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72 INNOVATION MODELS

A Grammar of Changes
that Change Entire Fields & History

by Richard Tabor Greene


72 INNOVATION MODELS
A Grammar of Changes
that Change Entire Fields & History

by Richard Tabor Greene


72 INNOVATION MODELS, A Grammar of Changes that Change Entire Fields & History
by Richard Tabor Greene
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNCONVENTIONAL MODELS (slightly hard) 57 culture of development 718
1. zenovation 16 58 darwinian culture evolution 722
2 digital world 35 59 innovation of copying (patterns in history) 727
3. creativity & novelty sciences 41 60 self organizing criticality 730
4. monastic change 47 61 adjacent beyond 732
5. innovation as culture work 53 62 simple programs 733
6. computational system type dialog 130 63 globalization theory 737
7. counter the culture of bigness 160 64 de-localization 739
8. innovation noise 168 65 de-mass-ification 742
9. academic failure 174 66 four social relations 746
10. new sciences (knowledge orgn) 205 67 diversity 749
11. nested anti-cultures 246 68 creative class 755
12 interacting religions of business 254 69 order for free 759
13 insight pulsed systems 261 70 lowered coordination costs 764
14 feminizations 290 71 tipping point blinks 768
15 creativity grammar 307 72 excellence sciences (higher standards) 774
16 other world explorer 324
17 purpose of all arts 332 MODELS FOR POSSIBLE LATER INCLUSION:
18 social automata 361 (brief summaries provided at book’s end)
19 biosense 410 73. fractal model expansion
20 mindscapes 427 74. design thinking genres
21 tipping point 431 75. meister+liebig
76. totalizing bodies of knowledge
22 (well located) brain-flaw-countering 439 77. decade colleges
23 intensified socialness 460 78. idea wave catch and substrate upgrade
24 non-linear commonsense 482 79. new basic unit of intelligence
25 become theorist 519 80. aternate delivery of functions
81. inhabit the future, puncture profession cultures
CONVENTIONAL MODELS (slightly boring) 82. long outrageous practical demand
26 disrupt 535 83. social plasma idea fusion interaction density
84. product as asserted self (insanely great)
27 search, psyche, social 538 85. fractal model rebalancing
28 democratic 542 86. trojan product
29 social life of information 546 87. meta-product (recursive service)
30 network hero (intellectual space) 550 88. strategically exaggerate obstacles
31 radicality 554 89. culture crossing
32 technology lives 558 90. morphologic forecasting
33 increasing returns to scale 565 91. structural cognition
92 funding pulses (long public sort private)
34 technology tipping points 558
35 strategy constipation 572
MODELS DELIBERATELY EXCLUDED
36 silicon valley introjection 577 There are 3 generations of academic models of innovation
37 niche riding niches 584 that really are just math games- take “diffusion” models as
38 de-organizing 588 an example--using gas diffusion thermodynamics maths for
innovation spread BUT any CEO who acts like or gets his firm
39 inventor mental practices 599 to act like “a gas” in order to innovate, is doomed = these
40 manage mental models 604 models are nice but useless. Kitchen sink academic models
41 inventor myth 611 are also dropped--you switch “being father” “run a scout
troop” in place of “innovation” in them and everything
42 network hole spanning 615 makes just as much sense. Harvard models of Silicon Valley
43 necessity-function-emergence 618 45 years too late are also excluded = too much old news, dis-
torted elitistly. Similarly “early adopter” models are just
44 career dynamics 622 monkey-see monkey-do re-written to impress in academic
45 venture start 625j prose. This book does not waste reader time on them.
46 founder stories 631 Indeed this book’s author is not fooled by tiny forced regular
47 trust theory of entrepreneurship 648 updates and changes masquerading as “innovation”--inflated
48 information ecology 654 by execs, academics, media wanting career progress and
sales, not social or customer progress. When all changes
49 open business model 670 become “innovations”--standards lower and markets later
50 media convergence 678 fail. Most new software apps, for example, are anything but
51 managing R&D 684 innovative--most are “me too” or “that like”.
52 knowledge management 691 The models above come from 2000 books and 8000 eminent
53 substance of style and design 701 people from 63 professions 41 nations whom I and my student
54 knowledge dynamics (dialectic idea evolution) 706 interviewed at the University of Chicago, Beijing University,
Keio University, Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology, TUDelft Uni-
55 social movement 710 versity, ETH in Switzerland. ALSO we go BEYOND BUSINESS
56 social revolution 714 in this book to ALL of innovation, not VENAL PARTS only.
CAUSAL MAP OF 92 INNOVATION MODELS (left to right)
SOCIALLY BORROW
MOTIVE DIVERGE THINK FIND & MIX
COMPUTE GROWTH
VOID + 1 innovation BASE 4 monastic KNOWL- 10 new sci- EXPLORE 2 digital world COMPU- 6 computa- RIDE 32 technology
BE change EDGE ences SPACES TATION- tional type lifespans
NEW AL SOCI- dialog
STRUC- ALITY
44 career 19 biosense TURE 52 knowledge 33 increasing 18 social 34 technology
dynamics management returns, net automata tipping points
econ
84 product as 79 new basic KNOWL- 39 inventor 48 info ecol- 63 simple pro- 37 niche riding
asserted self unit of intelli- EDGE mental prac- ogy grams
(insanely gence NEW tices
great) DYNAM-
ICS
PASSION 43 need-func- 91 structural 40 manage 70 lowered SOCI 28 demo- 50 media con-
+ IDEA tion-emer- cognition mental models coordination ALIZED cratic invent vergence
gence costs DO-ER
45 passion PLU- 3 creativity & 54 knowledge 16 other 41 lone inven- 53 substance
starts ven- RALIZE novelty sci- dynamics (dia- world explore tor myth of style and
tures ences lectic) design
46 founder 15 creativity META- 75 meister-lie- 24 non-linear 49 open busi- 48 darwinian
stories grammar KNOWL- big common ness model culture evolu-
EDGE sense tion
INTEN- 23 intense 17 purposes of 87 meta-prod- 27 search 55 social 66 four social
SIFY sociality all arts uct (recursive psyche social movement relation types
service) evolving
31 radicalized 25 become Like fairy tales, the 90 moroho 56 social revo- 77 decade col-
research theorist innovators goes into forecast lution leges
36 silicon val- 51 manage another world MIX 12 interact- 68 creative 78 catch idea
ley intro-ject R&D where all differs SPACES ing religions class wave +
of business upgrade sub-
from this world and strates
survives dangers,
47 trust span 73 fractal monsters, and evil 42 net 80 alterna- 81 inhabit the
venture model expand holespan tive function future, punc-
witches. The hero delivery ture profes-
innovator comes sion cultures
83 social 74 genres of back to this world 61 adjacent 29 social life FIX FAT 26 disrupt
plasma idea design think- with special pow- beyond of info AND
fusions ing ers developed in SLOW
ANTI- 5 innovation those battles, and 64 de-local- 57 culture of 35 strategy
as culture special perspec- ization developoment constipation
work tives, new things he
BEYOND 72 excellence 7 counter big- or she can notice 63 globaliza- 82 long outra- 65 de-mass-ify
science ness culture with new ways to tion geous practi-
(higher stan- react to familiar cal demand
dards)
and novel things.
58 exaggerate 8 innovation 67 diversity TUNE 21 tipping
obstacles noise There are many leverage COM- point
new such worlds to PLEXITY
People do innovat- 9 academic 59 innovate EMER- 60 self orga-
ings--that means failure explore with mod- via copying GENCE nizing critical-
els of innovation for error ity
passion plus idea,
fighting obstacles. 11 nested each. 89 culture 69 order for
anti-cultures crossing free
People need to Take that other
14 feminiza- 71 tipping
interact to get world stuff and
tions point intui-
make new struc-
diverse ideas to tures and processes tions
fuse--there are 22 brain flaw of knowledge with MIX 13 insight No lone inventor or idea suffices as any
various routes to counter tme. TIMES pulsed sys- one great invention requires a host of
such dense inten- tems
supporting other ones and systems to
sities of interac- 38 de-orga- Then you explore 86 trojan
tion. your new knowl- make it work. So the innovator mobi-
nize products
edge forms, shake lizes groups and communities of colalbo-
76 totalize 92 funding
Then there is the bodies of
and mix them up, pulses public
ration to elaborate the core insight into
motive to push knowledge
and alternate and private systems of value and delivery to the
merely beyond PULSES over time of world; coming to teh world by hitching
FIX 20 mindscapes engagement with
just because it is MIND 85 fractal detachment = till rides on burgeoning other trends, prod-
beyond. (relanc model balance INSIGHTS appear. ucts, and developments, and fixing what
e) fat old products, ideas, firms fail to fix.
by Richard Tabor Greene

TOTALIZE DECADE
BODIES OF COLLEGES
KNOWLEDGE
p205 11 p361 19
NEW NESTED
10 SCIENCES ANTI- 18 SOCIAL BIOSENSE
p174 (KNOWLEDGE CULTURES 12 76 77
p332
AUTOMATA 20
ORGANIZATION) p246 p410
ACADEMIC INTERACTING CATCH
PURPOSE
MEISTER + FAILURE RELIGIONS MINDSCAPES IDEA WAVES +
OF ALL
LIEBIG OF BUSINESS UPGRADE
9 CORE p254 17 ARTS RARE
p427
SUBSTRATES
GENRES OF OTHER IDEAS
INSIGHT
13 NON-LINEAR
KNOWLEDGE
TIPPING
21
WORLD NEW BASIC

3
DESIGN COMMON-
75 PULSED POINTS
THINKING EXPLORER SENSE 78 UNIT OF
SYSTEMS
p324 p307 p482 INTENSI- p431 INTELLIGENCE
74 FEMINIZA- 261 COUNTER
79
3 16
CREATIVITY TIONS 24p460FIED BRAIN FLAWS
DIGITAL CREATIVITY
GRAMMAR 14 SOCIAL-
NESS
22 27
290 p439
2 WORLD & NOVELTY
4 15 67 23
4
26 DISRUPT SEARCH, p538

2
SCIENCES p746 PSYCHE,
p35
p41 DIVERSITY
p519 p535 SOCIAL 28
MONASTIC FOUR DEMO-

1
ZENOVATION
p16
THE HEAVY
CHANGE
p47
66 SOCIAL
RELATIONS
EVOLUTION
LEVERAGING

25
BECOME
THEORIST
EXTENDING
CRATIC
iNNOVA-
TING p542
INNOVATION
NOISE
HITTERS
INNOVATION
AS CULTURE
5
p742

p749
68 TECHNOLOGY
GENERATIONS
SEARCH
29
SOCIAL LIFE
DE-MASS- & LIFESPANS OF INFO
73 p168 WORK IFICATION CREATIVE
p558
COUNTER COMPUTA- p53 CLASS p554
NET HERO p546
8 BIGNESS TION TYPE CONCENTRATIONS 32 RADICALITY INTELLECT
FRACTAL
p160
CULTURE DIALOG 6 GOALS SPACE ALTER-
30
NATIVE
MODEL p130
7
1 65 p755
31p550
FUNCTION

5
EXPANSION LUBRICATED 80 DELIVERY
CONCENTRATED INHABIT THE
92 FUNDING
PULSES
(PUBLIC + 58
DARWIN-
IAN
59
INNOVATION
CULTURE BY COPYING
EXCELLENCE
SCIENCES
p774 EXCELLENCES
ORDER FOR FREE
69 34 TECH
TIPPING
35
STRATEGY
81
FUTURE +
PUNCTURE
PROFESSION
(HIGHER
PRIVATE) p718 EVOLU-
CULTURE TION
ERROR 60 STANDARDS) p565 POINTS CONSTIPA-
TION 36 CULTURES
p722 p727 SELF p568 p572
OF INCREASING
SILICON
DEVELOP- ORGANIZING RETURNS VALLLEY
CRITICALITY TO SCALE
57 MENT NON-LINEAR p730 TIPPING POINT LOWERED
p759
33 p604 THINKING
INTROJECT
p577
DE-LOCAL-
IZATION
DYNAMIC
SPACES 61 72 INTUITIONS COORDINATION
COSTS MANAGE
DYNAMICS
37
p739 ADJACENT p768
70 MENTAL NICHE
RIDING

64 GLOBALI-
ZATION
p737 THEORY
SIMPLE
PROGRAMS
BEYOND
p732

62
8 MEDIA 51 71
p764

NET
p615 43
6 MODELS

40 INVENTOR DE-
MENTAL
SPACES
ORGANIZE
p588
p584

38
63 p733
50 CONVER- MANAGE p684
PROJECT
42 HOLE NEED-
FUNCTION-
p599
39
GENCE 52 SPAN
44
7
90 MORPHOLOGIC OPEN p678 REPERTOIRE LONE EMERGENCE
83 82
FORECASTING BUSINESS INVENTOR p618 LONG OUTRA-
91 STRUCTURAL KNOWLEDGE MYTH CAREER GEOUS PRAC-
MODELS
COGNITION MANAGEMENT DYNAMICS TICAL DEMAND
88 p670 p611 IDEA +
49 KNOWLEDGE
EVOLUTION
p691
41 PASSION +
p622 SOCIAL
PLASMA
EXAGGERATE
OBSTACLES
SOCIAL
REVOLU- DYNAMICS STYLE &
53 INFO ECOSYSTEM
PASSION 45 IDEA FUSION
ECOLOGY
TION DESIGN STARTS 84 PRODUCT AS
89 CULTURE p714 SUBSTANCE p654 VENTURES ASSERTED
CROSSINGS SOCIAL DIALECTIC p701 p625 SELF
TRUST
56 MOVE- KNOWLEDGE 86
48 SPAN IS
FOUNDER
STORIES
p710 MENT DYNAMICS 54 85 p648 VENTURE
p631
46
p706 TROJAN SPAN
55 PRODUCTS
FRACTAL 47
MODEL
87 META-PRODUCT
RECURSIVE REBALANCE
SERVICE

72 INNOVATION MODELS
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


UNCONVENTIONAL MODELS (slightly hard)

1. zenovation 16 First become a Void Master seeing beyond all that exists, no attachments, seeing
the ALL from a remote vantage point, then re-entering the World, re-doing all its
layers of assumptions in ways no one else can fathom or match. LSD, zen, Japan,
india, design.
2 digital world 35 See the information aspects of all things and revise the time and space nature of
all things based on a planet wide web of everyone and everything having real time
access to the information of all things. Spot under-used fallow resources, uncon-
nected things that combine for creativity,
3. creativity & nov- Where others employ one or two, at most, creativity sciences, you master and
elty sciences 41 deploy 5 or 10 or more of the 30 of them available, simultaneously--turning prod-
uct, service, ads, retail space, costume, events, announcements, repairs into Won-
ders.
4. monastic change Identify things done dozens of times a day, that are centuries old, unchanged, and
47 update them in the simplest possible ways that yet multiply their impact and pro-
ductivity by factors of 400% or more--then simultaneous use of them dozens of
times a day by billions will change history and entire fields.
5. innovation as Identify the dozen of so nested cultures inside other cultures, that each constraint
culture work 53 what people need, want, imagine, try, and by un-doing their limiting neurotic sta-
tus-generating influence, you do what each and all of them find impossible in ways
none of them try.
6. computational The five known types of computational system--brains, minds, societies, machines,
system type dialog biologies--dialog spawning ever more new forms of computational system to spot,
invent, go beyond--an expanding gyre of innovations, from seeing the computa-
130 tional nature, possibilities, and ecosystems of all.
7. counter the cul- Big anythings have a common set of culture traits that work against innovation--by
ture of bigness 160 mapping the contradictions, neuroses, biases, and bad elements of humanity
encouraged by size, and countering each of them, you create the miraculous para-
dox of huge organizations nimbly dancing into new nascent combining fluxing
evolving futures.
8. innovation noise A huge number of forces from male hormones, status and territory fights, primate
168 behaviors that bigness encourages, desire for promotion and little men feeling
unimportant saying a dozen different ways “mommy mommy look at me”--turn any
change or difference however slight and copy-cat into “innovations”--by subtract-
ing them out from all you see, hear, suggest, plan, and do, you aim at the actual
history and entire field changes possible.
9. academic fail- Schools do a lot of things to students to make them passive, filled with un-used
ure 174 ideas, “beating” each other in competitions, and the like; colleges fail to even try
to educate settling for job equipment and venal value installations--teaching hosts
of “right” models and formulas that will be out of date in months, that please pop
media--simply by countering all that schools and colleges do you amaze and “inno-
vate”
10. new sciences For 1000 years colleges worldwide have split knowledge into the same ancient cat-
(knowledge orgn) egories--the narrow people, skill sets, professions, disciplines of knowledge from
that, make all tiny-er and tiny-er fractions of all that is needed and known--simply
205 by re-organizing knowledge to fit the cross-world cross-culture cross-profession
cross-everything nature of what we all face, you innovate.
11. nested anti-cul- People moved to California to escape the snob hierarchy aristocratic English ways
tures 246 of USA East Coast and its Religion of Business; people moved from southern Califor-
nia to Palo Alto to escape the central broadcast media and passive consumption
patterns of Hollywood; people moved from analog tech to digital tech to escape
the narrow craft traditions and technologies of traditional fields and industries;
people moved from organizing around status ranks of monkeys to networks of
cooperating dispersed diverse entities--Silicon Valley contributed 8 times as much
to US GDP as MIT-Harvard for 50 years by these cultures consciously countered.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


12 interacting reli- There are 8 religions of business promoted by believers around the world--each
gions of business impervious to contrary data and imposing its preferred version of reality on situa-
tions no matter how cruel and unhappy the results--though each pretends to be
254 “science”, each is filled with delusional ways to do not actually have anything to
do with business or leadership. ALL the major global innovations in business prac-
tices and products of the last 500 years have come from ways of one of these reli-
gions of business, imported into others and adapted to the differing resources and
needs there.
13 insight pulsed The insight process is found in dozens of diverse areas of life--its alternation of
systems 261 engagement with detachment, ever more abstract representations, growing fail-
ure index, Despair Doorway to sudden avalanche changes of entire systems--these
dynamics are how we penetrate new cultures, perform in theatres, achieve self
change, mobilize team powers, and much else. Vendors push technologies that
only know how to increase connection, which reduces creativity greatly. Pulsed
systems structured along the insight process’ dynamics, create innovative results.
14 feminizations For eons the world’s systems have been designed and run by men and men alone--
290 till Europeans every 40 years killed 20 million or so of each other, as a regular
Christianity-endorsed hobby. The cruel stupidity and absurdity of these results,
did nothing to improve these horrid ways, systems, and results till recently.
Recently people have noticed how most problems and bad outcomes stem from
excess malenesses of various sorts, now being widely investigated. By countering
them as they are clarified, amazing changes and history changing innovations
result.
15 creativity gram- Though professors play a cruel pitiful game of “my model is better than yours” and
mar 307 “I have the rightest model” actual impact comes not from such narrow statistically
“validated” Harvard models but from deploying diverse SETS of such models,
selected so as to compensate for the biases, flaws, and others weaknesses of each
other. Seeing situations from the perspective of these “creativity model gram-
mars” allow innovation to result (where you replace single right-y models).
16 other world Innovations require two diverse cultures of effort--exploring an Other World of
explorer 324 ideas different than the ideas accepted in ours, and bringing new idea combina-
tions found there toward realization by finding ways to fit them into present cir-
cumstances--a different kind of finding. Find new idea combinations, find where
they fit and improve. Both lands are to be explored thoroughly.
17 purpose of all If you interview great artists in 63 fields and people self nominating as “greatly
arts 332 affected by arts” in the same fields you find them all repeating, what ends up as
64 basic functions enacted in lives by all arts. Later greatness of a work can be
predicted by how many, how distributed, how deeply a work enacts these func-
tions in viewers/users/audiences. Any product of change can be, in mid-design,
tweaked so as to enact more, more diverse, more strongly these functions--making
innovative outcomes, thereby.
18 social automata There is a more computational way of seeing everything we organize in science,
361 engineering, mind, and society. Populations of actors interacting, with someone,
possibly one of the actors, noticing and “tuning” how connected, diverse, and ini-
tiative-taking the population’s actors are--are a new way of designing and leading
things that surprise us, unintended, and emerge, reguiring use to notice, and
prune away noise from emergent signal. This is found on all size scales--a
resplacement for how we think/pllan, meet, discuss, lead teams, lead teams of
teams (organizations), get technologies-ventures-funds-people to interact.
19 biosense 410 Steel used to be our common sense of what “strong” is; now bone is our image--it
grows where under stress, and sense and fixes its own breaks. Humans, finally,
are shifting to biologic eco- evolutionary models and ideas and sense from old
Newtonian mechanics = everything has to be redone, innovated.
20 mindscapes 427 There are 25+ pairs of brain modules that act in opposition to each other; spot
which pole is each pair is emphasized by a field, person, project, or design and by
emphasizing the slighted pole, innovate.
21 tipping point The world is full of non-linear realities though our minds are filled with linear
431 models and traditions--by shifting our models to dynamic, evolving, non-linear
models we can spot tipping points were slight inputs change entire system states.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


22 (well located) There are over 180 documented replicated-in-research flaws in how brains process
brain-flaw-counter- reality; every minute of every day what we think, feel, and do is distorted or
harmed by many of them, but these effects are generally slight--at certain loca-
ing 439 tions for certain issues, their impact is huge and if noticed, blocked, or prevented
results in innovation.
23 intensified There are at least 16 ways of being social such that is several of them are intensi-
socialness 460 fied at the same time and place, innovation emerges.

24 non-linear com- There are particular genres, types, and flaws in handling system effects, and peo-
monsense 482 ple who abide among them all, mastering the recognition and handling of them all,
find their every step innovates--they inhabit a non-linear land others miss.
25 become theo- Similarly, people with more theories, more abstract ones, more diverse ones, more
rist 519 multi-level ones, more detailed ones--notice more and can imagine alternatives
other miss = they live in a bigger world and most of what they say and do, inno-
vates.
CONVENTIONAL MODELS (slightly boring)
26 disrupt 535 Large establish organizations by doing well their profitable traditional businesses
and ways guarantee failure--Danny Miller noted this in an article “Success Fails”
(always)--what works in your present framework bribes you to leave on the mar-
gins utterly new formulas that grow, unseen, and unminded till massive defections
from you to them.
27 search, psyche, The number of present needs, ideas, and ways grows exponentially allowing enor-
social 538 mous numbers of combinations = a space too vast to search effectively alone--so
innovation comes from reducing search spaces in clever ways, or increasing who
searches in clever ways.
28 democratized If you make a range from competitors, to customers of competitors, to your cus-
innovating 542 tomers, to your pioneer lead customers, to your inventive adapting-the-product
lead customers, to your sales and service staff, to your R&D staff--and processes
across that range to compile learnings to the next stage towards the interior and
push prototypes and ideas for testing out across the range toward the outside--you
expand “who invents” and increase innovation
29 social life of There is an invisible surround of unconscious routines and habits that makes any
information 546 existing device or technology work well for peoplel so that new ones, if they do
not fit those ways and instead require major shifts in them, will be rejected,
unless the new devices are designed so as to ease the transition-of-routines
involved. Innovations have hidden social life supports and opposers.
30 network hero A shared intellectual space among people across various organizations, nations,
(intellectual space) professions, develops and spawns innovations if we see beyond myths of the lone
inventor and marshal and welcome the diverse sources that have to interact
350 respectfully to get the new to appear.
31 radicality 354 There are degree of innovativeness in reality and to get home run innovations you
have to aim higher and farther, try more risky approaches, yet avoid giant expen-
sive falures that kill efforts--a weave of smaller scale doable inventions that pay
for big risks and delays of home run ones.
32 technology Innovations appear from riding waves of sets of inter-related new technologies
lives 358 that fit together--recognizing each set and fitting it rather than fitting past sets or
ones not yet emerging is key to being judged innovative.
33 increasing Network economics differs from soybean economics in that first msovers win all,
returns to scale learning costs lock in early ueers even to bad interfaces and features--so speed to
market and spread, even if profitless brings value to users of being able to
365 exchange with users of the same “wide spread” device--it is not just features but
links to many other users and their advice, apps, inventions that is value for cus-
tomers.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


34 technology tip- Create channels that amplify and develop intiutions, impressions that are vague
ping points 358 and new, judgments without solid data or basis, surprising changes and news not
understood--channel these to further investigation and confirmation rather than
dismiss anything not “solid” and “proven” and “data supported”---it is the slight
things the nascent vague things, the un-justified senses and impressions where
THE TRULY NEW appears--listening and developing that leads to big innovations
35 strategy consti- This is a model of how disruptors kills establish big firms--these firms get close to
pation 572 their lead customers who tweak existing offerings and refuse examination of new
techs = lead customer following kills big firms--because these lead customers CON-
TROL CEOs
36 silicon valley You need more than a population of ventures and proposed ventures--you need,
introjection 577 more importantly, a population of diverse, not agreeing with each other, compet-
ing, funders of venture ideas---so intrapreneuring fails unless there are plural
diverse, disagreeing, competing sources of funding in big firms. You also need a
population of diverse, disagreeing, competing sources of funding for your ventures
by OUTSIDERS--so internal judgements compete with outsider ones--only when
YOUR people can consistently and publically LOSE BADLY will your internal people
learn and change ways.
37 niche riding Trying to invent something totally new that sells is foolish. Instead invent some-
niches 584 thing totally new that customers of some wonderfully growing business/venture/
tech BADLY NEED NOW--hitch a ride on their growth. BUT do not trust them totally
and look around for another ride to hitch onto, hopping here and there, always
riding growth (markets, collectings of new customers) done by others. Let them do
the heavy lifting of getting eyeballs and attention.
38 de-organizing Large corporations are expert at standard delivery globally of standard sets of
588 functions--in variable laws, nations, climates, and so on. They perfect stamping
out variations. To expect them to innovate runs counter to all they aim for, are
expert at, and what makes them pay and be paid. To innovate you need them to
be expert at differing from themselves, trying multiple iffy things till some find
homes that lead to exponential growth, etc. You need a totally different size,
speed, set of people, goals, approaches, context. You have to UN-ORGANIZE to
venture and innovate, in ALL dimensions.
39 inventor men- Inventing is not at all what we think--inventors: make 50 patents to enable 1 to
tal practices 599 sell well, tend to invent ONE thing in dozens of diverse contexts lifelong, inventors
live in a land betwen future and present rather than visiting the new from time to
time, big organizations are noise filled and nasty competition filled so anything
new subtle nascent unclear unproven-by-data is ignored or killed outright = no
innovations not fitting existing interest groups. Big firms end up--always--using
the smallest possible amount of novelty able to make customers dis-satisfied with
what they were just sold by the company = resales so vastly easier cheaper than
sellilng to new people or selling new things to old familiar people.
40 manage mental The myth that we sense reality---we all sense a tiny portion of reality, we notice
models 604 what our existing mental models direct us to emotionally then conceptually.
Things not fitting our models are “noise” not signal and igored. The NEW is always
first NOISE. Innovation = how to turn NOISE into signal? Need diverse detailed
multi-level comprehensive abstract repertoire of models--to run by various NOISES
till one, seen via one of those models, becomes, magically SIGNAL. Cannot reuse
the repertoire--it has to continually grow and differ from its past self = unre-
warded models to keep minds open and beyond themselves = constant PAIN, so
innovation is rare.
41 inventor myth Giant global societial manias and LUSTS for a particular kind of newness break out-
611 -things fitting it, get notice, funds, tries, become innovations. Great things not
fitting it die, un-noticed forever. Timing is critical--to see and fit the mania of
your time. To cloak an old new idea in THIS era’s mania clothes for notice, accep-
tance, enthusiasm. The idea/device that contributes to, excites that global net-
work sharing that mania and LUST for newness of one type--is judged “an
innovation”---innovations are conttributions to particular communities. They are
not technical stand on their own ideas or things. Inventors are people parts of
whose lives from years ago happen to perfectly match a mania in the world NOW--
suddenly old stuff in them gets mobilized into a contribution judged “an innova-
tion”.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


42 network hole Human networks are lumpy--some few nodes have many shallow contacts, while
spanning 615 most nodes have specialized intentional few sharing values and experience with
them = deep ties, not weak ties. Therefore human societies have long strands of
subnetworks not aware of each other for years and decades, even if in the same
village or industry TILL some brave person, knowing they will be an alien not wel-
come, leaps to another subnet and makes a regular linkage there--overcoming lack
of expertise and respect in that other web and getting familiar there then bringing
back new stuff and gradually getting colleagues in one’s old web familiar and less
afraid of the new stuff = innovations.
43 necessity-func- A pair---an idea plus a person passionate about it--move in and out, up and down,
tion-emergence becoming disguised and visible, in one firm then another, handing the idea and
passion to someone else who takes over in other firms or regions--across years and
618 decades, TILL the idea-passion unit finds a HOME that loves it into realization.
During years of such up and down journeys thru disguises and past supporters and
enemies--the idea-passion tandem picks up tests, proofs, supporting other inven-
tions, gaining gradually credibilities. Historic inevitability combines with amazing
functionality combines with emergent form pruned of noise and distracting fea-
tures and functions.
44 career dynam- Nine or so drives that urge all humans in life, work themselves out in careers that
ics 622 are in organizations that are in societies with manias and enthusiasms of their era.
Bridging all of those drives into forms that promotion, career, organization society,
mania of era fit, call for, tolerate, or endorse/support is the problem all people
and careers try to solve. Actual career moves are particular innovations--offered
at possible exciting “fits” of promotion-career-org-society-mania. Most fail, but
some such moves get thru--fit perfectly all those layers and become “innovations”.
The drives urge the people to invent and pro-offer such career moves = possible
innovations and the layers promotion-career-org-society-mania ask for and give
limelight to career moves that might be useful = innovations. This is a continual
dialog for each person, and each of those layers a person offers career moves
through.
45 venture start Ventures start as a passion delivered to an audience as a message--the venture IS
625 the passion for a long time then it IS the message for a long time--only gradually,
as people notice and invest in the message, collecting technologies, markets, per-
sonnel, features, and lastly sales and profits. Going “real” too early and eagerly,
asked for by dead old East coast religion of business firms and investors and mar-
kets--kills all innovation. Going “real” should be delayed and slow--gradually turn-
ing passion into message into bits of feature and function into bits of sales and
market. The core is passion wrapped in message wrapped in a gradual accumula-
tion of “realities” of form, function, feature, sales.
46 founder sto- Five components make innovations---A VEHICLE, THE VENTURE, a larger VEHICLE,
ries 631 THE VALLEY (of small ventures seething in and out of existence), a PRODUCT that
seeths in and out of one form or another, DANGERS of too fast too early too much
compromise with forms and requests and demands of old establish firms/markets/
products, the RIDE from passion to message to accumulations of form and feature
to tested sales and distributors to selling out to ANGELS or IPOs to profits. These
five work together, emerge together, only when geography forces density of inter-
action stripping ego and hoarding info and nasty competing off of people making
for lubricated flows of funds, techs, people, ideas, across all bounds--seething.
Only a few places have the geography for such dense interactings and the norms
for sharing, not hoarding, non hierarchy, helping all--the REGION competes more
than people or firms.
47 trust theory of Migrants, immigrants create more new businesses than others. The scale of busi-
entrepreneurship nesses they create matches the size of social trust unit in their own culture and
community. Some groups are family limited in scale (Chinese everywhere), some
648 are congregational in scale (groups of families sharing rites and values), some are
profession in scale (friends and family in a few overlapping professions), some are
multi-profession multi-industry in scale. At every scale, the key is how many peo-
ple you make and keep promises with, without worry or legal guarantees or
enforcements OTHER THAN SOCIAL UNIT REJECTION OF TRUST VIOLATORS. It is
the shunning by whole communities of trust that allows legal free, bank free, insti-
tution free, fast, flexible building of enterprises--done with trust socially not oth-
erwise enforced. However a balance of warmth from trusting social ties and cold
evaluation of doing of roles assigned/assumed is needed to prevent trust declining
into corruption.
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SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


48 information Biology is replacing physics as the main science of this era. That means ecosys-
ecology 654 tems of products, technologies, tech ventures in valleys are seen and dynamics
among them views in analogy to ecosystem relations among species. That means
natural selection among them is noticed, using precise analogies with nautral
selection features--neutral drift, mutation in mutation rates, epigenetic inherit-
ance of learnings, and more. However, folk views of natural selection are terribly
wrong--it is NOT the fittest who survive but the organisms with the largest reper-
toires of useless neutral traits (some of which foster survival if environments shift
in a major way). Being optimally adapted to present circumstances, without such
a large diverse repertoire of useless traits--is fatal, suicidal = an example of “suc-
cess fails”. What natural selection generates, if not fitness, is new higher levels
of organization, where components lose some adaptiveness and flexibility for the
sake of powers to survive and adapt from higher level cooperations and structures-
-others in “society” levels fighting an enemy that would overcome you alone, for
example. Innovations are natural results of natural selection processes among
products, ideas, fund, venture competing in ecosystems of interaction.
49 open business Take the basic dynamics of Silicon Valley and spread them out like butter across
model 670 the customers, suppliers, competitors, production systems, etc. of a normal firm--
that is the base image of “open”-ing in this model. Unfortunately you do not have
the peninsula that Silivon Valley has to concentrate chance encounters. You do not
have 10+ years of 22,000 new wanted technologies funded by government of the
Apollo program (then forced commercialization suddenly of 10 years of high tech
doings). You do not have a beginning of the digital tech revolution in Fairchild and
its alums all over your non-peninsula. You do not have the nested anti-cultures of
California’s laid backness, celebration of “irresponsible mirth” group cultures,
backyard beer bashes in great sun, non-hoarding of persons-knowledge-ideas-
funds. In other words--this model pushes you to Silicon Valley-ize your ways,
though you lack huge generators that made Silicon Valley special. What you get,
then is “right ways” unsupported by what I mentioned above--a technician’s “short
cuts”--typical of professors without a real life and experience of the world. THE
BASIC PROBLEM IS CONSTIPATION OF FLOWS--in big firms and among firms around
them--nothing moves, everything fixed boxed by laws and lawyers and careerist
hoarding of execs on the way up. Everything is individualized--for the CEO mostly,
and a little leftover for the firm, and nothing left over for the future of customers,
society, and technology. Un-constipating is obvious---getting things to flow--but
this model does not deal with the norms, culture, geography, public-private pulsed
fundings, that get those flows to find homes for new tech ideas.
50 media conver- This is several nested revolutions from digital technologies in one package--from
gence 678 passive spectating to active influencing, from passive reading to billions of people
publishing, from things from one medium staying in that medium to people cut and
pasting across dozens of media--holographs, 3D cams, postscript, word processers,
emoticons, smartphone screenshots, mixed and matched at will. Ownership
changes, fees change. Why you make, what you pay, how you make, how you pay,
who makes and pays everything co-evolves confusingly--as soon as rules are done,
their basis is gone. THIS SITUATION WILL NEVER BE SOLVED---the frontier outruns
the rules and payments systems in perpetuity. But this is happening to publishing
media now--TV, movies, 3D, webcams, newspapers, print media, posters, e-post-
ers. It will happen to the rest of things via 3D printing, consumer design apps, and
gradually ALL of our economy and world will have vastly more people PRODUCING
not passively consuming. A cacophony of voices, ways, burgeoning changes--will
make FINDING and PERFECTING and USING/LEARNING communities vital. Groups
will CHOOSE to INHABIT portions of this fluxing mess--putting up tents, surveying
what is around, making use and sense of it. Publishing’s revolution now is EVERY-
THING’s later revolution.
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SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


51 managing R&D R&D is boring. Really--timid, cowardly, great ideas constantly killed by ignorant
684 MBA managers unable to understand technologies but pretending to grasp them. It
is really really boring. In its best, pre-MBA forms, it is all about PORTFOLIO MAN-
AGEMENT--herding a hoard of diverse PROJECTS as the prospects for them evolve,
decay, emerge, change, blend, split. MOST written on R&D as an innovation
model, is MBAish, sick, and humerously stupid. Harvard regularly burps up ridicu-
lous comic books by professors living in other centuries. Even Xerox PARC’s former
boss, center of the digital tech revolution, writes ponderous boring HBR press
books on “seeing differently” that see everything totally the same. Yawn.
There is another way, however--the complexity theory--social automaton. tuning
parameters of how agents in populations interact new indirect form of leadership.
Rather than ponderous delayed silly little project assessment tables and score-
cards (and kissing up of top engineers to their “superiors” MBAs bosses) large
diverse populations of projects, half from insiders and half with outsiders, inter-
act, spawning emergence of blends, clumps, pathways of new projects. Pruning
noise from signal, sampling the interactions in mid-process, expanding and con-
tracting population bounds in outcourcing experiments and commercialization con-
centrations are some of the operations applied here to entire populations of
projects. It is NOT about evaluating the individual project but managing emer-
gents from the population of interacting ones.
52 knowledge Individual people ARE knowledge interfaces in this model, who locate themselves-
management 691 -their minds--in intersecting flow of knowledge, often constipated by organiza-
tions/executives/East-coast-religion-of-busines-norms. Knowing, inventing,
learning, applying are FOUR distinct cultures at war with each other--pretending
they are one “organization culture” is a trick by venal CEOs and MBAs to rip all off
for their personal wealth building projects. Vendors push biased limited technolo-
gies that hinder knowing, inventing, learning, applying in unadmitted ways--new
systems cost lots unadmitted. There are 64+ ways organization learn and each
new device, system, product, and technology has to be examine for which of them
it helps and hinders. Violating borders = getting things to flow = is the main job
and constipated flows are the norm (and why big firms fail). To flow requires to
violate. That means managing knowledge to the point of innovations requires a
CULTURE OF VIOLATING BOUNDS--not something taught in MBA programs. Knowl-
edge appears in particular formats--people using the same ideas packaged in dif-
ferent formats stupidly argue and fight--translating idea across formats is KEY TO
GETTING IDEAS TO FLOW.
53 substance of If global warming does not destroy all rapidly we face a world of extreme produc-
style and design tivities making essentials widely and cheaply available, though perhaps without
jobs for most. National stipends may result or some unforeseen system (everyone
701 a servant for some rich cocaine addict is one alternative promoted by right wing-
ers).
Whatever the income base of populations--super productivity will make everyone a
producer. What happens to the world, culture, economies when everyone is a pro-
ducer? Style and Fashion and Design rule. The value added is surprise, amazing
greatness, rare perfection in a world of opportunists, and ALSO, importantly FIND-
ERS whether apps or communities or tours or media. There will be so diverse
many options and inventions that that rate of evolution making FINDING values for
you an immensely growing in difficulty task. CREATORS and FINDERS will be the
polarity between poles of which everything orients and takes place. New princi-
ples of production appear--UGLINESS as the cost of failed attempts at new BEAU-
TIES. Districts will become vital as concentrations of fast interactions that get
ahead of others elsewhere not as passionate about that districts chosen main
direction.
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SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


54 knowledge Study the history of ideas, publishings, awards in any field for a century and you
dynamics (dialectic find huge generational effects--the present generation A’s idea countered by the
next B generation in tern attacked by revived generation A idea in the hands of
idea evolution) 706 generation C. This is one of dozens of knowledge dynamics repeated in every
field’s history over intermediate time spans. Another is winning ideas in long idea
conflicts, incorporate the loser ideas they beat, as parts of themselves (incorpo-
rated into their contexts), but later generations free those loser ideas thusly con-
strained, to use them against established contexts-ideas. There are dozens of
these, You innovate in an inverse U function way here---conforming to, fitting into
these dynamics ENOUGH to be understood and felt as a contribution and violating,
challenging such dynamics enough to interest and be seen as expanding ways and
minds in the field. Too little fit and you are dismissed as alien junk, to much fit
and you are dismissed as me-too and not a contribution. Processes such as the
above lead to overall fractal shapes of ideas in a field--trees of repeating polari-
ties/oppositions on all size scales. Each knowledge dynamic is something for an
innovative idea to RIDE on; each fractal tree is a PATH for such RIDES to take place
on.
55 social move- The famous Kuhn model of science as established paradigms attacked, de-throned,
ment 710 replace with new ones, fleshed out till they are attacked--is part of this social
movement model of innovation. Alternatives are born again and again without
changing entire fields till one of them surprisingly causes sudden widespread
defections from the field’s main models. Latent unadmitted, hidden frustrations
and doubts build up--that career systems force into suppression (for promotions
kissing up to established figures and their ideas is essential). This leads to the
famous Danny Miller Success Fails event--where all become sychophantic copies of
top leader biases till not enough variety exists to survive even slight changes of
environment. Innovation are one-of-many attempts at new ways/ideas that,
unpredictably, happen to cause widespread defection from old ways. This is, as
Par Bak’s Nobel Prize sandpile research demonstrated--a matter of luck and chance
and timing more than a matter of features of the item stimulating defections.
56 social revolu- Some last straw causes liberation from old ways, into a lonely no man’s land,
tion 714 where you encounter other liberated ones and freely try to build alternative bet-
ter ways and institutions--if you succeed, suddenly a new institution type emerges
and along with it a new type of happiness--public happiness--the joy of changing
history then and there by your doings here and now. That leads to your inventon
becoming a hsitoric dream to others who copy you, flock to you as disciples, and
replicate your invention. All that newness has to be protected from establish
forces of the past trying to assimilate away what is new and challenging to them.
You innovate by supporting these dynamics--last straw, liberation, no man’s land
marginal survival, finding other liberated ones, together trying out new inventions,
success generating public happiness, becoming historic dream for others, conserv-
ing the new from forces of the past.
57 culture of Cultures of persons, groups, nations, firms that develop economically share 20
development 718 characteristics, worldwide, in three main groups: a population of strivers, afford-
able available training for needed roles, and a reliable intermediate future allow-
ing people to invest effort, funds, facilities. Where these three are present
dynamics among the population of strivers, using the training, spawn myriad emer-
gent innovations over intermediate futures kept reliable, so invested effort pays
off.
58 darwinian cul- This is Darwin’s natural selection process. It occurs among products, among tech-
ture evolution 722 nologies, among tastes and fashions in markets, in mind of competing ideas, in
regions competing for inhabitation by the “creative class”, and so on. Natural
selection in all these areas is different than natural selection among carbon based
DNA coded lifeforms, in subtle ways and obvious ones. That makes innovation
hard--1) understanding biologic natural selection well enough to spot or make sim-
ilar such dynamics among products, tech ventures in valleys, etc. 2) mapping
those biologic dynamics intelligently to take into account the different substrates
of inheritance, mutation, cross-over, species formation, trait evolution. Example-
-it is not the fittest that survive, but those with the largest repertoires of now use-
less traits who survive. Two, natural selection generates not fitness but higher lev-
els of organization. Seeing analogs of these among products, techs, tech
ventures, ideas--leads to innovations.
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SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


59 innovation of Errors in copying, misunderstanding local contexts of use, misunderstanding your
copying (patterns own contexts of use, mis-seeing what you are copying and how it works--these are
some of the ways that copying nearly always results in innovation. Japan took
in history) 727 Feigenbaum, Deming, Juran ways of totalizing handling of a body of knowledge--
quality knowledge--and used them to erect a counter to ordinary Japanese vertical
hierarchy monkey cultures of management. TQM was a counter to Japan’s man-
agement culture but not necessarily a counter to non-Japan ones--so its powers
abroad are various, depending on the degree to which foreign use environments
suffer the same weaknesses as traditional Japanese management--manging by
opinion of high ranked monkeys, management by blaming nearest workers for pro-
duction faults, management by right answer not statistics, management by verti-
cal boss pleasing at the cost of ignoring horizontal customer needs. Americans
ruined TQM’s power by individualizing it, keeping stats for managers not workers,
and the like BUT some Americans switched for Japanese stats, US artificial intelli-
gence software, turning statistical quality circles into knowledge modeling circles.
Such adaptations end up becoming innovations at times.
60 self organizing Humans are an innovaton made by natural selection processes. Life is an innova-
criticality 730 tion made by natural selection processes. Natural selection is an innovation made
by the universe somehow. The universe itself, measured this way, is MORE INNO-
VATIVE than humans are. Humans innovate by studying and borrowing from how
the univere itself invents and innovates. Some systems become critical--where
slight changes of input, exactly like many similar others, have totally different and
bigger results--changing entire system states. Some systems do more--they self
organize till they are at such critical values, again and again--ready for a slight
input to lead to system wide emergent patterns of great complexity that no ele-
ment in the system intended, planned, invented. Inventorless Inventions--this is
called and it won a Nobel Prize for its inventor--Par Bak, in 1972. You can spot
these dynamics going on in any human group and prune noise from around it, to
see the emergent inventions that from time to time appear, rather than losing
them in the noise of human intended designs and inventions. The model of innova-
tion uses human projects and invention efforts as platforms for spotting by pruning
noise away, innovations emergent from systems that no one planned or intended or
could have imagined.
61 adjacent Each new idea or device invention gets added to our world and mentally we can
beyond 732 combine it with all prior ideas and device inventions. Most of those combinations
will be junk, but a few, always will become still newer inventions. The possible
combinations expand exponentially in this sceme, making the actual new inven-
tions also expand exponentially. You innovate here by developing a repertoire of
diverse frameworks--comprehensive enough, abstract enough, detailed enough,
multi-level enough, numerous enough to SPOT emergents of value and prune noise
away from them. The key is searching this enormous space of possibilities by an
equally enormous personal library of frameworks for spotting value.
62 simple pro- The stripes of zebras, the random branchings of blood vessels, the one photon sen-
grams 733 sitivity of retinas, the other organism systems that operate at the physics maxi-
mum possible, somehow found and invented by natural selection--all evince
immense complexity of structure, process, or behavior. This complexity, however,
comes from extremely simple rules, iterated. Proof that, contrary to human
norms, complexity comes from extreme simplicity has been developed in a branch
of computer science--automata theory--whose bible is one book by Stephen Wol-
fram A New Kind of Science. One dimensional cellular automata games have been
proven by Wolfram capable of the most complex behaviors and outcomes of all
brains and computers possible. About 35 out of 200+ such automata have this
General Computational Equivalence trait. Social ways to organize people and
work in automata formats--automata are the simplest thinkable machines and
social arrangements of people in such arrangements are vastly more creative than
usual brainstorm sessions. Populations of projects, of small tech ventures, of
ideas, of engineers, of ideas can be structured in automata formats, innovating as
nature invented zebra stripes (spaced so as to make running zebras disappear in
tall grasses they live among).
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SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


