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VNIT Department of Mechanical engineering

Nagpur trushar.gohil@gmail.com

Turbulent Flows

VNIT

Nagpur

Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

of incense

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Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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Turbulence

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Turbulence

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Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

Von Karman vortices created when prevailing winds sweeping east across the northern

Pacific Ocean encountered Alaska's Aleutian Islands

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Turbulent Flow Lecture

Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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International Space Station''

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Turbulent Flow Lecture

Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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Turbulent Flow Lecture

Beauty and Complexity of

Turbulence

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Turbulence

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Turbulence

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Turbulence

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Characteristics of Turbulent

flows

High Reynolds numbers

Diffusivity

Dissipation

Irregularity

3D Vorticity Fluctuations

Continuum

Turbulence: high Reynolds

numbers

Turbulent flows always occur at high Reynolds numbers. They are caused by

the complex interaction between the viscous terms and the inertia terms in the

momentum equations.

Turbulent, high Reynolds

number jet

number free stream flow

Turbulent flows are chaotic

One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or randomness.

Turbulent flows are always chaotic. But not all chaotic flows are turbulent.

Turbulent flows are chaotic

One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or randomness.

Turbulent flows are always chaotic. But not all chaotic flows are turbulent.

Turbulence: diffusivity

The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and increased rates of

momentum, heat, and mass transfer. A flow that looks random but does not

exhibit the spreading of velocity fluctuations through the surrounding fluid is not

turbulent. If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

Turbulence: diffusivity

The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and increased rates of

momentum, heat, and mass transfer. A flow that looks random but does not

exhibit the spreading of velocity fluctuations through the surrounding fluid is not

turbulent. If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

Turbulence: dissipation

Turbulent flows are dissipative. Kinetic energy gets converted into heat due to

viscous shear stresses. Turbulent flows die out quickly when no energy is supplied.

Random motions that have insignificant viscous losses, such as random sound

waves, are not turbulent.

Turbulence: rotation and

vorticity

Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero vorticity.

Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional vortices play a key

role in turbulence.

Turbulence: rotation and

vorticity

Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero vorticity.

Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional vortices play a key

role in turbulence.

Vortices

What is turbulence?

One characteristic of turbulent flows is their irregularity or

randomness.

A full deterministic approach is very difficult.

flows are turbulent.

Waves in the ocean, for example, can be chaotic but are

not necessarily turbulent.

What is turbulence?

The diffusivity of turbulence causes rapid mixing and

increased rates of momentum, heat, and mass transfer.

A flow that looks random but does not exhibit the

spreading of velocity fluctuations through the

surrounding fluid is not turbulent.

If a flow is chaotic, but not diffusive, it is not turbulent.

The trail left behind a jet plane that seems chaotic, but

does not diffuse for miles is then not turbulent.

What is turbulence?

Turbulent flows always occur at high Reynolds numbers.

the viscous terms and the inertia terms in the

momentum equations.

Turbulent flows are rotational; that is, they have non-zero

vorticity.

Mechanisms such as the stretching of three-dimensional

vortices play a key role in turbulence.

What is turbulence?

Turbulent flows are dissipative.

shear stresses.

Turbulent flows die out quickly when no energy is

supplied.

Random motions that have insignificant viscous losses,

such as random sound waves, are not turbulent.

What is turbulence?

Turbulence is a continuum phenomenon.

molecular scales.

Turbulence is therefore governed by the equations of

fluid mechanics.

Turbulent flows are flows.

dynamics of turbulence are the same whether the fluid is

an actual fluid or a gas.

Instability

All flows become unstable above a certain Reynolds number.

depending on the flow.

For laminar flow problems, flows can be solved using the

conservation equations.

For turbulent flows, the computational effort involved in solving

those for all time and length scales is prohibitive.

fields for turbulent flows will be developed.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Examples of simple

turbulent flows

Some examples of simple turbulent flows are a jet entering a

domain with stagnant fluid, a mixing layer, and the wake behind

objects such as cylinders.

