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The Luzon Literature
Background of Luzon

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by
land area. Located in the northern region of the archipielago. It is the economic and political center of
the nation, being home to the country’s capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country’s most
populous city

The 8 (Eight) Regions:

Region 1: Ilocos Region

This region is predominantly mountainous. The area and location is situated on the northwestern coats
of Luzon, the region covers an area of 12,840.19 square kilometers. Its coast extends from La Union
northwards to Ilocos Norte, while its river basins are found in Ilocos Norte and Pangasinan.

Region 2: Cagayan Valley

It is composed of five provinces, namely: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Viscaya and Quirino. Its
Regional Center is Tuguegarao City. Cagayan River, the country’s longest river runs through its center
and flows out to Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri Cagayan. Babuyan and Batanes
isalandgroups that lie in the Luzon Strait also belong to the region.

Region 3: Central Luzon

A combination of towering mountains, extinct and active volcanoes, lush, verdant farmlands, and
natural sea harbors. It is one of the leading growth regions in the Philippines, located at the heart of
Asia. It is composed of seven provinces, twelve cities and 118 municipalities. It includes all land area
north of Manila Bay from the tip of Bataan peninsula on the west, and all the lands north of the
Caraballo mountain on the east. It is the longest contiguous area of lowlands, and is otherwise known as
the Central Plains of Luzon.

Region 4a: CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon)

CALABARZON is designated as Region IV-A. The region is composed of five provinces, namely: Cavite,
Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, Quezon. It’s located in Southern Luzon, just south and west of Metro Manila
and is the second most densely populated region.

Region 4b: MIMAROPA (Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, Palawan)

The entire island of Mindoro, which is separated from the southern Luzon mainland, is composed of
Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro.
These two provinces are separated by a mountain ranges, running through the entire length of the
island, which serves as a natural and political boundary. The topography of Occidental Mindoro
generally rugged, with narrow strips of coastal lowlands. Its terrain is characterized by successive
mountain ranges, valleys, and elongated plateaus with rolling lands along the coastal region.

Region 5: Bicol Region

The Bicol Region also known as Bicolandia, is composed of three provinces of the Bicol Peninsula (Albay,
Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur ) , one southern end of Luzon Isaland ( Sorsogon ) and two island
provinces adjacent to the peninsula ( Catanduanes and Masbate). Th regional center is Legazpi City in
Albayprovince. The region is bounded by Lamon Bay to the North Pacific to the East and Sibuyan Sea and
Ragay Gulf to the West. The northern most province. Camarnes Norte is bordered to the North Province
of Quezon thereby connecting the region to the rest of Luzon.

Region 16: CAR (Cordillera Administrative Region)

The Cordillera Administrative Region was established on July 15, 1987 through Executive Rule No. 220
issued by then President Corazon C. Aquino. It’s comprised by the following provinces: Abra, Apayao,
Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga, Mt. Province and the characterized city of Baguio, officially known as the
Summer Capital of the Philippines. It is located in the north-central part of Luzon and is bounded by
Ilocos Norte and Cagayan in the North. Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija in the South, Cagayan Valley in the
east and the Ilocos Region in the west.

Region 17: National Capital Region (NCR)

Metro Manila is bordered by the provinces of Bulacan to the North, Rizal to the East and Cavite and
Laguna to the south. It is the smallest of the country of the administrative region, but the most populous
and the most densely populated. It is also the only region without any provinces.

The Literary works and Authors of each Region

Region 1: Ilocos Region
There are a large number of religious documents, poems, riddles, proverbs, epic stories, folk songs, and
other literary works that belong to this region.

Fiction Stories Novels

 Manuel Arguilla (La Union)
 Norberto Bumanglag
-How my Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife
-Morning in the Nagrebcan -Ti Agdamdamili
 Carlos Bulosan ( Pangasinan)
-American is in the Heart Essay
-My Father’s Tragedy
 The lion Dance
 Amador T. Daguio (Ilocos Norte)
-A wedding Dance  African American Dance
 Region of the Indian Ocean
 Francisco Sionil Jose (Pangasinan) Poems
-The God Stealer
-My Brother, My Executioner • Noli Pambid (Ilocus Sur)
 Pedro Bucaneg (Ilocos Sur) -Ayatko Kenka
-Biag ni Lam-ang • Kameah Pearl
• Kenny Oblero (La Union)

Region 2: Cagayan Valley

Ibanag folk poetry – purely sung which explains how it was handed down to the present
-Narrative, Romantic and Ridiculing.