63 globalization Every home in the world is a collection of global things--each locale is global in
theory 737 this sense. Systems, increasingly, are getting global so anything can get delivered
quickly locally and local productions can get global exposure rapidly and inexpen-
sively. Locals becoming global and global things getting into all locales--these
twin forces relativize local absolutes, undermine tribal norms, give proof that all
local ways are suboptimal in every sense except that they are already there and
imposed on all. Migrations result as local values are seen--always everywhere--
wanting. Yet the load of makng your own self freely from a globe of alternative
components scares and overwhelms local people, forcing some of them into long-
ing for rigid set hierarchies and ways of centuries ago. But wishing the globe away
and wishing the mixing of local with global away will not stand a chance unless all
modern media are refused and all trade is refused. The globalization processes
are FORCING ALL LOCALITIES to get seen and used as distinct unique innovations
when exposed to global audiences. Some fits will be found, even if evil ones at
times. Similarly many things gone global, when penetrating locales will be experi-
enced as serious innovations in local ways and potentials. Globalizing is innovat-
ing.
64 de-localiza- Global things, views, programs, lives entering each locality involves kicking people
tion 739 into making their own selves, assembling from an entire globe of alternative styes,
skills, values, jobs, careers, family types. This ia a heavey self reflection burden,
particular due to the expert system society type it leads to--where many forms of
self care require you individually to find and research and assemble teams of doz-
ens of narrow speciality professions, no member of which actually takes responsi-
ble for your overall good outcome. This is such a heavy burden that people
collapse into longing for rigid hierarchic localities they fled and freed from. Each
person is him-/her-self a potential innovation, though most of these self built per-
sons fail in the sense of not meeting a lot of their dreams, aspirations, and needs.
Many succeed however, making populatins of person-innovations that interact to
spawn businesses, styles, shows, new experiences, new expert services for others.
65 de-mass-ifica- Uniform mass manufacture creates global within-home diversity. Institutions and
tion 742 products are wrong size: too big and too little at the same time (family sizes are
now both too big and too small at the same time). We are more and more together
in loneliness. We yearn for rigid hierarchies we just worked hard to liberate our-
selves from. The above paradoxes are generating bottom up mid-range institu-
tions, processes, communities to fill out and fix the paradox results. Between
global and local an entire new self- and group-built world is emerging. This is the
emergence of dozens, hundreds of inter-related innovations, continually invented
and launched to fill voids in our too big and too small policies, results, institutions.
Mass means for custom designs, delivery, to global markets means each locale
becomes innovative when launching its views and ways globally.
66 four social rela- There is a direction of evolution--things start from communal sharing, through
tions 746 hierarchic ranking, through reciprocating exchanges, to market pricing. Sex was
originally communal, all with all in tribal festivals, then was stratified by status
ranks, then was mutual exchange, then in cities becamse bought and sold. Every-
thing else traverses these stages of treatment. Innovations are all merely stages
along this journey, each new stage done with and as new innovations.
67 diversity 749 There are many kinds of diversity--gender, age, era, nation, culture, profession,
personality, educatedness, etc.--which map onto the many types of task to be
done--some forms of diversity fit well some forms of task. However diversity
drives people crazy, they avoid it--though it may improve innovativity of out-
comes, for many it is not worth the hassle. For diversity puts the huge uncon-
scious iceberg of effortless views and ways of you against the equally huge
unconscious iceberg of effortless views and ways of me--which always are differ-
ent. When together neither you nor I can do anything effortlessly--as we do not
share growing up and mastering same routines. People hate this effort of having
to operate without their effortless unconscious routines and views. They avoid it.
To TURN DIVERSITIES OF VARIOUS TYPES INTO INNOVATIONS you have to build stuff
(ways) that overcome this COST OF OPERATING DIVERSELY. Innovation comes from
successful targeting and achieving of that machinery.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


68 creative class Cities are insight processes in this model. They collections of diverse populations
755 interacting, from which unintended inventions and innovations naturally emerge--
if someone spots them and separates signal from noise. To turn the turmoil of
mixing in cities into innovations you have to have some minds as diverse as what
emerges in terms of diverse within-mind frameworks that SPOT different emer-
gents and SPOT uses that amaze with them. Cities enact on plural size scales ALL
the dynamics of the INSIGHT MODEL of INNOVATION presented in this book: alter-
nation of engagement with detachment, applied to ever more abstract renderings
of situations, collecting failed solution attempts, indexng them lovingly till they
inversely specify what eventual solutions must be like, till a sudden avalanche
event occurs, the punch-line of a slight idea leading to entire re-seeing of every-
thing in the situation = eventual solution. The Despair Doorway--you have to try
all you know and can imagine and FAIL, get into enough despair to hate the parts
of who you now are in the way of solution enough to change those usually self-
loved parts, THEN the door to solution opens--when you stop loving those old parts
of your own self and its ways. Cities compete for the global mobile creative class
of innovators by selling themselves AS INSIGHT PROCESSES, not as sets of buildings
and facilties. Interestingly homosexuality tolerated widely is a key indicator of
presence of these city wide city deep insight processes in robust operation.
69 order for free There is a critical value in populations interacting at which tiny local actions have
759 some global results, enough to create emergent patterns of great complexity but
not the total chaos of every local impacting the global state. The edge of chaos
this value of some critical parameter of the population’s interactions is called.
Feedbacks on all size scales, both negative and positive, kept in equilibrium of
sorts, collapse with a few growing enormously at such critical values. Complex
structures or behaviors can emerge that no unit in the system plans, intends, or
invents. Invention without innovators again (see above). This goes for teams,
congresses, corporations, Silicon Valley entities interacting. Finding such critical
values and tuning till amazing emergent complex results emerge is an art, only
now being engineered--in the past it happened as sudden unplannable INSIGHT
processes. Design is being challenged by the inventiveness for free of such emer-
gent results.
70 lowered coordi- New ditigal info technologies and global transport and smartphone infrastructures,
nation costs 764 with the world wide web--are changing time and space--bringing things closer to
other things in both time and space terms--shrinking the size and delays between
things. This makes reactions occur enromously faster, increases diversity of what
interacts with what, and speeds evolution in all processes, markets, minds. Coor-
dinations costs lower greatly--making doing everything in one vertically integrated
organization too slow and expensive. Populations instantly re-configurable can
form temporary coalitions to do things. Auctions replace transfer pricing among
fixed firms. The results appear---coalitions of ventures meet and associate with
each other on the web, big organizations dissolve into populations bidding and
interacting, tuned not structured; larger scale populations OF LARGE FIRMS appear
dynamically cooperating and competing at the same time with myriad projects
shared between them. As a result all types and sizes of diversity get found and
combined more--resulting in more innovative everything.
71 tipping point Non-linear dynamics within minds meet non-linear dynamics between minds so the
blinks 768 form of output from persons and organizatins becomes viral spreading epidemics
that pulsate, throbe for a while and ebb away in waves. Natural selection pro-
cesses among ideas contending get resolved into decisions and actions when tip-
ping points among them get reached, avalanche INSIGHT events changing whole
mind commitments and views. Similarly natural selection processes among prod-
ucts, firms, techs, persons, funds, funders in societies get resolved when tipping
points get reached, spreading one pattern globally in viral dynamics. To GO VIRAL
a thing in heads has to cause between idea tipping and a thing in society has to
cause between contender tipping. Aiming mental processes at finding such
between idea tipping points and aiming innovations released into society at soci-
etal tipping points becomes our new non-linear path to innovation.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


72 excellence sci- All inherited myths, certainties, philosophies, virtues, norms and ways get eroded
ences (higher stan- by comparison with an entire globe of alternative ones--making local excellences
not so excellence emotionally and making local certainties not so certain emotion-
dards) 774 ally. What is excellent here and now among my friends is vile, evil, a crime in
other locales and vice versa. Everyone certain they are right THEREBY are wrong.
Rightness in principle is always wrong. That leaves what is good, what is excel-
lent--Plato’s topic in his books--to be defined in less “righteous” local, bigotted
ways. All else depends on proper defining of the good and the excellent. Each
global innovation team in industry experiences divergent ideas of good and excel-
lent at both a great problem and sometimes a great boon. Empiric, not religious,
not philosophic, not political, not ideological defining of the good and the excel-
lent needs doing. When that is done you get 50+ ways to rise to the top of nearly
any field by being “excellent” in one of those 50+ ways. Some of those ways are
ways to create--there are 30 creativity sciences: inventing, composing, perform-
ing, designing, innovating, and 26 others. Each of those creativity sciences itself
is composed of dozens of model of itself--60 ways to create, 72 models of innova-
ton, 64 approaches to design, and so on. Any one model will have, on average, 50+
parameters of how it gets used and done around the world and throughout history.
This hierarchy of plural fields and models--is our route to global forms of excel-
lence in a world where imposing ANY local idea of it, turns to mass killing, and
evil.
MODELS FOR POSSIBLE LATER INCLUSION:
73. fractal model Apple takes all the existing features of a product and pushing innovation in ALL of
expansion them at once--to do this generally you have to build a fractal model of all the key
features of something, then plot that in a next larger fractal, with blank boxes at
every item on every leve, to hold NEXT innovations all over the product on all size
scales for next versions. This creates a SENSE OF EXCELLENCE so rare in our era of
opportunist money grubbing by MBA infected minds.
74. design thinking Just as there are 120 models of creativity, 72 models of innovation, 256 founder
genres dynamics in Silicon Valley, 420 natural selection dynamics--there are plural models
of doing design. No one has, thus far, built good meta-models of all those models
in relation to each other, so design colleges generally do not have grad schools and
Ph.Ds. Design thinking is a pop buzzword--that no one defines because very little
overt thinking goes into design. Most consultancies are at the level of adding
grandma, barking dogs, and forest rangers to brainstorm sessions in order to IDEO
and Frog their design thinking processes and results. Pitiful. When you do the
hard work of interviewing hundreds of actual designers in 60+ design genres, you
get 64 models of design, that work like a grammar unconsciously in the minds of
great designers. Designers generally at 30 to 35 years old reach a professional pla-
teau--where if they keep going as they are, the will drop into the obscurities of
history unnoticed forever. What got them fresh out of school excited--making
actual monkey, finding clients not avoiding all innnovation, no longer works when
designers face their own deaths--they want to leave their mark and how they were
trained won’t get them impacting their entire field and history. More Red Dots do
not history make--nice but no banana. A grammar of 60+ design approaches, made
explicit from unconsious contents offers a DIRECT ROAD to changing all of your
design genre and history.
75. meister+liebig You have a population of practitioners, and another population of research inven-
tors and TOGETHER they innovate. A continual stream of research results gets
turned into experiments in improving practice by both populations cooperating.
This is the meister plus research grad school system invented by a German, Liebig-
-a rural pharmacist assigned to train young pharmacists. He assigned each to a
research a different topic and ended up a few years later with half of all chemistry
research articles published in European journals done by his students. German
leaders eventually noticed this and made it the basis of a national graduate school
new institution, copied by the USA in the 1930s. Innovation in this system is a join
effort of two quite distinct populations.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


76. totalizing bod- Japan took a body of knowledge--quality knowledge--and instead of treating it via
ies of knowledge professions as the West did, treated it via several totalizations, so all managers
and all workers were made responsible for continual quality improvement in their
work areas. TQM that resulted conquered 11 global industries in every non-Japan
nation in the 1970s and 1980s. Harvard professors, lied, and stripped the word
Japan off and substitutes “lean” so professors could pretend the 30+ totalization
tools Japan invented were professorial bright ideas from elites. This was both dis-
honest and sick. 1) the versions of the tools in the US, for example, were individ-
ualized, made analytic and complex, elitized, ruining their power vis-a-vis Japan
2) where Japan had invented TQM as a counter culture to usual vertical Japanese
management culture, the West did not make TQM into a counter to their vertical-
ity cultures (elites just made non-elite parts of TQM elite-y). WHAT OTHER BOD-
IES OF KNOWLEDGE IF TOTALIZED WOULD CONQUER (OUT PRODUCE) THE WORLD?
Robotics--Japan followed TQM with a whole workforce totalization of robotics
knowledge--producing, for example, simple reliable easy to learn and use Panaro-
bots that defeature Phd. developed MIT US robots that Ph.ds could not safely pro-
gram and set up. This is innovations of enormous power by totalizing bodies of
knowledge.
77. decade colleges There used to be one college experience in lives--between decade two and three.
BUT people go back for masters degrees between decade three and four, and again
between decade four and five, and retirees go back for degree between decade 8
and 9. College as a withdrawal from the world into professional study is becom-
ing an every decade thing. This is the decade college idea---bringing PRACTICE
experience in the form of new cohorts to RESEARCH results and initiatives every
TEN years. This is a speeding up and extension of the Liebig + meister formula for
innovation.
78.idea wave catch About every 8 years major consulting firms start un-selling what they just pro-
and substrate moted and start pushing something newer and much better. In truth every 8 years
new idea waves wash over every field of knowledge, profession, and research
upgrade organization. For example, complexity theory washed over all in the 1990s as big
data washes over all since 2010. Other waves of technology infrastructure come
in waves too--a PC wave 30 years ago, a tablet wave 10 years ago, and a smart-
phone wave 5 years ago. You are FORCED to catch BOTH waves to some extent--
as everyone else around all over society will. HOWEVER innovators are those who
pioneer catching both wave types and seeing what their contents can be made to
do. As Jobs at Apple insisted--engineers are trained to tweak and have no experi-
ence of the serious experimentation and testing needed to find what a new tech
can actually be made to do. Waves to made to do experiments to major innova-
tions.
79. new basic unit European elites leading Europeans into killling millions of each other every 40
of intelligence years for centuries; American elites leading Americans around the world losing
wars on the world’s poorest peoples decade after decade. Harvard and MIT elites
on Wall Street losing 3 trillion dollars now debt on government balance sheets, to
pay bankers for cocaine treatment programs for their kids--as banker money shuf-
fles blew up badly. These are, according to British and Dutch researchers clear
evidence that lone heroic males are incapable of inteligent leadership. Shrivastra
and Minzberg followings of executives showing no impacts of all their “leaderly-
looking actions” on a smaller scale indicates the same thing, will less dead bodies.
The male leader solidly dis-credited himself in history. What unit IS capable of
leading? A male-female pair (the Perones?) does not work as the man commands
the woman. A male with two females trio? Experiments in these new units of
intelligence are going on all over research organizations--finding that there IS a
unit of intelligence that works vastly better, at least for innovation, than heroic
lone males commanding--trios of two women with one man. The outcomes of such
new units are nearly all innovations--as they end up treating every issue totally
differently than lone males in the past did (males tend to use every issue for per-
sonal advancement never organizational improvement or service).
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


80. aternate deliv- If you find what functions achieve DIRECTIONALITY in groups and DIRECTEDNESS in
ery of functions them (the former, everyone aiming the same direction; the latter every action
moving in that direction in actuality), then you can examine ALTERNATIVE WAYS to
deliver such functions other than present monkey hierarchies of males--a fixed
expensive inventory that leads to constant over-shooting (too much managing) and
under-shooting (too little managing). Delivering functions not by a specially en-
perked social class is both faster and more effective. Many alternative systems of
function delivery have been developed in Nordic Europe, canada, Brazil and else-
where. These forms of leadership liberate huge innovation forces--removing the
thrall of commanding males and their primate intimidations--they way so many
wives make everything better as soon as their long-time husbands die.
81. inhabit the Many people in Silicon Valley talk about the impossibility of innovating outside that
future, puncture geography---each daily place and encounter involves chance encounters with so
many ideas, people, initiatives, ventures, funders. Going to the store, to the
profession cultures beach, picking up kids, backyard parties, news, local clubs and sports--everywhere
informs. There is so much that is new, experimental, being tried for the first time
in history around you that you NO LONGER LIVE IN THE PRESENT. You are LIVING IN
ATTEMPTED FUTURES. Your natural thoughts and reactions become innovations,
without any personal effort to be smart or innovate. Your daydreams, conversa-
tions, musings, goofy cartons---it all becomes innovative when viewed outside Sili-
con Valley.
82. long outrageous Long term high tech demanding public funded projects of great aspirational
practical demand appeal--the US man on the moon Apollo program is the perfect example--develop
lots of tries and re-tries of great new techs needed, till suddenly at project’s end-
-everyone has to sell commercially to survive. This becomes a Pulsed System of
waves of public then private financing, forcing utterly new things attemted then
forcing finding uses, prices, customers for them. From this PULSING innovations
emerge.
83. social plasma Concentrate a lot of people in a small peninsula. Add lubricants for flows and
idea fusion interac- interactions such as anti-hierarchy egalitarian norms, sharing not hoarding info
norms, helping competitors not hurting them, making the whole region successful
tion density not just your own self, being laid back and irresponsibly happy rather than uptight
and demanding, setting up prisons to put MBAs and lawyers and East Coast elitist
professors in. Two things happen--a social plasma develops, where ideas get
stripped of their owner origins and belong to all not to authors, and idea fusions
occur, where density and variety of frequency of idea meeting idea results in some
wonderful combinations that release tremendous insight and energy and passion to
apply. This is a social reactor you build and tune and manage--and an idea fusion
reaction you look for and harvert. Anywhere where these dynamics are done will
work out--but if you do not have lots of bright people in a small peninsual, the
density of interactions and if you do not have norms for egalitarian sharing, inter-
actions will be of no use. USA East Coast religion of business people put in this
peninsula of densely interacting people will gum up the worlks like an Alzheimer’s
plaque--slowing things down with status, analysis, elitism, big desks. YUK
84. product as Put your self into it--we say; make the product itself a self, introducing itself to
asserted self buyers. Put you as message into the product to transmit that message from you to
the user--you and I and this world are now greater. These are the thoughts along
(insanely great) the way of this route to innovation. You insert your self, your firm as self, your
engineerings as self, your product as self, to the world and users. It is all mes-
sages delivered, with the venture, the product as packaging. Life and you and I
are great wonders--says product 1, says product 1’s upgrade, says product 2. THIS
is simple---you have to be a rich founder owner with immense power to operate
this way but it works, it innovates at rates unmatched by cowardly timid tepid cor-
porate R&D groups.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


85. fractal model Build dozens of comprehensive fractal detaild multi-level abstract models of ALL
rebalancing the dynamics of various sorts in various areas of the world. Then measure imbal-
ances on each of them--which of this model’s 64 dynamics has a leader, a facility, a
budget, priority, emphasis, interest, ad space, agenda space? Which have none of
these things. What would be become and look like and do if the slighted dynamics
were made supported main and central? This is the model rebalancing method of
innovating. It only works if your models really are immensely comprehensive and
detailed. There has to be a granularity to your balances and imbalances that sug-
gests unusual changes and ways to operate no one else will imagine without your
model and its details. Take the 64 ways organization learn model in this book--plot
how many of those ways your smartphone app fosters, supports, makes easier,
makes faster, makes higher in quality of outcome. Take some your app fails to
support and test with users what support of THAT would mean to them, price, per-
formance, popularity, word of mouth spread.
86. trojan product Designers graduate and get depressed for first years--all ALL their first clients hate
new stuff, innovations, and want products and systems as close to existing ones
that already sell as possible. They PAY for the smallest change from present they
can get and they complain and remove too much creativity wherever they find it.
This discourages all designers. Great designers face this in school (not via profes-
sor and course). They know that the TRICK of great design is hiding immense inno-
vation in a familiar comfortable easy to learn package. This is the trojan horse
nature of all great innovations---they come at people looking like something famil-
iar and only use reveals dimensions not mentioned or advertised of amazing power.
You innovate more by disguising better in this model. The more you appear inno-
vative the smaller your actual increment of novelty.
87. meta-product Meta-products are major innovations that nearly always amaze. An example will
(recursive service) help--there are six Taguchi apps available on the market. They all do roughly the
same thing--automat the stats parts of a Taguchi optimization techniques for
designers. None of them stand out, all of them sell OK but not greatly. What do
you do? Do you make a product with greater math features to out-sell them all?
That is what normal firms do. That is failure to meta-innovate. INSTEAD notice
taht setting up the stats and interpreting the resuts of the stats and generating
reports for executives from the stats are hassles irritating all users and reducing
their use of Taguchi optimization overall. So you make your product a META-PROD-
UCT--your Taguchi app sets up inputs FOR ALL SIX competitor products and your
app interprets results FOR ALL SIX competitor products. Instanlty your app when
released sells ONE COPY FOR EACH COMPETITOR PRODUCT SOLD = instant market
dominance as you sell roughly six times more than each of your competitors. Later
by matching their shared maths core, you make a Version Two that wipes them out
of the market entirely. This is the meta-product route to innovation example, It
applies quite generally to products, services, facilities, events, fashion and much
else.
88. strategically Nearly all businesses work around obstacles as cheaply easily and quickly as possi-
exaggerate obsta- ble. The minimize time and effort wasted against the obstacle. This model of
innovation however changes that--you deliberately extend grappling with chief
cles obstacles, and do not work around them--you work to obliterate them entirely--to
make them entirely irrelevant or disappear. This often requires entire new ancil-
lary innovation streams to redirect powerful interests or forces or traditions sus-
taining obstacles. YOU design a product and an obstacle anihilation product/
service that go together into the world. Where competitors release products
partly less than they could be due to working around the obstacle, you release
dream versions, totally unaffected by the obstacle or using its forces of the prod-
uct’s own purposes and features. In modern biology this happens all the time as
failed drugs reveal by how and where they fail, mechanisms that can be used as
future drug systems.
89. culture cross- Ways natural to you in one environment of living and work, when you move to a
ing different culture can be seen and felt as innovations, without you doing anything
effortful or deliberate. You just naturally do a routine you absorbed in that other
world here and now in a different world, where it meets needs that are not found
in that place of origin. Merely getting a practice or invention across cultures can
turn it into an innovation. I use the quality circles case--of my own re-doing of
quality circles as artificial intelligence, knowledge modeling, and high tech robot-
ics circles in the USA--by throwing out Japan’s stats and inserting US software.
This won me the Deming Prize in Japan and the Baldrige Award in the USA.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene, Rights Reserved, Registered richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

SUMMARY PARAGRAPHS FOR THE 72 MODELS


90. morphologic This is the story of an oil crisis that made in days General Electric’s jet engines no
forecasting longer economic for airlines. GE mobilized its engineers for new fuel efficient
designs but they failed to patent them---someone decades earlier had patend
them all. Forutnately that person was a former GE employee--Mr. Zwicky. GE
wanted to know how he had known decades early that fuel efficient designs would
be needed? He has a method--a large matrix of customer needs, hundreds of
them, and product possible features and design attributes, hundreds of them. Most
intersections on such matrices were boring and worthless, but Zwicky circles a few
interesting clumps and designed things for each clump and patented them. One
clump was hotness limits of materials and fuel saving--hotter used less fuel but
require new heat resistant materials. This is a general search space way of inno-
vating, but its risk is the world may take decades to catch up, economically, with
its ideas.
91. structural cog- The initial idea, from Noam Chomsky and Greene, was an MIT undergrad research
nition project I did with Noam in 1968. We wanted to know what made top MIT Harvard
faculty ways of thinking better than average faculty ways of thinking and built a
survey to find out including cases to handle. We identified top thinkers among
those faculty and had them handle cases live in front of us in great detail. We got
every 30 second protocols of how they thought from that and found ONE MENTAL
STRUCTURE that expanded what they all applied ordinary mental operations to,
from 6 or 8 ideas as in normal faculty to 20 or 30 ideas for these leading faculty
thinkers. Moreover we found these leading faculty read the geometries of
thought in paragraphs not just points. Structures read, structures written, struc-
tures combined--these allowed them to applyg mental operators to 30 ideas at a
time not to 6 or 8 at a time. New tools, more regularized fractal form structures
that expanded this from 30 ideas at a time to 64 and 128 and 216 ideas at a time
were developed and tested. The vast increase in mental productivity that resulted
allowed generating a dozen times more new ideas each hour and day as others =
more final possible inovations = more actual innovations achieved and bigger ones
in terms of amounts of novelty involved.
92. funding pulses The throwing of money to bright people, at first patient long term reach far high
(long public sort tech direction government funds, followed by no government funds and a live or
die struggle to commercialize bold things built, followed by a repeat of the long
private) term patient government bold techs funding, followed by another life or death
survival crash to commercialize bold stuff developed--these PULSES create innov-
tions.
72 INNOVATION MODELS
A Grammar of Changes
that Change Entire Fields & History

by Richard Tabor Greene


Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 1

72 Innovation Models
by Richard Tabor Greene
Oh My God! Not Another Book on “Innovation”--
Who Needs Another?
One of the 100 innovation models this book presents is the Innovation Noise model. I will
not summarize it here, but use only its main point--that the vast majority of talk, writing,
speeches, slideshows, academic articles about “innovation” are not real. If you read/listen
carefully you can substitute the word “change” for “innovation” and realize that it pays to
exaggerate and inflate nearly all changes of all sorts into “innovations”. This I call “innova-
tion nosie”. There is almost NO writing and presenting on innovation! INSTEAD
we have an absolute FLOOD of INNOVATION NOISE. You may not believe that right
now as you read this first paragraph of this book, but by the time you get to page ten or so,
you will be a believer!

What are all these so-called “innovation” books, then, actually presenting? First, they take
updating of the technical substrates of work and business, shifting from PCs to tablets, then
to smartphones, shifting to process software, then ERP, then cloud computing software, and
so forth--all as “innovation”. This is a stream of evolving new substrates for doing work
functions that will never end. Everyone does these upgrades to survive, whether they want
to or not, whether they are well led or not. This is just a piece of normal business exist-
ence. Calling each tiny little shift of technical substrate “innovation” is lying, pure and sim-
ple--a dishonest self inflating gross exaggeration. The new ideas involved were invented
elsewhere and forced on you and your organization--if by nothing else by magazines that
executives read in first class sections of airplanes.

Second, if ten thousand other firms are doing exactly what I am doing, though most of them
did it a few years or months earlier than I did it--am I an “innovator” when I do it? If you
gather, as my students have, hundreds of last 3 years slideshows on “innovation” by repre-
sentatives or CEOs or R&D heads of Fortune Global 100 firms, and compare them for content
points--99.8% of their points are exactly the same. Only 2 points per hundred presentations
are different. So “innovation” of this sort, the most common sort we find in magazine arti-
cles, business conferences, and leader speeches, is apparently a common goo that ten thou-
sand firms spread all over themselves from some sort of giant goo-bottle somewhere.
Innovation that does, in no way, differ from what nearly every firm alive is now or has
recently done, is either “not” innovation or is “a nearly worthless version” of it.

SOME EXAMPLES FROM YESTERDAY IN TOKYO:


1) moving a common sales system from in-house software
onto the cloud--reported as “innovation”
2) taking a company printing technology and printing not just
documents but fashion colors and e-circuit patterns--
reported as “innovation”
3) analyzing some customer door data to find patterns
distingishing coming door problems--reported as

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 2

“innovation”.
LET’S TAKE THESE IN TURN: 1) system relocation 2)
capability re-targeting 3) data analysis. IF THESE ARE
“INNOVATIONS” then nearly all changes whatsoever in
business and work are “innovations”.

I repeat: there are almost NO books, speeches, or presentations on inno-


vation presently in the world! SO this book is NEEDED!

The debasing of talk goes along with the debasing of thought and debasement of action--
they all are symptoms of dying Religions of Business. This book does NOT partake of that.

Seeing Innovation Clearly--by Stripping Off Dis-


torting Cultures by Which we View It
Talk (and writing) about “innovation” and such matters, takes place inside cultures and con-
texts that are all but never noticed, discussed, improved, changed, considered. These same
cultures plus some others, are the environment in which “innovation” takes place.

Vital aspects of “innovation” such as whether it is in any way real or just “for show”, the
extent of novelty achieved, whether it addresses major human needs or merely finds “prof-
its” for investors, and the like, are limited, prevented, distorted, or otherwise affected by
these cultures.

A few of such cultures with large enduring limitations on “innovation” both as it is thought
of, discussed, and done, are listed here, not a complete list, but sufficient to make one of
the main points of this book, and to distinguish it, greatly from every other book on innova-
tion that has ever been written.

1. publish-or-perish academic culture of the American sort, widely aped globally


All research on innovation takes place within the biases, bigotries, male hierarchy
subserviences, crowd phenomena, of this unproven approach to new knowledge
(American research supermacy was established in the 1940s by brilliant Jews,
fleeing Europe, meeting Robber Baron foundations, funding graduate research,
aping Liebig’s amazing “research university” invention in Germany--not by pub-
lish-or-perish tiny topic journal offerings of USA professors since 1960);

Every few years, when the Academy of Management journal/review/executive


change editors, the new editor, inevitably writes a scathing editorial lamenting
that no one actually reads any of those publishings--especially executives, man-
agers, and businesses of all sorts--the academics pile up knowledge no one at all
uses (thank goodness, many say).

THE RESULT FOR INNOVATION--DEATH BY FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF “BEST”


RESEARCH RESULTS--Nearly all major corporation full scale multi-year multi-mil-
lion-dollar implementations of the very best Harvard etc. models of innovation
and creativity, produce no, negligible, or laughably tiny results--see Procter &

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 3

Gamble’s Corporate New Ventures program using Amabile’s “research” at Har-


vard--her “great” social science stats produced copying a hit Japanese product 8
years later in the USA as the result of changing 42+ environment variables at
P&G--with results like that who needs enemies.

2. nerd software engineers in Silicon Valley making San Francisco culture banal
Think of that episode of the British comedy, the IT Crowd, when the elevator opens
onto the basement where two IT nerds do their thing, and--the shock--a
“woman” walks out--”what is it, one nerd asks the other, who hits Wikipedia
immediately and reads the first paragraph there on what a women is; “how does
it operate?” the first nerd asks--”does it have a manual?”--this is what we are
talking about--software engineer culture

Quite a few of these people have made billions and bought immense boats, man-
sions, inventing strange new charities and universities--Singularity, Minerva; Man-
hattan is full of people who have fled from San Francisco, driven out by the lack
of social grace and taste of everything in San Francisco area, due to engineers
uberalles;

These people have developed their own software-engineer culture, replacing earlier
Fairchild and Saturn program cultures of Silicon Valley; autism is rampant as is
the brutality of treatment of people, selves, persons, life by minds full of their
own brilliance and not used to tolerance and compromise and other functions
Ruby, Java, Haskell, Hadoop, and other computer languages do not call for.

THE RESULT FOR INNOVATION--THE AUTISTIC ECONOMY AND ITS PRODUCTS--we


get great increases in personal connectedness and convenience of shopping--free
international video calls, instant re-order buttons for Amazon, instant smart-
phone fact-checking of any conversation, 100,000 free courses from top universi-
ties, while getting musicians, writers, professors, engineers unable to get full
time jobs, decent live-able incomes, and hope for a future beyond marginal
existence. We get old ladies doubling their pension incomes by renting out
rooms via Airbnb, poor people driving for beyond welfare incomes by Lyft and
Uber, and the like. We get “globalization” reducing costs (by shifting production
work to the world’s poorest populations) but reducing incomes by more. NET--
the top 1% get 80+% of all increases in income from productivity improvements.
We are developing servant populations, begging for existence from cocaine-laden
elites.

3. dying East Coast religion of business bastions--Harvard-MIT, the ivies--lately


colonizing the West Coast with a campus here, a building there
Sematech is the archetype of this culture and its West Coast religion of business,
opposite--at first Norris of Intel ran Sematech, answering his own email, having a
cubicle like any other, eating and parking with others, he was followed by a VP
from Xerox, who knocked down 8 cubicles, to make room for a several meter long
marble desk, hired a secretary to protect him from messages from the rabble,
tiered parking and eating into three strata, with a nearly naked woman serving in
the executive dining room and a blue collar Molly, draped with layers of fabric
rolling a cart for the mere engineers; none of the Xerox VP things had anything at
all to do with good business, good products, good leadership--they were ritual

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 4

items from a “religion of what business is” a “religion of what leading is” that re-
installed European class strata as the “essence of business”, the “core of lead-
ing”.

People, most from East Coast universities, write that Stanford was key to Silicon
Valley’s emergence and its domination of Route 128 around Harvard-MIT (8 times
more contribution to GDP than Route 128 over the last 50 years); this is a myth,
from the East Coast religion of business, repeated by professors, but not by
actual founders in the area--no one (of 150+ interviewed by my grad students)
who founded a successful Silicon Valley venture between 1950 and 1990
attributes a key role to Stanford, other than a laid back atmosphere that toler-
ated student friendships and interning at nearby firms, and other side-effects of
the general “laid back” culture of the West Coast religion of doing business.

THE RESULT FOR INNOVATION--THE EAST COAST ALZHEIMER’S PLAQUE KILLING


SILICON VALLEY--hierarchy, class divisions, leader isolation, workforces denuded
of context or influence, talent sent to shuffling money for the super-wealthy on
Wall Street, venture technologies undercut for fast “returns” to “investors”--the
invasion, in recent years, of Silicon Valley by Goldman Sachs, Harvard, MIT and
the like is the final daggar signallng the death of Silicon Valley, and its digital
tech revolution. Within a generation we will have half or more of Silicon Valley
new ideas and technologies, stillborn, unable to “meet” the criteria of dead arro-
gant cocaine-addicted East Coast “investors” and the horders of “professors” and
their “elite techniques” that Silicon Valley did quite well without for 50 years--
now spread as an Alzheimer’s plaque, slowing all thought processes with injec-
tions of snobbery, rent seeking, psychopath short-term-me-ism, and whatever
else made the Harvard-MIT nexus 1/8th as vital as Silicon Valley the last 50 years.

What do the above cultures do to shape how we think about innovation, what we think inno-
vation is and does, and how actual innovation happens (including if and how people “do” it)?

1. academic culture--make all the things that professors are good at (individual-
ism, analysis, maths, models, theory, article publishing) central to all good
business outcomes, hence, central to innovation;

THE RESULT: business models, business plans, strategies, lots of slides with various
graphs, ROE, ROA, RO?, and on and on--there is NO data anywhere published that
ANY of these things is a part of innovation, of if present, are worth anything, or if
present, are not harmful (at Xerox PARC we always read Harvard cases about our
own projects to laugh at how utterly off-base they were--all sorts of elite analy-
ses, “people”, and high status stuff never a part of what we did, obviously
pushed from professorial biases).

Thiel’s book Zero to One has a great demonstration of how academic mindsets and
viewpoints get into heads quite generally and gum up thought and action with
inappropriate “ideas” and “analyses” from professors, highly experienced at
building nothing beyond unread academic papers. Thiel in first chapters takes
the word “competition” and he de-mystifies it, unwraps layers of academic crap
from it, revealing that--”from the viewpoint of me trying to build a business out
of a new idea, the last thing I want or need is competition of any sort” but, he

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 5

goes, on “I run into tech venture founders everywhere talking about competition
being ’good’ for ’business’\”. Well, he says, it is not good for them--it is a harm
and to be avoided at all costs. You want to inject into the world something no
one else can get their mind around but with such immediate payback to users/
customers that they want more of it and tell their friends to get it. You want
years of being uncompeted with. Yet founders fresh out of engineering schools,
gum up their thinking by tolerating levels of competition out of some vague, pro-
fessor generated tolerance for it as vaguely in general “good”. Competition is
bad, harmful, to be avoided--if your new tech venture baby is to get big enough
to survive and thrive. This is one story in one book about how one word--”com-
petition”--comes into heads gumming up their ability to innovate, due to profes-
sorial wrappings around the word, operating in those minds. This is exactly the
harm done to innovation by 30 years later professor renderings of what was pas-
sion, goofy risking, and venturing as “business” “plans” “models” “business
model innovations”---bullshit. All that 30 years later professorial stuff was 30
years after the fact re-interpreting all as if what professors are good at was and
is the center of all good things! A power grab pure and simple, done by colleges
indirectly and sneakily, and now spreading like an Alzheimer’s plaque all over Sil-
icon Valley, from Google’s new Goldman Sachs’ CFO, to Harvard’s new depart-
ments in Palo Alto area, to rewritings of Silicon Valley history as if Stanford were
central.

2. software engineer nerd-otaku culture--the autism that produces software tools


and systems invisibly becomes the workstyles and lifestyles enabled by what
those nerds and their software products “produce”

THE RESULT: “improvements” in life and work that, at least initially for a few
decades, harm life and work more than they improve them.

3. East Coast religion of business invading West Coast religion of business--replac-


ing egalitarian, laid back, knowledge sharing, friendship based interactions
with hierarchic, ruthless, knowledge hoarding, altercative based interactions

Hennessey, President of Stanford, went to New York City, to examine setting up a


second engineering school there, to form a second Silicon Valley on the East
Coast--but the first meetings were rooms full of lawyers with contracts giving all
the profits to New York City and all the costs and risks to Stanford--so Hennessey
realized, according to the accompanying New Yorker reporter Alito, that the cul-
ture gap was too huge for any contracts or arrangements to counter--he hopped
on a plane before the week was out, letting Israel, a militarist, super-male cul-
ture, replace Stanford in the project.

THE RESULT: like an Alzheimer’s plaque the snobberies, ruthless self-uberalles,


“returns to investers” anti-product goals, elite university math-y analyses insert
themselves slowing down and mis-directing all processes, killing off idea after
idea, venture after venture, tech after tech--replicating innovation death till the
West Coast declines into mere “money shuffles” for the rich on Wall Street.

It is a good time now, for readers, to either put this book down and retreat to personally
favored euphemisms for ideologies about how they want the world to be, or to eagerly

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 6

embrace the rest of this book, with the confidence that I, the author of it, aim to account
fully for biases, blindspots, hidden self interests, and other ways cultures distort innovation
and related concepts and practices. This book looks at innovation un-emcumbered by such
distortions and biases. It is fresh and refreshing to all who have read dozens of usual New
York City and Harvard Business School publishings on innovation.

Some Particular Means and Ends of This Book’s


Treatment of Innovation

Academic culture, nerd engineer culture, East Coast religion of business culture--each of
them has it specific genius and great deeds, but far too much and often, each hides behind
those, severe dysfunction. How do we write a book on any topic as much mentoned and
overly published as “innovation” without blindly repeating distortions around and in it from
these three cultures?

The answer to that question, necessarily, has to be incomplete at the time of this writing. I
recently bought and read (diagramming the 50+ main points of the key 3 or so chapters in
each of) 400 books on innovation, not merely in business, but in art, in social welfare, in psy-
chotherapies, in culture building and handling, in a total of 60+ areas of life. To “get” the
actual ideas, practices, techniques, results, and core in each of them about “innovation” I
found myself repeating certain treatments that amounted to stripping off distortive effects
of academic culture, nerd engineer culture, and East Coast religion of business culture, as
follows:

1. REPERTOIRES OF MODELS--from single right-y models of innovation to plural


diverse models of it

HOW THIS HELPS--it is not the case that each academic model is worthless--they are
worthless by themselves--when combined smartly with other such models that
compensate for the weaknesses and narrowness of any one model, such combi-
nations of models can have real impact power that single right-y models do not
have.

2. MEASURE AMOUNTS OF NOVELTY ACHIEVED--from no concern with and mea-


surement of the amount/degree of novelty achieved by any particular “inno-
vation” to careful distinguishing of “whole field and history changing degrees
of change acheved” from normal updates and improvements, daily life
changes, we all do every day and year

HOW THIS HELPS--everyone gets personal benefits and profits from exaggerating
both their need for innovation and the kinds and amounts of it they achieve--by,
in this book, holding to a higher standard of “innovations” that change entire
fields and their histories, we leave behind “for show” and self-uberalles “career
path” pseudo-innovations that dominate articles published, speeches given, and
promotions awarded.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 7

3. BEYOND MERE BUSINESS AREAS OF INNOVATION--from the “innovations” prod-


ucts, business models, business processes, and technologies to innovations in
welfare, art, community building, justice, education.

HOW THIS HELPS--economic development requires 3 things (says Grondana in Hun-


tington’s book Culture Matters)--a population of strivers, available training, and
a reliable near future; outside of business, that “population of strivers” is differ-
ent or missing altogether--so this book presents ways to innovate where the cul-
ture of economic development pieces are missing or attenuated.

4. BEYOND MERE EXAMPLE AND STORY TO MODELS YOU CAN USE--from examples,
quotes, pithy phrases to detailed multi-scale causal models of what changes
what in order to produce field and history changing improvements in ends and
means

HOW THIS HELPS--so many books, nearly all really, are chock full of examples; this
comes from editors who insist that readers more readily connect to and “under-
stand” examples--however researchers have found, for decades, that readers are
terrible at identifying the abstract variables and causal inputs to change that are
latent in such example stories, and readers completely fail to notice assumed
things and there-but-never-mentioned things that such innovation stories
depended on. This book makes explicit what you have to change, how much you
have to change it, and how to change it.

5. BEYOND MERE AMERICANISMS--from American centric views of innovation to


global ends and means of innovating.

HOW THIS HELPS--Americans are so ignorant of how others do things and so arro-
gantly stuck in their own praising of each other that system after system, city
after city, measure after measure sinks in the USA below levels in 15 or 20 other
industrial nations. This is a quite general sinking phenomenon--invisible to Amer-
icans but visible to nearly all others due to global access to US media; this book
views everything about innovation from Japanese quality, China continental
project, West Coast USA digital culture, East Coast USA money shuffles on Wall
Street, Nordic Europe care for all, Southern Europe work for life not live for
work--cultures of capitalism. American ways, views, biases, and flaws are not
central or omitted in this book.

Academia is all about me “beating you, so much so that young faculty report that Harvard
and University of Chicago are among the “least intellectually rich places I have even been”
as any ideas you mention may quickly appear under someone else’s grad student’s name a
month or two later at a conference presentation or article published. So in daily interaction
everyone self-edits, being careful not to mention anything interesting they are working on.
Maybe this is one factor in why the home run ideas inventions appear more in third tier uni-
versities than in first tier ones.

This “beating” other professors to an idea or publishing or result ends up, without realizing
it, publishing “my model is better than yours” style articles. So everyone produces their
own model, arguing how it is better than all prior ones. In truth, each article and model in
it, are so narrow, recent, reactatory that none of them, when applied, have power to

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 8

improve the world. Indeed, quite the contrary, in most fields, narrow academic models
when applied produce immensely harmful side-effects--as derivative pricing took 3 trillion
dollars from world economies in 2008/9 not yet paid back to the populations thusly indebted
against their will.

In the world outside academia, where top innovations get done and appear, research cannot
find one right-y model. CEOs tend to fear any consultant, model, or professor who comes to
them saying “my model is better than the models of all others”. CEOs have a lot to lose and
not much to gain by putting all their innovation marbles in one basket. They prefer a combi-
nation of models that compensate for each other’s weaknesses and actual major industry
innovations tend from come from TWO sources PRIMARILY:

1. IDEA SOCCER--powerful ideas that get kicked around from one engineer to
another, from one department to another, from one budget to another, from
one company to another, for 6, 8, 10 years till FINALLY the idea finds a HOME
that LOVES it to fruition (Van de Ven, the Minnesota Studies of Innovation);

2. PERFORMANCES CROSSING NATIONAL OR GENDER CULTURE BARRIERS--all the


major improvements in business practices, innovations so immense that every
company in every nation today (approximately) implemented them all the
time, have come from a power or unique performance achievement of one
national or gender culture, crossing borders, and being adapted to bring
entirely new performance capabilities to other national cultures or genders
(Drucker for German technique in the USA, Deming/Kano/Ohno for Japanese
techniques in the USA and elsewhere, Berners-Lee for CERN Swiss techniques
in USA and the web worldwide, etc.). [Note, no such major innovation in
world wide business practice came from any grad school of business--the best
they claim is Beta for pricing derivatives on Wall Street, an idea with a Nobel
and a 3 trillion dollar price tag for its recent consequences].

Proven Personally, Proven by Generations of My


Students
Readers will already have guessed that this book has “attitude”. It shuns the euphemisms
that New York City publishers require to expand sales by their strategy of “offend no one”.
This book is happy to offend the elites who have turned “innovation” into a game played for
personal career advancement, or gaming Venture Capital and angel investors for funds mak-
ing later IPOs un-needed.

Furthermore, I have personally changed technology delivery in seven Fortune 100 global cor-
porations--3 in the USA, 2 in Europe, 2 in Japan. I have won a Deming Prize for inserting
artificial intelligence circles into Japanese corporate quality programs and a Baldrige Award
for inserting Knowledge System Circles into Xerox’s quality program. I have installed citizen
mass workshop policy making meetings in conservative Japan, in 44 corporations and com-
munities there, in spite of overt and covert opposition from the Liberal Democratic Party and
area governments. I have tripled income of all families, not some, in Korea’s poorest single
village, by ignoring male NGO leaders and their approaches and asking village women what

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 9

they most needed--they wanted portable mowers to reduce annual rice harvesting from 7
weeks to 4 days yearly. I got a Japanese firm to donate 128 such mowers and bingo, all vil-
lage women suddenly had 6 weeks of free time. They invested that time in Jeju City, in
cash-paid part-time work. That cash got the attention of village men--cash meant buying
sex and alcohol to them so the men suddenly became interested in serious development
work! This was years before the World Bank openly admitted its 50 years of lending only
from men to men, had failed to dent poverty as much as one project among women by Yun-
nus in Bangledesh, Grameen Bank. I have organized 200 students in soccer stadiums, operat-
ing as social automata, generating 100 meter by 20 meter canvas artworks, that, when cut
into 2000 one meter square pieces and sold, produced $200,000 in four hours of work. I
have designed and led staff in producing two sofware systems that US government intelli-
gence agencies ordered hundreds of copies of “at any reasonable price” months before pub-
lic release of these apps. Three such apps were released as tech ventures near Palo Alto--
two survive to this day, one died. I created the world’s first metaphoric thinking assessment
program in the world’s top single high school (measured as how many grads went to Stan-
ford, Harvard, and MIT each year)--Weston High School--working under a genius, Bruce Mac-
Donald. Recently I established the world’s most challenging intellectual methods curriculum
in 20 of China’s top high schools--methods beyond levels of reading, writing, modeling,
meeting, designing at Harvard and MIT grad schools.

41 of my students at the University of Chicago, at Temple University in Japan, at Keio Univer-


sity in Japan, at Beijing University in China have set up their own design firms. Over 70 of
my former students have won prizes as “best in Asia” manager of this or that, including best
marketing manager in all of Asia (including China) for Procter & Gamble. Many of them
changed fundamental company routes to success, such as shifting 100 years of P&G data-
based marketing to celebrity marketing.

All the models and ideas in this book have been tested by me and my students--they WORK.