Such flows are often used as test cases to validate the ability of

computational fluid dynamics software to accurately predict fluid

flows.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Transition

boundary layer.

adjacent fluid layers slide past each

other in an orderly fashion.

to small disturbances being dissipated.

disturbances in the flow start to grow.

place that eventually leads to the flow

becoming fully turbulent.

Transition

Laminar

(Low Reynolds Number)

Transition

(Increasing Reynolds Number)

Turbulent

(Higher Reynolds Number)

Hydrodynamic stability of

laminar flows

Two fundamentally different instability mechanisms operate,

which are associated with the shape of the two-dimensional

laminar velocity profile of the base flow.

Inviscid instability

Viscous instability

Transition in a jet flow

Large-scale vs. small-scale

structure

Small Large

structures structures

(1922)

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Transition in boundary layer

flow over flat plate

Turbulent boundary layer

in a natural flat plate boundary layer.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Turbulent boundary layer

Is the Flow Turbulent?

Flows can be characterized by the Reynolds Number, Re

External Flows ρU L

where Re L =

Re x ≥ 500 , 000 along a surface μ

L= x , d , d h , etc .

Re d ≥ 20 , 000 around an obstacle Other factors such as free-stream

turbulence, surface conditions, and

disturbances may cause transition

Internal Flows to turbulence at lower Reynolds

Re d ≥ 2 ,300 numbers

h

2 3

Natural Convection β g L ΔT 3 ρ C p β g L ΔT

Ra Ra= = is the Rayleigh number

≥ 109 να μk

Pr where ν μ Cp

Pr= = is the Prandtl number

α k

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Origin of Turbulence

Generated by (i) the frictional forces at the confining surfaces.

(ii) the flow of layers of fluids with different velocities over one another.

Wall Turbulence

Free Turbulence

Free-Stream Turbulence

Effect of Viscosity

Morehomogenous and less

Effect of Viscosity on Turbulence ⇒

dependent ondirection

Homogenous Turbulence

Isotropic Turbulence

Homogeneous, decaying,

grid-generated turbulence

made visible by injecting smoke into the flow at the grid. The eddies are visible

because they contain the smoke. Beyond this point, there is no source of

turbulence as the flow is uniform. The flow is dominated by convection and

dissipation. For homogeneous decaying turbulence, the turbulent kinetic energy

decreases with distance.

Effect of Viscosity

Scales inTurbulence

Spatial and Temporal scales: Length scales and Time

scales. Velocity scales: Length scale/Time scale

Largest scale: dimensions of the flow field (spatial) and

corresponding period of the large eddies

Smallest scale: governed by the diffusivity action of the

molecular viscosity

At the smallest scales viscosity can be effective in smoothing

out velocity fluctuations

Generation of small-scale fluctuations is due to the non-linear

terms in the Navier-Stokes equations

Viscous terms prevent the generation of infinitely small scales

of motionby dissipating small scale energy into heat

Rate of energy supplied = rate of energy dissipation

Energy Cascade

⇒ length scale of the largest eddies of size range which are comparable

to the flow scale L

u ⇒ u ( ) ≡ characteristic velocity

12

u′ ≡ ( 2 3 k )

≡ comparable to

average flow velocity

u

Re = is very large

ν

Direct effect of viscosity are

negligibly small

Energy Cascade

somewhat smaller eddies

These smaller eddies undergo similar breakup process and transfer their

energy to yet smaller eddies.

Continues until the Reynolds number is sufficiently small that the eddy motion

is stable and molecular viscosity is effective in dissipating the kinetic energy.

