x); tightly
Reynolds model (history, transport, and coupled momentum and turbulence
Stress anisotropy of turbulent equations.
Model stresses are all accounted for).

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Recommendation
 Start calculations by performing 100 iterations or so with standard k-ε
model and first order upwind differencing. For very simple flows (no
swirl or separation) converge with second order upwind and k-ε model.
 If the flow involves jets, separation, or moderate swirl, converge solution
with the realizable k-ε model and second order differencing.
 If the flow is dominated by swirl (e.g. a cyclone or unbaffled stirred
vessel) converge solution deeply using RSM and a second order
differencing scheme. If the solution will not converge, use first order
differencing instead.
 Ignore the existence of mixing length models and the algebraic stress
model.
 Only use the other models if you know from other sources that
somehow these are especially suitable for your particular problem (e.g.
Spalart-Allmaras for certain external flows, k-ε RNG for certain
transitional flows, or k-ω).

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence near a Wall
 Near to a wall, the
velocity changes
rapidly
 If we plot the same
graph again, where:
 Log scale axes are
used
 The velocity is made
dimensionless, from

 The wall distance


vector is made
dimensionless

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Choice of Wall Modeling
Strategy
 Using a Wall Function
 First grid cell needs to be 30 < y+ < 300 (Too low, and
model is invalid. Too high and the wall is not properly
resolved.)
 Use a wall function, and a high Re turbulence model
(SKE, RKE, RNG)
 Generally speaking, this is the approach if you are more
interested in the mixing in the middle of the domain,
rather than the forces on the wall.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Choice of Wall Modeling
Strategy
 In the near-wall region, the solution gradients are very high,
but accurate calculations in the near-wall region are
important to the success of the simulation.
There are two choice:
 Resolving the Viscous Sublayer
 First grid cell needs to be at about y+= 1
 This will add significantly to the mesh count
 Use a low-Reynolds number turbulence model (like k-
omega)
 Generally speaking, if the forces on the wall are key to
your simulation (aerodynamic drag, turbomachinery
blade performance) this is the approach you will take

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Calculation of near-wall cell
size
 A literature search suggests a formula for the skin friction:
 Based of Plate and pipe

 Use this value to predict the wall shear stress τw


 From τ w compute the velocity Uτ

 Use the formula of y+ to calculate first cell height

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence Near the Wall
 Accurate near-wall modeling is important for most engineering
applications.
 Successful prediction of frictional drag, pressure drop, separation,
etc., depends on reliability of local wall shear predictions.
 Most k- ε and RSM turbulence models will not predict correct near-wall
behavior if integrated down to the wall.
 Problem is the inability to resolve ε.
 Special near-wall treatment is required.
 Standard Wall Functions
 Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions
 Enhanced wall treatment
 S-A and k-omega models are capable of resolving the near-wall flow
provided near-wall mesh is sufficient.

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulence Near the Wall
 In general, ‘wall functions’ are a
collection or set of laws that serve
as boundary conditions for
momentum, energy, and species
as well as for turbulence quantities.
Wall Function Options y
u
 The Standard and Non-
equilibrium Wall Function
options refer to specific ‘sets’
designed for high Re flows.
 The viscosity affected, near-
wall region is not resolved. y+
 Near-wall mesh is relatively
coarse.
 Cell center information bridged Boundary layer
by empirically-based wall
functions.
Turbulent Flow Lecture
Turbulence Near the Wall
Enhanced Wall Treatment
Option
 This near-wall model y
combines the use of enhanced u
wall functions and a two-layer
model.
 Used for low-Re flows or flows
with complex near-wall
phenomena.
 Generally requires a very fine Wall functions not used to
near-wall mesh capable of resolve boundary layer
resolving the near-wall region.
Boundary layer

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Turbulent Heat Transfer
 The Reynolds averaging of the energy equation produces a closure
term and we call it the turbulent (or eddy) heat flux:
 Analogous to the closure of Reynolds stress, a turbulent thermal
diffusivity is assumed:

 Turbulent diffusivity is obtained from eddy viscosity via a turbulent


Prandtl number based on the Reynolds analogy:

 Similar treatment is applicable to other turbulent scalar transport


equations

Turbulent Flow Lecture


Thank you

Turbulent Flow Lecture