Sources of this book’s Models


It all started with Noam Chomsky, whom I went to as an MIT undergrad, because a friend told
me the easiest science for completing my “science distribution requirement” was cognitive
linguistics. Chomsky sent me to a grad student who gave me Smalley’s Phonetic Grammer, a
book with ways to write down all the sounds of all the languages in the world (nearly), and
giant tapes of baby talk. To make the story short, I no longer trusted that “friend” as I tran-
scribed baby talk using Smalley. The result was we trained Harvard and MIT moms in aspects
of language so they could spot and reward partially correct utterances by their babies,
allowing babies behind in language development to “catch up”. I thought that was more
than enough for the distribution requirement but I was wrong. Professor Chomsky wanted
more--a survey of Harvard-MIT faculty to find “whose thinking ability is best” along various
dimensions, and an interview of those top thinkers for keys to what enabled thinking at the
top to be top. The result was a 250 page book Structural Cognition that I wrote as a MIT
junior on one mental structure, the fractal concept hierarchy, that we found enabling top
faculty to apply ordinary mental operators to 20 and 30 ideas at a time, that ordinary Har-
vard MIT faculty applied to 4 to 10 ideas at a time. Later, by refining this structure and regu-
larizing it in three ways, Chomsky and I developed at method that expanded this from 20 or
30 ideas at a time to 60 or 120 ideas at a time. This I have written up in a paper on “Struc-
tural Cognition”.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 10

Later when founders of the University of Chicago Grad School of Business hired me for my
first professor job, teaching MBAs and Phds, I faced rows of MBAs without a good definition
of what “educating” them meant; and I faced rows of elite professors without any idea of
what topic I should “research”. To shorten the story--I ended up turning homework into
research assignments, and choosing to re-do Plato, that is, define “the good” and “excel-
lence” not ideologically, politically, philosophically, culturally, but empirically--by asking
the 8000 greatest people in the world how they rose to the top of each of their profes-
sions. 63 professions of people from 41 nations were surveyed and interviewed in the
end. This we called the EXCELLENCE SCIENCE RESEARCH PROJECT. Many of the 54, so-
called “excellence sciences”, that is, ways to rise to the top of those 63 professions, got
written up in large books because we identified 150 people in each of those 54 areas who
rose to that top that way, then asked them what their particular way-to-the-top consisted of
in concrete capabilities. One of those 54 routes to the top was “innovation”. 150 people
nominated as being a the top of their field via “innovating” were interviewed for the con-
crete capabilities by which they innovated. That is one source of this book, what those 150
great innovators said their innovativity consisted of in capability terms. [Another route to
the top was by virtue of being “highly educated-acting”, which produced books on 64 capa-
bilities of highly educated people--defining what I had to do with my MBA students in 2 years
of masters work.]

I wanted a basis of comparison because people often are quite wrong about what they think
caused things, including their own accomplishments. So I wanted a comprehensive survey
of academic research on innovation, so I could compare its models with models from practi-
tioners. I bought 400 books on innovation and diagramming main points of 3 or so key chap-
ters in each. The biggest difference between sets of models was LUCK--innovative
practitioners were much more cognizant of being lucky, right place right time, and the like,
than academic models. Indeed we found LUCK in none of the academic models--surely an
important omission. For luck means there are powerful situational factors missing from aca-
demic models and powerful individual person factors allowing the noticing and engagement
of situational factors missing from academic models.

A second major factor was motive--practitioners were convinced that motivation was
immensely more important than any other factor for innovating. What got handed around in
the fluid ever-changing coalitions that Van de Ven found behind any eventual innovation, was
not ideas so much as a pair--an idea that greatly motivated people. It was that pair that
kept ideas, tryings, experiments, scarfings, skunkworks, alive across years, firms, projects,
persons. Along with motive and maybe the same thing was adpatibility--will to change
approach, firm, era, technology, persons entirely to keep an idea alive and move it one step
forward toward realization. Motive and this sort of adaptiveness came together--you cannot
do one without the other. Motive erodes when you have one fixed way you want to succeed,
or a time limit on it.

Origins of this book’s Models


This section gets rather personal. Some readers may be offended by anything personal in a
book---too bad.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 11

I have previously written 18 books, many of them more than 2000 or 3000 pages. I probably
am going to have to re-format them on A4 size pages with 400 or less words per page. Many
of them now are on B4 pages with 2000 words per page in small fonts. At the time they
were written I was reducing page count because my students copied the books on copy
machines so more words per page, reduced page count and student copy costs. PDF and the
web make that no longer useful. So I will probably reformat my 18 prior books in coming
years.

Does the world really want and need another book by me on any of these Excellence Sci-
ences? And if so, should it be a book about “innovation” and why?

There is a palpable mood of confusion or angst or self doubt arising in and about Silicon Val-
ley. The recent generation of software only tech ventures, leave behind the Miscrosoft and
Apple generations of software and hardware wedded to each other. More and more huge
valuations are given to apps without profits and with expanding user-bases that disappear
with a “puff” in an instant. More and more valuations are increased for Amazon and compa-
nies like it that grow immense but never have profits because they re-invest all in further
dominance, scale, scope, and expansion. Most of these firms have tiny workforces com-
pared to the manufacturing firms with similar valuations they replaced. Employee-less,
profit-less, transient products, leaders, and firms abound, are the new normal it seems.

On the other hand huge global threats increase dangerously with no ventures handling them:
climate change, nuclear proliferation, anti-biotic resistant germs, and more. We are inno-
vating without addressing our deepest threats. We are not even confident that innovation
will be able to handle diminishing water, violent wind storms, massive migrations of tens of
millions of starving poor, germs that mutate to wipe out hundreds of millions in months like
the Black Plague. We all feel precarious and the more that feeling endures in spite of bally
hoo about “innovation” from nerds in San Francisco, the more fear fills us. Innovation is
drifting to trivial domains, dangerously, this amounts to.

A man, facing a tiger, who invents the wheel, then becomes tiger food--should we celebrate
his inventiveness? He can’t, that is for sure.

If we add to the above, the distortive cultures I started this book with and fixes for the dis-
tinct ways they hide and distort “innovation”--there is much deep almost ontological work
needed to clear brush and bias, self interest and male hormone excesses of self praise, from
the concept--to leave something spare, bare, core, powerful, worthy of a book. That is the
main job this book tackles, along the way covering more models of innovation, a greater
variety of innovation processes and results, more detailed models of it, than any other book,
and possibly more than any subsequent book for quite some time. I have an article present-
ing 120 models of creativity that stopped the publishing of a dozen books by professors on
five or six models, and a book on 60 models that sealed the fate of those initiated-but-never-
finished books (all announced as “forthcoming” on amazon.com but now, years later, still not
around and no “forthcoming” message remains for them). This book will probably have a
similar effect--being the go to book for:

COMPREHENSIVE TREATMENT
DIVERSE TREATMENT
DETAILED TREATMENT
MULTI-SCALE TREATMENT
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 12

of the innovation topic.

There is one further consideration--innovation of the type that changes entire fields and his-
tory is.............fun, lots of fun. Writing a book on innovation allows me to re-live lots of
great times, huge challenges met or avoided, small ideas that somehow ended up with great
impacts. Writing a book on innovation allows me to revisit most of my past and integrate
NGO, major corporation, long French lunches with Ecole Poly grads, artificial intelligence
technology, China programs of vast extent, keynote speeches at Karlsruhe Institute of Tech-
nology, panel discussions (largely boring) with Bill Gates and another with Kissenger, Japa-
nese conservatism overcome, Korean village dynamics, stadiums filled with social automata,
and much else.

So What Do 100 Models of Innovation Do for Me,


the Reader?
Regardless of all the above discussion, some readers may not be clear of the value of moving
from 5 or 6 models of things like innovation to 60 or 100 models? What benefit does all that
extra complexity, attention, detail, and difference provide?

To answer that question we have to go into a particular view of what persons are. We are all
theorists, only most of us end up at 20 years old, filled with theories we are not conscious of,
that operate invisibly inside us, determining what we notice, imaging doing, consider, value,
and prefer. For those people who do not realize this--that most of what determines them is
invisible and put there decades earlier while they grew up--that most of those routines and
contants are terribly dated, local, bigoted, and biased--they end up with 50 year old bodies
inhabited by 12 year old minds. We all know such people--they are the ones who majored in
economics or management in undergrad school in order to get money and success at a cost of
being incomplete and dangerous human beings all life long, hurting friend and family, boss
and employee, customer and supplier, as they bandy about things they learned as a child as
they were certain, right, and sole ways to think, feel, and act in the world. YUK.

Educatedness, is the property of persons who do realize this, and at about age 20 determine
to eliminate most of their own selves, of the routines that constitute them, and one by one
replace those happenstance routines from their upbringing, to better ones consciously cho-
sen, praacticed into automaticity, and forgotten. If they work hard at this self replacement
work for 30+ years, at about age 55, they become, that rarest of persons--adults = people
who, from observing their values, attitudes, words, and actions you cannot tell when and
where they were born and raised.

We are all theorists of one of these above two sorts: filled with theories from our upbringing
that we never consciously realized, challenged, or replaced with better ones, or, filled with
routines we have consciously selected from the best in history and in our contemporary
world (which true colleges are supposed to provide), and practiced into automaticity.

The person filled with 5 or 6 models of innovation, walks into situation and notices, let us
say 30 things that tell how to innovate there; the person filled with 50 models of innovation,
walks into situations and notices, let us say, 250 things that tell how to innovate there; the
person filled with 100 models of innovation, walks into situations and notices, let us say, 500
things that tell how to innovate there.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 13

This means, the world itself, is actually bigger for people filled with more theories, more
detailed theories, more various theories. This book enables you to:

1. walk into situations and notice hundreds of avenues to innovation others miss
2. switch effortlessly to any of dozens of other models of innovating when one
gets stymied, stuck, or blocked
3. compensate for the flaws or omissions of any one model of innovating by
choosing from a large repertoire of alternative models, just that model that
perfectly compensates for what your one model lacks
4. aim for and achieve major whole field and history changing scale innovation
where others are doing mere improvements or adaptation of systems to con-
tinually new technical substrates
5. diagnose exactly which innovation models a person, firm, project, nation lacks
and which, if immediately installed, would most improve scale and quality of
innovations achieved.

These are considerable powers, almost magic--when others view them in you. You walk into
the same situations they do but you notice hundreds of things, blocks, possibilities those oth-
ers miss. You work on a project with them and whenever everything grinds to a halt, without
apparent effort, you switch everyone to an alternative innovation model that bypasses
blocks and things in the way. These appear almost magical to those unaware of their basis
as a repertoire of diverse models of innovation in your mind. This book gives these powers
to all who read it sincerely. I and hundreds of my students over the years in the EU, in
Japan, in the USA, and in China, have acquired these powers and prospered as a result. Your
are invited to join us by reading the rest of this book below.

Some Non-Models of Innovation by Typical Con-


sultants, HBR, Kelly, Keeley, Christensen (Espe-
cially the “Business Model” Guys)
Professors sit writing grant proposal after proposal, grading (slightly) papers and exams,
teaching the occasional course (reluctantly for the most part), analyzing some biased,
dated, partial nearly useless data gotten at great effort from reluctant firms lacking decent
data themselves. They then write and publish papers, small, in rigid formats, generally of
tiny topic fitting ideologies in the editors of their field-journals. Non-conforming thoughts
and topics are rather ruthlessly edited out--till entire fields collapse every 50 years or so.
No one reads most of this papers--ever--and that is a very good thing, you have to say, when
you consider that, for example, social science papers publish “effects” without boundary
conditions or magnitudes, based on “results” totally ruined by powerful sample biases that
overwhelm the minimal correlations found. Since all agree on these rules of the game, it
does not matter that these rules produce junk results of no impact power--topics too con-
firmist, topics too narrow, stats too poorly understood, a search for “rightness” that drives
all “creativity” out of topics, treatments, and results. You get things like Estes at Harvard,
published in top journals for decades, trying to get brain structures from processing time dif-
ferences (before fMRI was available). His entire lifework, worthless, as soon as better equip-
ment appeared, the fMRI. Oh well--it was after his retirement.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 14

This is not a bad way to live and work but it is not the epitome of anything vital either. So,
from time to time professors read new stuff the world pops up, like the flood of new things
Silicon Valley pops up, and after 40 or so years, even elite “top” university faculty “notice”
in their distorted, delayed, abstract, impractical theoretical paper-publishing ways, stuff
going on. I hope I am not offending anyone by being overly honest and unexaggerated here.

Take “business model” from the most recent software wave of Silicon Valley start ups from
say 1990. Many of these firms delayed profits or forwent them entirely, re-inventing in
growth--seeking what Brian Arthur called network effects *increasing returns to scale*.
They struggled, eventually, to “monetize” huge hit rates, user populations, and the like.
They shifted from one “business model” to another, the press said--though people inside
these firms did not in their talk and minds have anything at all to do with business “models”.

In sooth, “business models” were a power grab by professors. The term was invented by
media and professors to, more and more, make some sort of professorial analysis seem key
to tech venture success in Silicon Valley. Nevermind that 50 years of Silicon Valley burping
up 8 times more contribution to GDP than MIT-Harvard and the East Coast religion of business
without any mention of “business model”. Suddenly “business models” were where it was
at, what everyone “needed” according to professors and media aping professor terminolo-
gies. This was phony thru and thru--a sick narcissist, elitist religion of business invading the
West Coast religion of business and en-sick-ening it.

But there are other sicknesses, passing belated and useless professorial analyses as essential
to business success--hundreds of recent HBR “analyses” of West Coast ventures, hundreds of
books with groovy graphics on “innovation” “secrets” of Silicon Valley by people not related
to it at all, even a error-filled bad dissertation plus company examples that dis-illustrate
what books written suggested of Christensen, the man who most bally--hooed “disruption”
as a term (a New Yorker article demonstrates). Intel and Microsoft overthrew IBM domi-
nance of the world’s greatest recent tool--the computer--and 30 years later, Christensen at
Harvard “discovers” the key to Intel and Microsoft (which they apparently missed) was “dis-
ruptive technologies”. Strange that the disruptors themselves never needed or used such
ideas! It is, obvious therefore, that “disruption” as a concept was not then and is not now
vital for actual achieving of “changes that modify entire industries and history itself”. “Dis-
ruption” is just a circular game--innovations that change entire fields, industries, and history
are, ho hum, “disruptive”---we all knew that, thank you, without Harvard and Mr. Chris-
tensen. Talk about “disruptive innovations” how about the automobile--it disrupted a lot of
horses, architecture of streets, created suburbs and commutes, polluted, made drive in
movie theatres and restaurants--it wiped out a dozen kinds of business and ushered in an
entire new national infrastructure--it was plenty disruption--all big innovations disrupt--
the word as Christensen used it, is worthless, without merit. This is typical of how
professors rewrite the past to insert terms and analyses that had no part in innova-
tions that changed the world, to make a new history as if professorial ideas were key!
Readers should re-read that sentence ten times.

Take Keeley--his ten models of “innovation”. I wanted to incorporate his models and
insights in this book. So I paid a lot of attention to them. Unfortunately five minutes suf-
ficed--Keeley has no models of innovation at all. His “ten models of innovation” book is not
about innovation! It is about ten places where innovations may appear. But we all knew all
those ten (and many more) places before his book was written. When I go to each chapter

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 15

of Keeley’s book to see in “network” or “service” or “brand” etc. for the other seven, what
generates “innovations” = powerful forms of novelty that change entire industries, fields,
and history, I find nothing all--a bunch of already published stories by dozens of others on
cases we all know about from years ago. Keeley measures the “number of the ten types”
each story-case involved--but this is trivial, simply noting which of ten parts of any business,
a case “changed” in invisible, un-discussed-in-the-book ways. It is how old, standard, peo-
ple and groups, like you and me and our groups, manage to change the world and history of
their field--that we all want to know. This Keeley’s book omits entirely. A history of well
trodden past cases, categorized by ten labels--yuk.

Of course “models of innovation” without any difficult ideas, methods, or other contents are
attractive and easy to present to stupid people in normal businesses (not everyone but quite
a few). Any set of morons of feeble mental capabilities, will feel “smart” when such pablum
is presented to them. Unfortunately, no increments in innovation appear.

Harvard’s Amabile, the opposite of this, is equally ineffective. She has a creativity model
filled with “fully validated” variables (about 42+ of them) that measure out as creating an
“innovation fostering” environment. When applied fully and sincerely by effective, power-
ful private sector organizations, Procter & Gamble in its Corporate New Ventures program,
for example, this produced copying a Japanese hit product 8 years later! That is my defini-
tion of “delayed copying” and not my definition of “innovation” or “creativity”. There is a
wonderful HBR article by her on this P&G venture, where you get six pages of all those 42
changed things, and one half of one paragraph, hidden at the end, of the pitiful “delayed
copying” results. Typical of professors--great problem spec, slight or missing actual impact
and solution. Her “model” is a non-model, if by “model” you need actual results.

So, in sum, the world is filled with pseudo-models of innovation---models 40 years after
something wonderful popped up, models of wonderful things done entirely without such
models, models of Silicon Valley etc. by people totally outside or and unrelated to it and its
phenomena, models decades after something wonderful that give a simple name to it (that
fools us into missing that then name is circular), models of types of wonderful doing that
merely tell us what ten diverse parts of business or worklife that wonderfulness appeared in,
and finally models by the very top professors at the very top university in the world that,
when fully sincerely applied, produce next to nothing. The world is full of models of inno-
vation that are non-models. This book breaks that tradition.

1. ZENOVATION--The Jobs-Apple Model of


Innovation
We start with this model because it is on everyone’s mind. Currently Apple captures 92% of
the total profit of the smartphone industry world-wide, while selling less than half of all such
devices. None of this came from East Coast religion of business big desks, stratified parking-
eating, shuffles of money on Wall Street, strategies, business plans, business models and, in
general, MBA-disease. Apple’s founder and his successor, if anything, continually extirpated
every remnant of these destructive East Coast religions from Apple and its ways, products,
and people. We cannot look to anything at all from any college of business for Apple’s suc-
cess.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 16

The world’s most valuable company was built by extirpating remnant MBA and East Coast
religion of business ideas and influences.

This is, at the very least, embarrassing to the hordes of youth who, out of personal greed,
got an expensive MBA from a top global college recently. They will not like this book. Too
bad. Indeed, we can look to Apple as a big reason Harvard and MIT are establishing depart-
ments in Silicon Valley these days--giving up on matching their creativity in East Coast elitist,
math-y, hierarchic, knowledge hoarding places and ways.

We can say more than the above, however. It is more than just MBA-ness and East Coast
religion of business hierarchy, analysis uberalles, hyper-male hormonal management regimes
that Jobs and Apple countered. Consider the nexus--India with meditation, LSD with cos-
mos, Japan with clean lean seen systems, buddhist-Japanese-zen “right mind” “right
deeds”. Imagine a person who spent years finding himself abroad in these contexts--who
felt the insubstantiality of American, Americans, American ways, seeing them all as various
very limited neurotic manias, not as ideals or global leadership. Imagine an American who
grew up seeing thru and beyond Americanisms--knowing that inserting the future into Amer-
ica would require acting non-American-ly. Now, of course, this person, Steve Jobs is bally-
hooed hither and yon as the epitome of American-nesses of various right wing bigotted past-
looking sorts. An irony

Read the model of innovation below, particularly the sunflower final summary of all its core
points, with two things in mind: 1) the nexus of four counter cultures beyond Americanisms
above 2) no major improvement in business practice the last 120 years has come from any
college of business and its research--they all came from ways of one gender or nation cross-
ing over to other genders or cultures. In those two contexts read the below.

ZEN Innovation
ZENOVATION
An example of how all major improvements in
business practice come from crossing cultures
by Steve Jobs & Apple
TEN PILLARS OF ZEN TECH by Steve Jobs:
1. THE DESPAIR DOORWAY Watch your mind generate endless worries, till you
reach emotional disgust and dispair, at ever attaining happiness while follow-
ing (in control of) that mind--when that despair is life threatening THEN and
only then Moksha, liberation from world and self, “that art thou” appears--
satori
2. THE PRIMACY OF PERCEPT THEN you notice the exquisite detail of every-
thing in this life and world--detail we always miss in normal consciousness--
garner by calming and shutting down concepts, true clean clear complete
perception--seeing is the start of all movement.

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3. THE POWER OF SINGULARITY Practice undistraction--aiming that is true and


not dissipated by the endless worries our own minds generate
4. SEEING THRU Penetrate the layers--that cultures, norms, conformances,
getting “along”, fitting in dissipate and absorb purpose into
5. META-LIVING Do all that you do, feel all that you feel, think all that you
think, totally, with the no-mind beyond all concepts, cognition, worry, social
concerns--see thru the world fog, mind fog, feeling fog that lives and pur-
poses get lost in
6. DEEDS AS SIGNAL CUTTING THRU NOISE The one clean stroke that is all you
are--situations are for cutting to satori.
7. DO WHAT YOU KNOW, DO NOT PILE UP UN-ACTED-ON KNOWLEDGE Know
your knowing--the wonders of living and doing the one great idea or opportu-
nity that comes your way--go for world changes when and where ever you get
a whiff of them--go purely undistractedly for them without thought of money,
profit, fame, suffering, happiness--go for deeds and creations that shake his-
tory.
8. THE ALL IN ALL THE COSMOS IN THE IOTA The tiniest things, the most
mundane things, the greatest ambitions, the greatest deeds--all these are
exactly equal--invitations to get beyond mind, beyond distraction, beyond
self, beyond other, to the essence beyond world that makes us alive.
9. CUT THRU DELUSIONAL TIME Time is a detail--you penetrate it like any
other fog, you aim and keep aimed where every other thing around you
diverges, gets distracted, attenuated, lost, self doubting, critiqued--you keep
at it, untouched by your mind and any other mind’s worry generations.
10. BOUNDARIES ARE SOCIAL DISEASES TO IGNORE The “world” is erected as
access blocks, separations, endless boundaries, endless norms for staying in
or out, forbidden joys and acts and associations--all these are delusional--life
is purpose, aim, movement toward that is THRU all these barriers, borders,
boundaries, norms, forbiddens, proper paths. Now is always a good time;
later is always a refusal of life and deed = see the entire, the systems, the
nets of linkages and revolutionize THAT, revolutionize the biggest scope possi-
ble to go for, the scope that dismays and amazes all who see and hear it, the
scope that only GREATNESS can handle--call people out of their non-great-
nesses. Give systems a single pure movement to re-organize their all around.

How to Build the World's


Most Valuable Company
Steve Jobs, in his own words, reorganized and
compressed, from his most famous interview, done
by the magazine INC:

INFO FLOW MANUFACTURE


1. You follow this back, and you find that it's not how long it

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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takes to make stuff; it's how long it takes the information to


flow through the system. And yet electronics move at the
speed of light - or very close to it.

MID-LESS WORLD
2. The best way to think of the Web is as a direct-to-
customer distribution channel, whether it's for information
or commerce. It bypasses all middlemen. And, it turns out,
there are a lot of middlepersons in this society. And they
generally tend to slow things down, muck things up, and
make things more expensive. The elimination of them is
going to be profound.

EMAIL TO SELF
3. As a matter of fact, my favorite way of reminding myself
to do something is to send myself e-mail. That's my storage.

OLD PRACTICES + NEW PRACTICES + DEVICE DIALOG


4. Design is a funny word. Some people think design means
how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it's really how
it works. The design of the Mac wasn't what it looked like,
although that was part of it. Primarily, it was how it worked.

NEW LIVES, PRACTICES, FEELINGS, IMAGININGS,


POSSIBILITIES NOT JUST NEW PRODUCTS
5. To design something really well, you have to get it. You
have to really grok what it's all about. It takes a passionate
commitment to really thoroughly understand something,
chew it up, not just quickly swallow it. Most people don't
take the time to do that.

CREATIVITY AS SEEING DIFFERENTLY


6. Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative
people how they did something, they feel a little guilty
because they didn't really do it, they just saw something. It
seemed obvious to them after a while. That's because they
were able to connect experiences they've had and synthesize
new things.

VERY SHY VERY MUCH PERFOMER—DRAMATIC PRODUCT


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idea. Pick the best one, and let's go

GOAL AND MOTIVATION IF RIGHT MINIMIZE AND SOLVE


OPERATINAL ISSUES
21. "Manage the top line, and the bottom line will follow."
What's the top line? It's things like, why are we doing this in
the first place? What's our strategy? What are customers
saying? How responsive are we? Do we have the best
products and the best people? Those are the kind of
questions you have to focus on.

MANUFACTURING IS A SOFTWARE PROCESS WITH FUNNY


INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
22. I think the same philosophy that drives the product has
to drive everything else if you want to have a great com-
pany. ******GERMANY Manufacturing, for example, is an
extension of the engineering process for us. We view it more
and more as a software-engineering job with interesting I/O
[input-output] devices on the ends. It demands just as much
thought and strategy as the product. If you don't pay atten-
tion to your manufacturing, it will limit the kind of product
you can build and engineer. Some companies view manufac-
turing as a necessary evil, and some view it as something
more neutral. But we view it instead as a tremendous oppor-
tunity to gain a competitive advantage. INC.: Have you
always viewed it that way JOBS:****** Ever since I visited
Japan in the early '80s. And let me add that the same is true
of sales and marketing. You need a sales and marketing orga-
nization that is oriented toward educating customers rather
than just taking orders, providing a real service rather than
moving boxes. This is extremely important. ******For most of
your customers, after all, the sales folks are your company.
So you've really got to pay attention to that. The point is
that our philosophy is not a product philosophy. It's a philos-
ophy of how we go about things, and it affects everything—
finance, information systems. Can I digress for a moment?

23. So, to build a great company, you need more than a


great product. You have to pay attention to all the different
areas and be as aggressive with them as with your product.
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Otherwise, you'll spend half your time fixing things that


break. And that's typical of high-growth companies. Half the
management time is spent making repairs—stock-option
plans, marketing strategies, information systems, whatever.
Take an employee stock-participation plan. You need help
from a lawyer or a consultant. Most people take very little
time selecting lawyers and consultants. It doesn't cost money
to interview 10 lawyers, but you have to invest your time.
And most people don't do it because they don't think it's
important. But it is important. It will save you countless
hours in the future

Turn Steve Jobs' Life


into Creativity Operator
Sequence
1. FRIENDS—meet your partner via shared styles, values,
views, interests
2. OPPOSITES—hobbyist plus drive
3. THIEF—ideas, funds from partner, opportunity from
slow big firms
4. HERO--FIX YOUR CIVILIZATION'S DEEPEST FLAWS in
PRODUCTS OF WORK---democratizing products for USA
to counter big firms, 6 billion TV stations, give all
people the computer tool
5. HERO--FIX YOUR CIVILIZATION'S DEEPEST FLAWS in
HOW YOU WORK---imagine and work at higher standards
than are needed and reasonable in your culture
6.TYRANT-- A CULTURE OF EXCELLENCE---insanely great
products, insanely perfect systems/operations of work
7. FAILURE---OPTIMIZE USER EXPERIENCE NOT PRODUCT
FEATURES = failure of Mac and Next DESIGN FOR
COMPONENT PRICES 3 & 5 YEARS HENCE
8. TRIO---BALANCE EMOTION & EMOTIONLESSNESS = got
wife and Pixar and success together wife let him relent
to engineers supporting Toy Story's story
9.DAVID TELLS GOLIAH--- iPOD, IPAD, IPHONE
=generalize initial revolutions = digitize each medium
with library products = SYSTEM PRODUCTS iTunes,
negotiate new prices

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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18 Step Steve Jobs


Management Process
The Powers of Sheer Excellence
in a World of Expedience
1. Customers cannot anticipate what technology can do
= they cannot ask for current capabilities of it
2. Customers will not ask for things they think are not
possible = they miss wonders available
3. It takes a long time and great effort to pull out of
customers what they really want = and what they now
can want
4. It takes a long time and great effort to pull out of
engineers what current technology is and can now cost-
effectively do = and what they can now do with it
5. New technology requires exploration by those
inventing it and using it = exploration takes time and
effort and smart perception
6. New customer interests, needs, and capabilities
require exploration by the customers and the companies
supplying them = exploration takes time and effort and
smart perception
7. Selling yourself then customers, designers, engineers,
investors, that something NOW can and will be done,
delivered---passion founded investigation based decision
= each product a new invented venture equation/
enterprise, that old black magic has me in its spell
8. Steal ideas from your past, your present, your future,
your friends, your enemies = not whose idea (smart or
not smart, friend or not friend, ours or theirs) but ideas
for use
9. Demand excellence—not product only, but sales
experience and manufacture cleanliness-paint-colors
and dress—a cultureof excellence done not explained or
trained
10. Demand excellent details—instill new levels of
attention and discipline
11. Demand excellent hidden innards no one sees---the
people making the innards then believe they built
something not merely good but wonderful “insanely
great”
12. An artist painting with a technology (an artist
painting with digital chips)
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13. Drive for layer upon layer of order—driving


excellence to larger scale via achieving it on smaller
scales
14. Elicit passionate fandom from customers---products
that tell them the product is wonderful, the maker of
the product is wonderful, and they, the customers,
can be wonderful too.
15. Using the power of failure and your own death =
there are hard times where all you have is love for
what you do and only that keeps you going;
16. Failure = the lightness of becoming a beginner again;
17. Jobs' aspergers, failure at Apple, thrown out, THEN
Next, Pixas, WIFE = sudden success at Pixar = wife
interpreted human reactions he had missed due to
aspergers
18. The only way to be satisfied is to do great work, the
only way to do great work is to love what you do

Some Design Koans


Test Your Jobs-ness by
Designing the Following:
1. DESIGN PUZZLE---all pieces same shape, all pieces
same color BUT make 11 famous person's faces
2. DESIGN BICYCLE----make TWO changes in ordinary
bicycle designs that allow faster speeds than racing
bicycles by ordinary bicycles
3. DESIGN WEB CRAWLER---that finds everyone sharing
your interests, needs, capabilities AND who is
compatible & interesting to you
4. DESIGN ACTIVITY---that is fastest way for any group
of strangers to learn most of each others' interests,
needs, capabilities
5. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR “THE COLLEGE
COURSE”---that weaves face-to-face and e-learning so
500,000+ take each course at MIT levels of final skill
6. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR BRAINSTORMS—that
forces your ideas to interact and use others' ideas in
detail
7. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR MEETINGS---so all who
attend each leads some treatment of some topics in
each meeting
8. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR DISCUSSSIONS---so fast
emotional mind differences are seen and melded first

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allowing easy later concept difference melding


9. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR PROCESSES--so work is
faster, more visible, combining more diverse people and
ideas, using more expert procedures
10. DESIGN REPLACEMENT FOR PROSE---a new way of
writing that does not hide number of points, names of
points, order of points
11. DESIGN NEW WORD PROCESSOR APP—that makes it
just as fast and easy to write what replaces prose as
Microsoft Word now makes it to write prose.
12. DESIGN THE iWATCH---something that fully uses
available wrist space with proper tactile, sound, sight,
smell, signals and functions to make all old style
watches instantly dissatisfy & disappear.

Some Cultures of
Excellent Innovation
1. ENGINEER CULTURE—work for self, hide behind
maths, fear emotion
2. MBA CULTURE---work for self, psychopaths who
abuse others, ignore emotion and harms to others
3. DESIGN CULTURE---sexually ambiguous, counter-
establishment, beauty for beauty sake, beyond
requirements and needs
4. DEVICE CULTURE---what it affords, what affords it,
ecosystem dynamics
5. USER CULTURE---social life of use, social life of
information, task/goal ecosystem dynamics, quality &
excellence satisfaction & delight dynamics, attention
and interest decay and liking dynamics
6. EMERGENT EXPERIENCE OF USE CULTURE---new
interests, needs, capabilities = impact on social indexing
levels.
7. EXPLORATION CULTURE--KNOWN vs. UNKNOWN
NEEDS
8. EXPLORATION CULTURE--KNOWN vs. UNKNOWN
CAPABILITIES
9. BALANCE--WITHIN SELF vs. BEYOND SELF
10. BALANCE--ISOLATION & DIFFERENCE
11. BALANCE--CONNECTION & FAMILIARITY/EASE
12. BALANCE--DESIGNED vs. EMERGENT TRAITS
13. BASIC FUNCTIONS as performance
14. ME EXECUTING EXCELLENTLY as performance
15. MY IMPACT PERFORMING TO ME (and history) as
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performance

Replacing Old Sciences &


Divisions of Knowledge
1. KNOWLEDGE & COGNITION SCIENCES---Structural
Cognition, Brain Power books from research at MIT 1966
Jobs-Apple refused human and organization delays on
info transmission thru work processes within firm
and across firm = continual work on human mental
causes of delayed sharing of thought, aims, actions.

2. SOFTWARE & TECHNOLOGY SCIENCES---Global


Quality and Implementing Japanese AI Techniques books
from combining MIT, Project MAC artificial intelligence
with Panasonic & Sekisui quality circles
Jobs-Apple refused the vaporware, let first customers
design it, norms of Silicon Valley ventures and
refused the engineer norms of not doing invention
only tweaking performance parameters of existing
ways.

3. THE QUALITY & CULTURE SCIENCES---Culture


Powers & Global Quality books--Deming Prize for high
tech circles in Japan, Baldrige Award for Knowledge
Based Systems circles at Xerox PARC in USA

Jobs-Apple were very buddhist in all they did--priori-


tizing percept or concept, seeing over doing, clean
clear over fast functional = building an Asian cul-
ture within a Western culture.

4. SELF & CAREER SCIENCES---Managing Self; Are You


Educated, Japan? books from Wellesley College with
Weston Public Schools metaphoric thinking project, and
U of Chicago Business School Excellence Sciences project

Jobs-Apple put persons and the excellence that


brought out all that persons “were all about” at the
center of processes, ways, systems--demanding
that people be people, that is, un-doing all that
prior people, history, Silicon Valley, others, did and
erected = actual “being” beyond in all you thought,
felt, did.

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ZEN do & be the


JAPAN
biggest scale
the of life possible
feminine borders are
saves all from computer in 1000 there to get
male extremes hands better than you shrunken
= widen the self giant computer in to a size others
fixes failures genius hands CUZ can manage
WIFE SAVES each shows uses to
999 others MEET no further
cannot avoid TOY STORY not get ideation
out-running your what
AT PIXAR wantsX ORPHAN what ANYONE needed--
act, act, act;
own vision, self = new now but X is dialog
must withdraw techs are years all about = forwhat
to recover SCULLY ahead of from takes techcan be
now
12 A 1
wonder NEXT BOTH time made to do, HOMELESS
of self FAILURE users & what power POOR
developer to users
performances
(fn) that are 11 2 new
understanding
tech requires practice
what powersXEROX performances
the product (drama) 10 3
ZENOVATION
get beyond
self INDIA being
beyond self
gives users INTERFACE the make things MEDITATION beyond other
strip ego
not features TAKEN origin
ideas to
from 9 4
Jobs-Apple
Tao
LOOK as what creativity
they are (robots we see, not do
as what
choose best
& combine 8 5 see own
painted same
color
JAPAN take the
detail=system, dotime it
to 7 6
all is top
& system
excellence
DESIGN beauty
& excellence
lean, pure, clean right the new not line in the rare, unused
zen process = first just B makes
bottom product chance for
power & impact =
buddhist “muge” time product line requires chewing =
making, selling, ASSERT ACID great HOBBY shows self/firm/
interfaces SELF BOLDLY COSMOS CLUB system quality

push all to sell the idea


giant chains of “what this
excellence connection =
push all means”
systems we power in
functions miss & tinker user hands
to it too with portions
of
LSD DESIGN
5. EXCELLENCE SCIENCES---54 distinct routes to the top
of nearly all fields; Multiple Models of Creativity paper
from Excellence Science Research Project at University
of Chicago Grad School of Business and Santa Fe
Institute 1992

Jobs-Apple refused Wall Street’s East Coast religion of


business ideas of “excellence” and they refused the
West Coast religion of business ideas of “excel-
lence” = excellence measured by impact not by

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 31

conformance with views popular with others and


elites.

6. IMAGINATION & REALITY SCIENCES---Are You


Effective: 100 Methods; Story Sciences—history, drama,
comedy, fiction, performances books, from NVPhilips,
Siemens Invent Events, NAMCO, Square D, Nintendo 2000

Jobs-Apple refused the male, hierarchic, hormonal-


emotional ways of “management” and “leadership”
that did little actual leading, acting more as reli-
gious belief systems--what is “real” for Jobs-Apple
= getting beyond self and others, getting beyond
present and present ways and from that place
achieving imaginings, and the great stories they
generate = the ancient Greek form of immortality
by leaving behind for centuries great deeds that
story-tellers repeat via tales around campfires and
bar tables.

7. CREATIVITY & NOVELTY SCIENCES---Are You


Creative? 60 Models; Are You Creative? 128 Steps;
Getting Real about Creativity in Business; Innovation 45
Models from DTMA China, Replicating Silicon Valley in
Europe 2000

Jobs-Apple refused to be “creative” and to “design”


in only one creativity science = they created,
invented, innovated, composed, performed,
launched ventures, etc. doing diverse kinds of cre-
ating, Creativity & Novelty Sciences, where others
just made products or sales events “creative”.

8. SYSTEMS & LEADERSHIP SCIENCES---Global Quality,


Managing Complexity, Taking Place: 64 City-fications of
Creative City Theory & Practice; Knowledge Epitome
books from Keio, DTMA China, Kansai Gaidai, Temple
University, Santa Fe Institute, ING Tokyo 1988

Jobs-Apple saw rather than did = the buddhist idea of


creativity coming from clear seeing beyond ego of
self and others, extending this to seeing the entire,
the all, the whole, dissolving all the borders,
boundaries, status ranks that kept normal people
and ways in tiny easy-to-control-by-others sacks =
designing, creating, inventing, innovating, compos-
ing, performing entire systems products were in,
not mere product alone.

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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9. STORY & MEDIA SCIENCES---Story Sciences, Changing


the Five Fundamental Interfaces of Human Work and
Existence from work at Disney, Pixar, Dreamworks

Jobs-Apple did real deeds, inserting perfected things


into a world of money chasing, venality; they
thereby generated stories about amazing great-
ness, insanely great things, generated by insanely
great factories and retail store designs, and prod-
uct launch event theatre shows = REALITY is what
humans imagine and lead the stuff of the world
to become, not current structures of the stuff.

There is ANOTHER ELEMENT to this Jobs-Apple model of innovation. Jobs and Woz invented
the personal computer. Jobs, especially, saw it is “the world’s most powerful tool” and “the
most powerful tool in history into the hands of man”. Jobs was also, after Pixar, re-seeing
his own invention of the PC. Where at first he and Woz, and IBM and everyone else saw the
PC as a “thing”, a “product”, something put on desktops and having itself a desktop inter-
face--the post-Pixar Jobs had, in his exile from Apple, realized that view of the PC was
stunted, undershooting what computing-the-new-tool-of-humankind could be and do. Jobs
can to his second round at Apple, seeing computation as a kind of goo, that you could spread
in two new ways:

1) COMPUTATIONAL OBJECTS---shrink the PC and plurify it among a number of


types of devices
2) COMPUTATIONAL GOO----reverse that and imagine computation (perhaps chips)
in and on and between everything--computation as our new “prepositions”, a
dynamic, programmable, self diagnosing, learning population of prepositions.
3) COMPUTATIONAL DOORWAY---with the entire world covered in computational
goo or dust, each blob or particle brings the entire globe’s power, via the
web, to bear on each tiny blob or dust particle locale.

Apple “saw” personal computers as a conceptual, a perceptual error. Computation


was most fundamentally goo, and only current technology substrates imprisoned it in
boxes on desktops. As Moore’s law continued its miniturization of components
march, the practical presence and form of computation would reach for bacterial size
scale, a powder, an intelligent dust on everything, perhaps, one day. So the iPod,
and the iPad, and the iWatch were the result of seeing computation as a powerful
tool not wedded to any first product form. They were the re-doing of objects in our
world, one by one, computationally. At the same time they talked to each other,
computed to each other--the web inviting global immense power delivered in real
time to any device however big or small. The PC, due to the web, was immense; the
iPod, due to the web, was immense; the iWatch due to the web was immense. Shirts
could thusly become “immense”, caps, neckties, bolts, straps, every object eventu-
ally.

This seeing of “the tool” beyond presently do-able embodiments, and seeing of this
tool “made enormous” via the door it amounted to, to global web immensities--this

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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double seeing of “personal computation” as goo, global web door goo--drove Apple
innovation in Jobs’ second stint. The tool was becoming more tool-like and less wed-
ded to present embodiments and things.

The next model of innovation in this book--the Digital World Model--takes this single
Jobs-Apple perception and runs with it.

IN CONCLUSION--DOING INNOVATION THIS WAY


Jobs was reputed to be selfish and ruthless but when you view videos, hours long, of
him interacting with Next and Pixar teams, he is sensitive, kind, and ruthless at the
same time. His strange combination of passionate efforts to communicate, context,
and get others as aspirational as himself and his willingness to fire people on the spot
who resist all that--comes from what and has what business value?

The answer is obvious, simple, and explains how to repeat Jobs-Apple success and
story. Jobs was NOT invested in this world and developed his orphan feeling via LSD,
Zen, India, Japan, and finally design experiences. What if all that people and the
world now are, are built on sand, not solid and to be respected but delusional reifica-
tions of past issues and forces, to be revised freely and rather completely today?
This old 1960s mindset, when combined in a young 30 year old person--Jobs--with
$200 million, took business products and organizations to places MBAs and others not
born into orphan insecurity and not developing via meditation-India-zen-Japan prac-
tice the handling and use of “the void” and the “no-mind” approach to work and pur-
pose, product and organizaation could not imagine much less achieve or even aspire
to.

VOID POWER was the STYLE of Apple under Jobs the second time round--voiding the
present forms of industries and products, voiding the rush to shallow quick making of
money in MBAs and elite college faculty of business, voiding the employees who did
not buy into becoming Void Masters themselves.

Do this mode of innovation requires making of yourself, then of your employees,


products, and eventually customers--Void Masters.

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 34

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE ZENOVATION MODEL OF INNOVATION (Steve Jobs and Apple)

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? LSD, Japan, Zen, Design--this is the kind of person who invented this
model, who led this model, and who this person selected, trained, and
promoted to leadership. There is no way, not way at all, no shortcut,
around these FOUR requirements--without THAT special kind of mental-
ity, this innovation model is un-do-able. The delusion, so enormously
common, so insisted on, that any major corporation’s 10,000 or 100,000
employees-managers can implement any model of innovation--that does
not work. You have to be founded-led by, select, train, a special kind of
person, to install this model--LSD or its equivalent, Japan work or its
equivalent, Zen or its equivalent, and Design or its equivalent.
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTA- This model assumes (and requires) a special juncture in evolution of
CLES YOU ENCOUNTER? technologies and economies and cultures--a point where old functions
are attacked successfully everywhere by new technology substrates for
doing functions---at such special junctures, people of vision expanded by
LSD, by Japan experience, by Zen practice, by Design experience can
move into the void, because they are trained in voids and uses of voids,
trained in not-doing, trained to see and act beyond and outside all
norms, rules, ways, cultures, assumptions, educations.

WHY DO MANY NEVER ATTEMPT Harvard and a host of colleges are now teaching “how to do Apple-Jobs”
IT? without any LSD, Japan experience, Zen practice, design experience and
practical power at seeing and handling voids--a ridiculous dishonest dis-
tortion by elite faculty incapable of understanding the West Coast reli-
gion of business and the Silicon Valley fundamentals that devastated
Harvard-MIT in productivity and innovativity the last 45 years.

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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2. The Digital World Model of Innovation


The first automobiles “disrupted” horse drawn carriages and carriage makers did not make
the transition, though consultants equivalent Christensen taught them they were about to be
“disrupted”. The first airplanes “disrupted” train travel then boat travel. Indeed we can-
not name any major innovation in history that did not “disrupt”. The question then is, what
additional insight or meaning, do we get from the word “disrupt” that we do not get from
the word “innovate”? Generations of my students and consulting clients have answered
this--nothing. The word “disrupt” adds nothing to the word “innovate”. All innovations
“disrupt” by definition. To be fair here, I must mention a New Yorker article made this
point years ago.

What are Lyft, Uber, Airbnb, Kickstarter, etc. doing beyond “disrupting” prior modes of
transport, hotelling, funding, etc.? It turns out they are all based on information technolo-
gies. They are doing things like using cellular ubiquitous real time global web information
to eliminate wasted car seats, rooms, enthusiasm for ideas and techs.

We therefore need a model of innovation that comes from digital tech invading all domains
of work and life. What does that enable? find? “disrupt”?

A flood of really bad publishings. Publishers sell books--that is, they want money. So any
“hot” topic gets dozens or hundreds of me-too shallow quick tomes thrown at it. “Disrup-
tion” (as if any major innovation did not disrupt a lot) is one such shallow buzzword exam-
ple. Not to pick on any one person or group--take the Keeley Doberly books on 10 areas of
“disruption”. The middle of their main book has four pages with “tactics” of disruption
under each of the ten parts of any business that is their “model” of “innovation”. But we
all already knew those ten parts of any business centuries ago. Also, the tactics under
some of them--things like “lean” and “in-app purchases” and “get close to customers” come
straight from Japanese quality practices 50 years ago, of Japanese gaming features 30 years
ago. There is nothing new in the Keeley innovation book---old, centuries old, divisions of
parts of any business that may be made to change, with, under them, decades old practices
from hither and yon, each with hundreds or thousands of already published books on them.
This is the sort of flood of shallow idea-less publishings on “disruption” and “innovation”
that publishers throw at us. We must wade through it to, come up for intellectual air, now
and then. Compare the Keeley books to the list of types of disrution across the centure,
below.

The digital revolution simply affected information and knowledge of all types in all places
and purposes. It sounds limited but the role of information, perception, sensing, thinking,
designing, implementing--all knowledge intensive if not entirely knowledge work--is vast,
indeed, probably everything we do except a few biologic functions. All of culture, ambi-
tion, art, science, work, family, dreams is centered upon, developed with, and produces
information and knowledge. Therefore, the digital revolution is a revolution in how we
think, feel, and do EVERYTHING. THE DISRUPTIONS, therefore, caused by it, are ubiqui-
tous, found everywhere we are and be and do.