Energy Cascade

Parameters governing large scale motion

(i) Size of the domain and (ii) imposed velocity (volumetric

flow rate)

(i) Dissipation rate, ε , (m2 Sec-3)

Kolmogorov’s microscales

Energy Cascade

Quite Viscous

the energy supplied by adjusting

length scales

Statistical Description of

Turbulent Flow

Irregularity or randomness of turbulence makes impossible

to use deterministic method to describe turbulence

Average Values: Time Average:

Space Average:

For stationary and homogenous turbulence

Statistical Description of

Turbulent Flow

Moments: Mean values of various power of u is called moment

The mean square difference from the mean value ū is called variance

or Second (central) moment.

The square root of the variance,σ , is called standard deviation (rms amplitude)

Statistical Description of

Turbulent Flow

Third Moment:

Fourth Moment:

Skewness

Flatness

Statistical Description of

Turbulent Flow

Temporal (Eulerian) Correlations: A simple measure of the degree of dependence

of the signal amplitude at one time on the amplitude at other times is provided by the

following correlation functions:

Longitudinal auto correlation Lateral auto correlation

Cross correlation

Statistical Description of

Turbulent Flow

Spatial (Lagrangian) correlations: It is possible to determine those regions of the

flow field in which the fluid motions have a certain connection with each other.

Cross correlation

Thank you

Simulation of

Turbulent Flow

VNIT

Nagpur

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Introduction

The velocity field is 3D, time-dependent and random.

Large range of time-scale and length-scale.

The largest turbulent motions are almost as large as

characteristic width of the flow, and consequently directly

affected by the boundary geometry (not universal).

The Kolmogorov time-scale decreases as Re-1/2 relative to the

largest scales and the Kolmogorov length-scale as Re-3/4

relative to the largest scales.

Methods for Solving

Turbulent Flows

Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

Theoretically, all turbulent flows can be simulated by numerically

solving the full Navier-Stokes equations.

Resolves the whole spectrum of scales. No modeling is required.

But the cost is too prohibitive! Not practical for industrial flows.

Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

Solves the spatially averaged N-S equations. Large eddies are

directly resolved, but eddies smaller than the mesh are modeled.

Less expensive than DNS, but the amount of computational

resources and efforts are still too large for most practical

applications.

Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models

Solve ensemble-averaged (or time-averaged) Navier-Stokes

equations

All turbulent length scales are modeled in RANS.

The most widely used approach for calculating industrial flows.

Methods for Solving

Turbulent Flows

Reynolds Average Navier Stokes

Equations

Navier Stokes

Equations

Reynolds Decomposition:

Reynolds Average Navier

Stokes Equations

Reynolds Average Navier Stokes Equations

conditions and the values of

averaging procedure, hence they must be modeled (related to the averaged

flow quantities) in order to close the system of governing equations.

Energy Equation

The Closure Problem

The RANS models can be closed in one of the following ways

(1) Eddy Viscosity Models (via the Boussinesq hypothesis)

(or turbulent) viscosity, μT. The hypothesis is reasonable for simple

turbulent shear flows: boundary layers, round jets, mixing layers, channel

flows, etc.

(2) Reynolds-Stress Models (via transport equations for Reynolds stresses)

streamline curvature and swirl, but the model is more complex,

computationally intensive, more difficult to converge than eddy viscosity

models.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Calculating Turbulent

Viscosity

Based on dimensional analysis, μT can be determined from a turbulence time

scale (or velocity scale) and a length scale.

Specific dissipation rate [1/T] ⇒

Eddy Viscosity Model

Zero Equation Model (mixing Layer model)

For 2D Flow

For 3D Flow

Eddy Viscosity Model

Zero Equation Model (mixing Layer model)

Disadvantages:

They cannot switch from one type of region to another (e.g. from a boundary layer

to a free shear layer) within a single flow.

turbulence, i.e., the history effects of turbulence.

They do not compute any turbulent quantities, even the turbulent kinetic energy.

Spalart - Allmaras one -

equation model

Solves a single conservation equation (PDE) for the turbulent viscosity:

This conservation equation contains convective and diffusive

transport terms, as well as expressions for the production and

dissipation of νt.