• The Rural Maid – Fernando Maramag
• EMILIA – Leona Florentino
• Bigong Pag-asa –Isagani Cruz
• The presention – Fernando Maramag
• My Queen Tagala – Fernando Maramag
• Jose Rizal – Fernando Maramag
• Frustrated Wish – Carolina Arceo

Region 3: Central Luzon

Their works is had may different of Themes. Nature or happening in the society

Authors with works:

• Rommel N. Angara ( Aurora)
-Pa’no ang PASKO -Impeng Negro-Novel
-Ako’y tunay na pangahas -Tata Selo-short story
• Levi Celerio (Bulacan) -Moses,Moses- Drama/Play
-Basta’t Mahal Kita
-Umaga ng Neneng
• Juan Crisostomo ( Tarlac)
-Anac ning KATPUNAN
-Alang Dios


Is one of the regions of the Philippine is also designated as region VI – A and it regional capital is
Calamba City in Laguna. The region is composed of five provinces, namely: Cavite, Laguna,batangas,Rizal
and , Quezon. The regions name is an acronym of the name of these provinces. The area is rich in
history. It’s where the Philippines’ independence from Spain was first declared in 1898. It’s the
birthplace of national heroes such as Jose Rizal (from Calamba, Laguna), Emilio Aguinaldo (from kawit,
Cavite), Apolinario Mabini (from Tanauan, Batangas) and Miguel Malvar (from Sto. Tomas, Batangas).

List of Filipino writers:

 Francisco Arcellana
 Francisco Balagtas
 Lualhati Bautista
 Carlos Buloson
 Cecilia Manguerra Brainard
 Linda Ty Casper
 Gilda Cordero-Fernando
 Edmundo Farolan

Famous writers and Literary Pieces

Mars Ravelo (October9, 1916 – September 12,1988, Tanza, Cavite) was a Filipino graphic novelist who
created the characters Darna, Dyesebel, Captain Barbell, Lastikman, Bondying, Varga, Wanted: Perfect
Mother, Hiwaga, Maruja, Mariposa, Rita, Buhay Pilipino, Jack and Jill, Flash Bomba, Tiny Tony and
Dragonna among others.

Region 4b: MIMAROPA

MIMAROPA is one of the regions of the Philippines. It is one of two regions of the Philippines having no
land borders with another region. The name is a portmanteau combining the names of its provinces
which are Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon and Palawan.

On May 23, 2005, Palawan and Puerto Prinsesa City were named to Western Visayas by Executive Order
No. 429. However, on August 19, 2005 President Issued Administrative order No. 129 to hold the
earliera abeyana pending a review .As of 2010 . Palawan and the highly urbanized city of Puerto Prinsesa
still remain a part of region

Writer and Literary Artist

-Malas Leviste Jacob


 Glowing Embers
 The Sky reader
 A farms boy
 Make me a meat

Short story

 The beauty written

Region 5: Bicol Region

The Bicolano can write memorable and significant pieces.
Authors and Works:

• Bienvenido N. Santos
-Early Harvest
• Potenciano Gregorio Sr.
-Sarung Banggi (folksong)
• Jose Obias
-Our lady of Penafrancia
• Merito B. Espinas
• Teresita E. Erastain
-The Legend of Mayon Volcano
• Mariel m. Dela Cruz
-The House of a Gambler
• Remigio Laguno
-The Caroles
Carlos Ojeda Aureus
-Cathedral – landmarks in Bicol Fiction

Region 16: Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)

-is the only lang0locked region in the country. This region is home to numerous indigenous tribes
collectively called the Igorot.

-has abundant mineral reserves. These include metallic ores such as gold, copper, silver, zinc and non-
metallic minerals like sand, gravel and surfer.

-On august 18, 1908 during the American regime, Mountain Province was established by the Philippine
Commission with the enactment of Act No.1876.

-Republic Act N0.8438 dated December 22, 1997 created the Cordillera Autonomous Region. In January
1998, a group of lawyers challenged the constitutionality of the act. A plebiscite held on March 9 of the
same year was held and invalidated the act. The region was created but reduced to a regular
administrative Region.


 Bussan ko (My pig)

 A child name Butatto
 Banana
 Labeg
 Lidom

Short story

 The Tadpole and the Crab


 Bukag and Liway

 Kabbigat and Pali
 A tale told by a Father
 Who Ate His Own King


 Si Kabunian de Begas

Region 17: National Capital Region (NCR)

-it’s actually divided into four districts:

1st District: City of Manila- Manila itself. The capital city of the Philippines.

2nd District: Mandaluyong City, Maricina City, Pasig City, Quezon City and San Juan City

3rd District: Caloocan City, Malabon City, Navotas City and Valenzuela City

4th District: Las Pinas City, Makati City, Muntinlupa City, Paranaque City, Municipality of Pateros and
Taguig City

NCR does not have many provinces but composed of 16 cities and 1 Municipality, which is Pateros.