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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Centuries Old Disruption Types


1. WASTED FACILITIES SOLD--found, marketed, assigned, insured by ubiquitous data
a. most rooms--empty most of the time--Airbnb
b. most car seats--empty most of the time--Lyft, Uber
c. most free human time--unused most of the time--
MicroWork
d. most human capabilities--not used by current jobs and
tasks--Dutch Part-timing (benefits, pension with all PT
jobs)
2. KNOWING/USING WHAT’S AROUND--GPS location indexing of services, nearby inter-
ests, nearby persons
a. what is near us--people, products, services, events
b. what is near our interest X--other interests, persons
c. what is near our goals/id/professions--related fields,
events
3. LOWERED COORDINATION COSTS--fluid coalitions replace stable unities
a. the job = people with several jobs/firms per week, others
part-timing to various extents = need new guilds for
welfare
b. ventures = outsource almost all functions to other
ventures = node in web = computed web-venture
coalitions
c. big firms = outsource (internally and/or externally) till
only core and changing coalition remain
d. big firms across multiple-industries = large coalitions of
big firms tackle continental/global scale emergent
markets
4. EXPANDED DOER--from 1 or few to many doing X
a. funding by many--kickstarter etc., peer to peer lending
b. noticing by many--scientific data analysis outsourced
c. collaborative design--mutual editing, checking, inventing
d. interactive publishing by many--open refereeing of
research
e. anyone sales sites--Etsy, Amazon
f. fractional ownership--Netjets
5. KNOWLEDGE CONCENTRATION/DISPERSION/COLLECTION--Knowledge spread, knowl-
edge gather, knowledge personalize--Informate
a. tripadvisor
b. best price finders
c. auctioneers
d. curriculum downshifts--grad stats in college first years,
college projects in high school first years
6. FEEDBACK--from partial, sampled, delayed to more complete, representative, imme-
diate to the point of co-development
a. comments
b. reviews
c. purchasing friend networks
d. viral purchase events
e. audience-co-composed--movies plot moves, musics
7. EXPANDED AUDIENCE--from general local publics to global; from general local publics
to global narrow specialized communities
a. publish to friends--real time ubiquitous friend contact
b. publish to globe--if found by search engines
c. publish to narrow speciality communities--global scope
makes narrow interests still attract large crowd
d. MOOC--massive online courses with world wide student
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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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bodies
e. global presence--live displays shared by communities from
various global locations
8. INTERFACE & SYSTEM & INFRASTRUCTURE BASED EXPANSION OF CUSTOMER BASE
a. for elderly--WII by Nintendo
b. e-auto--via national recharge/re-battery system
c. shirt smartphone--woven in ordinary shirts so all humans
get networked
9. INSTANT DELIVERY
a. amazon drone
b. bicycle to office/home
c. comvenience store pickups
10. DIS-MEDIATION
a. bank-less-ness
b. main function free, profit from side functions
c. mainframe to PC to smartphone to iwatch to iclothing
d. travel, real estate, courseware, education-hiring link
ravel agencies
e. crowd, auction doer of micro-service segments =
Tutorvista
11. MIXED METAPHORS, MIXED MODES
a. bus-like flexibility at air speeds = Southwest Airlines
b. circus without animals and with arts/opera = Cirque du
Soleil
c. humanized intermediaries--between sports, fitness clubs,
health consults, personal schedules = Curves; between
professional mass prices/variety PLUS mini-courses per
project = Home Depot
d. object oriented social systems--instant reconfigured
innner and inter institution links and knowledge flows
(evolving ecosystem environment of each institution)
12. ITERATIVE MAKING--multi-pass “printing” replacing crafted/assembled items
a. 3D printing
b. policy by experiment (big data subset)
c. product machine-guns (design by first user feedback)
d. venture “sell out” by angel fund escalations, not IPOs
13. SELF CUSTOMIZING/CONTROLLING THINGS--subworldings:
a. homes--room settings for those who enter
b. offices--office settings for activities scheduled
c. e-malls--informated parking/discounting/aisle guidance
d. drones, flying cars
e. personalized displays/world/contacts/colors/temps
f. e-clothing
g. e-courseware
14. DELIVER NEW WAYS--new practices via new things made in new ways
a. NEW WAYS FOR NEW THINGS--new practices spawning
whole new way of work/life product introduction event-
care-celebrity-system
b. LEAD USERS AS PRE-DICTIVE CO-DESIGNERS--work-arounds
for all procedures captured by IT as next product/
service/system versions
c. PRODUCTS DOCUMENTING HOW THEY ARE USED--
d. TROJAN PRODUCTS/SERVICES--you get for free then
“find” ads, upgrades, in-app buys = charge for uses not
apps
e. EMERGENT SYSTEMS--new wants/needs emerge with new
ways emerge with new things
15. VOID AVOIDED RESEARCH
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a. customer convenience blockage researched--Dyson


b. e-auto via addressing battery
16. ULTIMATIZING GOALS
a. death-less-ness
b. space tourism
c. human replacement parts
17. REVOLUTION DYNAMICS
a. THE 200 PATENTS THAT MAKE 1 PATENT WORK--Edison’s
light bulb, worthless without electricity delivery system
all over the world--the creativity of SPREADING and idea
X
b. RULE MAKERS, TAKERS, BREAKERS
c. liberators, founders, historic dream makers, conservers of
novelty
d. FEEL AS WE GO--ways, strategy, profit-sourcing
e. NETWORK ECONOMIES--WINNER TAKES ALL, FIRSTMOVER
ADVANTAGE
f. ECOSYSTEM NOT GAME COMPETITION--symbiotic, partner,
stepping stone = win win roles = coopetition
g. DOGMA BREAKING EXPERIMENTS--example--break common
goal of customer first, follow customer needs etc.

When the automobile emerged circa 1900, horse drawn carriages were everywhere, along
with water troughs for horses, and stables for feeing horses, and much else. None of that
system helped fuel and repair cars but by analogy it could have. Yet carriage makers com-
pletely failed to act on that anlogy--car makers had to erect their own gas stations, with
refueling and repair facilities. This is to say--what happens when a new technology does a
function a dozen times better--faster, farther, easier, than an earlier one? Suburbs hap-
pened, drive in movie theatres, urban ghettos, air pollution, global warming. Looking care-
fully at the new technology does not show us anything about the old ways disrupted and the
new emergent ways to live and work that change in power, speed, etc. will entail. We have
to look at how that new power in work and lives, sparks new human dreams, conveniences,
ambitions, structurings. This is the practices that surround each and every new introduced
thing and power enabled by that thing.

This Digital World Model of Innovation is represented by the fractal concept model below, 3
levels branch factor 4 = 64 lowest level boxes, and 85 total boxes, ordered from lower left to
lower right to upper right to upper left to center. This is a highly regularized fractal
arrangement of ideas. It summarizes 64 ways all innovation disrupt old ways, arrangements,
systems, and markets. Repeated use of it, since it is well ordered (lower level boxes follow-
ing the order of topmost level items, and all boxes branch into 4 sub-items) commits its 64
items to memory rapidly and expands your ability to notice and amaze others.

One exercise, using this model of 64 disruptions, involves my students taking something--the
iWatch, for example--and re-designing it and its ecosystem surrounds to incorporate a half
dozen more disruptions than it does in its present form. Another exercise is finding, in
recent web news sites, examples of each of the 64 boxes/disruption-types. Another exer-
cise is putting in order, chronologically, which disruption types came first, in a certain
period, say, in 1960, then 1970, then 1980, then 1990, then 2000, then 2010 in Silicon Valley.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 39

first-mover
64 planetary human live, see, act e-clothing ventures that product
ecosystem in subworld
advantage, deed replace- e-courseware sell out by machineguns =
not game built from GPS/interest- design by
competing = dogma- coalitions: ment index of your angel fund
breaking asteroid, parts indexed tours escalating first users
symbiotic needs,
partner-REVOLU- experi- mars, ULTIMIZE interests,SELF 76 not by ITERATIVE
allies TION ments warmg. GOALS capabilities CUSTOMIZE IPO MAKING
DYNAMICS homes, SELF drones 3D 75 big
80 79
offices, CONTROL via printing data:
the 200 feel as we go- death-less malls = engine policy/product
patents that ways, strategy, ness; aging space customized for balance by experiment
tourism
enable 1 profit- reversal who enters,
patent sourcing EXPOSE nears SOFT-
RUT, 84 WARI-
Trojan self DOGMA, global costs of crowd auction mainframe ZING 83 object health coach
products & document- AVOIDS emergent inequality: of micro- to PC to DOING oriented between
services: buy ing lives, self valid- services: smartphone to social hospital/dr.
simple now work, uses, ating
anxious system = fitness/diet
racist rich + Tutorvista iwatch to evolving
get new learning research
discovered DELIVER organizna VOID barriers DIS- ishirt institutn MIXED
world NEW 77 AVOIDED to wealth MEDIATION weaves METAPHOR
pioneer WAYS/ auto & RESEARCH bus flex MIXED professl
lead appliance bank- free
user 49 PRACTICES users as phone 78 ease
less- 73 main air speed MODE 74 mass
marketing, green into
co-designers
portability ness function = SWest Air; price +
new ways made motor pay for more, circus w/o
famous via new into micro-tutorials
blower 64 upgrades, animal with
things, delivered battery science = Home Depot
opera = cirque
made new ways Dyson ANCIENT & 33 links
science de ciel
big firms in big
MODERN
whole system anyone sells shirt smart- live global
bigger coali- firms DISRUPTION instant phones, MOOCs--
c multi-firm (Etsy), pub- delivery separate teams
courses/
lishes, reviews, tions, forming out TYPES 85 displays, together via
designs by events with
own (Netjets) dissolving sources till sensors, holograph &
suppliers- amazon mass global
irregu- core + displays EXPANDED
custmrs EXPANDED LOWERED drones INTERFACE audiences
larly
all DOER COORDI- coalition etc. & SYSTEM AUDIENCE
crowd crowd the job
NATION ventures CUSTOMER e-auto pub to gather
from
noticing as manyuCOSTS 67 core +
68
funding: average BASE EXPAND via friends, 71 sizeable
kickstarter, editing, tutor- for as many nearly all to extreme national to world, audience
peer to peer ing, identify- firms as want fns. outsourced (ages, work, recharge/ to profession via globe for
lending ing each week = = ecosystem battery/
places, risks, rare speciality
EXPAND part-time configuration interests, etc.) hydrogen DEMO- topics/interests
KNOW assemblies evolution systems
CRATIZED
81 experi- 8
most special- most 3 & USE events, sites,7 digital IDs curriculum KNOW- hub viral item
ized interests human SCOPE ence persons, shops present downshift ING 82 markets-- reaction,
lonely cuz 4 free time & sharing: meeting your
tailored to grad stats into craft for well news spreads
hard to abilities unused with friends, interests now 1st college yr. connected viral head-
us offers
find most of work- nearby etc. few lines &
WASTED KNOW- 66 world KNOWLEDGE FEEDBACK
schedule FACILITIES the time mates USE ads CONCENTRATE tags
1 SOLD 2 5 WHAT’S 6 best DISPERSE news, audience
65 micro-
persons, AROUND pricers, COLLECT instant reviews,
70
co-
most rooms most seats in places work, shopping, auctionners, expert advice, comments, composed
in homes cars unused nearby, touring best feature translating, likes, buys, concerts,
unused most most of the available, personalized finders, item label reading events,
of the time time discounted tours combiners 17 (for blind) games

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 40

This Digital World Model of Innovation is strange in its relationship to the Zenovation Model
of Innovation pioneered by the Jobs-return to Apple. Turning your self as founding-leader
into a Void Master, then doing the same to your employees, projects, products, and finally
customers is how you implement that model. The Digital World Model of Innovation is easy,
and a natural consequence of mastering that other--Zenovation Model. Being a Void Master
means you can direct your Void Masteries to the information technology matrix of today,
thereby voiding existing forms of industry and product, thereby “disrupting” older forms,
thereby seeing how information hoarded, too local, too un-distributed and how information
too dispersed, too various, too un-concentrated raise costs and delays, frustrate needs and
imagined boons. Void Masters with ease do the perceptual work at the core of the Digital
World Model of Innovation. One way to therefore do this Digital World model is to first do
the Zenovation model. If however you do not do it that way, you have to become, shall we
say, a “half” Void master--developing your ability to see every mundane routine, way, struc-
ture, product, need, want of all around you in information terms and imagine, were informa-
tion globalized, localized, real-time-ized, free, what would be different? Later, a Mundane
Change Model of Innovation will be presented and the Digital World Model is very close to
that because seeing all situations in information concentration, dispersion terms forces re-
seeing, re-doing mundane things almost never examined or changed (rooms empty in your
house every hour of every day, car seats unused in every car every day, under-employed peo-
ple hours and skills lying fallow every hour and day, etc.).

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE DIGITAL WORLD MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? The digital revolution can be viewed, and Steve Jobs ended up viewing
it, as tools spread over everything, connecting everything to everything
else, to the world wide web, and to everyone--that manipulate in vari-
ous ways the information that things are and use and about them. So
you view the world in information terms---suppose we had global infor-
mation free everywhere--what could change? what could we do? This
splits into: A) what if the entire world’s information were available in
this local place and time? B) what if this locale’s information were avail-
able elsewhere and globally? Another viewpoint is identifying humans,
groups, devices that handle information now, and imagining them
removed, with the information handled by our new info technologies,
devices, and web--dis-intermediation, for example. Another viewpoint
is the elimination of space and time--if systems join info from various
regions and time periods. What else changes? What else can be done?

This model of innovation involves changing your perception of the world,


in dozens of ways. More worryingly--you need to make dozens of such
changes of perception at the same time in order to fuse and select
among them wisely and see inter-relations, evolution paths, unintended
consequences of them.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTA- This model of innovation starts with a thorough-going dislocation of
CLES YOU ENCOUNTER? usual perception--seeing differently in dozens of simultaneous ways.
The main obstacle is current executives and leaders are mentally
stunted, incapable of this level of abstract metaphoric seeing and imag-
ining. Their MBA and elite college educations made them calculators of
simple maths, not thinkers in abstract evolving new domains.

WHY DO MANY NEVER ATTEMPT Large organizations and colleges turn people into cowards, quite gener-
IT? ally. So seeing differently in dozens of simultaneous ways seems to such
people too much, and they seek some simple immediate fragment to
profit from now. This MBA short term easy stuff kills innovation as
indeed it should.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 41

3. The Creativity & Novelty Sciences


Model of Innovation
..


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This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 42

Above are 30 ways the new gets into our world--you innovate, in this model, when you simul-
taneously do several of them (as Jobs-Apple did). Consider the following list:

1) SELL NEW BUSINESSS MODELS (not use them)---save a dying industry--redo


their business model via a single new product systems--handheld device plus
web store
2) GREAT ARCHITECTURE CHANGES---re-invent architecture of retail--stores that
stand out on ANY street and that make customer convenience visibly central,
not retail money handling
3) PERFORMANCE EVENTS----global media event product launches--keep secrecy
so well and long, and present new user-powers and conveniences of products
so dramatically that each product launch event hits the nightly news for a
week or more
4) CONSUMER REACTION EVENTS----global consumer event product launches--long
multi-block strings of people waiting overnight for the next version of your
product
5) DEVELOPER LOVE DEVELOPMENT----internal beauty of product components
unseen by customers--make a drive for beauty of detail throughout, so devel-
opers love what they develop
6) CHASE EXCELLENCE NOT MONEY----strip “race for money and quick sales, first
mover advantage” away from all products and events and stores--work the
details, get it right, deliver new power to users not mere new bally-hoo-able
features
7) SELL SYSTEMS NOT PRODUCTS----see and sell replacement for large industries
and systems, not mere products--see the ecosystem of invisible dependencies
and human routines that sustains old ways and design a set of products and
services that ease, reduce, and improve that entire matrix of inter-locking
routines and expectations in users
8) RESURRECTION STORY--a business ruined by its founder, later ruined worse by
its take-over MBA manager, saved when the original founder returned
demanding not profit but excellence--a story loved by billions.

The above list is not complete--it is only long enough to make the main point of this model of
innovation---real innovation beyond mere substrate update following and slight change exag-
gerating, simultaneously deploys several different Creativity & Novelty Sciences.

The above list can be re-written to make this clear:

1) BUSINESS MODEL INVENTION


2) ARCHITECTURE INVENTION
3) COMPOSING & PERFORMANCE
4) DRAMA & THEATRE
5) DESIGN & AESTHETICS
6) EXCELLENCE SCIENCE
7) SYSTEMS SCIENCE
8) RESURRECTION STORY

These are some of the 30 known Creativity & Novelty Sciences, given in the figure above.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 43

The apple story is repeated, fractally, with each Apple product. The iWatch for example was
late, after a dozen earlier net-connected watches. Its first version was watched and cri-
tiqued by techies and reviewers as inadequate. Its next versions were incrementally
improved in directions users were delighted by. Errors were made and found and fixed with
dependable regularity--while each version of the product left non-techie users above 95%

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 44

satisfied and techie users above 90% satisfied. Jobs took his PC idea and reworked it again
and again, with a Lisa disaster, a Scully bigger disaster, and Jobs-return heroic success story.
The tries, the drive for excellence, never faultered, or stopped--big failures merely produce
bigger later comebacks. The same story is repeated with each new product category
released. The products are entrepreneur stories as are the lives of those making them.

What makes no sense, in these stories, are the multi-dimensional drives for excellence--the
un-focused, un-necessary, side-issue directions of effort, development, perfection. Good
MBAs from Harvard have course after course to prevent that. While Fortune 500 firms a
tenth as profitable as Apple, led by Harvard MBA elites release the “minimal value equation
users will pay for”, Apple violates all those Harvard course principles and analyses, and ends
up more profitable than the entire rest of the world economy, and most groups in human his-
tory. Apple is the story of many simultaneous kinds of creativity and novelty synergistically
developed and woven together--the opposite of MBA analysis-derived “efficiency”. Appar-
ently 800 math GRE scores are as worthless and arrogant as they at first appear.

After visits to Apple and work with their teams, I always find myself, at an airport, leaving a
city, in business class, over-hearing usual business”men” talking “business”--with not a word
about any sort of excellence, delay, perfecting--aiming for and achieving the “minimal sell-
able value proposition”--hence, one guaranteed to bore everyone around, and make dog
food commercials on TV more exciting than their products and launches of product. It is an
entire global population of business”men” aiming at mediocrity, willing to settle for the first
achievable “innovative looking slight improvement” that will get them promoted--any tiny
improvement in their lifelong feeling of personal un-importance overwhelming any excel-
lence the world or their firm or their product might otherwise have achieved.

My students have developed measures of size and quality and degree of actualization in a
product, launch, story, performance, business of each of the 30 creativity & novelty sciences
above. Apple is robust along 12 of those 30. What would a company have to do and be to be
robust along 15 of them? 18 of them? 20 of them? 30 of them? Apple’s competitors are
robust along 2 or less of those 30, by the same measures. Excellence breeds further excel-
lence; creativity sciences breed further creativity sciences.

The 30 Creativity & Novelty Sciences have an internal structure that only Apple has explored
thus far. The diagram below was simplified to reveal this underlying structure among them.
If you are a business, aspiring to Apple-like fame and fortune--plotting where you and your
business/product dynamics are on this simplified diagram of 18 of the 30, is your best start-
ing point--for revealing how far you have to go and what direction you have to go in.

Readers my sit back, overwhelmed, and say--maybe I can break off a piece of two of these
18 or of these 30 and start there? This is actually harder to do than aiming at all 18 at
once. The pedestrian, one wants to say, habitual cowardice of businesses and the “men”
who do it, makes everything harder not easier to do. Aiming for more and investing in more
and taking more time than competitors pays back thousands of times more than Harvard
efficiencies do.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 45

43
experience:
author, actor,
audience
P31
GROUNDING
41 performers
audience
as 42
memory: cues:
intellectual, plot, event,
physical, sensual, 44 sense, emotion
emotional
PERFECT PARTS
35 reasonableness 48 character,
39
create & unreas.. gesture,
reality of of each omphalotic role as
structural
script situatn. fragment stance of
life whole performance messge finding of
vs. wanted 45
audience reaction 46 TIMELESSNESS subtext
CONNECTION epiphantic journey EXPRESSION
33 celebrate vs. 34 till illusion is 37 38
substitute actor
critique the lost personal experience concen-
sing song vs. times habits of memory tration
see performer 47 expression menu
produces
sing piece of life 36 vs. see life block expressing 40 audience
concentration
CREATIVE PERFORMING
11 leader: lead 56 love: disclose 63 sports: 52 game: 27
by follow- Invent: vulnerable
ing society: can vs. war: search
see cognitive self will habit saves heuristics event vs.
eternity but 54 revolution success creates 50 thought
49
53 failure TRAINING plot
go on living COMPASSION
ILLUSORY REALITY high performance: BALANCE 62 business: ROLE EXPRESSES
9 10 historic dream 61 everyman as impression
out of life in community device: performer: interview: permits 25 internalize vs. 26
order to be broadcast
negative liberation read while reality express
respond to 55
live through in it trade-offs 64 writing 51 face vs. mask 28 physical vs.
a role 12 imaginary objects (self vs. tool)
as to real ones DISTINGUISH PERFORMANCES spiritual makeup

3
DESIGN EMERGENCE 7 artistrepeated (singer etc): public speaker:
60 teach audience MANAGE PARADOX
19 relaxation vs. 32 move audience 23
it creates own 16 find & keep inspira- daily life better self
require- concentra- dead vs. remain
itself stance mind as
tion performance: ments
consistent
show flow
tune self & open-ended tion unmoved rehearsal
14
(self consc. =
choking) 13 58 impression fame 57 vs. known 30 alive work vs.
29 performance
creativity NO MIND/OBSTRUCTION environment EMPATHY outcome DETACHED ENGAGEMENT work
INSPIRATION ON COMMAND true desire for SELF AS TOOL actor: REPETITION calculation vs. RECREATION
1 seeming
simultaneous 2 moksha
5 nature of life 6
reality 17 rehearse vs. 18 warmth 21 create not 22
creation is the appear imitate
evalution release performer message 59 improvised
illusion of insight as violinist &
relaxation = fresh vs. spontaneous 31 truth vs. reality private vs.
1st time 4 on cue 15 violin 8 tuning violin repeat 20 vs. script imitation 24 public privacy

128 Ways to Improve the Creativity of Performing and Composing


From Strasberg, Stanislavsky, Sawyer, Gardner, Barthes, Culler, Auerbach, Pinsky, Winters, Eliot
get in touch with get in touch with avoid demon- demonstrate what alternate & separate establish insight & entool to organize 68 entool to capture
best expressions 88 yourself 95 strating the
media by 84 the media can generating 72 production 79 scattered bits alternate chance insights/
in the history themselves make the
communicate 123 and evaluating maintain & disciplines & of various “in the business” inspira-
of your get in touch media collect keep to go beyond
reuse old projects time with tions
field with the lives
85
excel in what 82 help the 81 70 them past practice
86 of your audiences you excel in message cross-
generation
throwaways 69 66 hermit time 65
and how you
FIND CARES excel in it USE MEDIA mentors STRUCTURE FOR
PRODUCTIVITY
after mastering it STRUCTURE FOR
INSIGHT EMERGENCE

get in touch with EXCEL blend the media OPPORTUNITY after your best: EPIPHANTIC
DEVELOPMENT
mix stimulation &
your times 93 set up co-invent 94 roles for synergy EMERGENCE
seek outside opinion 77 target moments 78 formulation spaces
fully meet dialog go beyond
and unlikeli-
hood
seed success via
121 extreme 122 announce when lives balance throughout
then rewrite setting
your own community your field’s productivity & structure and each day
87 criteria of
96 past forms of 83 & distri- 71 storyline transform association; insight
excellence excellence
befriend
bution network early and clearly80 and form 67
124peers &
CONNECT TO SELF AND AUDIENCE connectors competitors WRESTLE LIFE INTO DIAMONDS
find the rhythms make room for MAKE ROOM FOR EMERGENCE peel back drive your work
of your field 92 76 through one of
arrange for
insight
115 build own
social 128 surprise
strings 119 defenses clear
prefer
life’s key
surprising practice movement fragments to moments
90 release of works 89 applying 126 en-school 74 confusing realities 73
foreign 125 bricolage
FIND TIMING frameworks CAREER LIFE ANCHOR
EMERGENCE
All jobs at
let your clear
find the rhythms INSIGHT EMERGENCE match attracted WORK EMERGENCE grasp of a
of your times
113 follow up 114 resources &
118 work are
powerful part
& audiences
keep slight hunches alternate
followers 117
create & plurify of life, not
116 engagement/
plural markets past
works performances
wording,
impress
91 environments 127 simultaneous 120 canibalize
rich & diverse detachment projects
75 as are all
CREATIVE COMPOSING products &
tune the inter- edit out elements drafts for feedback drafts for
delivery of
action of
elements till
good things
104 that don’t
further the 111 from others 100 self edits products.
seed emotive
emerge
point make drafts for 97 Use these to
102 avalanches 101 latent contents 98 impact
of field
VERSIONING
be and make
EDITING explicit

balance unlikeli-
BECOMING
drafts for observing
those
INCOMPARABLE
hood with
comprehen-
responses of
109 fit society best 110 strangers & performances
sability design revision
evaluators
watched, liked,
103 surprises 112 ofofyourcanon 99
field inspiring, & repeated.
PRODUCE Each day your whole LIFE can
anonymous
named tests tests take a MUCH better direction
108
106 IF you PERFORM each day
competitive 105
tests not just react all day to
TESTING others and your own
comparative past self.
tests
107

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 46

Each Creativity Science (or you can call them Novelty Sciences) is its own world of dynamics,
interactions, principles, cases, directions of development. So the diagrams above of 30 cre-
ativity sciences and of 18 of them, are simplifying a vast domain. To give readers of how
vast that domain actually is I include below a diagram on 64 dynamics from great composers
and another 64 from great performers. Before that I present another diagram of 60 models
of creativity. Each of those 60 models of creativity itself has 10 to 50 variables.

The territory is vast, do doing several creativity sciences simultaneously is a “flow” experi-
ence of full engagement at slightly beyond your current top capacity levels of effort. You
have to grow your self to simultaneously do several of them at once. We cannot do them as
who we now are, keeping the “us” we now use.

14These models
These
3 System see creativity
as social

4
models are
mixtures, blends, 13 Model relations &
and combinations dynamics
of things. p180 p135 p142 p147 of sorts.
8 p192
Disci- Com- Social 19 Process
p238
pline p91 munity Compu- Deploy-
Com- of tation

2
7 ment These
SOCIAL

bines Ideas Mass models see


p86 Tuning 15
9 Solving 20 p201 group-ness
Parti- p155 making
p183 procedures
These p132 Culture cipatory
p104 Social 24 Optimize creative

5
BL

P
models are
Paradox Art &
OU
Mixing Move- Demyst- Ideal
EN

giant collections Design Flow


GR
ment ification
D

based on single themes p81 Door- p168 17 p295


or matrix frameworks.
12 Idea way p228
Meta- 21
Question 3 Market- p120 18 p162
16 23 Cognition 25
2 Finding 10 Space p222
30 Dialectics 26
p37 ing Social p206
Scale Share p241
Traits p30 p126
Blend Connec- Simple
p24 Darwinian tion- 22 Programs Compilation
CATA Systems 4 11 ism D G E p248 Cycle
E
1
Recommen-
LOG p52
Combined
60 p281
p273 Fractal EV
L
KNOOWLUTION Relocating

1 dations Thought
Idea p257 These
Recurrence Idea Ecosystems dynamics models see

p77 p17
Garbage
6 Can p60
Types
5 Models of 29
28 p263
Waves 27
among
idea themselves that
become creativity
Within the mind dynamics
57 Percept p546 58 Creativity 36 p298
p327 Create by

6
p339
or constructs that p551
“create”. Invent Social Balancing Solution
Making Experience Copyright 2002 by
Automata
p333
59 Realizatn. Richard Tabor Greene
35 Culture
p539 Sense D All Rights Reserved
34 p320 EXPER 31
M IN p560 US Government
Fractal I M EN T Policy by
Cognitive 56 Substrate Registered

Operator Update 52 Career Adjacent 42 Model Experiments


Extremes Invent Investing Beyond Expan- Creation p305
Insight p493 p385 sion
p531 60 p500
p508 40 Population Events p314 32
55 p524
Interest 53 p443 33
54 46 41 Automaton
Ecstasy These models see

10
p451 p396
p566 51 Perfor- 47 Surprise solids disolved into
SY

mance Info Non- hypotheses making


LF

Extended
ST

Self Crea- Influence Design Linear


creativity.
SE

The p378
EM

dynamics Deve- tivity p414


PURITY

of creating p435 Systems


a self if lop- 50 p464 48 p343
39
extended
results in p483
creativity.
ment
p474
Anxiety
Channel 49
Courage

p521
45
Perfor-
mance
44
p418
Sub-
creations
System
Effects p348
These models
p361
38
37

Darwin-
7
9
p429 see non-linear ian
These aspects of reality
models see p459
that make creativity
some single p424 inevitable in

8
function or 43 the universe
aim that done
purely results Produc-
in creativity. tivity

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 47

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE CREATIVITY SCIENCES MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? Doing this is straightforward--grow one Creativity Science, tech ven-
tures, or inventions, or designs, into others (performances, theatre,
composing), then feed them back into the first one, in a loop.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTA- These are different kinds of creativity--and most corporations especially
CLES YOU ENCOUNTER? if MBA led, settle for one or half of one--never even considering beyond
minimal sell-able function sets. The obstacles are short term cowardice
in leaders and inability of elite college grads to mentally handle plural
creativity types in multiple simultaneous directions.

WHY DO MANY NEVER ATTEMPT When leaders are mentally stunted, though elite, they use their power
IT? to hide incapability by forcing “focus” on others = not this model of
innovation.

4. The Monastic Change Model of Innova-


tion
With the vast majority of business”men” seeking to “look” creative not “be” creative, mak-
ing highly visible launches of things they do not hang around to make real (settling for a
quick promotion)--shunning, Descartianly, via Harvard MBA religion of business tenents, in
the trenches hard actualization of new things--a race for the “minimal sell-able functions
consumers will pay for” dominates “business” and adds to the general phony Innovation
Noise that fools, venal publishers, and academics take for “innovation”.

One opposite of this miserable but all too true tale is people working down in the depths,
shifting things so fundamental, unchanged for centuries, that “innovating” there is impossi-
ble for most people to even imagine. How can you change “prose text” “reading” “hearing”
“discussing” “brainstorming” “processing work” “meeting” “presenting” so radically that
mental productivity increases dozens to hundreds of times current levels, opening enormous
vistas of inventivity, innovation, and creativity?

What gives these sorts of changes, even slight ones in things so fundamental, their power? If
something is truly mundane, it is used hundreds of times a day and thousands of times a
week, by every living thinking human. Slight changes in something used that many times
daily by that many people can have immense effects. Often the effect is a change in per-
sonal productivity by a factor of 10 to 100 times the productivity of prior self and others.
Such leaps in intellectual and/or social productivity by themselves open new vistas of cre-
ativity, innovation, and ability to amaze self, others, and history (see the Productivity Model
of Creativity from my book Are You Creative? 60 Models).

There is a rich history of monastic innovations--with two meanings of the word “monastic”:
one, the invention of new mundanities we all know and use everyday by actual religious
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 48

Change what
all others
assume & use
without thinking

The Fate of Civilizations

The Destiny of Entire Cultures

DOMINANCE HISTORIC
OF MARKETS FAME
(iProduct LEVELS OF
Powers) CREATIVITY

PERSONAL GROUP & IDEA &


CAREER COMPANY PRODUCT
POWER POWER INVENTION
POWER

MEETINGS DISCUSSIONS PROCESSES & BRAINSTORMS PROSE


replaced by replaced by CLASSES replaced by replaced by
SCIENTIFIC STRATIFIED replaced by SOCIAL FRACTAL
RULES OF RESPONDINGS MASS DESIGN PAGE
ORDER WORKSHOP AUTOMATA FORMS
EVENTS

The POWER of Changing Basic


Fundamental Interfaces
Page 7 Copyright 2001 by Richard Tabor Greene, All Rights Reserved, Government Registered Email: richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

monasteries; two, what is thusly invented or re-invented is immensely mundane, the sort of
thing only intense religious monastics pay attention to and reform. For example, Benedic-
tine monastics in Spain over 1000 years ago, and Rinzai zen monastics in Japan about the
same time, simultaneously and independenly of each other, invented “the job”--the tradi-
tion of each person works for their own food and essentials, rather than depending on slaves
or personal servants.

Much of the digital revolution model of innovation above, in terms of its power and its power
to continually amaze us, is its change of fundamentals used by all every day--getting a ride,
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 49

getting a room, telling tales to friends, keeping track of kids and spouse and family, sending
erotic vibrations via cell phone calls to your lovers. However changing economic and life-
style fundamentals is not as fundamental as changing intellectual and social relationship
fundmentals. The more fundamental the strata you change, the more amplification of the
results you get from even slight changes done there.

 


 
  
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This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 50

FRACTAL 40
lose ego
= lose suffering
= lose need for death
THIS REPLACES PROSE
see count, names, &
death unneeded =
lose suffering in life
by dropping ego, self

PAGE
when self & mind
drop away what
38 remains-- 39
when compassion so empathy
mind goes death is
for creatures

order of points at a
what is left? unneeded tortured by
compassion their separatenesses
when mind drops 13 creatures torturing
what is left? compassion selves with separateness

FORMS
Dropping Self Drops Suffering
34 what we fear loss of creates all our worry so 37
our losing it brings happiness not trouble, so
when
mind is losing self in life makes death unneeded beyond

glance. Replace a
worry
creator, separations
shown by We fear the self-shut suffering goes
meditation downs we seek, but when see beyond
meditation reveals separation/worry
mind as worry creator dropping self suffering goes
relieves us of if escape our own
we seek yet fear loss
32 suffering mind & thought
we of self yet self 33 35 suffering goes 36
seek causes worry but caused by

bad 8000+ year


when away when
in ecstasy all our beyond
what we fear suffering
ego beyond mind
in death comes from self thoughts suffering goes
suffering goes
we seek what and its separateness when not led by when look beyond
death provides yet 11 buddha self gives 4 our own thoughts 12 own mind
fear death = strange us life as suffering suffering goes suffering goes

A Solution to the Fundamental Problem of Human Existence:

old interface!
22 Degrees of being a self from brain modules create religious experiences,
31
self is
drugs birth, anaesthesia, and ecstasy show us what death brings, namely, an ocean of joy, a petty
shut down so what we fear losing, our self/ego is what tortures us with worry--if we let self thing that
other modules, drop away in life we do not need death--we can be happy while alive. shuts out more
ex. flow of than it includes
consciousness one
example: drugs THE OVERALL ARGUMENT: self as pettyness
shut in-body module The degrees of being our selves come from that shuts out more
ways to shut down our self’s basis in interacting brain mod- what we most seek--
specific modules = ecstasy--equals
20 death in life or 21 ules some of which we can shut down 29 self drops away 30
religious in meditation, with drugs, in ecstasy, leaving ocean in ec-
various experiences zazen all of life of joy stasy self
religious shuts down all of which bring joy and meaning;
we seek drops away
practices shut I am in my body
down brain modules 7 module Dropping away of brain modules ecstasy
10 leaving oceanic joy
meditation shuts example: zazen brings oceanic pleasure, because ecstasy = self
down brain modules shuts in-body module suffering is generated by our life as ecstasy search drops away, joy ocean
Degrees of Being Me minds/egos; when we stop We’ve Already Been Dead
25 the answer to the death question of what 28
in birth, anaesthesia, ecstasy we all know
we fear the most what we week the most
16 degrees being our own minds,
of being and not being a self come 19
from particular brain modules suffering/separateness remains of awareness?
modules we wonder
as kids we Being a self is quantal interacting end bringing joy so
closed eyes
what is left Injury, birth, anaesthesia awoke hours
fear ego death
cuz self is inter- create us-ness we no longer need of awareness? and ecstasy shut down later, no sense
just as ego
starts developing acting brain mod- we are neuronal death for release what is left of parts of us, pre- noofsense time lost
see ego end at ego start ules some of tea party awareness? figuring death of gap
from suffering.
brain modules inter- the death question, we know the answer:
the question of our which we can
acting create our
experience before birth and in
14 existence? 15 shut down 17 sense of self/ego 18 23 when all modules 24
go, what aware-
26 anaesthesia 27
experiences
self is injury ness is left? death
we all what is from brain so there shuts down shuts down in surgery
are degrees modules, what was it
fear the point modules inter- some modules we lost sense
gradually or like before we
death of living if of being a self 1 of time elapse
5 2 acting = be partly us all at once 3 were born--
self = brain 6 degrees of
we die, we wonder. as modules join in 9
we fear death injury shuts 8 death shuts by we remember
point of living? system interplay being oneself modules by degree degree or at once seen it before born time loss in anaesthesia

Read in order from box 1 to box 40, or, inversely, read from box 14 to 40 first, then read from 5 to 13, then read from 2 to 4, then read box 1 last; these are top down reading and bottom up, respectively.

Now add to this simultaneous change in several mundane functions--what we write and
read, how we read and write, how we discuss, how we meet, etc. Changes in these done
simultaneously can expand intellectual and social productivity to hundreds of times prior
levels or levels of those around you--opening immense vistas of new creativity and innova-
tion. The stock valuations of Silicon Valley firms in the years around 2015, for example,
price in a host of “disruptions” in rather monastic basics of life and work.

Part of this monastic level of innovation from the web and software apps and smartphones is
a very slow gradual realization of how much of thought, feeling, action depend and come
from information we have or lack. Immense American amounts of worry whenever a child is
slightly late, is greatly alleviated when non-call realtime smartphone video snapshots allow
parents to check on location, threats, and overall safety in and around their remotely
located children. Being able to “be there” and “see/hear” there will enable an immense
layer of worry to be lifted from American parents and parents of other gun-toting, violent
societies. Smartphones in pockets will not achieve this but tiny camera sensors in shirts and
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 51

THE NEXT
A Fractal Concept Model Summary of All the Points Made in this Chapter
find heaven show own kids tools for fools the T-shirt cou- Manage Conquer Perceive Paradox Mental Travel
was always life of respect, = money for rage test: if you Emergence: commit to vic- embracing what the violation of
here, never slough trend/fad; fools = selling have to wear a set up automatons tory, establish does not work, all boundaries
creativity tools among populns. exceptionless fails to compute, and norms seek-
away, we just poise from an for $ while 60 suit, too wimpy
64 audience of the of ideas, then discipline, make frustrates, ing the
missed knowing to create
recog- Benefits unborn they do Not Tools, anything tune & The Model: creating disorients The Model: new &

WORD
prune 48 Use It to the norm
nizing it of 63 not work But 59
Create
47 44 Create a rare 43
fame, Create- eliminate meet 1 Create-79 coach Create Creative Think Make Creative Make
works, Analysis what
80
per 2 or Analysis bosses/ Creation Works 76 generate Interior Life 75 Exterior
4 week, execs of Machine associate Room Room
and sex; squanders full panoply of decompose, & the emotional the time and
works that rep- time, de-focusses track progress teams to permit
the subcreations
on 8 functions that enable preparatory sub- map analogies space for facilities for
resent you when you, and
creations that among creating creating
and where you belittles of the rec. final creative

PROCESSOR
your enable the final ideas
are not 61
worth 62 How to model 57 works 58
creative work45 46
Creation 41 42

loving what all going Create flow from the nastiness, Result = distin- Models of Clarity Any envt. Illusion: assess
others hate: where 84 tuning in- toughness, & quish creativity 54 83 that helps firm environmt.
from effective- orthogonal 1 or 2 models for creating--
failures, anoma- forbidden, teractions courage of flex-
& pruning noise ing parts of life,ness etc.; 7000 disciplines, of creating
lies, tangles, violating all, including thereby hinders how it hinders
paradox, using the till creations people, many more & enables
relations, creativity, other
delusions TheModel: discards appear The Model: ways of 9 years. effectiveness, models Creativity creating

PROJECT
52 Step Style 51of others 56 Step Style 55living 36 Creativity etc. 35 40 Represen- 39
Relationally 315, 5 in 150
get rid of and Feel:77 revising takes 8 and Feel:78 a lifetime ortho tationally Each
hassle Create Life all in your to 10 Create Works of mind fields = Defined 73 each of creators Defined74 model
generators; life till it years at extensions 63 strata, define has
12-16 hrs./day; that amplify you determines nominate 150 in
achieve great completely and who rises to each ortho field, their own models about 20 key
only supports those unable to and make top of variables and
productivity to
wait 8 years to you Tools don’t all tra- who define it = of creating =
get enough free your creating create; ditional Ortho Field 34 60 overall
required envir-
create are inca- intelligent models onmental con-
time to create49 50 Ordinary fields 33 Research Project
pable of it 53 54 37 ditions 38

Example 3:
each week,
Example 2: try Result: creation surveil-
try 2 jobs in to get two full hated there = lance
time jobs at the disguise, work- causes
highly different; same time, with arounds, scarf- extreme
= impossible full bene- ing, &
people don’t
create;
Only creators feel
create 85
conform- all 1st create
we all the world needs Lake Wobegone: if all of us are
more creativity where all kids creative then
creative than it now has are above
cuz we cuz it quickly
bores us as we
average!
none of us are
= the rarity of
being creative.
My studio will
change all of
ism + a self, as
in any Looking fits = skunk- Firms 67 risk aver- our 1st 32 Five quickly get Garbage
used to it
firm 16 Creative impossible 15 works 12 Prevent sion 11 creation Confusions 31 28 Can 27

extreme Not Being Example invention Sub- businesses all are within wanting effective, Words:71 contra-
72
rutted- Creative68 1: try to of life- creations outlaw creative Creating to be more educated, Creative dictory
ness & get 5 such =we all creative creative uses:
place & style subcreations generate

world history
cowardice in desks per person work- place & things; than we now are = words used we need more of X.
& add all cannot be = wanting everyone is X,
businesses = = impossible style innova- constant creative =
easily but with
we say both
tions pre- to stand
people look not in any Phony cede surveillance = creativity is rare, out, 30
foggy
be, creative 13 firm 14 stands out 29 be unique, Creativity 25meaning
Routes creations 9 no isolation 10 26
Confu-
to 81 interviews the model they exagger- to Western tests measure

via inventing
only people only tested against ate both their celebrate sions societies courageless,
creating new people Creating of 150 getting 82
tend to
11 others, gutless, body-
kinds of tools having creators found to be the tolerance for anything mentalize
creativity and even a little new creativity, less, revenge-
end up creating creative lives produced only 1creators their through bulky un-socializing less, wimpy
create highly identified business
Source achieve- Exagger- bureau- disem- Cerebral forms of
The similar with ment of it bodying
of ation cracies 19 it 24 Substitutes flexing 23

new fundamental
4 3 model 8 7 20
Tools These
busi- of 69 to look mental for 70 because
Illusion Absurd-
65 ities 66 nesses Creativity good for flexing Creativity it is flex
7000+ & per- career & asso- of easy
tools never ordinary recommenda- categorized purposes ciative breadth riskless test
make anyone people cannot tions by into 128, 64, sons exagger- items, not life-
on creativity

interfaces!
ate their
creative be creative, researchers of 32, 16, 4 cate- creativity tests has no style, spousal
ever creativity gories by relation to relations, views
1 2 5 grouping 6
constantly 17 18 creativity 21 of authorities 22

headbands or caps will enable this--serviced by dis-interested third party “guards” (human
or machine), such smartwear might track and protect children everywhere they go, with
enough privacy to let kids goof and grow.

So there are two frontiers--mundane innovations more fundamental than changes in informa-
tion parts of our lives that the digital revolution is only beginning to spot and modify and
those further changes in our lives that the digital revolution has yet to reach and modify.
This chapter’s model of innovation--the Monastic Innovation Model---concerns both, but pri-
marily the former--changes in things more mundane and ancient than information itself in
our lives. A good mix is the diagram provided here of simultaneous changes in five such
mundainities--how we read, write, discuss, meet, process work, brainstorm, and what we
read and write. Alternatives to prose, as a way of writing are given in two other diagrams--
both of them with an emotion-conveying image background, a main point in large font, and
then a new fractal page form way of writing that reveals instantly at a glance, that is, visu-
ally, the COUNT (number of points on a page), the NAMES (of all points on the page on sev-
eral levels), and the ORDER (how those point are ordered. Prose is an interface so very bad
that it hides those three--the count, names, and order. Prose requires elaborate de-coding
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 52

to find “the points” in it. In fact prose is such a bad interface that people who are good at
finding points in it end up at the world’s top universities--only geniuses can generally find all
the points in passages of prose text. Indeed, Harvard MIT grads when tested are unable to
get all three--the count of points present, the names of them all, and how all are ordered.

Indeed, in an ironic wrinkle, the digital revolution, is slowly, step by step, re-inventing “the
job” that the Benedictine monks and Rinzai zen monks co-invented. The people with in-
demand talent can now work for several firms at the same time, doing several jobs at the
same time, with pay for deliverables not time put in. Dutch people now often change from
all day one each week working in one company at one job, to combining several part-time
jobs, each in a different role and industry, each week--collecting pension and medical bene-
fits with each. The job is being dissolved into more fluid arrangements with more psychic
balance and health--enabled by the power of software to coordinate vastly faster and more
than administrative humans could.

Indeed there are many mundane unexamined aspects of our lives that are overly harsh, bor-
ing, simple, and unchanging today due to cognitive coordination ability limits of running
things with male “executives” trained at “top” schools--they never had the mental ability
that humane and creative working populations needed. So for centuries, people labored in
dull repetitive jobs uniform, steady, and simple enough for feeble executive brains to “coor-
dinate”. We are just now week by week, quarter by quarter, liberating humankind from
these leader-feeble-mentality-caused shackles and uniformities. Burn out, in jobs, comes
almost always due to asking people to do 5 days a week, all day every day, an activity that is
too intense, too narrow, too unhealthy. Just imagine jobs split between 3 days of “caring
for the elderly” and “selling iphones to techies”--the one repairs damage to people done by
the other, the one rests over-worked emotions or mentalities developed by the other, the
one restores humanity and sensitivities lost by the other. This is just splitting jobs into two
pieces balancing each other in one dimension. If we split jobs into 3 weekly parts--also bal-
ancing but across more types of dimensions, an even more humane, powerful, skilled society
with fewer cases of burn out becomes possible. The idea of the job as doing the same thing
all day for weeks and years at a time is clearly FOR keeping things simple for feeble execu-
tive mentalities. The cost humanity has paid for these simplifications of work is immense.
At a certain point, that cost becomes evil.

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE MONASTIC CHANGE MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? This model of innovation involves one simple step--choosing four or five
simultaneous mundane fundamentals of intellectual or social life to
make serious fundamental modifications in, and a second harder step--
making a change in something mundane that millions of other people can
be rather easily persuaded to make with you. Of course at first you may
need only a hundred in your firm or a few thousand customers to make
the change, but from a core, the change has to grow virallly.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTA- Extremely few grads of top elite colleges are capable of imagining
CLES YOU ENCOUNTER? changes, that work and others would accept, in such fundamentals as
how we read, write, present, discuss, brainstorm, process work, and the
like.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 53

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE MONASTIC CHANGE MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
WHY DO MANY NEVER ATTEMPT MBA types cannot see how vast the multipliers are for changes in things
IT? repeatedly used so many times a day by so many people. They simply
consider such thoughts too philosophical, too impractical, too dreamy
for their male-ish mindsets and images of self. Japan traditions of cog-
nitive competitiveness in every workgroup via every few years upgrading
of six tools for intellectual work, fit this mode of monastic change inno-
vation quite well.

5. The Innovation-as-Culture-Work Model


of Innovation
When we review the really major global changes in business practice of the last 120 years,
we find nothing from colleges of business, nothing from professorial analyses, nothing from
higher education. All the major global changes in business practice came from techniques
from one national business culture invading other business nations and cultures around the
world.

 * 


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This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 54

CULTURE ONE CULTURE TWO


Where in 64 social processes
How do 64 dimensions of this
of all parts of society does each
culture interact with 64 dimen-
dimension interaction appear?
sions of another culture?