Developed for use in unstructured codes in the aerospace industry.

Economical and accurate for:

Attached wall-bounded flows.

Flows with mild separation and recirculation.

Weak for:

Massively separated flows.

Free shear flows.

Decaying turbulence.

It has relatively narrow use.

The k-ε Model

The k-ε model focuses on the mechanisms that affect the turbulent

kinetic energy (per unit mass) k.

The instantaneous kinetic energy k(t) of a turbulent flow is the sum of

mean kinetic energy K and turbulent kinetic energy k:

K = 12 U 2 + V 2 + W 2

k = 12 u '2 + v'2 + w'2

k (t ) = K + k

ε is the dissipation rate of k.

If k and ε are known, we can model the turbulent viscosity as:

1/ 2 k 3/ 2 k2

νt ∝ ϑ ∝ k =

ε ε

We now need equations for k and ε.

The k-ε Model

The equation for the mean kinetic energy is as follows:

∂ ( ρK )

+ div( ρKU) = div(− PU + 2 µUEij − ρUui ' u j ') − 2 µEij .Eij − (− ρ ui ' u j '.Eij )

∂t

(I ) (II ) ( III ) ( IV ) (V ) (VI ) (VII )

Here Eij is the mean rate of deformation tensor.

This equation can be read as:

(I) the rate of change of K, plus

(II) transport of K by convection, equals

(III) transport of K by pressure, plus

(IV) transport of K by viscous stresses, plus

(V) transport of K by Reynolds stresses, minus

(VI) rate of dissipation of K, minus

(VII) turbulence production.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

The k-ε Model

The equation for the turbulent kinetic energy k is as follows:

∂ ( ρk )

+ div( ρkU) = div(− p ' u' + 2 µ u' eij ' − ρ 12 ui '.ui ' u j ') − 2 µ eij '.eij ' + (− ρ ui ' u j '.Eij )

∂t

(I ) (II ) ( III ) ( IV ) (V ) (VI ) (VII )

Here eij’ is fluctuating component of rate of deformation tensor.

This equation can be read as:

– (I) the rate of change of k, plus

– (II) transport of k by convection, equals

– (III) transport of k by pressure, plus

– (IV) transport of k by viscous stresses, plus

– (V) transport of k by Reynolds stresses, minus

– (VI) rate of dissipation of k, plus

– (VII) turbulence production.

The k-ε Model

The equation for k contains additional turbulent fluctuation terms,

that are unknown. Again using the Boussinesq assumption, these

fluctuation terms can be linked to the mean flow.

The following (simplified) model equation for k is commonly

used.

∂ ( ρkk)) µt

+ div( ρkU) = div grad k + 2µ t Eij .Eij − ρε

∂t σ k

Rate of Rate of

Convective Rate of

increase Diffusive destruction

transport production

transport

viscosity. Typically a value of 1.0 is used.

The k-ε Model

The equations look quite similar.

However, the k equation mainly contains primed quantities,

indicating that changes in k are mainly governed by turbulent

interactions.

Furthermore, term (VII) is equal in both equations. But it is

actually negative in the K equation (destruction) and positive in

the k equation: energy transfers from the mean flow to the

turbulence.

The viscous dissipation term (VI) in the k equation −2μe'ij .e'ij

describes the dissipation of k because of the work done by the

smallest eddies against the viscous stresses.

We can now define the rate of dissipation per unit mass ε as:

The k-ε Model

A model equation for ε is derived by multiplying the k

equation by (ε/k) and introducing model constants.

The following (simplified) model equation for ε is commonly used.

∂ ( ρε ) µt ε ε2

+ div( ρεU) = div grad ε + C1ε 2 µ t Eij .Eij − C2ε ρ

∂t σ ε k k

increase transport Diffusive destruction

production

transport

viscosity. Typically a value of 1.30 is used.