During Ferdinand Marcos Presidential Decree No. 824 created the Metropolitan of Manila (NCR)


1. Andres Bonifacio - Father of the Philippine Revolution

2. Emilio Jacinto - Filipino Revolutionist
3. Jose Dela Cruz - Known as Huseng Sisiw “HARI NG MAKATA”
4. Jose Corazon de Jesus - Known as Huseng Batute “KING OF BALAGTASAN”
5. Cecilio Apostol - Born in Sta. Cruz Manila
6. Faustino Aguilar - Filipino novelist, journalist and revolutionist
7. Amado V. Hernandez - A novelist,”makata”, “mandudula”, peryodista and Ordained as
“Pambansang Alagad ng Sining sa Larangana ng Panitikan. Known as “Ka Amado, Makatang
Mangagawa Bilanggong Makata”
8. Severino Reyes - Known as “Lola Basyang”. Father of “Sarsuwela/Ama ng Dulang Tagalog”
9. Liwayway Arceo - Feature, writer, novelist, narrator, translator, editor
10. Lualhati Torres Bautista - one of the most foremost Filipino female novelists in the history
of contemporary Philippine Literature

• Bahay Kubo (folksong)
• Banyaga (short story) – Liwatway Arceo
• Ibong Adarna (Epic) – Jose Dela Cruz
• Bata, Bata Pa’no ka Ginawa? (Novel) – Lualhati Torres Bautista
• Bugtong2x Butong binalot ng bakal, bakal na binalot ng Kristal- Lansones (Riddle)
• Never trust someone you don’t know (Proverb)
The God Stealer (short story)
By: Francisco Sionil Jose

The story begins with the two close friends, an urbanized Ifugao man (Philip Latak ) and
American business man ( Sam Cristie ).

Sam and Philip will be riding a bus heading to Ifugao. They are on their way to Ifugao for
one purpose: Sum wants to buy a genuine Ifugao God as souvenir and Philip was to help him
find an authentic one through his local connections.

Philip is a Christian who no longer has any respect or affection for the Ifugao customs and
religion. He considers himself a city boy and has no inclination to return to mountain life.
Despite this attitude, his grandfather is pleased to see him and decides to throw a big party
in his honor.

On the day of the party, Sam and Philip discover that no Ifugao is willing to sell their god.
And as a last resort, Philip offers to steal the god of his grandfather because he feels it
would be his way of showing his gratitude to Sam for giving him a rise at work.
The consequences of this act are severe. The next day, his grandfather died because he
discovered that his god was stolen. He also informs Sam that Philip will no longer be going
back to Manila.

Philip said “I will no longer be going back to Manila.” R Philip and find him working in his
grandfather’s house. Philip poignantly explains his reasons for choosing to stay in the

Philip said” I could forgive myself for having stolen it. But the old –he had always been wise,
Sam. He knew that it was I who did it from the very start. He wanted so much to believe that
it wasn’t I. But he couldn’t pretend- and neither can I. I killed him, Sam. I killed him because I
wanted to be free from these. These cursed terraces. Because I wanted to be grateful. I
killed him who loved me most…”

A faltering and stifled sob. In the dark hut, Sam noticed that Philip is now attired in G-String,
the traditional costume of the Ifugao. Furthermore, Philip is busy carving another idol, a
new god to replace the old one which Sam will take to America as a souvenir.

Character description

The main characters in "The God Stealer" are Philip Latak and Sam Cristie. Philip, also known
as Ip-pig, is an Ifugao who became a Christian and lived in Manila. By becoming a city
dweller, Philip became less sentimental with his cultural identity, beliefs, and customs. His
name was derived from the word Philippines. On the other hand, Sam Christie was an
American who wanted to view the rice terraces of the Mountain Province (also known as
the Cordilleras). He was also interested in purchasing an original figurine of an Ifugao god.
His name was derived from Uncle Sam, a representation of the United States. Philip and
Sam were co-workers.

Story Background

The God Stealer" is a short story by Filipino National Artist F. Sionil José. It is José's most
anthologized work of fiction.[1] It is not just a tale about an Ifugao stealing a religious idol,
but also about the friendship that developed between a Filipino and an American, a
representation of the relationship that developed between the "colonized" and the
"colonizer". The story was a first prize winner during the 1959 Palanca awards in the
Philippines. It is included in the book by José with a similar title, The God Stealer.

Lost Filipino’s Culture and Identity Colonial mentality of the Filipino people Filipino is rich in
cultural heritage.

• John Lester Blanco as Sam
• Alex Abdullah as Philip
• Ronald Monares as the grandfather
• Monica Perocho, Tata Abad, Jessa Macalampanas, Hamsia Amella, Alibai Sangaban as
Extra Characters
• Angeline Tabanao and Anna Mae Borja as Assists