People with more theories notice more, live in larger worlds

THE CULTURE MIX MODEL


MIX CULTURE TYPES: ERA, GENDER, PROFESSION, DEVICE, USER, NATION, ORGANIZATION
modify cultures, apply operators to them: fuse/split, weaken/strengthen, soften/harden
BE WHERE MULTIPLE FRAMES-INTERPRETATIONS ABOUND
EXPANDED OTHER CULTURE
REPERTOIRES AS METAPHOR
see alternative FOR OTHERNESS
PENETRATING ANOTHER CULTURE IS AN OF SOLUTIONS
ways to do, see, INSIGHT PROCESS--BUILD FAILURE INDEX solutions as
and feel. CONSTANT TILL IT SPECIFIES EVENTUAL SOLUTIONS PRACTICE cultural others
SURPRISE MAPPING
DIFFERENCES
practice handling forces mental
the unexpected distinctions &
accurate
ABSENT rewordings
MESSAGE RELATIVIZE
NOISE OWN VALUES
no adds, dis- see entire system
interest in your AVAILABLE different than own “solve”
see/hear ideas yet it works other
things not EMOTION cultures
see an display & use of seeing by find core
imaginable entire emotions hidden predictive
in own two talking
culture
other world percept
vacuum
in own culture systems more exactly patterns as
made by without each thinks finer practice
other draws out only its ways distinctions
creativities hidden fuller experience of are right = better
self living, more feeling both namings
powers wrong

CREATIVITY
Effortless: solve X in A via
Y from B; Y is usual in B
but seen as creative in A

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 55

My father fighting Germans on the Western front could not say it or admit it openly, but
nearly everything about the German army that he fought was better than its corresponding
thing in the US army. So you shot your first German to get good boots, your second to get
bazookas that blew up the enemy tank not the shooter of it, and so on. German tanks had
two-way radios so tank commanders could communicate up local conditions and surprises
whereas American tanks had one way radios so central commander dictators could send five
tanks uphill against 200 enemy tanks to their death and no profit for lack of a way to find out
that central commander intelligence of battlefield conditions was flawed. Tens of thousands
of young boys died due to American battlefield dictatorship traditions.

The result--my father and his generation studied 1920s German management principles, in
American for two decades, after that war, with the word “German” stripped off of them,
and the words “management by objectives” put on them in its stead by an Austrian immi-
grant to America, Peter Drucker.

A later generation of Americans, no longer able to wait for top ten global colleges of busi-
ness to learn and respond, set up their own industry universities--the American Supplier
Institute, the Crosby College in Florida, and others--teaching not professorial analyses, but
Japanese quality methods and statistics. Total quality, the most far-reaching and global
change in business practice in history, came from Japan, not from colleges of business and
their professors. Similarly the web came from CERN and the touch interface came from
CERN--both Swiss. CATIA, the dominant CAD software in the world came from Franch and
French math-heavy education, and SAP, the dominant manufacturing process software in the
world came from German meister shops and their need for keeping expensive German-made
machne tools processing. Wave after wave of major business practice change came from
techniques crossing cultures. 30 years after Silicon Valley changed global business product,
process, and practice--East Coast USA top colleges reluctantly, datedly, superficially, sprin-
kled a few “entrepreneurship” courses around on their finance uberalles traditions and fac-
ulty. A pitiful display, one has to admit. It takes “top” faculty in the US’ “top” colleges 30
years to superficially “look like” they too understand and do something that decades earlier
changed the world. There is no better way to be 30 years out of date than attend a top
American college of business.

When you add to this the majority of founders of Silicon Valley ventures who are immigrants
holding non-US passports, and the entrepreneural diaporas around the world of Jews in
Amsterdam and Manhattan, Chinese in Southeast Asia, Japanese in Brazil, and so on--you get
a picture of culture crossing as at the core of innovation.

Indeed, in one of my other books I presented the Culture Mix Model of Creativity, shown
below. Innovation--changing the world with a creative idea--is fostered in corresponding
ways: 1) you see differently when into the other’s cultures new techniques/ways 2) you see
how they view your own culture and ways while learning foreign ways 3) you relativize your
local sense of rightness and best by the mere fact of examining others’ ways that have
marched around the world defeating you and others unexpectedly--freeing you up to love
you own ways less, and perhaps change 4) just look at the model and it is easy to find anal-
ogies in innovation for all the dynamics on that Culture Mix Model of Creativity.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 56

WHAT IS THE CORE OF THIS INNOVATION MODEL


--You Innovate When you Counter 15 Cultures--
1) COUNTER WESTERN CULTURE’S DESCARTIAN DENIGRATION OF BODY--Jesus and
his followers did us in by showing and enshrining contempt for sex and the
body. Actually it was the people after Jesus in two waves--the first wave tak-
ing Greek philosophy and using it to split God into 3 parts while surviving on
the margins of Roman decline; the second wave, editing out of the bible all
books that gave people direct access to the divine--forcing them to depend
on priests. Millenia later, executives launch flashy initiatives that no one
bothers finishing; Japanese and Apple suffer through laborious mastery of
technologies that American and EU competitors offer slap-dash versions of;
foolish executives by the thousand soak up (and pay for) “top” college profes-
sor analyses having nothing to do with reality or results or impact; to inno-
vate you have to counter this culture.
2) COUNTER “TOP” GLOBAL COLLEGE ACADEMIC CULTURE OF ANALYSIS UBER-
ALLES--massive hordes of professors work assiduously every day in media,
articles, conferences, consults inserting betweeen passion and result, idea
and action, experiment and innovation--analysis, shallow MBA levels of
pseudo-maths, elite snobberies of desk size, wife size(s), pay size; stratifying
eating, parking, pay, pension, authority arrangements into European social
classes of the Louis XIV ilk. To innovate you have to strip analysis and
social class stratification traces left behind by massive professorial
injections of what they are good at (which is anything BUT business). It is
hard to emphasize enough how this culture of academia inserts analysis and
elite snobberies like an Alzheimer’s plaque between thought and deed, com-
mand and deed, initiative and change, creation and innovation, slowing
things down, gumming things up, drawing things out till all motive, passion,
enthusiasm peters out. Publications are particularly dangerous--all of them
because they depend directly or indirectly on academic for getting stuff to
stuff in their articles and pages--whether it is real or honest or decent or
effective is irrelevant--they have pages to pack and need stuff. But I come
into contact, again and again, with real business people, whose minds are
infected with analysis uberalles and elites uberalles diseases fostered in aca-
demia at “top” colleges--these have nothing to do with business but somehow
get into minds and make entire careers, lives, products, and corporations--
worthless.
3) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF BIG-NESS--big organizations, everywhere, ruin
innovation, ruin control, ruin coordinated action, ruin passion, ruin speed,
ruin thought, ruin initiative. We all completely know this yet only a few have
countered bigness powerfully--Gortex, for example, countering both bigness
and monkey hierarchy. Big organizations expose you to too much audience--
a vast number sort of see and know what you are up to but without complete
context--yet they react and undermine, often based on totally offbase inter-
pretations of things--making it such a hassle to try to do anything that, over
time, people give up initiating at all. Big organizations expose you to too lit-
tle audience at the same time--so much hubbub and noise, chaos and petty

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 57

continual exaggerated chances that nothing heads in a consistent direction


for more than a few days at a time--making it nearly impossible to hold a
direction, nearly impossible that the specs that created your program will be
there mid-way toward realizing it, unchanged, and nearly impossible to get
visibility to a great idea or breakthru till too late. To innovate you have to
counter these and other aspects of the culture of bigness.
4) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF CAPITALISM--the fake variety it generates (100
shampoos all with 99.8% identical ingrediants), the products and services that
directly harm health or side-effects of their production harm it, sedentary lif-
estyles generated by conveniences that in turn generate heart disease and
other causes of early disability and death, regular bouts of inequality as elites
become disgusted with the mores and smells of ordinary people in their soci-
eties, a constant braying noise of striving striving striving and inter-personal
comparison that erodes all happiness into anxiety, envy, and self destruction
via drugs and “outs”. New “innovative” products are constantly announced
to sell dis-satisfaction with products consumers have just bought--to speed up
new purchases. These and other traits of capitalist culture must be coun-
tered in order to do real substantial innovation.
5) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF MALES--it is hard to believe there are readers any-
where not already completely aware of this--but ordinary workplace behav-
iors every day contradict that, so here goes the obvious--males absolutely fill
workplaces with verticality, constantly taking attention off horizontal deliv-
ery of care and power to clients, emphasizing instead ass kissing, territory
fights, strutting displays of personal power, random acts of cruelty to under-
lings to keep them “in line”, backbiting and undermining of any good initia-
tive of others they compete with, and a litany almost endless. Women in the
workplace either absorb these absurdities or watch on the sidelines as most
of “work” gets filled with these monkey-isms, leaving actual “business” and
“work” to the margins or competitors. I watched corporate VPs at Xerox talk
male crotches in front of their one female VP for half an hour just to make
her feel unwelcome--she shifted the conversation to ball sizes to make them
eventually feel uncomfortable. Because of excesses of maleness in work-
places, not enough attention is given to horizontal client needs, products,
and care to sustain the business. To innovate you have to counter these
inane verticalizations of workplaces by male cultures. A subset of this
point is how actual business needs and conditions are not seen at work--male-
nesses direct all attention at territory, status, celebrity leaders and other
verticalities, making actual business needs and conditions invisible. Again
and again major corporations have chosen death to survival, as these internal
vertical agendas outweighted external business survival challenges invisible
within.
6) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF TOOLS AND TOOL USE--part of this is a giant excuse
for snobbery promoted by top American colleges of business. The first MBA
programs circa 1900, sprinkled “scientific management” tools on daddy’s
lady-chasing son to justify promoting him over the guys who built the business
with daddy. Major consultancies, then and now, have brochures that read
strangely---they are selling “hired brains” to such tool-cootie-sprinkled sons,
must in case girl-chasing left few mental capabilities in daddy’s son. So
there is a deep tradition of colleges of business providing method/tool cover
stories for class system mini-aristocracy dynamics that ruin businesses, but
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 58

perpetuate slightly family wealth and fame. It is hard to separate this


majority of top college of business research and teaching from the minority
of actual examination of real creativity, innovation, or work. Tools get
invented as improvisations by people having great motivation from crisis or
genius. They reach fame from associated deeds and get copied and taught to
others, who, lacking that great motivation, get far less from using them.
They lie fallow and get used for other purposes and wrong purposes for a
while, till they end up so added on to and distorted that no one can figure out
why anyone ever liked or used them. This evolution from effective begin-
nings as a marriage of great motive with improvised tooling to death from
mis-use and add-ons happens to all tools--cloud computing, QFD quality func-
tion deployment’s houses of quality, and all others. A subset of this sickness
is people trained too long and too much, sitting too long and too much, in col-
leges, practicing daily non-action, non-creation, non-innovation, told that
the pile of “tools” and “analyses” that professors fills them with, will some-
how become later on---power, results, impact. This is a lie. Colleges gener-
ate students who are exposed to a zillion tools with little or no motive, mis-
used casually by student teams in exercises so students expect the tool
itself to magically DO something good for them or their project. The
whole style of college, even in project and action-learning classes, is forcing
students with poor, wrong, or no motivation to “use proper tools properly”.
The results is making students into a primitive tribe believing that such tools
have a magical ability, by themselves, without students powerfully motivated
powerfully using them in a direction, to get things done. Tools become a
substitute for results and effort, not a help to them. To innovate you have
to counter this culture of tool use, and the magical hope in students that
tools by themselves will do things.

What if innovations themselves are a sort of tool, in


the sense of this section? Then innovations get
created out of powerful motives in crisis or genius
situations, but decay in direction and power of
doing as time goes on and they get passed into the
hands of non-originators. Eventually with people
of little motive mis-using them for purposes they
are not well suited for, all conclude the innovation
itself is poor and needs improvement by-----another
innovation!

7) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF THE U.S.A.--where almost no one lives in the


present, so the present is hugely ugly and dangerous; instead everyone lives
in their aims and dreams for next year or the year after next. Visiting East
Asians and Europeans are astonished at the daily life uglinesses that Ameri-
cans put up with, compared to conditions in their non-USA homes and they
are buoyed by how even the poorest and least advantaged Americans live out-
side the present in future aims and dreams, however modest. Elites in the
USA, unencumbered by responsibilities or funding of the lowest 1/4th of their
population, are mobile, flexible, and fundable for initiatives that are multi-
ples of what elites in East Asia and the EU attempt. The asperger’s nature of
Silicon Valley people and products--excesses of maleness in the USA tech
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 59

communities, make for innovations that do not seem to provide much


improvement in quality of life. Jobless people with smartphones do not look
or feel ideal to non-Americans. Yet more Americans are at work than people
in the EU, and educated middle class Americans are more at work than equiv-
alent middle class Chinese. Ugly present, unencumbered elites trying a
lot, excess maleness of producer and product making for innovations
that do not greatly improve quality of life for most people--these
aspects of American culture must be countered if you are to innovate.
8) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF MONKEY HIERARCHIES--British research (never
American) finds that the larger an organization and the higher your rank in it,
the more psychopathic aspects your personality has and the more primate the
contents of your treatment of self and others. Size increases insensitivity to
persons and verticality of goals and effort. Similarly, long projects cause
developers to replace customer requirements with conveniences for them-
selves, the developers, till products the customers dislike or dis-serve
emerge. Also, monkey see monkey do dominates so that all the monkeys
copy “what works” with other observed monkeys nearby till all the monkeys
are similar in capability and aim and viewpoint, then a giant change of envi-
ronment makes the entire workforce of monkeys unable to survive. Work,
projects, career moves gradually become more and more vertically, status
oriented, with anything shared or horizontal broken up by territory fights. To
innovate you have to counter these traits of monkey hierarchy cultures.

The culture of economic development requires a pop-


ulation of strivers--Grondana write in a chapter in
Samuel Huntington’s book Culture Matters. Such a
population of strivers you would think, on logic
grounds, could include striving vertically for status,
rank, promotion, visibility, riches, lording over infe-
riors, and could include striving horizontally to
please customers and more customers more than
anyone else. The Japanese invented total quality
as a counter to the monkey heirarchy verticality of
male Japanese traditions of management. They
encouraged a different direction of striving.
This amounts to countering the culture of monkey
hierarchies.

9) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF HIERARCHY AMONG PROFESSIONS--Bledstein in the


Culture of Professionalism described European class system snobberies re-
appearing in anti-class-system American in the form of snobberies and differ-
ences of status among professions--with medicine at the top, followed by law,
and the female service professions, at the bottom. The Concorde disaster,
that ended that plane and industry, was caused, official reports concluded,
by a contempt of highly elite French managers for their non-elite workers, so
workers left metal objects on a runway that the Concorde hit a high speed.
The Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters, similarly, came from
MBAs as a profession over-ruling engineer warnings (to keep to budget and
schedule at a cost of dead astronauts and public loss of support for the space
program (killing budgets for the next 20 years). Typical of MBA results---
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 60

impressive efficiency today at a cost of program death for ages afterwards,


GE research gutted to re-sell divisions at high prices, till the next chairman
repaired the unadmitted harms done. When different sources and kinds of
knowledge are ranked regardless of the knowledge importance and content--
disaster is a natural result. Status substitutes for correct thinking are pure
suicide, personally and industrially. To innovate you have to undo this sub-
stitution of rank valuing of knowledge types over contents of the knowl-
edge valuing of them.
10) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF ENGINEERS--The culture of engineers is rather
uniform across time and around the world--they test out as hiding behind
maths their personal dislike of and ineptitude at social and emotional things,
they study a vast repertoire of tools for everything but handling power and
money, they suffer late career bitterness at how great designs of theirs got
side-tracked or destroyed by managers, and other powerful others, they pre-
fer working alone in spite of being on countless teams, they tweak past
designs and performances for the most part and rarely do actual engineering
of new features, functions, capabilities, or product aspects. Budget and
schedule pressures constantly prevent and erode any excellence that they
might imagine or aim for. Steve Jobs fought these aspects of engineer culture
completely and relentlessly, but not impolitely--he was resented because he
did not suggest particular limited improvements but urged changes in atti-
tude and “culture of engineering”. To innovate you have to counter these
and other features of the culture of engineers and engineering.
11) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF M.B.A.s--selected by top colleges for self concern
(drive), analytic bent (test scores), ambition (male monkey hierarchy hor-
monal traits), and trained by faculty who were similarly selected, MBAs have
spread like a disease across world business, using econ theories as cover sto-
ries for rampant personal greeds and power plays, from the USA outward,
contaminating Spain, Australia, but not Japan or Germany, not Holland or
Sweden. They “professionalized” management the way the quality assur-
ance profession “professionalized” quality attainment. Japan demonstrated
that totalization of bodies of knowledge like quality, vastly outperformed US
professionalization of it. Germany demonstrated that composing manage-
ment as a committee function from narrow professions of meisters expert in
their limited domains, outperformed professional managers, and by a sub-
stantial margin the rest of Europe for decades in outcomes achieved. Silicon
Valley, recently invaded by departments moved from Harvard and MIT, and by
Wall Street finance types, and hedge funds, in finding, like an Alzheimer’s
plaque, status, snobberies, social class strata, analyses, elitenesses (and
other professorial delusions) inserting themselves in all innovation and other
work processes, slowing things down, misdirecting all, weakening the entire
fabric that made Silicon Valley great. The last act, of the East Coast religion
of business, is this invasion of the only remaining productivity leading area of
the USA. To innovate you have to counter just about every iota of what
top colleges do to MBAs minds and counter the kind of people who
become MBAs and who teach them.
12) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF USERS--toys for boys, bubbling male hormones, no
real improvements from techs used, do not find out what new techs can be
made to do, forced global substrate changes mistaken as innovations--are
some of the traits of users. Users tend to solve problems caused by depend-
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 61

ing on technologies by purchase of still more technologies--stupid to say the


least. It is clear that hormones of certain sorts drive user communities in
irrational directions. Perfecting neurotic, excessively male, techno-excess
traits, aims, functions of users may satisfy them but at the cost of keeping
them imbalanced, cruel, insentive to lives around them, and their own. To
innovate you have to counter these and other traits of the culture of
users.
13) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF TECHNOLOGIES AND VENDORS--toys for boys,
driven by male hormones towards useless new techs and tools, vendors push-
ing more connectedness, reducing difference and creativity, as if that is
always useful and safe (pulsed systems with rhythms of engagement and
detachment work better); minimal subsets of features are actually used by
users, cycle of tech delusions--the central control that caused mainframe
computing to be overthrown reappears a generation later as cloud computing
systems that are being similarly overthrown, big data and analysis tools pro-
moted everywhere tilting all business towards the neurotic psychopathic sub-
set of reality that has easy accurate data for it. To innovate you have to
counter these and other traits of the culture of technology and vendors.
14) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF DESIGN--design culture is split into an engineering
design half and an artistic aesthetic design half, the engineer half is well pai
but the other half is poor and rather powerless, buffetted about by more
powerful professions and persons, designers bitch at their conservative cli-
ents, who tend to want the least departure from safe present ways and things
they can get away with, rather than bold decisive designer ideas and moves.
Steve Jobs tilted the balance of power to make engineers work more rather
than tweak and he made aesthetic design much more central and powerful in
Apple and its products. To innovate you have to counter these and other
traits of the culture of design.
15) COUNTER THE CULTURE OF INDIVIDUALISM--the post-war dominance of
the world economy by the USA has led to a host of wrong conclusions
about how to think and act effectively. The two hundreds years of colo-
nial self rule accompanied with land that was in effect free (once its own-
ers were exterminated in ethnic cleansing) and isolation from massive
suicidal regular European wars--these three, not good quality leaders, not
the US constitution, not the US government, not economic genius, made
the US dominant. Research universities were invented by Liebig in Ger-
many but European wars plus USA robber baron monies in foundations for
graduate research, pulled Europe’s best minds to the USA, where post-war
competition in space, science, and economy with the Soviets, produced
ten+ year government funded programs, like the Apollo moon mission,
that evoked the emergence of Silicon Valley. Americans are singularly
ignorant of the sources of their power and wealth and hence rapidly losing
those bases as each generation, poorly educated (the poor without
schools, the elite made psychopathicly self concerned at Harvard), erodes
prior generation insights and institutional strengths. Most pernicious in
all this is the ideology of individualism which again and again makes Amer-
icans unable to spot and solve anything with a social not individual origin.
So giant prison populations burgeon as Americans think punishment solves
racist poverty divides in societies, their individualism blaming poor people
for their povety rather than freeing elites to spread schooling and health
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 62

and parenting to the poorest 1/6th of the US population. To innovate you


havfe to counter the culture of individualism and how it blinds leaders and
whole societies to actual institutional and social stratification causes of bad
outcomes.

Somewhat as the Zenovation Model of Innovation--the first in this book--above requires a


founder-leader Void Master (based on LSD, India, meditation, zen, Japan, design) who in turn
creates Void Masters of employees, products, then customers--this chapter’s model, the
Innovation as Culture Work Model, requires, perhaps, a Culture Master founder-leader who
selects/trains-up employees at Culture Masters, then makes products and finally customers
into Culture Masters.

To spot cultures takes a special perception and therefore emotion capability lacking in most
men and hierarchy-member monkeys. Again and again immense multi-decade business
disasters, like Euro-Disney, if caused by culture failure, remain, un-solved, un-resolved fes-
tering CEO after CEO. Men, especially the sub-set (sub in plural meanings) who become
CEO, are blind to cultures and hopeless at spotting and modifying them in spite of a lot of
professor-generated “case” articles on heroic male-monkey culture “deeds”.

I need here, in this point in this chapter a fast, powerful, convincing, hence visual image way
of getting readers intimidated by the vast work and powers of cultures and therefore the
vastness of work and talent needed to create, modify, and improve them. The figures below
should do the trick. First is a simplified model of 64 dimensions from four academic fields
for distinguishing any culture from any other at a level of detail specific enough to guide
action (unlike the hackneyed 40 year old Hofstede 8 categories that all the lazy academics
default, unthinkingly, to). Second, is a model of the 64 culture traits of high performance
teams of over 100 types studied by various people but most thoroughly by Vaill. Third is a
model of 64 types of culture--most work on culture in business tries to shift one type to
another type.

Since most innovation cultures in actual history countered, un-did, attacked cultures of
particular types (such as Japan’s TQM movement undoing the monkey veerticalities of tra-
ditional Japanese management culture), people, like naive academics, who try to sell you
“erecting special innovation-fostering cultures” are lying to you and wasting your time.
There is no one pro-innovation culture in history and the world. Anyone selling you one,
like Amabile at Harvard---all you have to do is ask for details on results of any one of their
bally-hoo-ed projects (bring a microscope). The amounts of “innovation” they actually
achieve will make you laugh out loud. THERE IS A REASON FOR THEIR LACK OF RESULTS--it
is not any one pro-innovation culture that produces “innovation” but rather, as THIS
chapter’s model has it, innovation comes from COUNTERING 15 CULTURES THAT ARE
THERE IN NEARLY ALL WORLD BUSINESSES.

I have already written the world’s (and history’s) best book on culture handling, so this sec-
tion of this book is not the place to explain all the details on the three models in detail. For
that I have other books. Here, it is enough for you to see the vast, detailed, global, emo-
tionally-rich land that culture spotting, modifying, and creating involve, via the Primer
below. That is my point here--countering 15 cultures is at least as much work as counter-
ing ONE culture! Scan the 3 models below, then read the Primer for details about them,
and some more models (a set of ten covers most of what we want to do with cultures).

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 63

P16 don’t
43
bother
others or
self
why can I not
make my own
story
CONTINGENCY

IMPACT
FUTILITY 42
41 will it/I make
a difference?
preserve:
peacefulness of
flaw:
death is exteriors
or
most real fairnness of ingratitude
or exteriors or
birth is Nisbet unfree
most real 44 why engage ugly
must I die? life
MORTALITY NAUSEA
EXISTENTIAL
QUESTIONS
Kukai, Lao Tsu, Sartre, Kierkegaard 39
35 SIN 48
Nisbet
TRAGEDY
why I don’t life is a how could I
do my plan my exper- have known adaptors
story of:
found situation or iences
the group
action or
or or experiences
play roles in
I or
made self am I heard/seen? work revolutionaries
meaning AUDIENCE 45
46 why does posses-
ing make me object
where is meaning?
EMPTINESS FLAW INAUTHENTICITY
NO ESCAPE
SITUATION why is not choos- CHOICE
ing also choosing 37 RESPONSE-ABILITY
what/who am I? 38
RELATIVITY
33 what is truth? 34 group acts the self is:
life/groups are or unitary across
people arrangements
tasks or
of:
ethnic selves act role = id
situations love the
or
or people groupbasis or varies by role
institutions Nisbet intent = id situation or
or Nisbet love the person
eternal function basis 47
why something?
36 why here, now? You can’t see me
40 why love dies?
MYSTERY ARBITRARYNS. FREEDOM LONELINESS

Dimensions for Distinguishing Cultures


11 Social Psych, Gender, Existential, Complexity, and Nisbett Models Combined
primacy: 56 gods: work: 52 27
life or immanent 63 pleasant end work to caring seniors:
or
quality substance
or or trans- or feel good
about self
one of life cendant unplea- or compe-
chance object sant work to critique titive
54 (attributes)
Nisbet 53 design means & improve self
exactitude
or
or 50
Nisbet 49 or
several chance
lives SACRED emergence WORK detail
TIME the world: COMPLEX results: PURPOSE
is sacred -ITY from effort
9 causation:
plural 10
or 61 world reality is: 62 or
25 preserve: 26
is fallen stable or in flux from talent save face or
distributed gradual [contracts
homo-
causes or always save truth
single local change renegotiable] geniety Nisbet
causes Nisbet or
or info
Nisbet avalanches 64 diversity
55 51
(mind to mind)
or 28 talk toorsolve
analysis 12 serial
or COMMUNITY
or relation
Geertz, Weisbord, Greene, Grunell, Todorov (person to person) talk for empathy
synthesis parallel

SOCIAL PSYCH self indulgent drive to center GENDER STYLE


asceticism or Tannen, de Beauvoir, Friedan
Hampden-Turner, Hofstede, Tropenaars or 60 drive to margins 19 23
3 contest 32 independent
humans 16 friends over 7 normalcy
Nisbet
or or
primary or rightness community
equal to Nisbet choice: Nisbet dependent
or right one pole contradiction:
other categories over harshness
friends or other tolerated
achieved
life or
14 relationships 13 inner or
tell
or
30 not tolerated 29 personalasrejection
or or 58 blended middle 57 or
outer or
ascribed
RELATION locus of control CREATION listen CONFLICT sign of respect
rank
right vs. right focus from single INPUT/ argumentative
EMOTION
RANK or
GROUP project OUTPUT or 21 22
2 right vs. wrong environment: 6
or 17 drive for 18 apologetic
backward
1 foreground item morality 5 focus from individual: reasoning
or
or controllable distinction
or parallel forward
background projects or reasoning
uncontrol- [vision is real fitting in
noticed lable Nisbet
Nisbet power from vs. case details
Nisbet feeling as mis-hearing
Nisbet are what is real] 31 as relation
hierarchy closeness individual universalist 59 status 20 exclusion interesting 24
or or 15 or or or or or
threat
egalitarian
4 power from communitarian 8 particularist connection inclusion as embarrassing
or
distance status threat

Copyright 2003 by Richard Tabor Greene, All Rights Reserved, Government Registered
Most businesses and academics use 8

Japan dimensions, 40 years old and too general


& vague to help--I use 64 recent ones
specific enough to fully describe a culture.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 64

purity, self, know evolutn. conquer and create creation performance repertoire practice trans- practice
mind models experiment manage emer- machine & meshing management planting into innovating
system models gence think unusual venues

Switch Becoming Competitive Out-


Creativity Creative Entool Practice
Models
catalog social make mental peak pit automate practice
blend group interior travel perform perform acting, profes-
models models exterior spot reliable skippable reflecting, sionally
room paradox improving
reflecting

CREATE
P13 WAY
WARE
punch line despair prune tune interac- non-perfunc- value ruthless member-
last straw doorway noise tions till emer- tory commit- intrinsics bench- tactic omis-
gence ment marking sion doing

Insight Tuning Automate Process


Dynamics Automatons Processes Repertoire

alternate accumulate set up set up develop impro- no per- sudden


engage failure automa- reflec- predic- vise res- mission venue
detach index ton tion table ponse to style
system routines challenges no resource change
doing
HIGH
PERFORMANCE
CULTURE
TRAITS
replace winning puncture self- system causes radical monitor require higher vicarious instant team
with joy of play importance & solutions bets with expect- standards than competing try outs of
as goal inflation extra ation all noveties
effort excep-
tions
Playfulness Logic Recognize Coincidence
& Fun of Exceptions Dynamics
Extremes
adult- make larger + best & spot not view challenge instant
baby wrong smaller worst excep- future routines coaching
shifts approach size process tions thru
work scales as window emotions of
past successes

BAD GOOD
BOY GIRL
innovate conserve use scrounge earned engage omphalo- joint victory
radically in chosen proble- resources membership particu- size the ownership
chosen form form matic lars local
parts

Work Violate Know Combine


Contra- Social Thyself Real
dictorily Norms People
work in invest maintain be prob- skip non- address show commun-
historic energy boundaries lematic fitting overall unique- ity &
context in to others oppor- paradoxon ness mission
particulars tunities rites & rituals
in all units balance

If you want to EXCEL as a parent, as a MANAGER, as a LEADER, you want to


inspire high performance in others--these 64 are WHAT, therefore, you specifically
have to do---actions & systems & events that fosters these 64 achieve
high performance (in sports, in science, in commerce, in arts)

Denison, 1990; Vaill, 1989; Ghiselin, 1952; Klar et al, 1992; Mullen and Geothals, 1987; Tannen, ; Simonton, ;
Sternberg, ; Grint, ; Ozaki, ; Taguchi, ; Martindale, ; Cialdini, ; Gladwell, .

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 65

environment diversity driven technique liberalize normative/ open/closed; rational hierarchy


shift = disaster out (homogenity) specialization; rationalize pragmatic; loose/tight; control/ext control/int
ecologic global- crossed with crossed with plan/produce comminicate
ization process/results, normative/
person/role; pragmatic;
FAILING SECULARIZN. ORG MEANS/ENDS
SUCCESSES PSYCHE

success leaders: gui ld secularize process/ local/ group develop


Miller
narrow professes Argyis/Schon differentiate results; Hofstede
professnl; (fl/int) Quinn
(fl/ext)
search, person/ crossed morale readiness
block role; crossed with open/closed
dissent with local/profl. loose/tight;

PROCESS GROUPS

framework science heresy reliable near market pricing equality person/ task/achieve
future support “own role”
repertoire tolerant matching “own thing”
climate

KNOWING DEVELOPMENT RELATIONS CONTROL

magic myth action population communal authority power role“own


scope of risk/ sharing ranking “as told” how”
Campbell Fiske Cartwright
expanding Grondona initiative
infrastructures takers

CULTURE
TYPES

masculinity with collectivity with fatalism hierarchy of of hurt of conflict reduc- of renewal
power distance masculinity (capricious) (perverse) illusion tion & integra-
tion

DILEMMAS SECURITY CONQUEST RITES


social psych

power uncertainty individual egalitarian of time of space of of


passage degrade/
distance Hofstede avoidance (benign) Wildavsky (ephemeral)
Eliade Trice
with enhance
with
uncertainty collectivity
avoidance

BASICS MIND

nexus/desert mountain sex female dominance rituals/practice heros nature of nature of time &
denial hierarchy + human: space
being,
cloud of males activity,
relations

LANDMASS SEX ROLES MEANING ASSUMPTION

island continent male celebratory symbols values/ relation nature of


orgies to reality
dominance beliefs
Boas Kohl Levi-Straus environ- Schein
hierarchy + ment
harem

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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A PRIMER ON WHAT CULTURE IS & HOW IT IS


NOTICED, HANDLED, MODIFIED, & CREATED
(See my book Your Door to Culture Power for complete “how to do” culture models)

The Nine Sources of Culture’s Power. I start this primer with a careful examination of why
we all bother with ambiguous concepts like “culture”. Culture, looked at academically,
seems to mean everything and nothing. Culture, looked at practically, seems to mean very
specific and important things that one dare not ignore, disrespect, or slight.

Books say the style of buildings is culture, the trash on our streets is culture, moles on our
skin are culture, absolutely everything that humans notice and care in any way about is cul-
ture, one book or another maintains. “Culture” seems, intellectually, to be an appallingly
vague idea of dubious worth and precision. On the other hand, other books tell stories of
two teams alike in all but “culture”. The one with better “culture” than the other goes on
to year after year of competitive victory. Why is a concept that is so jejune academically so
powerful practically? Below I present a list of the powers of culture dealt with in this study.

The Powers of Culture

1 its invisibility = power to surprise us, pleasantly or unpleasantly


2 its ignorance of what it is ignorant of (we have no idea of alternatives from
other cultures we have not met--their alternative ways of doing things) =
power of running into realities we never imagined before
3 its ignorance of what it learned (we are not aware of all we are learning when
near someone, in a situation, or when growing up) = power of running
into realities inside us that we never realized were there
4 its abstract unity (example: Americans at Chinese dinners order their own
dish each, rather than ordering theirs but sharing it with everyone
present--similarly: Americans making points to win/stand-out in discus-
sions rather than to blend, etc.) = power of how abstract the patterns in
human behaviors end up being, abstractness means we miss how the
same pattern is governing enormously different behaviors or situations
5 its inconsistency (example: Americans struggle to stand out except in cloth-
ing--mass produced ugly “Gap” styles--ride trains from northern US to
Canadian cities, watch how fashions shift suddenly at the border) = power
of disappointing our guesses at abstract unity of behaviors as situations
that easily could follow the same principle for some reason do not, we
cannot make rules about where and when rule will apply and will not
apply
6 its vastness (in size) = power of its diversity and depth of contents; its vast-
ness (in granularity, scales involved) = power of its diversity and depth of
contents
7 its ability to shut down anxieties of trying to answer the questions of human
existence = power of soft stories to make all of existence peaceful and
joyful though we are tiny among immense forces in an immense uni-
verse.
8 scripting situations: ambiguous, conflicted, unclear, borderline = power of
energy released because all situations have scripts for quick unthinking
automatic response
9 its ability to produce high performances in individuals and teams = power of
results achieved but means hidden because automated procedures,
among people in a team, or within a single individual’s mind, so the gap
between results and no apparent means surprises and impresses.
Culture Power One--Invisibility. Culture deserves study because cases like EuroDisney show
billions of dollars being lost year after year due primarily to failure to appreciate and
respect the powers of culture. Culture deserves study, also, because of other cases, like
Cisco Systems, Microsoft, Intel, and the whole US Silicon Valley dominance of Route 128,

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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showing how culture alone suffices to allow, from roughly equivalent groups of resources,
one group to dominate and vanquish another. Culture surprises in cases of failure like Euro-
Disney because it is hard to see, and therefore, to measure, respect, hold in mind, change,
handle. Culture surprises in cases of success, like Silicon Valley, because slight intangible
soft things of culture suffice to produce significant differences in outcomes. There is an
invisibility aspect of culture that makes us respect it. High performance failure and high
performance success both depend absolutely on creating certain cultural conditions amidst
many other conditions of life and work.

The visible part of what many people call “culture”--that is, pop culture, high culture, rites
and rituals, shared assumptions that people are nearly all well aware of in a group, and the
like--lacks this power from invisibility. It is visible, therefore, there are books on it, guides
to it, publications, videos, shows, maps, courses, and the like. It can be considered not
“culture” at all, but economics, politics, sociology, anthropology, medicine, law, and con-
tents of any other traditional discipline. In other words, this primer defines culture as invis-
ible contents, not visible ones, because this primer maintains that all that visible stuff is just
what traditional disciplines map, distinguish, causally study, improve, and the like. If we
want to consider that visible stuff as “culture” we run into the problem of calling it “cul-
ture” sometimes and places and calling it economics, sociology, law, etc. at other times and
places, in important and debilitating inconsistency.
Culture’s Invisibility and Its Relations to Culture’s Powers. The prototype for culture
interactions--whether good or bad--is our encounters with the cultures of other nations or
ethnic groups. We insult people without intending to or we make a negotiation fail precisely
because we do what we know “works” (but that “what we do” and that “knowing” and that
“what works” are from an entirely different culture than where we now operate). In this
prototypic interaction of different cultures a number of different happenings can be distin-
guished:
1. unconscious actions--things that in my frameworks are not actions are seen and taken as
actions by others operating in their different frameworks and vice versa = “I am not
aware of all that I do”
2. meaning distortion--messages we send, in our frameworks, mean something entirely dif-
ferent when received by others having different frameworks and vice versa = “I am
not saying what I think I am saying”
3. tactic failure--actions that work and are feasible in our frameworks do not work and are
too expensive or otherwise infeasible in other people’s differing frameworks and vice
versa = “I am suggesting actions that look ridiculous when applied outside my own
turf”
4. unseen alternatives--the alternatives I imagine and suggest to myself and others omit
huge other possibilities I never consider because the frameworks that make them
“natural” are ones I have never experienced or thought of before and vice versa = “I
am limited in ways I am unaware of”
5. In Sum: unseen options, meanings, responses, assumptions--I and they are both doing,
saying, assuming, limiting things we are completely unaware of.

The problem is not error--we all handle error every day of our lives, more or less success-
fully. The problem is error and omission we are unaware of, and, therefore, that we cannot
fix or respond to. Being blind in ways we are not aware we are blind, being blind of things
we are not aware we are not seeing, slighting things we are not aware we are slighting
removes the possibility of growth and learning and improvement (save by busting up initial
such encounters clumsily and ignorantly done as we lumber around in someone else’s china
shop).
Where Does Culture’s Invisibility Come From. Perhaps the entire meaning of words
like “culture” is stuff acquired while we grow up, getting “socialized” into a particular fam-
ily, era, nation, gender, that we are not aware of. Culture would not have power, the ability
to bust up huge business ventures into giant multi-decade financial failures and to thrust a
few people and ideas into decades of wealth-building that self-amplifies, were we aware we
had it and they had it, could see its parts, and had tools for affecting such parts. Words like
“culture” mean we lack knowledge of what and who we are--what is us and what is inside us,
both idea and procedure. If we knew what is us and what is inside us, idea and procedure,
“culture” would not surprise us, pleasantly or unpleasantly. It would not be important. The
problem is stuff inside us that we are not aware of (later, in this primer, I deal with cultures

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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we deliberately create). The opposite to culture, then, is clear--educatedness. For educat-


edness is “e” = out from and “duco” = being led, that is, being led out from assumed ideas,
and automatic habits put in us as we grow up in particular families, genders, nations, and
eras. Culture theory, the power of culture, and associated phenomena are really “lack of
educatedness” theory, and the power of “not being educated”.

That makes the solution to handling culture well quite simple and distinct--get yourself edu-
cated, well educated.
Getting Yourself and Others Educated as the Primary Culture-Handling Prerequisite
and Skill. What makes educating yourself and others difficult as the route to handling cul-
ture differences well is being an adult. Handling cultures well usually comes to us as a
needed task when we are adults, already fully unaware of how our own birth cultures have
limited, distorted, empowered, and crippled us. As such adults we face having to make our-
selves aware of tens of thousands of values, habits, frameworks, ideas put in us by people in
“our” culture who were, probably, unaware that they we putting things into us and unaware
of what exactly they were putting into us (“the blind blinding the blind” we might call these
ordinary socialization processes). At the same time we face having to make ourselves aware
of similar tens of thousands of values, habits, frameworks and ideas put inside others we are
now encountering from another culture when those others are just as unaware of what is
inside them, operating every hour and minute, as we are unaware of what is inside us (the
blind encountering the blind” we might call these adult cross-culture encounters).

1. socialization (enculturation) of us--we learn ideas, values, habits, frameworks that we


are not aware we are learning while growing up
2. socialization (enculturation) of others--they learn ideas, values, habits, frameworks
that they are not aware they are learning while growing up

3. educating us, one--learning what is inside us that we are not aware of (Schon, reflec-
tive practitioners, Argyis, double loop learning)
4. educating others, two--learning how to get others to learn what is inside of them that
they are not aware of
5. educating us, three--learning what is inside of them that they are not aware of as stuff
inside them
6. educating others, four--learning how to get others to learn what is inside of us that
they were not aware of.

Operating across different cultures, handling culture’s power from its invisibility, requires
four educations done more or less at once--learning what is inside us that we are not aware
of, learning what is inside others that they are not aware of, learning how to get others to
learn what is inside of them that they are not aware of, and learning how to get others to
learn what is inside of us that they are not aware of. Learning what is inside us and what is
inside them prepares us to learn how to get others to do the same types of learning. Never-
theless, four educatings, all among adults, have to go on in any cross-cultural encounter, if it
is not to end in disaster or slop. The target of all these four educatings needs to be kept
clearly in mind--all the things inside us (and others) put there unconsciously while we grew
up inside particular families, genders, eras, nations (and other groupings) need to be
“learned”. That constitutes two huge scopes of contents:

What We Yet Need to Know about Culture’s Power from Invisibility:


If the analysis above is correct, the idea that there might be convenient short cuts to han-
dling culture well, perhaps some grand theory or neat empirical results, disappears. If “cul-
ture” is stuff inside us we were not aware of while imbibing it and if handling that stuff well
requires learning what it all is and how it now operates automatically and unconsciously
inside us to determine and limit what we think and do, then we need tools for reflection and
digging deep into highly unconscious and automated contents of our own minds and of the
minds of others (where things they imbibed but are unaware of operating inside them are
found). Only if we can compress all that our culture is into a few ideas, models, rules and

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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the like can we reduce the amount of work needed to educate ourselves and others well
enough to work well with culture.

Hofstede’s approach, the “dimensions of culture” approach consisting of doing factor-analy-


sis of dimensions distinguishing one culture from another--gave us hope of just such a short
cut. He reduced dozens of differing cultures to five or so dimensions (Bond later added a
Confucian one, others have added a few others) to master. Theoretically this does reveal
lots of overt differences in different cultures that co-vary so that one more abstract factor
“underneath” them explains them all (captures what co-varies in particular situations com-
pared). Do such reductions of many overt differences to a few factors “underneath” practi-
cally allow people to handle culture differences better? We can ask this another equivalent
way by asking “if I understand the degree to which I am communitarian rather than individu-
alist, close in power distance rather than distant in it, and the like, for five to ten dimen-
sions of cultures, do I handle myself, my culture, my tasks better?” The problem is trying to
be “more communitarian” when you are an American operating in Japan still leaves exactly
what any particular situation requires as the way to be communitarian in Japan, completely
undefined. The abstract dimension is so abstract it does not serve as a practical guide to
action. It simplified intellectual life but not practice life abroad. This is a matter of gaps
between espoused theory and enacted theory (Argyis, ), communities of idea versus commu-
nities of practice (Lave, Brown and Duguid, ), dis-embodied ideation versus embodied ideas
(Descartes, Saul, Yuasa), declarative knowledge compiled into procedural knowledge and
procedural knowledge abstracted into declarative knowledge (Nonaka, Minsky). Oceans of
research in dozens of fields have found that recognizing abstractions in diverse cases and
grounding features of any abstraction in cases where you intend application of the abstrac-
tion are extremely hard mental operations to do.

It is worth noting here that culture dimensions, of the Hofstede sort, are all ordinary dilem-
mas in social psychology, phrased in language that disguises their social psychology prove-
nance. By drawing the field of culture studies towards culture dimensions of difference,
such studies have delayed study of other more important aspects of culture (traits, types,
operations, tools, performances) and by phrasing factor-analysis derived factors in idiosyn-
cratic language they have exaggerated the novelty of the dimensions involved, delaying
application of many other equivalent social psych dimensions in culture study.

Argyis spent an entire career at Harvard and Schon spent an entire one at MIT trying to cre-
ate double loop learning and reflective practitioners, respectively. Making people conscious
of what is unconsciously inside them requires reflection that both of these scholar-practitio-
ners researched and promoted. The result of such reflection was discover of single abstract
ideas governing ideation or action that people had no idea that they had and alternatives to
which they had never imagined. The difficulty of getting people to do double loop learning
documented by Argyis and the difficulty of getting practitioners to be reflective that Schon
documented attest to the strict limits on severe abstract reductions like Hofstede’s factors
as guides to improve people and practice. Nonaka, Brown, and Duguid similarly have found
ideas travel readily between people sharing the same practice, often without words, but
ideas traveling between different practices, because they must be made conscious,
abstracted from automatic routines one can learningfully observe if from the same practice
then be made automatic and unconscious again as abstraction are turned into routines in the
new practice, go slowly if at all. This too attests to cultures, as different practices, impos-
ing noticing work, abstracting from cases work, re-articulating in own context work, ground-
ing in own cases, and automatization via training and practice work on those who would try
to use Hofstede type codes to shortcut growing up in a different context set for decades. As
much as we intellectually like having a model of four or five dimensions that distinguish doz-
ens of cultures, to do practical things with such abstract distinctions, we have to do a lot of
noticing work, abstracting from cases work, re-articulating in a different context work, and
grounding in our own cases work.

There is a granularity research question here--how many “dimensions” works best? Does
four or five dimensions help us intellectually and practically? A small number of dimensions
makes for few dimensions to remember but at a cost of huge abstracting and grounding work
to use such few concepts. Does ten or twelve help us more either intellectually or practi-
cally? A moderate number makes memorizing them harder but it reduces the cost of
abstracting and grounding work. Does fifty or sixty help us even more intellectually or prac-

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 70

tically? A large number of dimensions makes memorizing them hard (fixed by a unique for-
mat of well-ordered ideas in this study’s approach later in this primer), but reduces
abstracting and grounding work to almost nothing. This primer presents an unusual well-
ordered format of 64 dimensions for distinguishing cultures that allows us to test the relative
utility of low granulaity models compared to high granularity models.
Culture Power Two--Ignorance of What We Are Ignorant Of. Culture has power because
we do not know huge numbers of approaches, ideas, and other things that we are not aware
of not knowing. The problem is a meta-cognition one--we lack knowledge of what it is that
we do not know. That person from the other culture (whether gender, profession, era, or
other one) has spent two or more decades picking up lots of information, habits, values,
approaches that they are unaware of having operant inside them. We, having never met
that person, do not know any of that information, set of habits, values, and approaches. By
happenstance we may know a few, but even then, we do not know that we know those, hav-
ing not met the person yet. Most of the information, habits, values, approaches in the world
we do not now know and will die without ever knowing, because the world is so big and filled
with so many unique people.

If people from other cultures could tell us all about the “other culture” inside them, things
would be easier. We do not know what we do not know about them, so we ask them directly
to explain themselves to us. This does not work because other people do not know all the
“culture” inside of them. They cannot tell us what we do not know about them. The most
obvious source of a solution to our ignorance of other ways, does not work. This is a primary
source of culture’s power. “The Other” cannot explain itself to us in terms we could under-
stand directly, because “The Other” does not himself have access to the automated contents
inside of him. We do not know what we do not know and we cannot directly ask anyone for
it.