Typically values for the model constants C1ε and C2ε of 1.44 and

1.92 are used.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

The k-ε Model

Calculating the Reynolds stresses from k and ε

The turbulent viscosity is calculated from:

k2

µt = Cµ C µ = 0.09

ε

The Reynolds stresses are then calculated as follows:

∂U i ∂U j 2 2

− ρ ui ' u j ' = µ t + − ρkδ ij = 2 µ t Eij − ρkδ ij

∂x j ∂xi 3 3

δ ij = 1 if i = j and δ ij = 0 if i ≠ j

Note that the k-ε model leads to all normal stresses being equal,

which is usually inaccurate.

The k-ε Model

Advantages:

Relatively simple to implement.

Leads to stable calculations that converge relatively easily.

Reasonable predictions for many flows.

Disadvantages:

Poor predictions for:

swirling and rotating flows,

flows with strong separation,

axisymmetric jets,

certain unconfined flows, and

fully developed flows in non-circular ducts.

Valid only for fully turbulent flows.

Simplistic ε equation.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

More two - equation models

The k-ε model was developed in the early 1970s. Its

strengths as well as its shortcomings are well documented.

Many attempts have been made to develop two-equation

models that improve on the standard k-ε model.

We will discuss some here:

k-ε RNG model.

k-ε realizable model.

k-ω model.

Algebraic stress model.

Non-linear models.

Improvement: RNG k- ε

k-ε equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical

technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous

Navier-Stokes equations.

Similar in form to the standard k-ε equations but includes:

Additional term in ε equation for interaction between turbulence

dissipation and mean shear.

The effect of swirl on turbulence.

Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number.

Differential formula for effective viscosity.

Improved predictions for:

High streamline curvature and strain rate.

Transitional flows.

Wall heat and mass transfer.

But still does not predict the spreading of a round jet correctly.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

RNG k-ε equations

Turbulent kinetic energy:

∂k ∂ ∂k 1 ∂Uj ∂Ui

ρU i 2

= µt S + α k µ eff − ρε where S ≡ 2SijSij , Sij ≡ +

∂xi ∂xi ∂xi 2 ∂xi ∂xj

Generation Dissipation

Convection Diffusion

Dissipation rate:

∂ε ε ∂ ∂ε ε2

ρU i 2

= C1ε µ t S + α ε µ eff − C2ε ρ −

R

∂xi

k

∂xi ∂xi

k

Additional term

Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction related to mean strain

& turbulence quantities

αk,αε ,C1ε ,C2ε are derived using RNG theory

Improvement: realizable k-ε

Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as the

standard k-ε model.

Improved equation for ε.

Variable Cμ instead of constant.

Improved performance for flows involving:

Planar and round jets (predicts round jet spreading

correctly).

Boundary layers under strong adverse pressure

gradients or separation.

Rotation, recirculation.

Strong streamline curvature.

Realizable k- ε equations

Distinctions from standard k-ε model:

Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity:

k2 where C µ 1

is now variable.

µ t ≡ ρC µ =

ε U *k

Ao + A s

ε

(A0, As, and U* are functions of velocity gradients).

New transport equation for dissipation rate, ε:

Dε ∂ µt ∂ε ε2 ε

ρ = µ + + ρc1Sε − ρc2 + c1ε c3ε Gb

Dt ∂x j σε ∂x j k + νε k

Realizable k- ε equations

Eddy viscosity computed from:

k2 1

µ t = ρCµ , Cµ =

ε U *k

A0 + As

ε

U * ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij

1

A0 = 4.04, As = 6 cos φ , φ = cos −1 6W

3

( )

S ij S ji S ki ~

W= ~ , S = S ij Sij

S

k-ω model

This is another two equation model. In this model ω is an

inverse time scale that is associated with the turbulence.

This model solves two additional PDEs:

A transport equation for ω.

The turbulent viscosity is then calculated as follows:

k

μt = ρ

ω

It suffers from some of the same drawbacks, such as the

assumption that μt is isotropic.

Reynolds stress model

RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by

solving additional transport equations for the six independent

Reynolds stresses.

Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of

the momentum equations with a fluctuating property.

Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation.

Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided.

Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.

RSM is good for accurately predicting complex flows.

Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain

rates.

Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows.

Rotating flow passages, secondary flows.

Flows involving separation.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Reynolds stress model

The exact equation for the transport of the Reynolds stress Rij:

DRij

= Pij + Dij − ε ij + Π ij + Ω ij

Dt

This equation can be read as:

– rate of change of Rij = ui ' u j ' plus

– transport of Rij by convection, equals

– rate of production Pij, plus

– transport by diffusion Dij, minus

– rate of dissipation εij, plus

– transport due to turbulent pressure-strain interactions πij, plus

– transport due to rotation Ωij.

This equation describes six partial differential equations, one for the

transport of each of the six independent Reynolds stresses.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Reynolds stress model

The various terms are modeled as follows:

Production Pij is retained in its exact form.

Diffusive transport Dij is modeled using a gradient diffusion

assumption.

The dissipation εij, is related to ε as calculated from the standard ε

equation, although more advanced ε models are available also.

These include Pressure strain interactions πij, are very important.

due to eddies interacting with each other, and due to interactions

between eddies and regions of the flow with a different mean

velocity. The overall effect is to make the normal stresses more

isotropic and to decrease shear stresses. It does not change the

total turbulent kinetic energy. This is a difficult to model term, and

various models are available. Common is the Launder model.

Improved, non-equilibrium models are available also.

Transport due to rotation Ωij is retained in its exact form.

Reynolds stress model

∂U j ∂U i

Production exact : Pij = − Rim + R jm

∂x m ∂x m

∂J

ijk

Diffusive transport exact : D =

ij ∂x

k

J = u ' u ' u ' + p′(δ u '+δ u ' )

ijk i j k jk i ik j

∂ ν t ∂Rij νt

Diffusive transport model : Dij = = div grad ( Rij )

∂xm σ k ∂xm σ k

ν t is the turbulent kinematic viscosity calculated in the standard way

Reynolds stress model

∂ui ' ∂u j '

Dissipation exact : ε ij = 2 µ Dissipation model : ε ij = 23 εδ ij

∂xk ∂xk

Pressure strain exact : Π ij = − p ' +

∂x ∂x

j i

ε

Pressure strain model : Π ij = − C1 ( Rij − 23 kδ ij ) − C2 ( Pij − 23 Pδ ij )

k

P is the pressure

eijk is − 1, 0, or 1 depending on the indices

ω k is the rotation vector

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Setting boundary

conditions

Characterize turbulence at inlets and outlets (potential backflow).

k-ε models require k and ε.

Other options:

Turbulence intensity and length scale.

Length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most

of energy.

For boundary layer flows, 0.4 times boundary layer thickness

For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l ≈ opening

size.

Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter.

Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows.

Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio.

For external flows:

1< µ /µ

t

< 10

Comparison of RANS

Turbulence Models

Model Strengths Weaknesses

Spalart- Economical (1-eq.); good track Not very widely tested yet; lack of submodels

record for mildly complex B.L. (e.g. combustion, buoyancy).

Allmaras type of flows.

Robust, economical, average results for complex flows with severe

reasonably accurate; long pressure gradients, strong streamline

STD k-εε accumulated performance curvature, swirl and rotation. Predicts that

data. round jets spread 15% faster than planar jets

whereas in actuality they spread 15% slower.

Good for moderately complex

Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy

behavior like jet impingement,

RNG k-εε separating flows, swirling

viscosity assumption. Same problem with

round jets as standard k-ε.

flows, and secondary flows.

Realizable Offers largely the same Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy

benefits as RNG but also viscosity assumption.

k-εε resolves the round-jet

anomaly.