This means encountering other cultures entails, always and necessarily, complete surprise as
alternatives, approaches, ideas or other things that we never imagined, and never encoun-
tered in our own culture and area of growing up, appear. There is no education, training, or
anything else that can reduce or prevent this surprise. The best we can do is categorize
types of surprise possible to encounter, based on all the variations encountered by ourselves
or others in the world thus far. That means maps of types of utterly different ways of oper-
ating, ways of living, values to have, options for key life functions. To be of worth, such
maps have to be comprehensive, which means big, and because of that, well ordered so the
“bigness” does not prevent using the maps well. This study argues for concept models,
large well ordered categorical models, that can serve this mapping of surprise types function
better, perhaps, than current tools and models do.
Culture Power Three--Ignorance of What We Know. We do not know our selves. We do not
know our beliefs, ideas, habits, procedures, and a great deal more. We do not know all we
learned while growing up. The people who taught us while we grew up do not know all that
they taught us. We can see this directly when we write. We always need to write thrice,
once to find what we think about the topic, and a second time to organize that thinking bet-
ter, and a third time to convey that ordering well to a particular audience. While we live in
our birth culture we do not become aware of our not knowing what we know, because a
great deal of it is also stuff other people in that culture with us are not aware they know--we
know the same things. All of us, in that culture, operate using automated routines we
learned, without realizing it, from each other. None of us have consciously realized most of
these routines. When, however, we go to a different culture, all sorts of aspects of what we
think and do, do not work well, create trouble. We find that parts of us we never were
aware of or concerned about, are problematic, in the way. We discover all sorts of patterns
deeply inside us that we never realized were there before. Other cultures teach us our own
contents better than our own cultures do. Typically being in another culture for several
years, teaches us nearly nothing about the other culture but a great deal about our birth cul-
ture, the one we came from.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 71

9
is
high performance
Performance
7 great automated results
without apparent scripts
8
stops means situations:
ambiguous,borderline,
anxieties contested, unclear

3 Culture’s 6
vast:

1
invisibility

Missing Meta-Cognition
culture is stuff we do not 2
Powers 4 size, scales
Iceberg Patterns
culture is patterns spottily 5
ignorant know that we know ignorant there among vastness
abstract inside us inconsistent
of what we patterns
of ignorance know unities

Plausible Causes of Culture’s Nine Powers


4

{
culture’s Each new idea combines with all previous ideas exponentially to make newer ones
abstract so any past idea shows up in myriad future ideas, unexpectedly. The same goes for
exponential unity behavior patterns we automate, they show up in myriad future areas combined with
ICEBERG PATTERNS

increases of ther mastered behavior patterns, like words in sentences based on grammars of
uses of ideas combination. Older, isolated, crisis intense cultures have more abstract unity.
culture’s Each new idea combines with all previous ideas exponentially to make newer ones,
inconsistency so any past idea shows up in some future ideas but not in other ones as not all
5 exponential combinations are useful, seen, realized, implemented, or envisioned.
Older, isolated, crisis intense cultures have less culture inconsistency.

artificial culture’s
vastness of
6 Humans erect an artificial world of hospitals, weddings that is much
gentler than nature, this artificial world is vast in size, history, and
human-built size scales, from sub-atomics to black holes.
world size/granularity
harsh
world
metaphor

{
anxieties culture’s stop- A most special part of the artificial world
myths of
of existence self-meeting-
ping anxieties = that human erect around them is myths,
reality journey released energy stories of how youth must self transform if
7 they are to see and travel safely in all of the
PERFORMANCE

real world around us, inside the safer


artificial human-built one and outside it.

script situations: Our drive for clear mind combines with our
ambiguous, un- anxieties about existing to force answers to
clear, borderline, aspects of existence/universe/world we cannot
control/understand so holes in knowledge get
contested
8 scripted fully without real answers/basis but
speeding thought and action, lowering energy
costs.
groups that culture’s High performance is an optical illusion of
automate coop- observing others who have automated what
erative act- high performance
teams/persons the obserer has not automated, so goals are
thought streams
9 obtained “effortlessly” it seems (the obser-
ver has not observed years of practice in-

{
volved). Magic = result + method unseen.
MISSING META-COGNITION

culture’s
invisibility Humans automate whatever they like doing reducing mental load on
conscious thought so we can do many things at once; we want to
conscious
direction drive for 3 forget the details of good behaviors and action streams.

clear mind Everything about


laborious high cost of us-them culture’s diverse others needs
diversity fear of others ignorance of laborious conscious
mindset its ignorance effort that we avoid.
1
exquisite years of culture’s While growing up we have, built into our hardware, a drive to watch
human “fit in” following the ignorance of others, be social, and fit in (as well as a drive to stand out), so we
propensity herd while coast, unconsciously, through all sorts of activities that end up pattern-
what it knows
growing up ing our behavior in ways we never realized or were aware of.
2

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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The idea of coming from one culture to another is a bit of over simplification as used above.
Though we typically think of cross-culture encounters as going from one nation to another,
inside our birth culture there are huge culture variations we seldom realize--men women,
old young, north south, immigrant founder-descendent, and others. Tools for reflection can
open our eyes to these local cultures and their differences and give us ways to practice flex-
ing our self-realization muscles. Gradually we can schedule local encounters, stays in
locally strange environments where all that we naturally think and do does not work well,
making us gradually aware of all the stuff inside us that we did not consciously put there our-
selves. This study presents such tools for reflection work.
Culture Power Four--Abstract Unity. Neural net pattern recognizers, principal components
analysis, and factor analysis all, from a deep mathematical perspective, seem to be doing
the same thing--recognizing multi-modal consistencies among varied cases, such that you
can examine not all the features of each case but a very limited number, typically less than
ten, and, from those ten, categorize the case correctly with other cases it shares lots of
other features, not examined, with. This ability to clump cases based on examining few of
their features rather than many of their features, saves time, effort, and makes people more
effective. The Hofstede, Triandis, and Bond work on finding, via factor analysis type tech-
nique, the “dimensions” that distinguish national cultures from each other, is solidly in this
camp. They have come up with factors like: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, indi-
vidualist-communitarian, and masculine-feminine. Is there anything solid in reality that
such math-derived factors actually correspond to? Are they real or just convenient categori-
zation labels?

They represent the abstractness of what unifies certain behaviors/thoughts in particular cul-
tures and the even greater abstractness that unifies certain behaviors/thoughts across sev-
eral different cultures. To get general patterns across the entire variety of work and life in
any culture (and across diverse cultures) you have to drop details and concrete appearances
and fall back on very abstract aspects of cases. Generality is bought with abstractness. The
abstractness required to spot patterns across behaviors/thoughts within or across cultures
makes it difficult for us ordinary people to spot such patterns. If even a little taint from the
particulars of a case remains in how we view it, we fail to see similarities and connections
with other cases. Since it is hard to spot such patterns, we end up constantly looking for
then without finding them and constantly finding them without looking for them. Their
basis is abstraction which makes it hard and unreliable to spot them. This is another source
of culture’s power to hurt and help us.

How do people get better at spotting such abstraction-based patterns? They have to prac-
tice abstract viewing, from afar, the case and encounters of their lives. There are specific
conversation and reflection techniques that aid people doing this, some presented later in
this primer.
Culture Power Five--Inconsistent Patterns. Cultures are not designed by engineers and
enforced by standards committees. They emerge and accumulate from myriad encounters
of person with person, group with group, idea with idea. Many of their contents emerge like
genes emerge to dominate species, a chance mutation in an idea transforming a marginal
idea into one that becomes central to some civilization, person, or organization for eons.
People have even coined the term “meme” for meaning gene, to denote such ideas. Every-
time a new idea arises, it can possibly be combined with all previously occurring ideas in
human history (that portion of them retained in some way). Most such combinations will be
flat, useless, and boring. A few, however, will become inventions or major insights. As each
new idea arises, the total number of possible combinations with past accumulated ideas,
increases exponentially. This means the actual idea combinations, that our lives and work
are built on, are tinier and tinier fractions of all the useful idea combinations possible (this is
true even though we get increasingly better at combining ideas). This makes for lots of pos-
sible, conceivable idea combinations of value that are never tried or explored.

So any one pattern in a “culture” shows up some conceivable places and not lots of other
equally conceivable places. For example, Japan is a communitarian culture, most social
roles are assigned to groups not individuals, but we find that academic research in Japan has
traditionally been very individualistic, with personal learning called “research” regardless of
the previous literature of what others researched in the same field: some parts of Japan are
more communal, other parts are more individual than in Western cultures. We think--”this is

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 73

a case where X could well be applied” but we find that X was never applied there while find-
ing that “wow, I never expected X here but there it is, fully worked out and implemented”.
The patterning of ideas, especially abstract ones, in our lives is inconsistent, with them
showing up in some locations of worth and missing other locations of equal or superior
worth. This is another power that culture has to surprise and stymie us.

The tool here is maps, huge, well ordered, maps of all the likely places an idea can pertain
to, make a contribution to, be combined with other ideas at. Fractal concept models, as
presented in compagnion primer to this primer are such a tool.
Culture Power Six--Vastness (of size, scales). The vastness of culture gives rise to several
illusions--that culture is everything whatsoever that humans do and think and notice, and
that culture can be reduced to a handful of abstract dimensions. Somewhat sloppy thinking
by researchers has, for years, led to revisiting and revisiting these illusions, in a confusing
manner. I hope to clarify things here a bit.

Since decades of learnings that we were not aware we were learning, fill us up and define
“culture”, as this primer views it, the amount of “culture” there, inside each of us, is huge.
First, it is a matter of sheer volume--decades of learning dozens of things an hour we were
unaware we were learning. Second, it is a matter of learning across many size scales-sec-
onds to eons, bath mats to galaxies, big bang to the next election, and so on. The vastness
of culture creates two distortions--the illusion of unity (it feels like it is everything, like it is
one thing)--and the illusion of short cuts (all culture is just four Hofstede dimensions, end of
story). We want vast things to be unified otherwise we have to learn and explore and map
the particulars of their unorganized vastness. We want vast things to have short cuts, only
five features of them are important, the other tens of thousands of details can be omitted.
We may want both of those but that does not make them reality. Wanting does not make
reality by itself.

When we reduce vastness to “culture dimensions” obtained by factor analysis, what have we
done? The fewer the dimensions, the easier the load on memory of remembering them, but
the greater the recognition work of spotting something abstract in any concrete case and the
greater the grounding work of mapping abstract features onto any one local case for taking
action. Reduction reduces memory loads while greatly increasing recognition and ground-
ing/application loads. It makes mental life easier while ruining practical life. Empires and
imperial Westerners spent a century showing this, face to face, to people’s all over the
world. Descartes, the monster, this felt like (or Voltaire’s Bastards, a recent book entirely
on this point). The solution is some moderately larger number of dimensions--small enough
and well ordered enough to be usable yet large enough that recognition and grounding work
is greatly reduced.

Fractal concept models can do this job, as explained in a compagnion primer to this primer.
Such mid-level categorical models of 50 to 100 factors combine factors as abstract as Hofst-
ede’s dimensions with successive layers of more numerous, less abstract factors, till a lowest
level of factors rather easy to recognize and ground in case situations is reached.
Culture Power Seven--Stops Anxieties. The human situation is basically terrifying--we are
tiny creatures in a huge universe, living on a planet that in 100 million years will be inside of
our sun, greatly expanded into a red giant on its way to star death. Genetic engineering
gives us a way to turn ourselves into bacteria so we might drift on interstellar clouds of gas
between suns, as they die off around us. That is the kind of hope we have today. As chil-
dren we ask our parents about death, “mommy, will I die”, and about responsibility,
“mommy, I did not mean to hit her”, and about fourteen other fundamental anxieties of liv-
ing. Our parents generally give us rote answers, the answers given them by their parents.
The answers tend to be the same generation after generation, in other words, a culture. It
is not clear that the answers work all that well--in most cases they merely shut up our ques-
tioning, giving us a verbal formula to apply whenever the anxiety bursts forth. In a few
cases, unusual parents give non-rote answers, a synopsis of the parent’s own journey of deal-
ing with that anxiety and with poor answers to that anxiety from “culture”. All of us, as we
grow up, do the same, work to reconcile the anxiety we feel with the rote answers we have
been given, and with real, live answers we forge ourselves, inside our own minds and emo-
tions. We all answer all the questions of existence, all of our lives. If we do not create

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 74

myths and symbols and stories and attitudes as answers we create alcohol, divorce, vio-
lence, or despair as answers.

At a minimum, it is a power of culture to stop an anxiety, reduce our interest in handling it,
and send our energy back to other tracks of engagement. Beyond minimum improvement, it
is a power of culture to allow us to see nearly all of reality in its awesomeness, where others
around us hide from the terrors of that, by going beyond rote inherited answers to questions
of existence and instead forging our own newly invented answers and explanations. If we
find a way to face more of scary reality than others, we prosper though at a cost of emo-
tional growth and change, and forging new stories and symbols. Myths are just collections
of such individually forged inventions of ways to face more of reality without fleeing into
magic, fundamentalism, or bigotry. Myths held onto and used magically that do not open us
to scary abysses underneath human existence, become blocks to reality, not bridges,
destroying entire cultures eventually, with magic, fundamentalism, and bigotry. Community
Quality Cabarets are tools for achieving this beyond-minimum power of culture, consistently,
year after year, personally and for large groups that we live or work with. Such cabaret
tools will be explained later in this primer.

It is important to note that culture shuts us off from reality, crippling entire lives, or it opens
us to reality, propelling lives into historic levels of happiness and fame. If the symbols and
myths of culture are taken literally, that is as facts not symbols pointing to complex reali-
ties, they become handling anxiety by lying. If, on the other hand, they are taken as meta-
phors for what pioneering other individuals or groups discovered about what reality is and
how to face it emotionally and rationally, they open our lives to facing and using more of
reality. For example religions that talk about living after death simply tell lies to people to
calm their fears of dying, whereas religions that talk about a second birth, a spiritual birth,
that happens while you are still alive, that allows you to detach from the biologic fate of
your own body and identify with what you were before you were born, expand lives to face
more of reality. For a more particular example, believing that Jesus’ body rises from the
dead, decided by a church council in the 4th century A.D. to help Northern Italian bishops
collect funds from rich people facing anxiety at their own deaths, is essentially fleeing real-
ity into magic. The immense stuff we learn unconsciously, while growing up, includes either
vital, alive religious content, that opens the door to realities that others flee from, or dead
overly-literal content, that shuts us off from reality, crippling entire lives without ever being
consciously considered or recognized. It is not the presence of culture or its absence that
does this, but whether the symbolic and mythic content inside such “culture vastness”, is
vital or dead. Any of us, can, unfortunately, inherit unconsciously, entirely dead symbol and
myth systems, that cripple us, without ever rising to conscious awareness. It is not just
mythic/symbolic culture contents unconsciously inside us that can hurt us by being dead--
theories of culture outside us in society, in the form of historic religions, can overtly teach
entirely dead, literal interpretations of symbols, promoting magic and shrinking from reality.
Such religions are as anti-spiritual as it is possible to be, using symbols to turn people from
spiritual awareness back into magical flight from awareness. Cynics note, such religions
tend to justify mass killing of other “infidel”, “idolatrous”, “deluded” such religions, so, in
the long term, such religions are not a problem as they kill each other off, regularly,
throughout history (witness the Middle East in recent millennia). Cultures unreflected on,
undiscovered by education, and un-mapped by fractal models, tend to suffer from such
problems. Similarly, past victories, in any organization or personal life, tend to become wor-
shipped (as well as their leaders) turning lived ambiguous efforts into sure-fire recipes that
bypass anxiety and effort, so that the victories themselves insure subsequent defeats. The
symbol taken literally (the victory taken as the power not the ambiguous strenuous efforts
that produced it) misleads people into facing less of reality and reducing effort with magical
trust in outside or past things that “guarantee” worth and future comfort (always falsely).
As Danny Miller (Miller, ) says: success breeds failure.

Two frontiers most people face in life, make them aware of culture “contents” inside them--
encountering another culture, and, being overwhelmed by the anxieties of existence
because the mythic/symbolic contents unconsciously inside of them and used by them fail to
address feelings and thoughts challenging our lives and confidence to live. Either of these
can force serious re-examination of all that stuff inside us that we did not consciously and
voluntarily put there.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 75

Culture Power Eight--Scripts Borderline, Ambiguous, Unclear, Contested Situations.


Humans live inside an artificial world that protects us all from the harshness of nature. We
have civilization, irrigation, agriculture, arts, professions, families and all the rest that treat
us more nicely than raw nature does. Our artificial world, however, is incomplete. It han-
dles feeding us very well indeed (if you are in the industrial world where working 20 hours a
year buys all the food you need to subsist each year). It handles lots of our needs very well,
but not infrequently we run into needs it handles poorly, inconsistently, badly, or not at all.
There are even needs it pretends are not there, denying us when we bring them up. For
example, we come across a recent Russian immigrant interviewing us for a job we really
want. John Wayne talking to Indians, Harvard MBA courses on negotiation tactics, popular
books on getting to “yes”, and all sorts of scripts immediately come into our minds as ways
to respond, ways to guide us in confronting the unexpected at that interview because the
interviewer is a recent immigrant from a nation we are not very familiar with. Inside us are
hosts of similar scripts for all sorts of situations we have never really faced, that we can call
on to show us instantly what to do or think next when confronted, confused, dismayed, dis-
combobulated. This frees up energy we would otherwise waste in anxiety. Freeing up
energy and speeding up responses in this way is another power of culture.

The repertoire of scripts we accumulated while growing up in one nation, era, gender, fam-
ily, and the like while huge is very partial--omitting what hundreds of other cultures have
invented. Systematic searching through others and other ways can greatly expand the
choices, the scripts, we apply to unexpected, ill-fitting situations. Fractal concept models,
produced by encoding what others in books or speeches or talks with us have conveyed about
their scripts for handling things, are a tool presented in a compagnion primer to this primer,
for this purpose.
Culture Power Nine--High Performance. If we plot creative people by level of fame we
find it correlates almost perfectly with hours of professional practice, regardless of field:
10,000 hours equals city fame, 13,000 hours equals regional fame, 18,000 hours equals
national fame, 25,000 hours equals national prizes, 30,000 hours equals international fame,
35,000 hours equals international prizes (and similar patterns for all professions). What is
going on in all those hours of practice that is producing high performance in these people? It
is building culture via automating things so conscious minds can be clear to tackle new fron-
tiers in performance problems. More and more routines get automated, then forgotten,
becoming automatic, unconscious in execution, not taxing conscious minds during perfor-
mance. All high performance is merely culture and all cultures are merely high perfor-
mance. The only distinction is in the competitive quality of the routines automated--if you
automate ordinary routines for years that becomes high performance, but you have the
option of comparing routines and automating competitively superior ones too, that makes
one high performance an even higher performance.

Naive people, untraveled people, when first abroad, encountering a culture new to them,
experience many daily life aspects of the foreign culture as high performances--”my, look
how that woman handles that huge flying circle of bread dough, no one does that where I
come from”, and like comments. The only reason we do not ordinarily realize that all other
cultures are high performances is other cultures tend to aim for performances that do not
necessarily mean much to outsiders--they expertly achieve things we outsiders do not value
or appreciate. Also, some of the high performances they achieve come to outsiders as bur-
densome “rituals” or behavioral requirements, not found in the outsiders’ own cultures.
Nevertheless, high performance is all that culture is and culture is all that high performing
is. Both culture and high performance use the Magician Effect. The Magician Effect is peo-
ple greatly impressed, in awe even, because they have seen a performance but not the
means used to do the performance and they cannot readily imagine any means that would
suffice. The gap between performance attained and means visible and imaginable is awe,
the Magician Effect. Nearly all of leadership depends on it too--leaders are people who
achieve moderate things but with no visible means being employed so the effect looks magi-
cal, based on some great talent we cannot even specify. In fact, a great portion of all lead-
ers spend a great portion of their time hiding their means of attainment to achieve the
Magician Effect in their careers. Cultures are applications of the Magician Effect to people
not from the same culture, hence, unable to see or imagine the means used for daily life
attainments there. High performances are applications of the Magician Effect to people not
doing similar feats, hence, unable to see or imagine the means used for attain some out-
come.
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 76

If culture and high performance are synonymous, then all the tools for culture handling in
this primer, explained later, are also how you attain high performance.
Culture Power Ten--Norms? Excuse? Etc. This primer presents only nine powers of cul-
ture. All the other powers of culture normal people imagine, this primer classifies not as
powers of culture but as uses to which culture is put. One big one that most people think of
as a power of culture is norms. We all have met Japanese who self doubt whether they are
good Japanese or not because they dislike certain sushi or certain office rituals in Japan. We
have all met Germans, Americans, and others similarly in self doubt about matters consid-
ered defining for their own cultures. Cultures do act as norms and such norms are so power-
ful that everyone who is Japanese pays a price for not conforming to the general norms
about what Japanese expect other Japanese, and themselves, to be like. If I am Japanese
and I do not do a Japanese-like thing in a certain situation, I am free to thusly depart from
Japanese norms but I pay inside myself a price for that departure, even if the price is only
reminding myself of why I hate parts of my Japanese background so much. If I am American
and I do not do a Japanese like thing in that situation, I pay no cost, no one, including
myself, expects me to do Japanese-like things. So cultures powerfully act as norms. But
that is not what cultures are--they are not norms, they are too confused, accumulated hap-
penstancely, to be that coherent. That is, instead, a purpose to which cultures are put--
people choose to use generalized ideas about a culture as norms for evaluating their own
behavior and the behavior of others.

The ultimate issue at stake here, in whether norms are culture or a use of culture, is the dif-
ference between a culture and theories of that culture held by people in the culture and
people from without viewing it. Some cultures even have specific words for such theories of
their own cultures, and government funding of such theories (Japan for example funds
Nihonjinron “Japaneseness theory”). The norm power of culture comes not from the cul-
ture, whose contents, afterall, are largely unconsciously learned stuff not available to con-
sciousness, but from theories of a culture held by members of it, who apply those theories as
norms for how to think or behave. Such theories are not automated, unconscious, and vast,
but deliberate, conscious, and specific.

The Powers of Culture and Their Sources


The above discussion has taken us fairly deeply into one approach to defining culture. Now
it is time to flesh out this approach with precise detail. The powers of culture are enumer-
ated in the diagram below. These also are definition of culture--it is only encountering
these powers all of which come from ways we do not know what we know, we do not know
our own selves, and we do not know what we do not know.

The Definitions of Culture and High Performance

--The Meta-Cognition Definition of Culture: Culture is the name for eight powers--
from the invisibility, vastness (size/granularity), abstract unity, inconsistency, igno-
rance of what it does not know, ignorance of what it does know, ability to shut down
anxieties--all of which come from the ways we do not know what we know, we do
not know our own selves, we do not know what we do not know--all of which comes
from automating routines to clear our minds for new work (creating an iceberg of
unconscious contents in us). Culture is a failure of or lack of meta-knowledge.

--The Iceberg Definition of Culture: Culture is patterns among the vast amount of
things inside us that we learned unconsciously while growing up in some particular
place and time or while intensely working with some particular group. The vastness
of culture is directly responsible for the existence of patterns among that vastness
and for the inconsistency of where in the vastness such patterns appear and fail to
appear.

--The Performance Definition of Culture: Culture is energy freed up by using oth-


ers’ scripts for ambiguous situations and others’ answers to questions of existence,
at a cost in not engaging reality ourselves directly, with the benefit of having
energy left over for directions of energy investment we consciously choose. Cul-

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 77

ture is thought freed up via automating procedure sequences till they drop from
consciousness. Culture is high performance attainment of doing such procedures.
Culture is also energy found when scripts, stories, symbols, or myths inside us
expose us to more reality others can handle, enabling higher performance.

--The High Performance Definition of Culture (& the Culture Definition of High
Performance): High performance is only culture (from automating competitively
superior routines or non-competitive routines); Culture is only high performance
(from automating competitive or non-competitive routines). Both culture and
high performance produce the Magician Effect.

--Definition of the Magician Effect: Results attained by means that are not
apparent or easy to imagine (the magician effect), high performance is the
production of a performance the means of attaining which are not apparent or
easy to imagine (and hard for any particular observer to match);

--Corollary Definition of the Equivalence of Culture & High-Performance:


Every particular culture, found in the world, is also a corresponding high per-
formance; Every particular high performance, found in the world, is also a
corresponding culture. Both can be specified by what routines in particular
were automated, how they were automated, in cooperation with what other
people and routines they were automated (and when and where they were
lost to consciousness).

--Definition of the Uses of Culture: Many “powers” of culture, as ordinary


folk cognition considers it, turn out to be better understood as uses to which
culture powers are put. In particular, there is the culture of a group or per-
son or technology and there is the theory of their culture of that or other
groups, persons, and technologies. There are effects of the culture that can
and should be distinguished from powers of the conscious theory that a per-
son, group, or technology has of its own or others’ cultures. Many supposed
powers of any culture are really effects of the theory of that culture con-
sciously held by someone. For example, culture is a powerful norm set for
people, who worry if they depart from what their own culture’s norms in cer-
tain situations require, we think; however, such norms come from the theory
of what their own culture is that people hold, not from the unconscious enor-
mity inside them that is their actual culture (as this primer defines it).

--Definition of Fractal Concept Models: Rather than reducing the vastness of


culture contents in any one individual or group to five or ten highly abstract
factors, that, though easy to memorize for intellectual work, greatly increase
the error rate and workload of recognizing abstraction features in cases faced
and grounding abstraction features when applying the abstractions to cases,
we have an alternative. We can create hierarchical, fractal (patterns
repeated on each level), categorical models of factors, with a top level of
highly abstract factors, like Hofstede’s dimensions, and subsequent levels of
more numerous factors, each less abstract than the previous till a lowest level
of many factors quite easy to recognize and ground in cases is reached. A
regularized form of fractal concept model exists that makes it as easy to
remember and handle 50 to 100 factors as it is to remember and handle five
to ten factors in ordinary models.

The Powers of Culture

1 its invisibility = power to surprise us, pleasantly or unpleasantly


2 its ignorance of what it is ignorant of (we have no idea of alternatives from other cul-
tures we have not met--their alternative ways of doing things) = power of running
into realities we never imagined before
3 its ignorance of what it learned (we are not aware of all we are learning when near
someone, in a situation, or when growing up) = power of running into realities
inside us that we never realized were there

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 78

4 its abstract unity (example: Americans at Chinese dinners order their own dish each,
rather than ordering theirs but sharing it with everyone present--similarly: Ameri-
cans making points to win/stand-out in discussions rather than to blend, etc.) =
power of how abstract the patterns in human behaviors end up being, abstract-
ness means we miss how the same pattern is governing enormously different
behaviors or situations
5 its inconsistency (example: Americans struggle to stand out except in clothing--mass
produced ugly “Gap” styles--ride trains from northern US to Canadian cities, watch
how fashions shift suddenly at the border) = power of disappointing our guesses at
abstract unity of behaviors as situations that easily could follow the same prin-
ciple for some reason do not, we cannot make rules about where and when rule
will apply and will not apply
6 its vastness (in size) = power of its diversity and depth of contents; its vastness (in
granularity, scales involved) = power of its diversity and depth of contents
7 its ability to shut down anxieties of trying to answer the questions of human exist-
ence = power of soft stories to make all of existence peaceful and joyful though
we are tiny among immense forces in an immense universe.
8 its scripting of situations: ambiguous, conflicted, unclear, borderline = power of
energy released because all situations have scripts for quick unthinking auto-
matic response
9 its ability to produce high performances in individuals and teams = power of results
achieved but means hidden because automated procedures, among people in a
team, or within a single individual’s mind, so the gap between results and no
apparent means surprises and impresses.

The Interlevel Problem: Situations (Culture) or Individuals as Causes


We know that presenting the same stimulus to a human in the same situation is impossible to
do--human systems have memories that prevent them from ever being in exactly the same
situation, twice (neural chemical bases to post traumatic stress syndrome notwithstanding).
We know, on the other hand, that in a great many cases humans are stunningly unimagina-
tive, unoriginal, unchanging, therefore producing exactly the same response to the same or
similar stimuli. It is like Nobel laureates in economics investing in the stock market, using
the algorithms for pricing derivatives they won their prizes for--most of the time they rake in
winnings, but, at times they cannot predict, their algorithms go terribly wrong, bankrupting
them. We can assume that people are always original until something suddenly proves that
wrong or we can assume that people are always conservative herd-like conformists (to them-
selves if not always to others) until something proves that wrong. The problem is discover-
ing when either of those rules breaks down. The interlevel problem here is translated into a
boundary condition determination problem. When, exactly, do people stop being deter-
mined by their situations? When, exactly, do people stop determining their situations?
Researchers who suggest schema, merely transfer the scale of ambiguity from a situation-
self-determination dilemma to a use-old-schema versus change-schema dilemma. Research-
ers who suggest non-linear system dynamics emergence phenomena merely shift the scale of
ambiguity from the situation-self-determination dilemma to the “what conditions ‘cause’
the emergence of particular types of conditions” dilemma. If ultimately whatever we per-
ceive or know of situations and of our selves is coded in neural nets (parallel non-representa-
tional layers of nodes with no node corresponding to any idea or word in any language),
there can be no boundary between situation causation and self determination, both blending
without boundary. Organizational learning theorists have long supposed () that organiza-
tional learning is expanding one’s repertoire of possible responses and of things to possibly
notice and respond to” so that organizations learn even when they do nothing different,
they merely acquire an ability to notice something and respond someday to it that they
lacked hitherto fore, for example. Impacts of situations on individual humans can take this
form--merely expanding repertoires of possible noticings and reactions--and impacts of indi-
vidual humans on situations can take this form as well--merely expanding repertoires of pos-
sible noticings and reactions of people or groups in the situation. Talcott Parsons, long ago
(Parsons, ), emphasized the code aspects of human life, actions of entirely different nature
and results come from slight differences in the codes in people’s minds, whether those codes
be consciously or unconsciously acquired and used. Culture is such coding. Culture affect-
ing culture includes such subtle, unnoticeable effects as a code change in an individual
effecting a code change in a group and vice versa. Nothing overt happens but potentials for
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the future of both are changed and if relevant future conditions never appear, the individu-
als and group die with nothing whatsoever having resulted from the encounter (either of
them may or may not manage to pass on the code change to subsequent generations). This
interlevel issue, in this way, ends up merely emphasizing the unseenness and unconscious
acquisition aspect to culture that is the basis of its practical interest and power in the world.
Note that the ecological fallacy--taking individuals in communal cultures as being communal
themselves, when in fact, whole nations are merely “on average” more communal than
other nations, so individuals in communal nations can easily be more individualistic than
individuals in more individualistic nations, for one example--is a different, simpler, inter-
level issue of less portent.

The Issue of Creating Cultures and Using Them


This primer holds that culture is unseen things operating inside people that influence how
they think and behave and that such unseen things are vast because they include what peo-
ple unconsciously learned during decades of growing up sometime somewhere. Also people
are not aware of what they culturally are missing (what alternative things they did not get
exposed to while growing up and hence did not learn as alternatives to the things they did
learn). If, however, you consider people who create new cultures, say for example, Phil
Jackson the coach of the six time champion Chicago Bulls basketball team, and the cultures
that they create, there is less than two decades of time and there are adult people imbibing
more things consciously than babies and kids imbibe consciously. This makes the amount of
culture, defined as this primer defines it, less, diminished by reduced time and reduced
degree of unconscious imbibing. Nevertheless, sects that spontaneously kill themselves,
urged on by megalomanic leaders, attest to the power of such reduced cultures to over-
whelm ordinary while-growing-up acquired cultures, producing more or less voluntary stren-
uous results. If such reduced created cultures have such power, the cultures we all absorb
while growing up some where and some time have potential for even more power (though
since some such cultures of era, nation, gender, family, etc. that grow us up obtain for huge
populations a diluted intensity, power, can be expected). Small groups deliberately erecting
their own invented cultures can use focus and small scale to reach intensity of practice,
belief, coherence, unconscious automatic execution that overwhelm imbibed-while-growing-
up cultures from gender, nation, era, and the like. Winning teams like the champion Chicago
Bulls basketball team with Michael Jordan, based their winning on tens of thousands of hours
of practice together. What goes on in such practicing is inventing routines and repeating
them till they become fully automated and unconscious. Eventually they become forgotten,
though still in the repertoire, called on, and used. Practice, the primary culture creation
means of such teams, is merely consciously selected and accelerated gathering of experi-
ence, as if to make up for lack of decades of growing up as kids with intensity and focus of
experience as adults.

Similarly, as people become aware of culture inside themselves determining or influencing


them or inside others determining or influencing those others, they use such discoveries.
They learn to excuse behaviors using their own culture as excuse; they learn to reject cer-
tain behaviors of others as “merely” rote projection of their own local culture (or as harsh
rejection of their nice local culture). They use culture in negotiating, contracting, merging,
divorcing, founding, enticing, selling, persuading, influencing, predicting, and the like. The
meaning of particular culture contents in this way becomes double--what people uncon-
sciously influenced by them do with them and what particular purpose people aware of them
use them for. When groups of interrelated people thusly use culture for certain enduring
purposes, over a period of time, the purposes may be forgotten, automated, and lost from
consciousness, with the result that the cultural contents operate, unseen, in contexts now
unseen as well, making the contents into new culture contents, it can be said. This can be
viewed as a second way that new cultures get established, an unconscious, unseen way.
This is so powerful that (Jervis, ) nations who labored hard to do X, which had foreseeable
consequence Y, when faced with Y claim utter surprise, claiming Y an attack on them by bad-
minded others, trying to take no responsibility for it, even though Y is merely the direct
product of their efforts toward X.

The Components of Culture and Their Causal Links


An engineer, given culture as a technology to master and apply, would check out its proper-
ties, its boundaries, ways it can be manipulated, goals it can be made to achieve or enable.
All that hinges, however, on getting to know the “material” culture and what its properties
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are. An engineer, though, would worry about having good interfaces. Research on culture
includes a confusing variety of culture components with causal relations among them
unstated, implied, uninvestigated, or contradictorily presented. Research on culture, an
engineer would say, needs a clear causal flow interface. Secondly, all models and views of
culture see it as vast, decades of automated routines inside people and groups that they are
largely unaware of, though they all may have theories about what all that stuff is and means
and does (the distinction between culture theory and culture from this primer’s compagnion
primer mentioned in the abstract). In spite of that vastness, most currently published cul-
ture research works to reduce that vastness to four to ten factor models so abstract and gen-
eral that they offer next to nothing in the way of useful guidance to practitioners. Research
on culture, an engineer would say, needs a clear way to display and handle ten times as
many factors in a model as is commonly done now, with those extra numbers of factors
somehow made manageable and orderly so researchers and practitioners can change the
granularity of a model up (few but abstract factors) and down (many but concrete ground-
able factors) as needed. This primer proposes answers to both of these culture research
interface needs.

A review of hundreds of books on culture-related topics produced the following basics of the
“culture material”, the following components of culture that somehow (it seldom is made
clear) cause whatever culture-related stuff we all notice and research:

culture aspects/purposes
• operations--what manipulations change various properties and combinations of
properties that cultures have
• tools--means that make particular operations easier, faster, less costly, higher in
quality, more accurate and the like
• definitions/uses--the goals that cultures, when operated on, can be expected
reasonably to enable or attain
culture space
• traits--what properties do all cultures have
• dimensions--the particulars about any one culture that best distinguish it from
other cultures or earlier versions of itself
• social processes--the parts of any society that each can have distinct cultures or
combinations of dimensions of particular cultures
culture results
• culture types--the most frequent and most important clumpings of culture traits
and/or dimensions found in actual cultures in the world
• culture powers--the particular powers that all cultures have
• culture power profiles--the particular profile of amounts of each of those pow-
ers that any particular type of culture has
• high performance dynamics--the traits especially evident in high performance
groups/individuals and their particular cultures
deliberate culture design processes
• culture design dynamics (community quality cabaret dynamics)--the procedures
of achieving large-scale regular designed changes in particular cultures.
All of the above depend on how culture is defined. That is dealt with in a compagnion
primer, that distinguishes culture (all the stuff learned unconsciously as we grow up or join
groups) and culture theories (all that people want cultures to be or say cultures are). This
definition implies a vastness to culture contents (decades of unconscious learnings while
growing up or joining groups) that demands comprehensive maps as tools. This definition
also implies unseenness, invisibility to culture contents (we learned so much that we were
not aware we were learning) that demands reflection tools for turning interior contents into
articulated conscious models. Deliberate culture design processes heavily depend on these
two types of tool--mapping ones and reflection ones.

Defined this way, culture has been examined before in lots of fields that did not call it cul-
ture. Brown and Duguid studied “communities of practice” noting how knowledge flowed
within such communities, across organizations, well but flowed across communities of prac-
tice poorly. Nonaka and colleagues studied how tacit knowledge gets surfaced by reflection
tools that compile it into explicit knowledge and how, in turn, explicit knowledge gets prac-
ticed into becoming automatic unconscious routine procedures. Sternberg and colleagues

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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43
don’t
bother
others or
self
why can I not
make my own
story
CONTINGENCY

IMPACT
FUTILITY 42
41 will it/I make
a difference?
preserve:
death is peacefulness
exteriors
of flaw:
or
most real fairnness of ingratitude
or exteriors or
birth is Nisbet unfree
most real 44 why engage ugly
must I die? life
MORTALITY NAUSEA
EXISTENTIAL
QUESTIONS
Kukai, Lao Tsu, Sartre, Kierkegaard 39
35 SIN 48
Nisbet
TRAGEDY
why I don’t life is a how could I
do my plan my exper- have known
story of:
adaptors
found situation or iences
the group
action or
or or experiences I
play roles in
or
made self am I heard/seen? work revolutionaries
meaning AUDIENCE 45 why does posses-
46 ing make me object
where is meaning?
EMPTINESS FLAW INAUTHENTICITY
NO ESCAPE
SITUATION why is not choos- CHOICE
ing also choosing 37 RESPONSE-ABILITY
what/who am I? 38
RELATIVITY
33 what is truth? 34 group acts the self is:
life/groups are or unitary across
people arrangements
tasks or
of:
ethnic selves act role = id
situations love the
or
or people groupbasis or varies by role
intent = id situation or
institutions Nisbet or Nisbet love the person
eternal function basis 47
why something?
36 why here, now? You can’t see me
40 why love dies?
MYSTERY ARBITRARYNS. FREEDOM LONELINESS

Dimensions for Distinguishing Cultures


11 Social Psych, Gender, Existential, Complexity, and Nisbett Models Combined
52 27
primacy:
life or
56 immanentgods: 63 work:
pleasant end work to caring seniors:
or
quality substance
or or trans- or feel good
about self
one of life cendant unplea- or compe-
chance object sant work to critique titive
or
54 (attributes)
Nisbet 53 design means & improve self
exactitude
or 50
Nisbet 49 or
several chance
lives SACRED emergence WORK detail
TIME the world: COMPLEX results: PURPOSE
is sacred -ITY from effort
causation: or 61 62 preserve:
9 plural 10 is fallen
world reality is:
stable or in flux
or
from talent 25 26
distributed [contracts
save face or
causes or gradual always homo- save truth
single local change renegotiable] geniety Nisbet
causes Nisbet or
or info
Nisbet avalanches 64 diversity
55 51
(mind to mind)
or 28 talk toorsolve
analysis 12 serial
or COMMUNITY
or relation
Geertz, Weisbord, Greene, Grunell, Todorov (person to person) talk for empathy
synthesis parallel

SOCIAL PSYCH self indulgent drive to center GENDER STYLE


asceticism or Tannen, de Beauvoir, Friedan
Hampden-Turner, Hofstede, Tropenaars or 60 drive to margins 19 23
3 contest 32 independent
humans 16 friends over 7 normalcy
Nisbet
or or
primary or rightness community
equal to Nisbet choice: Nisbet dependent
or right contradiction:
other categories over one pole harshness
life friends or other tolerated as
or or or 29 personal rejection
achieved 14 relationships 13 inner
58 tell 30 not tolerated
or or blended middle 57 or or
outer
ascribed
RELATION locus of control CREATION listen CONFLICT sign of respect
rank
right vs. right focus from single INPUT/ argumentative
EMOTION
RANK GROUP project OUTPUT 21
2
or
drive for 18 or backward 22
1 foreground item
right vs. wrong
5 environment: 6 or 17 individual: apologetic reasoning
morality controllable focus from or
or parallel distinction forward
background or projects or reasoning
uncontrol- [vision is real fitting in
noticed lable Nisbet
Nisbet power from
vs. case details
Nisbet feeling as mis-hearing
Nisbet are what is real]
hierarchy closeness individual universalist 59 status 20 exclusion 31 interesting 24 as relation
or or 15 or or or or or
threat
egalitarian
4 power from communitarian 8 particularist connection inclusion as embarrassing
or
distance status threat

Copyright 2003 by Richard Tabor Greene, All Rights Reserved, Government Registered

Japan
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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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interpretative institutionalized fame haven non-linear social automata secularity religion


assimilative nurture system dynamics
clarity battles

Conserving Historic Diversity Symbol


Novelty Dream
unsup- personal drama show the fatal tamper- language art
ported nurture way success ing
baby

Change Culture
initiative no man’s action public exercises meanings benevo- structures
land happiness lence

Liberation Freedom Wisdom Style


miracle promise novelty covenant skills know- genera- families
ledge tions

SOCIAL
PROCESSES
innovation measurement incentives consum- inputs purposes opportunity checks
ption

Productivity Distribution Anticipation Welfare


resource variation property markets interests plans spaces rights

Economy Polity
time technology quality systems norms laws mediation execution

Resources Production Peace Justice


natural human tools forces defense police legisla- juridica-
tion tion

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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and hence miss the “home-runs for free” experiences of the individualists. Technology is, to
some extent, adding an entirely new environment that human kind operate in that changes
the worlds possible and the rules of transition. Or at least that is the illusion of technologi-
cal individualists. New world or illusion--that is a matter for future research to decide.

The social psych dilemmas viewpoint sees most of the human brain supporting social func-
tions in evolution. It produces “dimensions” for distinguishing one culture from another.
These dimensions for many years were worded idiosyncratically by Hofstede and others but
from the beginning it was apparent that such dimensions corresponded, one to one, to tradi-
tional dilemmas in social psychology. In the model of culture favored by this primer,
“dimensions” are separate from and earlier than culture “types”. However, it is possible
(and for 30 years commonly done) to define types of culture by combing to or more dimen-
sions (usually a 2-dimensional graph with low-high horizontal axis of one dimension, and low-
high vertical axis of the other dimension, and 4 quadrants each being a “type” of culture).
Below such combinations and the types they define are listed for Hofstede’s first four social
psych dilemmas. Below the culture types listing is a listing of common social psych dilem-
mas from a beginner’s text, showing Hofstede’s four plus equivalent others.

• power distance crossed with uncertainty avoidance--HH = steep prescriptive


hierarchy; HL = consultative hierarchy; LH = rigid dyadic networks; LL =
anarchic reconfigurable networks
• uncertainty avoidance crossed with collectivity--HH = perfectionist egalitari-
ans; HL = perfectionist free agent pools; LH = voluntarist civitas; LL = ato-
mist individualism
• collectivity crossed with masculinity--HH = aggressive sectarians; HL = artistic
communes; LH = dog eat dog free for all; LL = care networks
• masculinity crossed with power distance--HH = primate status fights (band of
heros); HL = mentor net; LH = monastery; LL = romance nets

Twelve of Many Social Psychology Dilemmas for Defining Culture Dimensions that Combine
to Define Culture Types
• power distance--personal closeness reduces power (= high H) or increases it:
emotive distance empowers or disempowers
• uncertainty avoidance--tolerates (= low L) or does not tolerate uncertainty:
comfortable or uncomfortable with uncertainty
• individual or collective--prefers self determination (= L low) or communal deter-
mination: inventing self versus script reading self
• masculine or feminine--mind to mind (= H or M, high or masculine) versus person
to person communication: sharing information/status or intimacies/emo-
tions

• intrinsic/extrinsic motivation--values process because of the goal versus values


process because of experience of it: value from function or process
• interior/exterior locus of control--self determining versus determined by envi-
ronment: blame self or situation
• attribution--polar attribution (either self or others is to blame) versus blend
attribution (both parties contribute to outcomes): local causes versus sys-
tem causes
• grid--status from violating rules versus status from following rules: rebel or
conformist

• hierarchy--vertical hierarchy of few at top with expanded scope/authority ver-


sus horizontal hierarchy of few customers at ends of processes with expanded
authority and scope: promotion or mission
• careerism--personally designed path-thru-society based destiny versus socially
designed path-thru-society based destiny: scripted or self-invented lives
• messaging--packaging key to communication versus truth content key to com-
munication: message is frame or content
• contexting--high context encounters versus low context encounters: situated
meaning or specified meaning

• plus many others.

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The culture types above, derived by crossing one culture dimension with another (limited to
Hofstede’s four main factor-analysis derived dimensions) seem to lack diversity and compre-
hensiveness. We can easily imagine distinct culture types not covered by the sixteen com-
binations gotten by crossing four dimensions. When we limit ourselves to national cultures
(Hofstede’s concern), forgetting the great majority of cultures from genders, families, eras,
professions, organizations and the like, we can be more satisfied with the sixteen gotten in
this way. But nations are a small fragment of the culture universe and not a solid basis of
generalization to other culture bases. In fact, the sixteen types gotten by crossing Hofst-
ede’s four dimensions very closely follow Wildavsky’s et al’s security types of culture (which
was derived not from factor analysis of IBM employees but from basic abstract dimensions in
the anthropology, political science, and social psychology literatures). .
The Mind Typologies of Culture: What is it in the human mind that generates culture
behavior? The mind typologies derive from different within-mind contents. Moreover,
these typologies tend to present themselves as abstract dimensions, but when one group
emphasizes one dimension over the others we get types. A cycling among such types is
found. Groups emphasizing one type transition to emphasizing a different type later, driven
by gaps and surprises between expected experience and experience delivered.

The meaning types of culture come from what one derives meaning from. This sounds sim-
plistic but is a powerful visible dynamic in history. Martin Luther surprised himself by creat-
ing something much bigger than he imagined. He sought to reform a Catholic Church
brought low by popes that murdered other people, the Borgias, and ended up splitting the
civilized (Western) world. By suggesting that meaning could be derived by a person individu-
ally reading a book, instead of following prescriptions of a priest, he unleashed a revolution
far beyond his own imagining and an accompanying war that killed over two thirds of the
population of Germany in 30 years, tens of millions dying.