Physically most complete Requires more cpu effort (2-3x); tightly

Reynolds model (history, transport, and coupled momentum and turbulence

Stress anisotropy of turbulent equations.

Model stresses are all accounted for).

Recommendation

Start calculations by performing 100 iterations or so with standard k-ε

model and first order upwind differencing. For very simple flows (no

swirl or separation) converge with second order upwind and k-ε model.

If the flow involves jets, separation, or moderate swirl, converge solution

with the realizable k-ε model and second order differencing.

If the flow is dominated by swirl (e.g. a cyclone or unbaffled stirred

vessel) converge solution deeply using RSM and a second order

differencing scheme. If the solution will not converge, use first order

differencing instead.

Ignore the existence of mixing length models and the algebraic stress

model.

Only use the other models if you know from other sources that

somehow these are especially suitable for your particular problem (e.g.

Spalart-Allmaras for certain external flows, k-ε RNG for certain

transitional flows, or k-ω).

Turbulence near a Wall

Near to a wall, the

velocity changes

rapidly

If we plot the same

graph again, where:

Log scale axes are

used

The velocity is made

dimensionless, from

vector is made

dimensionless

Choice of Wall Modeling

Strategy

Using a Wall Function

First grid cell needs to be 30 < y+ < 300 (Too low, and

model is invalid. Too high and the wall is not properly

resolved.)

Use a wall function, and a high Re turbulence model

(SKE, RKE, RNG)

Generally speaking, this is the approach if you are more

interested in the mixing in the middle of the domain,

rather than the forces on the wall.

Choice of Wall Modeling

Strategy

In the near-wall region, the solution gradients are very high,

but accurate calculations in the near-wall region are

important to the success of the simulation.

There are two choice:

Resolving the Viscous Sublayer

First grid cell needs to be at about y+= 1

This will add significantly to the mesh count

Use a low-Reynolds number turbulence model (like k-

omega)

Generally speaking, if the forces on the wall are key to

your simulation (aerodynamic drag, turbomachinery

blade performance) this is the approach you will take

Calculation of near-wall cell

size

A literature search suggests a formula for the skin friction:

Based of Plate and pipe

From τ w compute the velocity Uτ

Turbulence Near the Wall

Accurate near-wall modeling is important for most engineering

applications.

Successful prediction of frictional drag, pressure drop, separation,

etc., depends on reliability of local wall shear predictions.

Most k- ε and RSM turbulence models will not predict correct near-wall

behavior if integrated down to the wall.

Problem is the inability to resolve ε.

Special near-wall treatment is required.

Standard Wall Functions

Non-Equilibrium Wall Functions

Enhanced wall treatment

S-A and k-omega models are capable of resolving the near-wall flow

provided near-wall mesh is sufficient.

Turbulence Near the Wall

In general, ‘wall functions’ are a

collection or set of laws that serve

as boundary conditions for

momentum, energy, and species

as well as for turbulence quantities.

Wall Function Options y

u

The Standard and Non-

equilibrium Wall Function

options refer to specific ‘sets’

designed for high Re flows.

The viscosity affected, near-

wall region is not resolved. y+

Near-wall mesh is relatively

coarse.

Cell center information bridged Boundary layer

by empirically-based wall

functions.

Turbulent Flow Lecture

Turbulence Near the Wall

Enhanced Wall Treatment

Option

This near-wall model y

combines the use of enhanced u

wall functions and a two-layer

model.

Used for low-Re flows or flows

with complex near-wall

phenomena.

Generally requires a very fine Wall functions not used to

near-wall mesh capable of resolve boundary layer

resolving the near-wall region.

Boundary layer

Turbulent Heat Transfer

The Reynolds averaging of the energy equation produces a closure

term and we call it the turbulent (or eddy) heat flux:

Analogous to the closure of Reynolds stress, a turbulent thermal

diffusivity is assumed:

Prandtl number based on the Reynolds analogy:

equations

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