• meaning from symbols--societies built bottom up, status from interpretative


abilities: interpretive skill
• meaning from values and beliefs--societies of mutual surveillance, status from
embodied goodness: embodiment skill
• meaning from heros--societies of great deeds and engagement in stories, status
from launching great actions: great deeds
• meaning from rituals and practices--societies of correct procedure, status from
expert or masterful doing: mastery

The meaning types divide cultures by source of meaning in people’s lives. All societies have
all these sources of meaning but each society emphasizes one over the others, usually by for-
mally making one primary. That primacy to one source of meaning becomes a style pervad-
ing all sorts of practices and cognitions throughout the group. These are powerful types and
one can directly feel and sense them in places like Germany where mastery is so much a part
of personal aspiration, family economics, work promotion, and national exporting. Simi-
larly, Latin American nations have a fascination with heros as the source of personal meaning
in ordinary people’s lives that puzzles people not a part of these cultures but reappears
again in history in widely different political system form and national development stages.
The assumption types of culture come from unspoken contents in culture, akin to this
primer’s favored definition of culture. Though the creator of this typology saw these as
dimensions that all cultures have and can be compared along, people using this model found
that some groups emphasized one type of assumptions over others, defining highly abstract
types of culture. This is like the meaning types dealt with immediately above.

• define ourselves via our relation to our environments--who we are comes from
the environments we face and how we relate to them; some respond to their
social environment, others to their political one, others to their geographic
or cultural or economic one; environment defined
• define ourselves via our image of the nature of reality--who we are comes from
our view of the nature of reality and what it requires of humans; some
respond to a reality that is unknowable and perverse, some respond to a real-
ity that is benevolent and everywhere, some respond to a reality that is dis-

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tant and disappointed, some respond to a reality that is complicated and rule
bound; reality defined
• define ourselves via our view of the nature of time and space--who we are
comes from how we see the nature of time and space; some respond so as to
erase the elapse of time, some respond so as to shrink space and bring it
together at one point, some respond so as to distribute themselves in space,
some respond so as to endure throughout all time; cosmos defined
• define ourselves via our view of the nature of human: beings, activities, and
relations--who we are comes from our view of human nature; some respond
to the treacherous nature of human beings, some respond to the beauty of
human beings, some response to the goodness of human beings, some
respond to the competitiveness of human beings, some respond to optimize
the diversity and plurality among human beings, some respond so as to
expand what is common and shared among human beings; human nature
defined

The assumption types distinguish cultures into type via what they assume about, that is,
what they assume and what those assumptions are about. Societies can respond primarily to
environment, reality, space/time, and human nature in defining themselves. At different
times societies can transition among these types, with terrible wars and disasters from with-
out switching a society from human nature defined to environment defined, for example.
We can see this switch in the European Union, driven, more than by political forces, by indi-
vidual millions of people environment defined by a century of wars and suffering. The emo-
tions of union are beyond practical and political in this sense and have defeated the
predictions of pundits and commentators of all sorts as a result. The populations of Europe
switched to environment defined type from one or another of the other three types in the
middle of the 20th century.

The rite types of culture come from social purposes, represented in various rites and rituals.
Though most societies have rites and rituals for all these social purposes, each society
emphasizes and makes primary one of these purposes. That primacy percolates through the
society becoming a style and criterion of decision in myriad quotidian encounters.

• passage rite cultures--what is important is marking passage through phase gates


(social, psychic, theologic, attainment etc.); paths count; process confor-
mity
• degradation/enhancement rite cultures--what is important is marking deviation
and end of deviation from norm; repairing pride counts; boundary confor-
mity
• renewal rite cultures--what is important is marking correction of time’s eroding
influences; repairing focus counts; effort conformity
• conflict reduction/integration rite cultures--what is important is marking heal-
ing of diversity and difference into sameness and agreement; repairing
agreement counts; belief conformity.

Rites are primarily reminders--maps to what counts. They are a way for a group to keep its
focus. They recur in time and are distributed in space in order to cover all of existence with
signs reminding people of what counts. Dividing cultures into types by the what they remind
themselves of as “counting” for them makes perfect sense. Though all cultures have rites
for all four functions, each culture emphasizes one type over the others. One function
counts more than the others, is the foundation of the others. That function becomes a style
and priority, habit and method set the permeates many other aspects of the life of the com-
munity. For example, when you join a business organization you frequently find, from older
people, that certain rites of degradation or enhancement are meaningless while other rites
of passage, say, are very important.

The conquest types of culture see humanity at risk and culture as response to that risk. The
different threats that humanity is faced with determine the different types of culture that
humans erect.
• conquering time--the eternal return; the eschatological return; restarting again
fresh without sin, remorse, regret, or blame; reliving life again and again till

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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one gets it right, ceremonially cancel the elapse of time: everything can be
redone and redone--the ceremony solution
• conquering space--the eternal pioneer; the eschatological spring; re-implanting
the center of the world; relativity of travel; civilizing wilderness; wild-ifying
civilizations, the diving center is everywhere: everywhere can be central--
the expansion solution
• conquering hurt--the impossibility of loss; the illusion of possession; the reifica-
tion of the human, the personal, the relationship; the constantly opening
unexpected horizons; the center sympathizes with the periphery, continually
admit non-centrality: every hurt is built on human hubris--the modesty
solution
• conquering illusion--the mind a worry-generating machine; “my life” as egoistic
illusion; experience as sheer suffering; letting go of locality gets it back via
cosmic globality, letting go of locality gets it back divinely: every concern is
flight from tranquil reality--the clear mind solution.

The conquest types are primarily preferred solution types found throughout a culture. You
can separate cultures by the style of solution found everywhere within them. When things
go wrong, cultures have a characteristic way of approaching solution and a characteristic
type of solution they seek. This is so much so that all cultures have certain types of recur-
ring problems, never solved because the style of solution needed is not in the repertoire of
that culture, in not one of the preferred ways of solving assumed and handed down through-
out that group.
The Group Typologies of Culture. These typologies come from looking at how groups in
general differ from each other, then zooming down to the culture parts of that. These are
very important because so much of the other typologies come from anthropology, study of
ethnic groups, or study of nationalities. Study of business organizations, civic groups, social
movements, and the like tell us just as much about culture as study of nations and what they
reveal is often a bit more practically useful that what study of nationalities produces.

The relations types of culture distinguish fundamental types of ways humans relate to each
other and cultures show up being dominated by one or another of them. Though all cultures
are mixtures of all four types, each culture is dominated by one, with departures from its
use, excused, explained, or made marginal.

• communal sharing--equivalence among persons; kindness uberalles; I am the


group I am in; interest in merging identity/feelings; punish transgression with
immediate pain; fault as impurity; handle misfortune by outcasting victims;
god as friend next to you all day; people give what can take what need; sub-
merged self--blend
• authority ranking--inequality among persons, status uberalles; I am the rank I
am in; interest in exercise of power; punish transgression with equivalent
pain; fault as disobedience; handle misfortune by loss of rank; god as distant
judge; superiors control resources but owe benevolent care to subordinates;
ranked self--roleplay
• equality matching--separate but equal relations among persons; reciprocity
uberalles; I am the balances I maintain;interest in fairness; punish transgres-
sion with restitution; fault as imbalance; handle misfortune by doing nothing
(misfortune comes from envy or envied lucky breaks and balances them
restoring equality); god as tough love parent; tit for tat; equivalent self--
match
• market pricing--pricing among persons; exchange uberalles; I am what people’s
bid say I am; interest in achievement; punish transgression with custom tai-
lored negative incentive; fault as violation of crafted rules (rules as “price”
community bids for behavior corrections); handle misfortune as a price of
risks they deliberately took; god as investment in translifespan perspectives;
pay what competitive bidders cannot pay; bid self--attain.

The above culture types blend and weave in real societies. Every society is a particular pro-
file of emphasis on each of the above four in each social process. These types draw atten-
tion to types of ways humans related to each other in various parts of life and society. As is

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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true of all other types in this primer, the style and habits and associations from one domi-
nant type spread through groups, tinging it with the overall “color” of that dominant strain.

The control types of culture distinguish sources of and uses of power in groups and individu-
als. Most interesting in this is the way a person inside his own mind controls himself and
whether this way spread to how he relates to others or not. Eventually how he relates to
others may invade how he manages himself inside his own mind as he works to improve,
evaluate, and direct himself. To a certain extent these control types evolve throughout the
lifespan, as slowly doubt and weakness get replaced by trust and competence in self and
others. People end up ranked by whether they stay fixated at early types late in life when
they should have evolved beyond them to more trusting and competence-expecting types.

• power cultures--coordinate by command; fears disloyalty to boss; talent for


speed and precision of decision; weak at long term survival; live by com-
mand
• role cultures--coordinate by procedures; fears violation of one’s place in hierar-
chy; talent for consistent responses; weak at spotting and handling new
challenges; live by protocol
• achievement cultures--coordinate by internalized goals/values; fears organiza-
tion suppressing members’ creativity; talent for tackling entirely new tasks;
weak at consistent execution; live by deeds done
• person cultures--coordinate by recognition and mutual support; fears loss of
diversity by favoring temporary successes; talent for attracting talent; weak
at collaborative complex configurations of organization talents; live by con-
straintlessness.

If you examine your own family in the context of these types, or your own local community,
firm, or school, you find blends of the above four types but each institutional area of your
life dominated by one of the above, regardless of blending. In rare cases there are nearly
equal blends, but when social processes are examined in detail, that equality disappears; it
comes from averaging across lots of social processes, each of which is an non-equal blend,
most likely, of the above four culture types. The control types of culture emphasize how
power is handled, not in the sense of generating new power from nothing, but in the sense of
allocating already existing role, institutional, or positional power. This is a somewhat static
and bureaucratic mindset and this model of types comes from studying business organiza-
tions, even the most fluid and forward-thinking of which are significantly bureaucratic.
Customers demand consistent quality and execution for the most part, driving production
organization towards bureaucracy except in rare markets where customers demand, more,
timely release of entirely new technical capabilities in products (bureaucratic producers fail
in these technology markets).

The means/ends types of culture distinguish what culture aim for and how they attempt
attainment of it. These types come from study of business organizations so they are a bit
tainted by bureaucracy as were the control types immediately above. Compared to the con-
trol types, the means/ends types are a bit less financial in cast and more sociological. They
take a broader look at the humanity that all organizations consist of and treat businesses less
as special important organization forms and more as cultures for anthropologists and other
social scientists to study as primitive cultures worldwide used to be studied in the formative
years of the field of anthropology.

• group cultures--means = morale; ends = develop people; comply because of


affiliation; form = clan; craftsmen (guilds)
• development cultures--means = readiness; ends = growth; comply because of
shared ideology; form = adhocracy; improvisers (entrepreneurs)
• hierarchy cultures--means = communication; ends = stable performance; comply
because of rules enforced; form = hierarchy; proceduralists (bureaucrats)
• rational cultures--means = planning; ends = efficient production; comply
because of contract enforced; form = market; engineers (project teams).

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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environment diversity driven technique liberalize normative/ open/closed; rational hierarchy


shift = disaster out (homogenity) specialization; rationalize pragmatic; loose/tight; control/ext control/int
ecologic global- crossed with crossed with plan/produce comminicate
ization process/results, normative/
person/role; pragmatic;
FAILING SECULARIZN. ORG MEANS/ENDS
SUCCESSES PSYCHE

success leaders: gui ld secularize process/ local/ group develop


Miller
narrow professes Argyis/Schon differentiate results; Hofstede
professnl; (fl/int) Quinn
(fl/ext)
search, person/ crossed morale readiness
block role; crossed with open/closed
dissent with local/profl. loose/tight;

PROCESS GROUPS

framework science heresy reliable near market pricing equality person/ task/achieve
future support “own role”
repertoire tolerant matching “own thing”
climate

KNOWING DEVELOPMENT RELATIONS CONTROL

magic myth action population communal authority power role“own


scope of risk/ sharing ranking “as told” how”
Campbell Fiske Cartwright
expanding Grondona initiative
infrastructures takers

CULTURE
TYPES

masculinity with collectivity with fatalism hierarchy of of hurt of conflict reduc- of renewal
power distance masculinity (capricious) (perverse) illusion tion & integra-
tion

DILEMMAS SECURITY CONQUEST RITES


social psych

power uncertainty individual egalitarian of time of space of of


passage degrade/
distance Hofstede avoidance (benign) Wildavsky (ephemeral)
Eliade Trice
with enhance
with
uncertainty collectivity
avoidance

BASICS MIND

nexus/desert mountain sex female dominance rituals/practice heros nature of nature of time &
denial hierarchy + human: space
being,
cloud of males activity,
relations

LANDMASS SEX ROLES MEANING ASSUMPTION

island continent male celebratory symbols values/ relation nature of


orgies to reality
dominance beliefs
Boas Kohl Levi-Straus environ- Schein
hierarchy + ment
harem

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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purity, self, know evolutn. conquer and create creation performance repertoire practice trans- practice
mind models experiment manage emer- machine & meshing management planting into innovating
system models gence think unusual venues

Switch Becoming Competitive Out-


Creativity Creative Entool Practice
Models
catalog social make mental peak pit automate practice
blend group interior travel perform perform acting, profes-
models models exterior spot reliable skippable reflecting, sionally
room paradox improving
reflecting

CREATE WAY
WARE
punch line despair prune tune interac- non-perfunc- value ruthless member-
last straw doorway noise tions till emer- tory commit- intrinsics bench- tactic omis-
gence ment marking sion doing

Insight Tuning Automate Process


Dynamics Automatons Processes Repertoire

alternate accumulate set up set up develop impro- no per- sudden


engage failure automa- reflec- predic- vise res- mission venue
detach index ton tion table ponse to style
system routines challenges no resource change
doing
HIGH
PERFORMANCE
CULTURE
TRAITS
replace winning puncture self- system causes radical monitor require higher vicarious instant team
with joy of play importance & solutions bets with expect- standards than competing try outs of
as goal inflation extra ation all noveties
effort excep-
tions
Playfulness Logic Recognize Coincidence
& Fun of Exceptions Dynamics
Extremes
adult- make larger + best & spot not view challenge instant
baby wrong smaller worst excep- future routines coaching
shifts approach size process tions thru
work scales as window emotions of
past successes

BAD GOOD
BOY GIRL
innovate conserve use scrounge earned engage omphalo- joint victory
radically in chosen proble- resources membership particu- size the ownership
chosen form form matic lars local
parts

Work Violate Know Combine


Contra- Social Thyself Real
dictorily Norms People
work in invest maintain be prob- skip non- address show commun-
historic energy boundaries lematic fitting overall unique- ity &
context in to others oppor- paradoxon ness mission
particulars tunities rites & rituals
in all units balance

Denison, 1990; Vaill, 1989; Ghiselin, 1952; Klar et al, 1992; Mullen and Geothals, 1987; Tannen, ; Simonton, ;
Sternberg, ; Grint, ; Ozaki, ; Taguchi, ; Martindale, ; Cialdini, ; Gladwell, .

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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The means/ends types of culture emphasize different ways of producing things, whether cul-
ture soft things or economic hard sellable things. The scale of what is to be produced and
the technology type involved together tend to determine type here. The history of indus-
trial development in particular nations and regions of the world flows among these types
(viewed quite generally, though each age has a mix of all four types).

The org psych types of culture come from extension of Hofstede dimensions work to business
organizations. As done earlier, for each two dimensions crossed with each other we get four
quadrants as four types of culture those dimensions define. Each type is, here, the crossing
of two dimensions of difference among cultures, as a stand in for the four types that crossing
produces.

• processH/resultsL ( nearly = person/role) crossed with localH/professionalL--HH


= cultic; HL = our way boutiques; LH = heroic; LL = word/deed polis
• local(org id)H/professional(job id)L crossed with openH/closedL (nearly = loose/
tight)--HH = missionary; HL = clique; LH = expansive practice; LL = monop-
olist priesthood
• openH/closedL (nearly = loose/tight) crossed with normativeH/pragmaticL--HH
= expansive brand; HL = agile alliances; LH = aristocratic elite; LL = monas-
tic
• normative(principle driven)H/pragmatic(customer driven)L crossed with pro-
cessH/resultsL (nearly = person/role)--HH = my way; HL = calvinist; LH =
total quality; LL = service competitors
These org psych types, all sixteen of them listed, differ from usual views of cultures as self-
contained entities. The self-containedness of usual images of “cultures” is probably an illu-
sion just as the static images of “culture” from early (and as late as Geertz) anthropologists
were. A historic perspective makes these culture types come alive. Genghis Khan, the
Jesuits, Greenpeace, Toyota, and Hollywood call to mind, readily, particular ones of the
above types. Though developed for business, these types seem to capture well NGOs, gov-
ernmental, private, and commercial organization cultures.
The Process Typologies of Culture. Here stages of development are viewed as types.
Cultures are stages in ongoing evolution processes in groups of people. However, these
stages are not linear but spiral in nature, repeating steps on later bases, built up by prior
steps. The same steps are revisited but applied to evolving strata and bases in societies.

The knowing types of cultures distinguish cultures by their ways of knowing. As is true for all
types, blends of the below four are what is usually found in reality.

• magic--I know what to do in each situation; if we all believe in X it will work;


face the unknown via traditional reactions; togetherness conquers
• myth--I know what to interpret for each situation; if we all embody X’s meaning
it will work; face the unknown by seeing correspondences with my past victo-
ries; faith conquers
• science--I know what evidence to gather for each situation; if we all research X
it will work; face the unknown by mapping it; research conquers
• ways-of-knowing/framework repertoire--I know what diversity of viewpoints or
ways-of-knowing to assemble for each situation; if we all view X from multi-
ple diverse vantage points it will work; face the unknown via not trusting any
one viewpoint; diversity conquers.

These are tricky types to apply practically. For one reason, scientific seeming ways of
knowing can be magically used, dead facts paraded as if research. Research is a live process
of inquiry not past books of facts. As people age they tend to grow through these types--
from magic, through myth, to science, and possibly getting to diverse repertoires of ways of
knowing. Cultures also collapse suddenly from diverse ways-of-knowing, for example, to
magic or from science to myth.
The development types of culture emphasize what intentional development by any society of
itself requires in culture terms. Cultures can either stimulate development or block it
entirely. The types of development are pluriform--cultural development, political, eco-

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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nomic, social change, or others. Intentional development, a community making a future


that it itself designs, is not all of life but it is an important part, in that communities incapa-
ble of such development become easy victims of situations and changes.

• infrastructures that expand the scope of actions--things that multiply individual


actions/ideas into society-wide consequences/improvements; societies rec-
ognizing and utilizing talents within/without; multiplying talent
• population of risk and initiative takers--escape velocity of frustration or hope
reached by sizeable fraction of ordinary people releasing them toward build-
ing new futures; societies supporting their own replacement; authorizing
change
• reliable near future establishment--certain disciplines and lawfulness of institu-
tions/behaviors established so a stable future is there to invest in; societies
sustaining spaces of fair play; stable target for improvement
• heresy tolerant climate--balance ambition, goal attainment, lawfulness with
enough exception, diversity, and rebellion to continually expand ideas to try
and try for; societies maintaining modesty about what they know and can
know; expanding repertoire of ideas.

These types call to mind societies stuck at particular types--Asian cultures achieving wonder-
ful stability for centuries, but not for improvement; Western media multiplying celebrity not
talent hence enfeebling their societies. Individual families or workteams can be readily
viewed via these types. We have all seen families that notice and multiply talent of their
members and families that do next to nothing of that sort. We have all seen workgroups
that notice and multiply talents of their members and others that work hard to make sure
that that does not happen (lest the “boss” feel threatened). Think of Russia under Peter the
Great doing all the above at the same time versus China two hundred years ago, doing none
of the above. This is measuring “strength” or “health” of culture by whether any culture
exists or not. A culture that denies change altogether is not only dead but not even there as
a culture. It is automatic unconscious routines that do not handle anything, that take noth-
ing as input and maintain nothing as output. Not a few families and workteams fall into this
pattern as well.

The secularization types of culture distinguish how knowledge evolves from divinity to ecol-
ogy. It distinguishes how new areas of knowledge appear from how well established appear.
Societies evolve in a spiral way through these types. They revisit them applied to different,
evolved, substrates.

• guilds professing--a calling to a certain type of knowledge; knowledge is secret;


knowing the secrets of something; new knowledge from craft process muta-
tions; mysteries
• secularizing and differentiating knowledge--knowledge as non-sacred and dis-
tinct types; knowledge is ours; knowing the uniqueness of something; new
knowledge from distinguishing knowledge areas; fields
• liberalizing and rationalizing knowledge--knowledge for use; knowledge is
everybody’s; knowing the use of something; new knowledge from standard
innovation/research processes; practices
• technique specialization and ecologic globalization meshing fields--dependency
on experts countered by ecologically meshing fields for global solutions;
knowledge is unitary and collaborative; knowing the entirety of something;
new knowledge from blending existing fields to make new ones; collabora-
tions.

Some cultures organize themselves to handle certain mysteries. Other organize themselves
to handle certain fields, practices, or to form collaborations. There is a movement from
mystical, unclear knowing through distinct knowledge types, to using knowledge, and com-
bining diverse types, practices, and fields, into big projects going beyond what any one nar-
row specialty can do. Knowledge moves from a center of worship to something practical to
something of an event wherein parts of society come together.

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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So Whats and Implied Research Agenda


This primer has presented culture definitions that imply particular uses of culture. Opera-
tions enabled by tools on traits of culture showing up in particular culture dimensions
located in particular social processes are what implement these intended culture uses by
changing cultures from one type to a different type, the latter having a profile of weightings
among nine culture power elements that get the particular high performance you desire. All
cultures are high performances (see the compagnion primer to this one on culture powers)
and all high performances are cultures. People want, however, not any high performance
but particular ones, so they tilt culture types to get ones having the exact combinations of
culture powers that constitute the high performances they need.

This primer has presented this causal chain in the form of fractal concept models, most of
which had 64 elements organized in groups of 4 and 16. Expanding culture definitions, uses,
operations, tools, traits, dimensions, social processes, types, powers, high performance
characteristics from the four to ten usual in most published research on culture to 16 to 64
(the latter for most of them in this primer) has a distinct purpose--mapping culture’s vast-
ness and moving abstractions two steps more concrete so as to reduce recognition and
grounding work when handling them. It is virtually useless to go to Japan knowing that it is
highly communal, for example, one of Hofstede’ four dimensions. There are tens of thou-
sands of different ways to be communal in any particular situation. Even if I constrain it to
being communal in a feminine, uncertainty avoiding, power from closeness way (using Hofst-
ede’s other 3 dimensions instantiated for Japan), there are hundreds of ways to be that.
The cogency that makes four to ten dimensions appealing for physics theory building, ruins
social engagement and application. It underspecifies hugely. I expanded models from four
to 64 factors in order to present middle ground theorizing that reduces abstraction while
increasing number of factors, but in a regularized fractal well ordered format making it just
as easy to remember and handle 64 ideas as it is to handle ten (after a bit of familiarity with
the fractal concept model format).

It is not common to find a research piece on culture that makes as many distinctions as made
above. It is also not common to have 16 or 64 factor versions of such culture components,
not just mentioned but defined, if not illustrated. A first pass at articulating the research
agenda implied by the model above might look something like this:

--using “uses of culture” more usefully:


• people use cultures, as excuses, as ideals, as illusions, as weapons, as
distractors, as entertainment, as education, and lots of others; we
need to stop researching culture as if it merely exists and start
taking more seriously how it is being used and by whom it is being
used whenever and wherever and however it appears
--operationalizing “operations on cultures”
• there are particular operations that individuals and groups perform
on cultures--what are they? how many are they? which ones does
each culture most use? most omit? why? how do people and cul-
ture evolve among them? why?
--tooling academia and tooling practice
• researchers tend to be researchers, hence, academic, and like tools
that help themselves, though they may try to get consulting and
monies using such tools; practitioners like four dimension culture
typologies because they are easy to understand but eventually
they all find you cannot do very much with four very very general
and very very abstract constructs; we need to distinguish rigor-
ously tools for academics and tools for practice and devote real
testing and power measurement to tools for practice instead of
assuming tools that academics like, because abstract and general
and simple, will appeal to practitioners wondering “how can I be
communal rather than individualist now that I am in a Japanese
police station?”
--un-jumbling un-tangling discombobulating traits, dimensions, social pro-
cesses, types

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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• when we strengthen a culture, what exactly is getting stronger?


when we perform any operation on a culture, it is the situated real
version of that culture not anyone’s culture theory that we oper-
ate on, therefore: we always operate on traits located in dimen-
sions located in social processes and the results of such operations
change us from one type to another type, or invent an entirely
new unheard of type; we must stop loose language that sounds
like culture is unitary, located equivalently everywhere in every
social institution, and is defined by a few factor-analysis dimen-
sions because we like cogent numbers of abstractions as academ-
ics;
--getting serious about the power/powers of culture
• research has done a very poor job of explaining how something as
woozy and soft as culture can be as powerful in the practical world
as it actually is; research has also done a poor job of explaining
why people in the real world handle culture so woefully and inade-
quately; if culture has power let us define it precisely and mea-
sure changes in it precisely and show how changes in traits and
dimensions affect culture power
--high performance and culture and vice versa
• the real world constantly looks for and pays well for high perfor-
mances and how to attain and maintain them; the real world does
not look for and pay so well for culture generation and how to
attain and maintain that; yet it is readily apparent that high per-
formance is nothing but culture creation and culture creation is
nothing but heightening certain performances by automating and
loosing them as a cost in consciousness; if we want study of cul-
ture to be of practical import, we have to stop pretending that
culture is something mysterious and special and distinct when the
data push us towards researching if it is common, everywhere, and
unavoidable, without much mystery or the need for mysterious
explanations; the fields of anthropology and research in general
have mystified culture for their own selfish purposes and lost its
power and their own power as a result.
--how many: definitions, uses, operations, tools, traits, dimensions, pro-
cesses, types, powers, high performance traits is enough?
• preference for four to ten factors, rampant all over academia, is cul-
ture based and has a rather narrow, unexperimentally verified and
validated basis; has anyone seriously examined competition for
explanatory power and for influence on practice of five factor, fif-
teen factor, and fifty factor models of an outcome of interest?
journals have their prejudices and you cannot publish anything
with ten or more factors, we all know; perhaps we need to open
up our own academic cultures a bit and do the experiments to jus-
tify with real data and results our prejudice in favor of five fac-
tors; fractal concept models allow (experimentation results are in
that prove it, submitted variously) 64 to 128 factors to be man-
aged with the same accuracy, speed, and quality as we ordinarily
manage five to ten factors; by changing our granularity of expla-
nation towards more concreteness we operate at a middle ground
between physics theory of the e = mc2 sort and practice world-
wide.

These seven research agenda items are but a halting start but they position us and culture
study in a powerful new direction and light. Be assurred that my grad students will be
releasing scales, factors, structural equations, and all the rest, based on testing the above
model over the next years, in dozens of fields and journals. My dream is that many others
may as well, by extending and pruning this model in their own light and inspiration (and
methods and resources).

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 127
.

Ten Components of Culture: for the culture itself and for the theory that the culture has of itself
Culture Aspects Culture Space Culture Results
Defini- Uses Opera- Tools Traits Dimen- Processes Types Powers High Perfor-
items

tions tions sions mance


Traits
what we once we tools the traits the the result of each type when all cultures
think we oper- enable that cul- dimen- operating on of culture someone are high
culture know ate on us to tures have sions particular has a dis- empha- perfor-
is deter- how cul- per- are found that traits (as tribution of sizes mances
mines we ture form in spe- distin- found in weighting some (things we
how we wish traits opera- cific guish dimensions across the powers of do fast, eas-
use it to use (streng tions dimen- cul- and pro- nine pow- culture ily, and well
one item to the next

a cul- th, we sions that tures cesses) is ers of cul- and de- from prac-
causal links from

ture coher- want on distin- from changing the ture, so empha- tice); and
trait ence, particu- guish cul- each type of a changing sizes oth- all high per-
we etc.) lar tures other culture types also ers, the formances
can using traits are changes result is are cul-
choos tools to that found this pat- achieve- tures
e enable cul- in cer- tern of ment of a (things that
opera- such tures tain emphasis different work when
tions opera- have pro- of the vari- type of in a particu-
to tions cesses ous pow- high per- lar group or
apply on such of soci- ers of formance context,
to it traits ety culture not when
outside it)
particu- chang recog- maps of coherence humans conserving sex deny- culture’s innovate
lar dis- e how nize the of a cul- are first novelties-- ing cul- vastness-- radically but
tinctions we culture stages ture--how among defending tures--sex it is every- only within
we make live; dimen- of pene- well its species innovations is danger- thing chosen form
in how sions, trating bits fit versus from old ous and to humans
example 1

we live; traits, any cul- together; humans established be care- think and
etc. ture; are powers fully con- do
equals trolled
to other
species
of ani-
mals;
differ- chang strengt respons exception my cir- polis pro- market culture’s use others’
ent e what hen cul- e stop- recogni- cum- cesses-- pricing--the uncon- rejects as
types of type ture ping-- tion--how stances spaces for value of scious- star play-
excel- of traits stop- much a cause appearing everything ness--we ers; scarf
lence excel- ping our culture my situ- among peers is deter- do not resources
example 2

achieved lence easy tolerates ation to exchange mined by know others dis-
; we auto- and versus I word and what oth- what con- miss
achiev matic acknowl- cause deed and ers are will- trols our
e respons edges my situ- contribute to ing to pay own
es to sit- excep- ation; collective for it in beliefs
uations; tions to its well being some cur- and habits
rules/ rency
ways;
The Culture
Itself
Theory of Itself
The Culture’s
The Gap:

END OF PRIMER ON CULTURE HANDLING

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 129

mm
Above I end the Primer section with a model of ten components by which we can spot, mod-
ify, handle, and create cultures. It is a visual way to summarize the 50 pages that went
before it. Those ten components work in sets--definitions determine uses and vice versa,
operations depend on tools and vice versa, traits are aspects we wish to change whereas
dimensions are aspects we leave as they are though someday we may wish to change them
too. Cultures are tricky because traits and dimensions of them appear in some processes
going on in groups/individuals and not in others--that is, in some social processes and not
others. There are types of culture, each types with its own unique profile of powers, which
we can adjust to reach “high performance” at times by operations applied to traits/dimen-
sions/types of culture via tools. Note--none of these are “true” in some deep rules of phys-
ics sense. Rather, these are convenient ways to model something as vast, invisible, yet
powerful as culture--a way to aim at vital aspects of it and modify them as meets human
needs.

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE INNOVATION AS CULTURE WORK MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? I am tempted to write--become a Culture Master, then make employees
into Culture Masters, then products and finally your customers. That is
absolutely essential and will happen if you try innovation via this model.
However, “become a Culture Master” is not fully specified. Buy my book
Your Door to Culture Power to get the step by step instructions and
examples for becoming such a master.

There are people who, because orphaned like Jobs, or Army brats who
grew up in a dozen nations, or psychos ruined by missionary parents who
denigrated several cultures they somewhat “lived” in, confusing their
kids with “right ways” that were quite harmful in each locale--these
three and many other types of life produce people at age 20 or 30 who
naturally see all cultures around them, from an emotional distance, as
limited, biased, dubious enterprises. They are emotion, routine, val-
ues, viewpoint skeptics of all around them--never buying into what
everyone else loves and assumes and does without thinking. Modern cor-
porations HATE these people--they do not “fit” into any culture at all.
YET they are the born Culture Masters who will effortlessly and natu-
rally always do the model of innovation of this chapter. Make them
CEO, let them hire similar types and populate the firm’s leadership, and
massive innovation will effortlessly later appear.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR OBSTA- Even a moron viewing the 15 cultures “to counter” in order to “inno-
CLES YOU ENCOUNTER? vate” of this chapter’s model, will sense a problem---nearly every aspect
of every business and business”man” you know has to be countered, un-
done, thwarted, destroyed, and run roughshod over in order to innovate
if this chapter is right. What business”men” do you right now know with
this sort of guts? See? This model of creating is nearly impossible--it
means countering all that business is and does, countering all the
cowardly grovelling “men” who do business daily everywhere.
Maybe women are best prepared for this, or maybe very young Silicon
Valley upstart billionaires like Jobs. Nevertheless, I personally used this
model of innovation most of my career in good and bad corporations
with a huge amount of fun and success--so it CAN be done!

WHY DO MANY NEVER ATTEMPT Why would the entire management of all major firms in Japan imple-
IT? ment a culture countering all that was natural and traditional to their
way of managing? They lost a war--that was ONE reason. Can you and
your firm do such a deed--like TQM countering the verticalities of Japa-
nese management--without losing a war? That is the issue in attempting
this mode of innovating.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 130

6. The Computational System Type Dialog


Model of Innovation
There are easily 80 to 100 major inventions and tools used by all of us world-wide, brought
to us by the information systems revolution, the Digital World revolution since 1950. When
you plot them by similarity of technology or market, origin or component, and chronologi-
cally, you get a dialog among five fundamental type of computational systems--mind, brain,
society, biology, machine. Whenever a new form of computation emerges or is spotted in
one of these domains, immediately we spot similar ones in others or we design and imple-
ment similar ones on other substrates in other domains of computation. For example we
find new aspects--the inheritance of learned behaviors encoded in how DNA is wrapped
(mythelation)--in biology then we modify genetic algorithms in machines to have similar lev-
els of inheritance--a slow compiling of repeated experiences into RNA protein responses,
then DNA wrappings control system dynamics, then into DNA methyl group wrappings, then
into DNA genes. In this way spotting a computational system type become the design and
invention of a similar new computational system in/on another substrate.

This dialog among five types of computational system has generated over 80 to 100 new
inventions and devices thus far, and is accelerating as I write this sentence today. Seeing
this dialog map as a whole and plotting developments by others on it, allows you to spot and
invent further new forms of computational system yourself--it makes you innovate.

Indeed, past forms of innovation circa 1500 and the water wheel, 1800 and steam, 1900 and
autos-tele-rail-air, are obvious sub-dialogs on a more abstract version of the same dialog
among the same five computational system types. This is a general model of all innovation
not just a model of information system innovations. Seeing organization arrangements,
leadership, deeds as social computations, perhaps in dialog with mind computations, driven
by brain computations, makes clear how all historic innovations come from this overall dia-
log.

In recent years, emotive comutational systems have split off from social ones, and people
have started re-founding old areas of knowledge like physics, on a computational basis. Sim-
ilarly the web and a meta-computational system uniting all other computational systems has
split off of mind computers. This makes a new list in dialog:

1) biologic computational systems


2) social computational systems
3) emotional computational systems
4) machine computational systems
5) mind computational systems
6) web computational systems
7) brain comutational systems
8) physics computional systems.

We can expect this list, also, to gradually grow. Especially when kids get gradually taught
physics views of the nature of the universe itself as a computational system, we can expect a
burgeoning list of computational system types. Wolfram’s book A New Kind of Science re-
interprets all of physics including space and time as emergents from the simplest think-able

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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machines--one dimensional cellular automata. If you want to do innovation a la this chap-


ter’s model, start there--with that book’s social automata view. Practice seeing every social,
biologic, tool, brain, emotional, machine, device, mental, web thing as an automaton. This
reveals a unity among diverse things and makes one’s view of them all--computational. This
unveils a lot of innovation potential in otherwise normal assumed ways and things.

What is at work here, is, again, repeating some models already presented in this book, a dis-
location of perception--seeing differently--seeing automaton-ly, seeing computationally, see-
ing dialogically.

Consider, as my students did, a pharmaceutical sales process computationally and dialogi-


cally.

1) EMOTIVE COMPUTATION--send in the clowns--shapely


young girls with samples for physicians
CAN THE PRODUCT ITSELF GET ATTENTION?

2) MIND COMPUTATION--reminding via small samples


frequently delivered
DOES SHEER MESSAGE FREQUENCY STICK?

3) WEB COMPUTATION--instant fact-checking of sales claims


CAN COMPANIES HIDE BRIBES, LIES, BIAS TODAY?

4) MIND COMPUTATION--scheduling small time segments for


pretty girls delivering info bites and samples
DO INTERRUPTIONS OF CUSTOMER SCHEDULE WORK?

5) BIOLOGIC COMPUTATION--obvious long term biologic


systems drugs come from, but early commercializations
based on slight or dangerously partial models of them--
physicians suspect exaggerations and lies from pharma
CAN COMPANIES HIDE OWN IGNORANCE THESE DAYS?

6) SOCIAL COMPUTATION--bribes from drug firms to


physician “speakers” to recommend bad drugs.
DOES PARTIAL DISHONESTY STAY PARTIAL?

What would a computationally more effective pharma sales process look like?

1) professional attention from famous med researcher presentations


2) sales “partners” beside each physician during those presentations
3) more professionally modest sales materials and claims face to face
4) research presentations at twice or once a month Friday breakfasts
5) questions answered by top researchers not ignorant biased sales people
6) foster pharma break ups and competition to undermine the bribe ways today.

Zeneca Pharmaceutical Chicago, at the time the world’s number one sales district, imple-
mented 1 through 6 above, a new sales process almost opposite of the one listed above. It
was based on viewing the sales process computationally and dialogically.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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VIEWING X COMPUTATIONALLY AND DIALOGICALLY


X = iPod
1) biologic computational systems computational devices evolve smaller = portable =
personal = interact with other devices ecologically
not mechanically
2) social computational systems music buys heavily influence by primary groups of
individuals
3) emotional computational sys- a dozen ways emotions index what you want next,
tems buy next, listen to next, share with nearby others
4) machine computational systems a personal portable device that holds personal music
libraries and connects to the WORLD’S overall such
library
5) mind computational systems not own, own; hear, buy; see, try out;--technology
removing the distance between these, easing transi-
tion from one to other
6) web computational systems personal lifetime music library will fit into portable
personal devices, BUT web connects allow WORLD’S
overall music library to live stream personally
7) brain comutational systems playlists emerge because the brain needs/wants
kinds of experience in/at kinds of situation
8) physics computional systems. music is info, deliver info to persons portably
9) industry computational systems CD prices made hatred of music firms and musicians,
made global theft of music = music industry to sur-
vive MUST lower prices increase access, de-bundle
albums, BE MANAGED BY SMARTER PEOPLE FROM
COMPUTER COMPANIES.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 133

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 134

SOCIAL BIOLOGIC
COMPUTERS COMPUTERS
DNA Computers
Invent Events Protein Computers
Crowd Source Inventings Natural Selection Algorithms
Social Automata ling the e
fee erve o hat w
rs
obs feel w

The interest module


negates the liking
.
We

module--we dislike
what interests us
EMOTIVE Idea
COMPUTERS Web Waves
Envy Events
UNIVERSES CREATE WEB
Imitation
BRAINS that CREATE COMPUTERS
Empathy UNIVERSES Big Data
7 Types of Computer
Interact to Inspire & The web is the Mining
We have raw cortex of all global
Spawn Other New
percepts but
PHYSICS no access, our
Computations cultures, indexing them.
We spot or
COMPUTERS cortex indexes =
filters them.
Invent MACHINE
Quantum Info COMPUTERS
ret ow what ting r
te
int tice ts on pt se fas

Cosmologics Genetic Algorithms


e
no ntex once avels

w
t

Neural Nets
co n c n tr

we

Animal Perception
tha otio

erp & h
Em

it

Human Language
NEURONAL
COMPUTERS
Page 287 Copyright 2001 by Richard Tabor Greene, All Rights Reserved, Government Registered Email: richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 135

General Empirical Computational Processes


6 Com- 18 Com- 150 Computation What gets Representative
putation- puta- Approaches computed from Hierarchy of
alSystemT tionalSys- 39 Com- what: Codes:
ypes tems putation
Types

Machine Social Social blackboards, demo- social decisions preferences, coali-


interaction cratic electronics, from individual tions, votes
Comput- compu- simulated societies, preferences
electronic democracy
ers Mim- tation
Massive cellular automata, self emergent unit states, neigh-
icking parallelism population computa- overall patterns borhoods, interac-
Social tions from local agent tions
conditions
Ones Virtual Sociable robot societies, intel- self emergent pat- cooperations, rela-
units ligent agents (soft- terns of work and tionships, communi-
and bots) task accomplish- ties
ment from individ-
cyber ual unit
realities assignments
Intelligent multi-media, organi- self emergent tasks, roles, pro-
message zational computing, organization form cesses
processware, self from work pro-
contents emerging organiza- cess/capability
tions, agile economies agglomeration
Personal virtual persons, vir- task accomplish- physics, geometry,
fictive tual organizations, ment from per- geology
cyber persons, cyber sonal relationships
interfaces spaces
Ubiqui- Prefer- badging, personal personal informa- locations, prefer-
ence fol- locales, personal area tion from locations ences, facilities set-
tous lowing
networks tings
comput- Prefer- politicized settings, group interfaces persons present,
ing ence com- politicized proce- from individual preferences
dures, computed orga- preferences present, facilities
bining nizations settings

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 136

General Empirical Computational Processes


6 Com- 18 Com- 150 Computation What gets Representative
putation- puta- Approaches computed from Hierarchy of
alSystemT tionalSys- 39 Com- what: Codes:
ypes tems putation
Types

Getting Compu- Social manage by movement emergent out- basic unit states,
array pro- building, micro insti- comes from basic neighborhoods,
social tational tution development, unit interactions interactions
cesses manage by events,
comput- sociality global quality, social
ers to automata leadership

mimic Personal structural reading dia- models from vari- topic names, topic
array pro- grams, fractal model ety count, topic order-
machine cesses
building, fractal filing, ings
fractal interfaces,
ones chatroom movement
building
Virtual Cellularity all people in one cel- group space from interests, communi-
lular space, all places individual space ties, events
plane- 24 hour connected
tary Internet- democratized broad- decentralized sys- homepages, gate-
ting casting, broadcasting tems from central- ways, search
society unique computational ized systems engines
resources, automated
social movement
building routine
libraries
Function just-in-time manag- function type, polling, protocols,
specifica- ing, participatory art, amount, and time social delivery
protocol communities needed from regu- means
tion lar polling
Social Virtual one group as 30, plu- population of teams, teams of
groups ral leadership intelligent agents teams
virtual- regimes, marketiza- from single group (superteams),
tion of functions teams of
ity superteams
Inversion transport locales, out- the presence of a function, opportu-
virtuality source virtuality function from the nity broadcast,
absence of the market bids
function

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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General Empirical Computational Processes


6 Com- 18 Com- 150 Computation What gets Representative
putation- puta- Approaches computed from Hierarchy of
alSystemT tionalSys- 39 Com- what: Codes:
ypes tems putation
Types

Getting Ontoge- Organism fractal growth, self structures from populations of


develop- organization, cell self organizing agents interacting,
biologi- nesis types as attractors processes self-organized criti-
ment cality, avalanche
cal com- events
puters Organism directing attention, decisions from attention alterna-
to behavior natural selection of natural selection tives, fitness con-
behaviors, selfish processes tests, attention
mimic gene use of organisms decisions
social Animal Social identity maintenance relationships from local behaviors,
mainte- activities, mutual local behaviors interactions, rela-
ones societ- grooming, role interacting tionships
nance salience dependency
ies activities
Social ant hill move deci- group actions from basic unit states,
decisions sions, bird migration basic unit interac- neighborhoods,
decisions, community tions interactions
fight/flight decisions
Ecosys- Ecosys- succession, niche evo- community struc- natural selection
tems lution, avalanche ture/function processes, species
tem events, symbiosis, changes from evolutionary
adapting parasitism interacting natu- streams, commu-
evolu- ral selection pro- nity structures
tion cesses
Adapting affordances, attune- adaptation to an exploration actions,
to ecosys- ments, effectivities environment from attunements to
exploration affordances, effec-
tems tivities

Above I provided a simplified example of applying the Computational System Type Dialog
Model of Innovaton to a part of business--the pharmaceutical industry sales process. Imme-
diately above I provide a table applying slightly more thoroughly that same model to the iPod
(doing this in retrospect as all business school professors do is largely invalid, and trivially
easy). There is a missing element in both the pharmaceutical sales process example and in
the iPod example---many of these computational system types to affect and impact a busi-
ness or product must operate on or thru influence processes.

Leadership, if anything other than male strutting, displays, territory fights, and other mon-
key-isms, is sheer influence. Products that are innovative, are, by definition, ones that
change = influence the future nature and direction of their overall industry. To innovate is
to thusly influence, so it is useful to have at hand a MODEL OF INFLUENCE FORMS that is glo-
bal, not American, practical not merely academic, detailed so can be applied, and techno-
logically up to date with computational understandings of the mind, brain, emotions, social
life, the web, and all else--i. e. covers all the types of computational system in this chap-
ter’s model of innovation. Such a model of influence types and tactics is given in the table
below with sources of each of the 18 approaches to influence provided in column titles.
This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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Every box in the following table needs to be understood, modeled, seen computationally and
as a dialog among two or more computational system types--that is the agenda of re-seeing
all of business for innovation via this chapter’s model.

PERSUADE
Cialdini
reciprocate--do a favor 1st to indebt people to you
consistency--entice people to commit publically to X so they keep X for their
repute
validate--get friends and reference group members of a person doing X then he
will follow (we do what people like us do)
liking--be likable and do X or get people that A likes to do X the A will do it too
authority--find whom A sees as aiuthoritative then get them to do X and A will
follow
scarcity--make A think X is rare, special, will not longer be available

the automaticity of human judging causes much influence via unconscious


means
perceptual contrast--expose someone 1st to a poor version of X then to X and
they will see the second X as better than usual
articulation--when asking A for X provide a “because” reason
rejection then retreat to smaller request--composition of reciprocate + percept
contrast principles

LEAD
Chemers, Grint, March
rationality leadership: image projection, relationship development, resource
utilization: project images, find and relate to key persons, mobi-
lize resources towards goals
leading by mettle: leaders as energy sources, inspiration sources, story tellers,
follower dream elicitors, courageous fighters, pioneering spirits,
unflapable when others are down, super-human heroics
emergent leadership: leadership as emergent phenomena created by interac-
tions in a group, with everyone leader of some function or other,
and some leaders of those emergent speciality leaders for some
purposes not others
thought leadership: finding sources beyond others, finding patterns beyond
others, applying patterns faster deeper farther than others
emotive leadership: inventing new forms of care, inviting people beyond their
self destructive compacencies and comforts, putting people in

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touch with all of life and its possibilities beyond smaller worlds
individuals inhabit
leadership as magic: leaders do things but hide how they do them so their
results surprise us just as results of magicians hiding their means
surprise us
leadership as illusion: the fundamental attribution error causes people to
ascribe outcomes to individual leaders when in reality plural fac-
tors or luck were involved (leadership is an illusion based on men-
tal flaws in individuals or cultures)
leadership dichotomy = mastery of situation versus mastery of the people in the
situation (mission leaders abuse people healed by follow up main-
tenance leaders)
appearance is realilty = people want to feel like they are going somewhere
more than they need or allow themselves to be led somewhere
dis-believe self-generated self importance/self correctness myths = allow
genba critiques to affect leader actions

NEGOTIATE
Lord
ubiquitous negotiating: stop taking any situation, price, terms as given and
negotiate leeway in all transactions (practical leeways/advan-
tages and other-party-growth leeways/advantages)
image demystification: first images come from fears, media, rumor, interior
self doubts, and must be cleared, debunked, for valid seeing to
begin
talk is not communication: mini-crisis events punctuate the negotiation pro-
cess, each event putting the other party into tension that causes
them to experience, in miniature, what formed you and the
frameworks via which you see the world (and vice versa, get you
to experience in miniature what created their frameworks)
meaning = message + package + receiver framework + context around recep-
tion: messasges need packaging that takes into account receivers
having different frames, and contexts of receiving the message
forming the negotiation success culture community: the negotiators have to
develop a solace system of caring about making all involved suc-
cessful by coming to like each other and the chances for win-win
in the negotiation circumstances
extending the negotiation success-culture community: the success-culture
invented by particular parties must be extended to sponsors and
authorities within their respective organizations to whom they
report via clever social involvement tactics
using success-cultures to make final negotiations succeed via making initial
ones fail badly: adjusting own organization authorities and

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expectations may require trying rigid “believed” approaches till


they badly fail then retrying with more flexible beliefs
emergent goals, terms, negotiations: any negotiation process may expose
aspects of self or other that are better more important opportuni-
ties than what is being negotiated
internally negotiate beyond own culture/organization limits on the negotiation
process: negotiate with your own authorities leeway to extend
beyond personnel, times, costs normal to your culture/organiza-
tion so such limits cannot be used as pressure by the other parties
break trust/negotiation into smallest, viable pieces, then do easy small succes-
sive “finite element” style negotiations till big success

REASON & ARGUE


Stanovich
argue rationally which means 3 things--normative rationality as closure over:
alternatives pursued (subjective expected utility), logical impli-
cation (belief consistency), bayesian conditionalization
avoid false excuses for irrationality--gaps between normative and descriptive
rationality: meliorists = irrationality exists; apologists = computa-
tional limitations; panglosians = transient performance errors or
wrong norm applied or alternative framing of the task
be rational on all three levels--intentional (goal management and creation and
implementation), algorithmic (combining built-in hardware/soft-
ware modules of the mind to get mental tasks done), biological
(design and working details of modules in the mind)
be rational theoretically and practically--theoretical or epistemic rationality =
how well beliefs represent the reality of the world; practical
rationality = how well a person maximizes satisfaction of their
desires , given their beliefs
monitor own irrationality of desire--irrational desires = ones we would rather
eliminate, ones based on false beliefs, goals whose expected util-
ity keeps differing from their experienced utility, conflicting
desires; but, desires that lead to actions that lead to results that
fulfill those desires even though the desires were based on false
beliefs are rational (I think my lover faithful, act so, she relents)
measure goal mutuality-of-enablement (seek tipping point goals)--the more a
person’s beliefs track the world accurately the more chasing one
of their goals will enable rather than hinder fulfilling others of
their goals = goals can be derived to enable attainment of others
so can be evaluated as to goal comprehensiveness
admit own irrationality limits--arguments for the impossibility of human irratio-
nality: principle of charity (we must assume other’s are rational
to detect their beliefs etc.; but mothers-in-law complain against
all), evolution chose our present ways of reasoning (but over-fear

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protects life not truth), reflective equilibrium (we adjust intui-


tions to implications of them for consistency, but norms evolve in
culture faster than in biology, so new updating constantly is
needed yearly if not weekly)
reframe problems to maximally use built-in evolution-built mind modules and
allow time for slow culture-built mind modules--dual processing
hypothesis: humans have two reasoning systems a fast, hard-
wired evolution-built one that works on inputs like our ancestors
faced and a slow, soft-wired human culture-built one that works
on civilized inputs and continue to evolve with human culture (it
maximizes personal utility)
study particular fallacies of human thought and particular modern framings of
issues that transgress framings our ancestral minds faced and
learn compensations for both the fallacies and the framings
regularly update own images of normative rationality as improvements else-
where in culture modify it

COMMUNICATE
Gladwell
20/80 rule’s people types: connectors = weak ties, mavens = fanatic knowing,
persuaders = infectious emoting, translators = droping/focusing
detail then assimilate to customer frames, pioneers = early
adopter experiments, creators = exponential choice growth
selling dimensions: non-verbality = cues we don’t see affect us; subtlety =
slight meaningless cues shift our preferences; emotion = is outside
in not inside out; infection = certain others infect us with their
emotions; mimicry = we copy emotions we see; rhythms = conver-
sations have micro-rhythms that draw us in
powers of context: graffiti =small disrespects escalate into crime; emotion gen-
erator = emotions are outide in; blame blindness = blame is
escape from context powers; immediacy = what is there is 1st,
interpretations derivative; social channel capacity = sympathy
groups 12, sociability groups 150; social mind extentions = cogni-
tive functions groups do for us
message sticking principles: fit customer capacity; build confidence = start
easy; fit daily life; fit customer purposes, fit participation need;
multiplicity = delivery means, ocassion, structure, contents all
are the message
non-linearity dimensions: similar inputs different results, slight input huge
results, growth where growth, local inputs whole system change
results, nearly identical input switches system to entirely differ-
ent endpoint, path dependence of results, first mover advantage,
your past actions = your current environment
use 20/80 people types as channel for message

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use sellling dimensions as media in channel for message


design message contents to link/set up context and to stick
aim message at tipping points inside minds and social groups
choose channel and media, design message to establish context and stick, aim
messages at tipping points

TRANSPLANT ACROSS CULTURES


Greene
find or build a model of all the dimensions that can be used to discriminate the
culture of any two parts of the world or of selves
use that culture model to specify exactly the culture dimensions of the culture
of a set of practices
use that culture model to specify exactly the culture traits of the culture that
that set of practices originated in
use that culture model to specify exactly the culture traits of the culture that
you wish to apply those practices in or to (the target culture)
form a matrix of culture traits of the practices’ culture and traits of the origin
culture (that they originated in), and mark intersections where
culture of origin supported strongly or hindered strongly traits of
practices’ culture
form a matrix of culture traits of the practices’ culture and traits of the target
culture, and mark where target culture strongly supports or hin-
ders traits of practices’ culture
invent tactics to handle supports in origin culture missing in target culture
invent tactice to handle hinderances in origin culture missing in target culture
invent tactics to handle supports in target culture missing in origin culture
invent tactics to handle hinderances in target culture missing in origin culture

CHANGE MINDS
Gardner
change across many scales--historic, national/organizational, works of science/
art, education, interpersonal, self change
change plural channels/media--ideas, feelings, associations, concepts, stories,
theories, skills
deploy appropriate combinations of intelligence types--symbolic (linguistic,
logical-mathematic), performative (music, spatial, body-kines-
thetic, categoric-naturalist), personal (interpersonal, intraper-
sonal), existential

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levers for change--reason, research, resonance (connection to audience), rep-


resentational redescriptions (telling the old story inside the new
story), resources and rewards, real world events, resistances
demystify childhood theories--of matter, life, mind, human relations; demystify
adult theories
find tipping points (using the 80/20 rule)--read own experience and writings/
experiences of others for where slight inputs have huge outcomes
and where much input has slight outcomes
appeal to second-born and young turks in fields--people without vested interest
in old ideas most willingly try on new ones
audiences to change are four types--direct appeal versus indirect appeal,
diverse versus homogeneous,
articulate present mind content and desired content and spot countercontents
that resist the desired content’s specifics
speak to large audiences with entire life you design, speak to small audiences
with specific works you design; speak to large heterogenous audi-
ences with simple stories, speak to small homogeneous with deep
expert stories
use direct change for short term visible impacts but indirect change has longer
historic term possible impact

SELL
Underhill
measures--% of visitors/customers who buy; density = customers per display at
time T1; duration = time customers spend in the store; intercep-
tion rate = % of customers in store who meet employee; waiting
time; capture rate = % customers who see a product type; boo-
merang rate = times customer starts down aisle but does not fin-
ish,
space trade-offs: body (touch) spaces, eye spaces, ear spaces, nose spaces,
search spaces, buy spaces, inquire spaces, try on spaces--each of
these for young, middle, elderly, men, women, hip, button
downs, etc. types of people
buying logistics--reaching, reading without being brushed against, holding,
transporting, paying, leaving
recognize sign possibilities and impossibilities--reading time versus standing/
traversing time, eyesight ability versus font size/contrast, mes-
sage located where “door” to area is (where people actually
enter space), sequence messages by customer paths traversed
use rules of how people move--people drift right from entrances, people speed
past banks, people slow for mirrors, people walk past displays
(but displays stupidly are designed for people staring orthogonally
directly at them--so use chevroning = angles), fractal sighting pur-

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poses (distant seeables for searchers, middle seeables for orient-


ing to a display, local seeables for product attention),
the person seen and cared for buys--strollers, seating appropriate, eye refresh-
ment, ear refreshment, self refreshment
men versus women shopping--missional men, learning men, reading men,
enjoying the experience women, socializing women, asking for
help women
environment enticements--sizes for big and small, men and women, room tem-
perature for big and small, men and women,
trends--fashionization of home repair and reform, fashionization of men’s look,
older shoppers need readable signs reachable displays walkable
aisles rest-stations hearable service help, touch and try on--dress-
ing rooms as deep sales closing spaces not cheap boxes; subjec-
tively reduce waits by initial contact, finite definite period,
people to talk to, distractions
trade-offs between design, merchandizing, and operations--optimizing one
often hurts the others more
event sales--by time of day = who comes in, by season of year, by media and
news linkages

FIX OR USE MENTAL FLAWS


Piattelli-Palmerini, Goleman, Sartre, Myers
Using/Compensating for Perceptual (Framework) Illusions: modules in our mind
that operate separately enough that reason and evidence do not
affect they way they distort reality in how they make us perceive
it = there may be other such modules in our mind that do the
same for argument, belief, relationships, emotions, and so on
Using/Compensating for Probability Illusions: uniformity = randomness illusion,
short sequence frequency = long sequence frequency illusion, sub-
jective utility flattens out not follows objective utility, we risk to
avoid loss we conserve to gain profits, framing illusion = different
frame cause computing different baselines so different prefer-
ences, segregation effect = we take too many problems as pre-
sented without global search, typicals are seen as frequents so we
judge conjuncted conditions as more likely that their individual
components (typicality overrides base rates in population), we
judge more likely X is librarian than farmer if description of nerd
given ignoring base rate of more farmers by far than librarians
(we do know more, the base rate, but ignore it), we computer
frequencies higher for a cause than an effect of a relationship
(21% false pos. test, 1 in 100 base rate, probability sick is? most
say 80% or so, bayes theorem shows its is 8%), we pay more for
total elimination of a risk than reduction by same amount of the
risk = certainty illusion, the disjunction illusion = we act when an

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outcome is possible but not when it or another equal but different


is possible (uncertainty cancels action)
Using/Compensating for Rational Illusions: overconfidence in own answers,
illusory correlations (magical thinking = we explain supposed posi-
tive causal relations), we think we could have predicted things
that really did happen, anchoring (prior exposure biases answers),
we confound easier to imagine and more emotionally impactive
with more frequent, reducing to zero has more value for us than
equivalent reductions from 2 in 10 to 1 in 10, plausible but ficti-
tious stories that end in an effect get more and more belief link
by link though compounding such link probabilities reduces final
probability
Using/Compensating for Emotive Illusions: self awareness of feelings, aware-
ness of feelings in others; expressing own feelings situationally
appropriately, eliciting situationally appropriate expression of
feelings of others; delay gratification/control impulse in self and
others; separate action contents from feeling reactions in self and
others; understanding unspoken frames coloring/biasing own per-
ceptions and others
Using/Compensating for Crowd Illusions: [beloning] identity illusion--seek
group that accepts me as I am, group seek people willing to deny
their own identity; involvement illusion--must detach well to
involve fully, must involve fully to have reason to detach and
reflect; individuality illusion--withold self to test group but that
causes heroic self making groups worth witholding from; boundary
illusion--boundaries create possibility by eliminating possibilities;
disclosure illusion--I will disclose myself if you disclose yourself
first; [engaging] trust illusion--trust is created by sharing fears
(we need trust in order to trust); intimacy illusion--precondition
for other awareness is self awareness; regression illusion--go to
the past to recover the present hindered by groups wanting
progress only not regress; [speaking] authority illusion--resistance
key to acceptance of authority (authority is accepting the resis-
tance), we create own power by empowering others; dependency
illusion--being independent in a group requires accepting one’s
dependency in the group; creativity illusion--creating is done via
destroying; courage illusion--self doubt and self questionning are
prerequisites of courage and self assertion; [context] individual ID
is the groups we belong, any group is continual negotiating
within/among us of the representations of the groups that we
“are”; [intergroup] scarcity illusion--resources given to other seen
as taken from self not given from self; perception illusion--differ-
ences that form basis of any group also threaten and isolate the
group; power illusion--when power among groups is unequal the
lesser power group sees itself as utterly powerless;
Using/Compensating for Culture Illusions: the message meaning illusion--we
think it means in their frames what it means in our, unconscious
unadmitted, frames; the co-acting support illusion--we think that

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they act with us implies agreement with what and how we act;
the culture uniformity illusion--we talk/think about cultures as if
all their members thought and acted the same ways; the culture
changelessness illusion--we talk/think about cultures as if they
today are identical to they, 30 years ago, and they tomorrow; the
they-realize illusion--we assume the other culture knows its oth-
ernesses from us; the choice illusion--we assume we have to
choose our own way or their other way instead of blending with
thought and effort
Using/Compensating for Interface Limitations: the skilled performance illu-
sion--we think because we are masters of prose that it is not a
terrible medium for communicating and we are not cognitively
sloppy when using it perfectly; the search illusion--we fix bushy
inputs and choice spaces by elaborate search functions rather
than functions to input less bushy things; the one representation
illusion--we give directions via operations to perform (street turns
for example) and leave out by distance and direction from here
and leave out paths of landmarks; the perfected single medium
illusion--we think Nobel prize quality in one medium makes simul-
taneous transmission in parallel other media/channels unneces-
sary;
Using/Compensating for Existential Limitations: the meaning illusion--we
assume having any goals at all has meaning for others, rather than
making meaning for having goals at all against futility of all life;
the performance illusion--we outdo others or allow others to
outdo others and us as if achievements in society can hide us from
the futility of all life; the self as central illusion--we judge all
around with us as the baseline of “normal” ignoring the arbitrary
identities we inherited without choice at birth (male, Canadian,
lawyer parent, etc.); the could-not-predict excuse--we excuse
ourselves from responsibility for unforeseen consequences of our
acts;
Using/Compensating for Cognitive Limitations: the single idea illusion--we
apply mental procedures to single ideas instead of ordered pat-
terns of ideas; the single framework illusion--we apply one view-
point to a case rather than exploring dozens and justifying which
of them we select and apply; the experimentrics illusion--we
present our choices as right rather than admit many if not most
are probes meant to reveal situation aspects as responses;
Using/Compensating for Neurosis: the normal self illusion--we judge all others
using our selves as the base line for defining “normal”; the omit-
ted costs of talent--we increasingly see our talents as pure posi-
tives, ignoring the stuff we ignored while developing them by
focussing; the all-situation-are-nails illusion--we have a hammar
and suddenly all situations look like nails;
Using/Compensating for Intuition Limitations: memory construction illusion--
we invent memories out of self consistency drive; misreading our-
selves illusion--we often do not know why we do things; mispre-
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dicting feeling--we badly mis-guess intensity and duration and


impacts of emotions we feel; behavior midpredicting illusion--we
badly mispredict our own reactions and behavior steps; hindsight
bias illusion--we say we knew or guessed things that in reality
utterly puzzled/confused us at the time; self inflation illusion--we
use our selves as baseline for normal far too often; fundamental
attribution error--we attribute errors of others to their character
and errors of ourselves to situations faced; confirmation bias illu-
sion--our drive for self consistency and positive self regard causes
us to continue utterly false beliefs; framing illusion--we produce
different answers to same questions when frame/representation
is changed; illusory corelations--we see causal connections where
none exist

BEAUTIFY
Etcoff, Barrow
Beautify to Succeed: beautiful people get more attention and promotion
within organizations
Beautify to Attract: beautiful things and people attract attention
Beautify to Befuddle Good Judgement: beautiful things and people put us in
reverie, get us thinking in ideal terms, pulling us beyond practi-
calities and compromises of reality
Beautify to Order Chaos: beauty sometimes comes from reveal/imposing pat-
terns across diverse phenomena that reduce the diversity of what
we see and input
Beautify to Distinguish Qualities and Potentials: beauty often comes from mak-
ing a character that something has purer, less encumbered, less
filtered, less jumbled, less competed with for attention
Beautify to Make Progency or Enjoy Sex: beauty of person and thing seduces
the opposite sex into pleasing the pleasure centers of the brain
and/or transmitting genetic endowments to other beings
Beautify to Liberate from Convention: beauty comes also from revealing a con-
vention that we did not realize we were following and within
Beautify to Express Unique Inner Experience: beauty comes from stylizing
shared external objects, scenes, and interactions so as to express
deep internal experience and feelings that may otherwise go
unrecognized
Beautify to Reveal Boundaries within and between Brain Modules: many art-
works and designs fascinate us because they work at the limits
within and among hardware modules in the brain revealing to our
perception and thought how our mind is divided functionally, how
those functions work, and limitations in how we think and per-
ceive coming from those hardware modules in our brains

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Beautify to Provide Tools that Put us in Moods we Want: beauty can be used to
set our moods, overcoming influences from social relationships,
personal stress, background memories, and making present envi-
ronments that make us more imaginative, creative, and produc-
tive
Beautify to Reveal Mysteries and Hidden Scales: beauty can come from turning
the obvious into the unobvious, from getting us to think and men-
tally operate on larger or smaller size scales than we are used to

ENTHUSE
Hatfield et al
People tend in all situations to mimic each other’s bodily expressed moods and
reactions.
People tend to interact so that their respective emotions converge more and
more as the interaction proceeds.
The bodily package of how an emotion gets expressed can considerably alter
the emotion itself, attenuating or exacerbating it, regardless of
the reasons for the emotion and the immediate causes of it.
Angry people asked to talk their anger in an reasonable tone of
voice reliably become less angry, for example. Actors mimicking
the gestures of a person find they get the emotions of that person
from just doing the gestures in many cases.
In interactions we identify the otherness of someone, then incorporate that as
our feeling, then monitor our version of their feelings along with
our own feelings in parallel, then step back and reflect on differ-
ences and similarities thusly experienced.
Even slight, entirely false images of a person can so bias how someone interacts
with them that the other person thusly treated becomes like the
false image as the interaction goes on. Men who thought they
were talking by phone to beautiful sexy women tried so much
harder that the women, in turn, changed into more beautiful
sexy, animated responders.
The power of sensing another’s emotion but not mimicking it--some people can
sense others’ emotions but keep distance so the emotions of oth-
ers do not become their own. This allows great power when
harmful emotions are involved.
People can be sensitizers (seeking emotions of others), repressors (avoiding
them) or alexithymic (denying their own and others’ emotions).
Minute emotive steps of drawing near or drawing back in another person are
matched if we feel the same way about them or countered if we
do not, so that both close in or draw out from each other in
synch.
The physicl cues of emotion are so subtle that an expressive person can by
merely sitting beside another person for a minute, infect them

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with whatever mood they had at the time, without any interac-
tion, or words spoken.
If people are so sensitive to emotions of others and so given to mimicking and
approaching/drawing-back in synch, then people who choose
what to feel and confidently project it in situation after situation,
in effect recruit others into the same emotional state. They
align others around the emotions they project.
Religious and charismatic leaders project strong emotions that align thousands
and tens of thousands of others around them, often quite irratio-
nally and self destructively. Emotional alignment is powerful
enough that it can bypass much rational, reasoning, moral, invest-
ment, past relationship experience and content.

INVENT SOLUTION CULTURE


Bernstein
Select or build a model of dimensions that can be used to distinguish one cul-
ture from another and to somewhat comprehensively characterize
what any one culture is and does and tends towards
Use that model to characterize the Failure Culture of a person or organization
that causes them to fail again and again to achieve a goal impor-
tant to them. For example Americans in the US for fifty years
have failed to provide decent public schooling for the lowest third
of their population while nearly all other industrial nations have
easily accomplished this, with the lowest thirds of their nations
outperforming the lowest third of the US population by consider-
able margins for periods of fifty years or longer.
Reverse the traits of the Failure Culture to define a Solution Culture.
Apply the Solution Culture to invent a new way of work.
Apply the Solution Culture to invent a new product of work
Select or build a model of all the solution types that have already been
attempted and that failed.
Specify for each attempted but failed solution exactly how and why it failed,
what aspect of the situation caused it to fail or that it failed to
handle adequately.
For each attempted/failed solution and how/why it failed, state explicitly
what this tells you about any traits that the eventual overall solu-
tion must have (or any part of it).
Combine carefully all of these specifications of traits of the eventual solution,
both logically, causally, and categorically, reconfiguring them
freely, as interesting coalitions among them emerge
Add new solution attempts in this way, till you have tried fully everything you
can possibly think of, and till the failure of all that pushes you
into full blown absolute despair at anything in your current frame-

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els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
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works, repertories, and thinking ever working to solve this situa-


tion.
Note all new frameworks you invent or notice when you despair over all the
existing ones you have tried, and use them to organize the specs
of eventual solution, till a full solution emerge.

STOP RESPONSES & MAKE BRIDGE COMMUNITY


Klar et al
Note poor responses you make that you wish to stop
Note situations that call forth such poor respones from you
Note cues in such situations that immediately precede such responses
Start a personal campaign one week of delay--everytime that such cues appear,
merely delay you habitual response by 2 seconds, and state it
with a strange ironic insincere style
Start an escalation in this campagin a few days later--everytime that such cues
appear, delay your habitual response by 2 seconds, and during
that time, invent a better response, then fully state and enact
that new wanted response
Notice the kinds of people and primary group friends who dislike or resist your
new response types.
Notice the kinds of people and possible future friends who like and welcome
your new response types
Research when and where to meet and work with such new people and start
spending more and more time with them
Match all your old groups and times with new groups and time more supportive
of the new responses you now make, and switch each old one to a
new one, your bridge community
Formalize your role and respect in your new bridge community after some
months, so you get fully committed in it and enact and keep
promises with its members all of which use the new responses you
built.

PSYCHIC GROWTH: DESPAIR BE TO HAVE


Kegan
Notice wonderful goals you have that you fail to reach or even try seriously for
due to who you are, some deep part of your identity
What part of who you are blocks you from reaching or attempting those goals
How do you depend on that part of you as part of who you are, your identity?

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Imagine fundamental changes in that part of you, say, the opposite of that part
of you, and what new identity you would have if that were
installed instead.
Imagine updating that part of you yearly or sooner, at regular intervals, as
options and alternatives appear.
What emotion must you give up, what source or illusions of security must you
give up, if you give up that part of your identity blocking wonder-
ful goal attainment in this case?
Emotionally, how can you live without that emotion or how can you find a
source for that emotion in what remains of your identity with the
part at issue removed?
Try for one day to no longer react to that part of your self as part of you, rather
manage things that involve that part of you and manage that part
of you so you no longer emotionally depend on it and react emo-
tionally when it is attacked in any way.
Try the response stopping method at left applied to stopping use of that old
part of you as part of your identity that sourses habitual responses
from you.
Get a new community of people around you who support the new responses you
make when removing that part of you blocking the goal in this
case.

CHANGE ENVIRONMENT & DEMYSTIFY


Derrida, Illych
For every fundamental dimension of your identity--family, friends, era, nation,
profession, gender, etc.--list what it is supposed to do for you and
what you assume it has done for you thus far
For every fundamental dimension from above, list how it insists that it is help-
ing or out to help you, how did it posture that its interests were
the same as your interests?
Now list for each dimension how its interests are not the same as your and how
it abuse you, in effect, to promote its own hidden interests--list
your interests explicitly and its interest and compare them
What dimensions of life have already been thusly demystified to you via hap-
penstance events that revealed where assumed coincidence of
interests was false and falsely promoted to you?
What dimensions of life have not been thusly demystified to you and hence you
are probably being abused in ways you are not aware of or you are
probably submerging your own interests under differing other
ones you are not now aware of? Investigate such areas seriously
now in detail.
The single great messasge illusion--we believe that one great messsage by itself
has the power to transform a person, a person’s attitude, or a sit-

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uation a person influences. People do not change due to single


great messages.
Message plus frame-handling package as the communicandum--what communi-
cates is a messsage plus an assortment of frameworks in the
receiver of the message put there by the package the message
appear in
The environment is the message--not the medium, not the text/words, not the
package. People simultaneously absorb from plural media and
channels and absorb across periods of time. If both all media/
channels and the period of time are soaked with the same mean-
ing, people will adapt to that environment by tinkering with par-
ticular beliefs. In that way your message may get heard.
You communicate by putting people into environments long enough they adapt
to them, and by adapting in effect “get” the message you wanted
to communicate.
The physical, social, time, task, status, procedural environments each have
plural media and channels and packages per message. Approxi-
mately 50 “messages” each packages, channelled, media-ed envi-
ronmented differently are needed to convey one message well,
that is, as an environment others adapt to.

TELL STORIES
Campbell, Sartre,
Kegan & Lahey
The concept of truncated stories: there is only one story slices of which consti-
tute our real stories; cost/benefit stories versus questions of
existence stories as two poles along continuum
The Insight Process as The Story: as the same as the one story that all actual
stories are truncating slices of; alternations of engagement/
detachment, cumulation of failed solution attempts, despair
when all you know fails as doorway to new frameworks that pro-
duce success
Journey Out Steps: call to adventure (life is dead), refusal of the call (the
external enemy is really internal = fear), first threshold (battle,
crossing, fall from grace, etc.), journey in the wild (what you are
does not work), tests (trying all we know and can do, but it is not
enough, new abilities called for), helpers (show us growth is pos-
sible), temptress (sex and pleasure are dead ends), magic charm
or false wizard (power is dead end), supreme ordeal (face to face
with 16 anxieties of existence), elixir theft (proving our grown
new abilities work), second threshold (trying out and proving our
newly grown abilities)
Journey Back Steps: refusal of return (temptation of living in mystical but use-
less ecstasy), flight from heaven (new abilities called for in jour-

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ney home), rescue from within (discovery of new abilities from


Journey Out in us that we were not aware of), return struggle for
acceptance (innovator’s struggle of fighting enemies of change),
third threshold (trying all we can tolerate = facing the ugliness of
the world), exlixir benefits renew the world (befriended anxieties
used as new powers of us and society)
Twelve Anxiety Types: mystery, arbitraryness, emptiness, freedom, loneliness,
inauthenticity, mortality, nausea, contingency, tragedy, sin, no
escape
Life Role Archetypes Encountered in The Story: unawakened self, herald, false
mentors, mentor, minions, threshold guardian, allies, shape-
shifter, trickster, clown, shadow, awakened self, committed self,
hero
Basic Story Dynamics: all the world is fails us = boredom, all we are fails us =
call to grow; hope-despair alternation as alternation of engage-
ment and detachment, accumulating failed solution attempts,
despair as all we are and know fails us becomes doorway to new
framework, new framework allows solution to emerge, possibly
from pieces already examined and thrown away because we failed
to recognize worth in or among them
Stratified Responding to Story Incidents: noticings, feelings, patterns, remind-
ings, interpretings, decidings
Story Packages: setting, characters, plot type, subplots density and interac-
tions, narration type, narration types interactions, calculative
residue work left for audience imaginative fill in
Story Impact Types: I am not alone (others share my most unique and personal
and secret experiences/fears/tragedies), there is hope (I have
acted more weakly than others facing the same challenges), the
valueless if valuable (what I discard, avoid, hate, is my salvation
if only I will change attitude), friends are enemies and enemies
are friends (what I now believe, want, and associate with is
designed to prevent growth and future happiness for me), discov-
ery of my own story (I have been living a story others created for
their own purposes and benefits, I can instead invent and lead my
own story)

STRATEGY
Mintzberg, Sun Tzu
The self destructive nature of all strategy--if you expend attention and
resources watching competitors, you take investment away from
doing well what you are out to do, assurring gaps into which com-
petitors will move. Pure strategy self destructs, always.
Designed strategies end up fighting emergent ones--assuming that entire orga-
nizations must share one strategy simply forces most strategies

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actual in play underground where they undermine the winning


“leader” one overtly cowtowed to.
Designed strategies end up entirely different ones when implemented--the
revenge on all those people, parties, concerns, stakeholders not
consulted fully and involved fully in strategizing is to use what-
ever role from the winning strategy that floats down to them as
cover for doing a different strategy and agenda that they were
unable to inject into the strategy formulation process. Distortive
implementations are the cost of elitist, perfunctory strategy
design involvement tactics.
Organization mission strategies end up seriously eroded by career strategies--if
what the organization direction requires of a person or group hin-
ders its career ambitions seriously, the organization direction will
be used as cover for doing a different strategy and agenda.
Where designed strategy gives expression to a fusion of emergent, organization
mission, and career strategies, its becomes real, powerful, and
valuable. Where it slights, ignores, or fights with these other
three, it becomes “for show” and the laughingstock of all who
hear ritual uses of it throughout the organization.
Strategy is just another word for choice--having a strategy means choosing
some goals not others, some means not others, some struggles
and challenges not others, some growth not others. Having a
strategy means having focus, direction, which means letting go of
myriad attractive possible foci, directions, and goals. Having a
strategy feels poorer than having no strategy but it is more real
than having no strategy.
Cosmetic strategies are frequent (the meaning of any ad, for example, is the
reverse of whatever it says)--many people and groups create
strategies to look like something they want others to see, often
because putting forth an image is a lot easier than putting forth
the same concept as a reality or real capability. Organizations
and persons looking like X must be carefully distinguished from
organizations and persons actually doing X.
Strategies cannibalize existing personal and organizational strengths for the
sake of better future ones--strategies do not add to repertoires of
capabilities but rather replace old items with newer ones. They
reduce actual present proven profitable capability in order to
produce larger better future capability. Hence, present success
is the primary preventor, resistor, obstacle to, and underminer of
strategy. Present strengths fight emergent future ones.
Strategy influences us via becoming the environments we live and work in--
when our peers or competitors are strategic, they move and focus
without regard to our immediate reactions. They have antici-
pated our reactions and need not change their tactics in
response. Our identity, who we choose to be, traps us in hack-
neyed reactions they have already developed counters for embed-

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ded in current tactics they implement. When our attacks do not


sway a competitor’s directions, we are facing strategy.
Strategy influences by turning responses into non-responses, so we become de-
coupled from the reactions of other players. We focus and
choose, aim for and march, putting up “for show” reactions to the
reactions of other parties, but actually, because we have strategy,
we have already anticipated all their reactions, and are actually
reacting to entirely other things. Strategy allows peers and com-
petitors to become removed from being our environment for long
time periods, allowing us to react instead to things they miss or
slight or are biased against or unprepared for.

LOVE
Sternberg
Relating is complementing roles: mentor-disciple, giver-taker, ruler-subject,
proposer-voter, judge-offender, nude toy-viewer player, healer-
codependent, winner-loser
Relating is means to an end roles: alien race understanding, finding missing
piece, appreciating art object, building a home together, building
a belief system (religion, politics, eco-stuff etc.) together
Relating is partnering: journey partners, building partners, cultivation part-
ners, business partners
Relating is scripted roles: personal savior, savior of humanity, streams of his-
tory, data analysis, recipe following
Relating is experience: battle, theatre, comedy, mystery
We rule in and rule out kinds of appreciation and contribution of and from oth-
ers. We channel their messages and contributions into channels,
media, types we want now to receive. They do the same to us.
The crises of love are crises of when one party outgrows the mutually agreed
on story they build mutual care and appreciation around. The
same story can affect different people differently because of
their differences of background or different ultimate visions of
where they and/or life are going.
Love idealized pretends its one story now is the only story valid or possible;
love actualized learns to recognize the limited story it now is
based on and its possible evolution into other stories. Love ideal-
ized insists on playing one story at a time only as the right one;
love actualized learns to multi-task among more and more stories
that are more and more diverse as fuller relating evolves.
Love is where people erect civilization as a kinder gentler environment for liv-
ing than the world the natural universe has foisted onto us, with-
out choice or alternative. Love is where people treat people
more nicely than universe treats humankind.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 159

Loving self destructively comes from holding too hard or long to one story basis
of love, without counting the cost in terms of other stories not
explored, benefitted from tried, or grown into. When one story
is allowed to blot out all others, self and other destruction is
assurred.

DOING THIS MODEL OF INNOVATION


THE COMPUTATIONAL SYSTEM TYPE DIALOG MODEL OF INNOVATION

the implementation
the provisional answers we provide here
questions
HOW DO YOU DO THIS? There are three steps that I use personally and with my students and clients.
First we model all (all) business processes, dreams, aims, chances as a few pri-
mary kinds of influence (from the table provided here)--getting maybe 8 or 10
particular influence tactics from several of the 18 types for each business thing
we want innovation in. Second, we model EACH those influence tactics as
embodied in the business thing we choose to innovate in, as several types of
computational system type in dialog. Third, we use those things computation-
ally and dialogically understood, to devise better computation types and better
dialogs, and better computational system types to dialog with--to suggest radi-
cal innovations.

WHAT ARE THE MAJOR Talcot Parsons the famous sociologist wrote a chapter on Code versus Action
OBSTACLES YOU ENCOUN- factors--all the impressive institutions and centers of power and news in the
TER? world collapse and mean nothing unless based on valid attractive uplifting
codes. Getting code factors right, ends up attracting and generating immense
power and later changes of history, institution, and destiny, he wrote and illus-
trated.

This chapter’s model of innovation involves a kind of trust that the influence
type and computational system type dialog “code factors” it involves, really
will have great innovation outcome power. There are a lot of male action-ori-
ented self-heroic “leaders” who cannot “sit still” for the sort of changes of
model, noticing of new dynamics, computational and dialogic seeing of things
this model requires. They are simply “too male” for that sort of code factor
development. They want and are completely satisfied with innovative LOOKING
deeds that get them richer and promoted. This book is not about or for such
human fluffballs. Let them sniff cocaine on their yatchs with their bimbos.
WHY DO MANY NEVER The speed of new things spewed out today, is already making all businesses and
ATTEMPT IT? all parts of all businesses---computational, at first in terms of tools for doing
them and later on in terms of how people think of and design/improve them.
Whole generations of “leaders” and males are not keeping up with what compu-
tation is and is becoming as fast as computation takes over business and sys-
tems and imaginations, displacing non-computational educations, such as the
educations of mental light-head MBAs. If you, your interests, your girlfriends,
your hobbies, your mind, your education, your aims are not as computational as
our collective future is---you are a wate of space, and not an intended reader of
this book.

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 160

7. The Counter the Culture of Big-ness


Model of Innovation
Consider together the following common aspects of innovation as it takes place in the real
world:

1) ESCAPE VENTURES--people frustrated in big firms that their idea is not used,
quit and form ventures
2) SKUNKWORKS--when big orgs ignore ideas + motivated idea inventors, skunk-
works form, hidden away, shifting around for years, disguised, till finally a
home that loves the idea is found and the idea grows big
3) DROP OUT VENTURES--people with hot ideas drop out of college, ignore joining
someone’s big firm and form their own ventures
4) SPIN-OFF VENTURES--students in top professor labs spinning off ventures from
research projects they do together
5) HIRED IN VENTURES--big firms to stay abreast of hot developments buying ven-
tures rather than trying to stay edge and nimble themselves
6) VENTURE CREATION AUCTIONS--large firms announcing to a network of out-
source R&D and university groups, what they want invented, with funds for
trying, and assurred major investment for best proposals or prototypes sent
them.

These are the most common ways tech ventures get formed from most the least common.
All of them are small. They are also all ways of being small. What is smallness buying you
in these efforts? Focus, speed, motive, believers, identity, investability--are bought; secu-
rity, visibility, attention, borrowable resources--are lost.

THE CULTURE OF BIG-NESS


Below, this table presents a few of the major traits that all big organizations share.
There are a few additional ones from recent research. British researchers have
measured an increase in both psychopathic personality traits and in primate
(monkey) behaviors as organization size increases and as one’s rank in them
increases. Also, somewhat present in the below, but more present in Greene’s
model of 256 system effects, are non-linear consequences of present actions like--as
size increases, internal convenience supplants customer requirements till
organization failure, as size increases, anything taking longer than a few months gets
longer and longer till priorities or leaderships change and kill the effort entirely, and
254 others. But the following points offer us a route to general innovation, whenever
and where-ever they are countered effectively.
CULTURE TRAITS, TEAM EFFECTS EXPLANATIONS

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 161

TOO MUCH AUDIENCE (Isolation Powers) BIG ORGs have eyes and ears of people without good
too much audienceeveryone sees what contexts of what you do and why you do it, who form
everyone does and that means many impressions, gossip, and may even later judge or
diverse ill-informed reactions so that the determine chances for you----so all you do is performance
hassle of managing random reactions makes before a partly visible and larger invisible audience, most
taking stands and initiatives more trouble of whom are ill-informed and misunderstand all or most
than it is worth that you do.
~ is the innovation team seen too early so bad-minded ill-informed others can undermine or compete
with it
~ are there enough invisible sponsors and supports for the innovation team to overcome resistors to its
work?
~ does the innovation team do X, get seen to be doing X, and manage the hassle of inappropriate
responses to its doing of X (three layers of work)?
TOO LITTLE AUDIENCE (Location Powers) BIG ORGs are busy, noisy places where even big deeds and
too little audiencethere are so many people important discoveries are treated like everything else and
and so much noise from randomly usually missed, forgotten, or distorted into nothing. It is
interacting actions from them all that very hard to get attention, and hold it, and even harder to
getting noticed is the hardest part of career get quality attention.
success
~ the conditions that made your innovation team necessary will be gone by the time it is halfway
finished
~ only fast results are not eroded into worthlessness by the noise of the market and organization
~ what whistle points (tipping points) would amplify the small initial fast results your innovation team
could do?
~ what needs for innovation team resources wither away when a great whistle point is found?
RESPONDING TO YESTERDAY'S NEWS BIG ORGs operate on Slow Time—they always notice new
(Disguise Powers) trends when they are old and gigantic; they react to things
responding to yesterday's newsbig always too slowly and too late; by the time they establish
organizations are slow to notice, slow to something it is no longer popular and it starting its
react (have a lot of inertia), and react decline. Speed is impossible in any form.
diffusely (focus is lost due to noise) so
employees keep hoping for timely relevant
responses that never appear
~ can you somehow use old dated issues people are easy with to cloak much newer issue handling?
~ Trojan Horse Projects hide the future within the recent past proposal your managers will accept
CONTROL/SAFETY/RISK-AVERSION VALUED BIG ORGs are so arbitrary and poor at measuring
OVER BUSINESS SUCCESS (Disguise Powers) contribution and success that most of the contributions
control/safety/risk-aversion valued more and successes they notice and reward are actually quite
than business success big organizations harmful to them and nearly all the things they really have
deny responsibility for all their results, to have they never notice or reward and actually thwart
using usual big organization noise as excuse and hinder, sometimes deliberately, and sometimes
for any mistakes, so most people try merely by accident. In a world of no, or delayed, or lousy
nothing risky ever (this means those few measures, you succeed by LOOKING LIKE SUCCESS rather
who DO take risks can be seen and go than disturbing people by actually doing success.
beyond others easily)
~ can you cloak a relevant current project so it looks like the stopping of a dangerous risk?
~ can you “finite-element-ize” or otherwise package your proposal into smaller less risky bits?

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 162

BLINDNESS FROM FIVE COMMON CULTURES BIG ORGs are completely unaware that they are terribly
OF BUSINESS (Demystification Powers) male, terribly greedy, terribly monkey-like, terribly toy-
the common cultures of business blind machine filled, terribly given to market impression instead
everyone male culture, monkey hierarchy of sincere service delivery.
culture, capitalism culture, technology
culture, American cultureyour choices: be
in the cultures, fit in the cultures, be
outside them appearing to fit them while
manipulating them, only the 3rd choice is
safe
~ what do men automatically like and support that distorts your project?
~ what do monkeys competing for ranks in a hierarchy like and support that distorts your project?
~ what do money-chasing markets like and support that distorts your project?
~ what do technology loving nerds like and support that distorts your project?
~ what do Americans like and support that distorts your project?
MOST JOB CONTENT IS NOT NEEDED BIG ORGs are run like trees filled with monkeys:
(Customer Powers) leadership is delivered via expensive fixed inventory of
most job content is not ever needed nearly special people called “managers”; this is delivery of a set
all of your job is a complete illusion, a of functions (usually vague and never defined) by a special
waste of timeno one needs it; the bosses fixed social class of people paid more and given privileges
and organization demand it, to justify to command and fire ordinary people. As a result, the
hundreds of other jobs that they do that managers do what all fixed inventories do, simultaneous
are not needed eitherno one is doing what over-managing and under-managing. They constantly to
the organization needs most of the time justify their pay and privileges direct people that do not
need directing just to look “managerial”ss (this makes
most job content not needed at all); at the same time,
they avoid situations they have no skills for and respond
only to problems they feel “managerial” about, thereby
omitting much managing needed by the organization.
~ is this innovation team needed really or is it part of an elaborate system of junk supporting junk of
others?
~ is the person who accepts results from the innovation team only pretending to listen to innovation
team results?
~ is the innovation team structured to implement its own results or does it pass things off to forgetful
others?
~ Should the innovation team finish its work in instants so as to dramatize the phoniness of its origins?
STRUCTURED WELL TO DO THE PAST BIG ORGs always notice later, respond slowly, and respond
(Context Powers) late, so what they are doing now handles well situations
structured well to do the past the long gone and past. Current norms, flows, systems, and
structures and processes of your current activities are always doing well past things no longer
job and organization arose to handle past needed.
challenges that no longer exist so you are
structured to do well a situation that does
no longer exist
~ are the conditions the innovation team operates under (structures/processes) so distorted to the past
that competent team results is impossible without challenging or isolation from them?
~ are the conditions the innovation team's results will be inserted into so distorted to the past that
team results have to have additional other results requiring updating of structures and processes
around team results implemented?

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 163

A CULTURE OF MEDIOCRITY (Style Powers) BIG ORGs have a genius for taking ordinary, sloppy,
a culture of mediocrity since doing the variable human and other inputs and getting consisten
obvious, the simple, the past, is so products output from that mess. They do not ever need
difficult, a norm develops that doing excellence, they need ordinary. They talk about
anything better than that is not necessary! excellence and performance all the time, to motivate the
You yourself develop low standards of sloppy ordinary people they get and to make the little
performance to fit the organization's low monkeys scurry around faster and harder to better faster
expectation levels enrich the top monkeys. As a result a general culture of
“medium” is the best we can get done around here,
develops. All idea and hope of excellence is driven out of
everyone and everything.
~ do the leaders and/or members of the innovation team automatically default to low whole org levels
of work?
~ does visibly working at standards higher than the organization's bring trouble or benefit?
THE MORALE-IMPACT-VISIBILITY PROBLEM Joy, morale, motivation come from personally or as a team
(Appearance Powers) surprising and amazing the world outside. But BIG ORGs
the problem of morale is a problem of are so filled with noise and bad measures that anything of
impact is a problem of visibility people lose value or worth probably is going to be only partly noticed
morale working in big organizations and incorrectly and ineptly encouraged. Visibility is hard
because having impact is so hard to do and to get for anything that requires understanding or
even if impact occurs getting it visible thought; visibility is easy for anything sex related, nasty,
enough to do you good to reward you for and that enables people to feel superior to others (envy).
the effort of achieving it is nearly
impossible
~ can visibility of results be obtained quickly enough to keep the innovation team motivated? Can
visible results have enough impact to deserve any visibility they obtain?
MANAGERS LACK BRAIN POWER TO BIG ORGs replace sensing the outside world of customers
UNDERSTAND NEEDED PROPOSALS as its environment with internal stuff by top monkeys---
(Increment Powers) bigness means the org becomes a world of its own,
managers have too little brain power to supplanting the real world. Less and less attention goes
understand clever proposals top managers, outside to markets, customers, technology developments
due to years working in the organization, and all that and more and more attention goes to which
have lost all mental ability and can barely middle monkey will next become top monkey and what
read and writeso proposing what the each boss monkey feels or wants. Everyone looks up not
organization needs often results in out. Therefore, managers SEEM to know a lot but it is
proposals too difficult for them to internal stuff only, for the most part; on outside the org
understand (especially if technology terms, most managers are woefully ignorant and out of
changes are involved) date.
~ can your innovation team find a sponsor unusually intelligent or disguise its work as something
simpler?
~ can your innovation team propose and do, in succession, a series of simple projects that add up to
something complex?
FIGHT OR INVENT: ROLES/POWERS In BIG ORGs you have a choice---fight other members
(Invention Powers) competitively for years so one of you becomes promoted
choose fighting for existing roles/power or to a certain role, or invent a new org or venture to
inventing new roles/power each employee/ become head of. At several points in any big org career
manager faces the choice of competing for you face this fight or invent choice. However, inventing
decades for existing managerial/executive within a big org is terribly hard work, so people interested
slots or inventing new businesses you lead in that get more and more frustrated by delay, slowness,
by invention incompetent managers, till they leave the big org and
make their own venture.
~ does your innovation team propose changing some existing solid thing or inventing something entirely
new?

This book was written to educate you not please you or inflate your self regard. Beyond mere business mod-
els of innovation and venal personal and national cultures of innovation. Let’s use our brains folks.
Copyright 2015 by Richard Tabor Greene (richardtgreene@alum.mit.edu), All Rights Reserved, Registered PAGE 164

INTERNAL BECOMES EXTERNAL: BIG ORGs are big enough that they lose sight of the world
ENVIRONMENT (Sight recovery Powers) outside and internal parts of the org become their world---
the internal environment over time they look up not out---till they are fatally ignorant of the
substitutes itself for the organization's outside world and its forces.
external one big organizations feel and see
and notice and do so much within their own
boundaries that they continually gradually
stop feeling, seeing, noticing, and acting on
their actual external environment
~ what internal dynamics of your organization and of your innovation team substitute for the actual
external environment they are to serve?
WASTE (Power of Ultimates) BIG ORGs exist entirely supported by silly, deadly, harmful
waste most of the products of modern products that no one needs, everyone can live without
industrial civilization, most of the them with complete happiness and usually more health
companies that make them, and most of and value. Most products now made are worthless or
the people in those companies are not at all harmful. MARKETING is the magic of getting billions of
neededindeed we have built a world mainly people to pay money for useless things easily made by big
for shopping when loving and caring and orgs.
playing and inventing and the like are much
more important
~ what is the ultimate worth for the earth and its people of all your innovation team is attempting to do
and how does that undermine its ultimate morale and effort?
OUR WAY PETRIFICATION (Way Invention BIG ORGs have selves, real personalities, generally
Powers) insecure little boy or baby personalities, they always need
our way petrification nations and to be praised, as if they lack confidence, and they need
companies that have their own “way” and you to exaggerate how wonderful they are or else they
that impose it on everyone commit suicide won't listen to you. They also have, out of pride, OUR
(which is okay as long as “we all die WAY of doing things and they proudly train you in this way
together heroically”) that is usually decades out of date and hopelessly stupid.
Their WAY is a kind of religion so data and rational proof
that it does not work or is harmful is ignored. The best
you can do is hide your work from the harmful effects of
THE WAY.
~ w