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Highway Engineering

Road Materials

- Used for Bituminous (asphalt) pavement or
Portland cement concrete pavement

- According to AASHTO Standard or Item 703 of DPWH Specification

Item 703 DPWH Specification generally states that aggregates shall consist of:
a.) hard durable particles or
b.) fragments of crushed stones or
c.) crushed slag or
d.) crushed rock or
e.) natural gravel

- Testing of Good Quality Aggregates

a.) Test for Strength – uses Rattler Test machine
1.) Hallow cylinder closed at both ends 70cm dia. x 50cm long
2.) Cylinder is rotated 500 rev at 30 – 33 rounds per min
3.) Passed on to No. 12 sieve to get the percentage of loss

b.) Test for Soundness – resistance of materials to deterioration

from the effect of action like freezing or thawing (melting).
1.) Aggregates are dried and immerged in sodium or
magnesium sulfate
2.) Sodium will cause splitting, crumbling, cracking of
flaking of particles
3.) Washed samples are sieve to determine the changes in size
4.) Not applied for asphalt pavement if temperature is
not zero degrees

c.) Test for Affinity and Swell – binders must adhere or stick firmly
to the aggregate particles.
1.) Binders for asphalt pavement is Bituminous
2.) Binders for concrete pavement is Portland cement and water
3.) Aggregates that swell when immerged in water will destroy
the pavement
4.) Immersion Compression Test measure the tendency of
aggregate to strip or swell under the effects of water

d.) Test for Shape and Texture

1.) Rounded smooth aggregate particles like natural
gravel is good for Portland cement concrete pavement
2.) Angular or cubical shape and rough surface texture
aggregates are excellent for asphalt pavement
3.) A dirt of any kind is undesirable material for both
asphalt or concrete pavement

e.) Test for Resistance To Polishing – a good asphalt or concrete

road is when the rubber tire is in direct contact with the
aggregate and not with the binders.
1.) Polishing of aggregates has bearing relations with the
skid resistance of the rubber wheels of the tires of vehicles
2.) Aggregates produced from limestone are susceptible to
polishing. Limestone coarse aggregate with larger amount
of sand that are insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid are
resistant to polishing
3.) Silica sand when included in the mixture will increase
friction factor of the road surface.
f.) Test for Degradation
1.) Coarse aggregate retained in No. 4 sieve are
washed thoroughly
2.) Sedimentation test is applied. The index value is
0 – 100, the specification set is a minimum of 35.

Aggregates for Bituminous Pavement

- Aggregates for bituminous or asphalt pavement shall constitute 88% to 96% by weight or
more than 75% by volume of the mixture
- Materials classified under Item 300 of the DPWH Standard Specifications
1.) Coarse aggregates materials on 200mm No. 10 sieve shall have mass percent of wear by
AASHT T-96 of not more than 45.
2.) For crushed aggregates, not less than 50 mass percent of the particles retained on the 4.75
mm (No. 4) sieve shall have at least one fractured face.
3.) The fraction passing the 0.75mm (No. 200) sieve should not be greater than 2/3 of the
fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.
4.) The fraction passing 0.425mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not greater than 35
and a plasticity index range of 4 – 9 when tested by AASHTO T-89 AND T-90

Aggregates for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement

- Organic impurities in aggregates caused slow or non-hardening of concrete. Aggregate is
treated with mixture of sodium hydrochloride solution, if the aggregates turns black, organic
materials are present.
- In order to obtain high quality concrete, all aggregates shall pass appropriate tests
1.) Strength of fine aggregate is measured by the compression tests of sand-cement mortar
2.) Soundness of fine aggregates is measured by the resistance to deterioration under the
action of sodium or magnesium Sulfate.
3.) Wear of coarse aggregate the requirement consists of crushed stone, gravel, blast
furnace, slag, or approved inert materials of similar characteristics or combination
thereof having hard, strong durable pieces free from adherent coatings.

DPWH Standard Specifications Under Item 703

1.) Aggregates shall consist of hard durable particles or fragments of crushed stones or crushed
slag or crushed rock or natural gravel. Material that breaks up when alternately wetted and
dried shall be discarded.
2.) Coarse Aggregate is the material retained on the 2.00mm (No. 10) sieve and shall have a
percentage of water not more than 50 for sub-base and not more than 45 for base and surface
coarse as determined by AASHTO designated test T-96
3.) Fine Aggregate is the material passing the No. 10 sieve (2.00mm) consisting of material,
crushed sand, and fine mineral particles.
4.) For Base Coarse, the fraction passing the 0.425mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit of
not more than 25 and a plastic index (PI) not greater than 6.
5.) For Sub-base Coarse the liquid limit should not e greater than 35, and Plastic Index not
greater than 12.
6.) For Surface Coarse the fraction passing the 0.425mm (NO. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit
not more than 35 and plasticity index not less than 4 nor exceed 9.

Mineral Filler
- The strength of road pavement will be increased if dust additives which dense the graded
mixture is added.
- Mineral filler reduces the void contents in the mixture
- Dust additives is classified into:
1.) Finely powdered limestone
2.) Slag
3.) Hydrated Lime
4.) Portland Cement
5.) Trap rock dust
6.) Fly ash
Bituminous Material
- Bituminous or asphalt is a viscous liquid used as binder for aggregates in road construction.
- Bituminous material is in liquid form when mixed or combined with aggregates.
- The action of asphalt binder depends on its type and the aggregate it is combined with.
- The purpose of the asphalt binder is to resist the abrasive force brought about by heavy
- If road pavement is open type, consisting of coarse particles and asphalt, heavy binder is
needed requiring more asphalts.

Bituminous Binders
- Asphalt cement is used as binder for almost all high types of bituminous pavement
- Asphalt cement is a semi-solid hydrocarbon retained after fuel and lubricating oils are
removed from petroleum.
- The procedure used in grading asphalt cement is the Viscosity Test.

- Kinds of Bituminous Binders

1.) Liquid Asphalt – petroleum product consisting of asphalt cement with a liquid
distillate(diesel, kerosene or gasoline)
2.) Emulsified Asphalt – is a kind of mixture wherein the minute globules of asphalt
disperses in water.
3.) Oxidized Asphalt and Road Tar - is suitable only for roofing and similar
applications. Highway used of oxidized asphalt is limited to water proofing of
structures and filling joints of concrete pavement.
4.) Bitumen Rubber Mixture – has little improvement on the coefficient of friction
5.) Epoxy Resin as Binders – are produced in a clear, dark, rigid and flexible form for
application to either concrete or asphalt pavement. The high cost of resin has
restricted its use to bridge surfacing and seal coating surface only.

- Test for Bituminous Binders

1.) Test of consistency:
a.) Kinematics Viscosity Test
b.) Saybolt-Fural Test
c.) Engler Specific Gravity Test
d.) The Float Test
e.) Penetration Test
f.) Softening Point Test
2.) Test for Durability
3.) Test for Solubility
4.) Distillation Test
5.) Thin Film Oven Test
6.) Flashpoint Thin Film Oven Test
7.) Test for Homogeneity of Petroleum Asphalt
8.) Special Test for Emulsion Asphalt
a.) Test for Settlement
b.) Sieve Test
c.) Cement Mixing Test
d.) Miscibility and freezing test
- Problems Associated with Bituminous Binders
1.) Pavement has lower percentage of voids, aging is also relatively low
2.) Mixture that are too dry, cracks and breaks easily
3.) Higher asphalt content and lower percentage of voids may cause instability of the
4.) Improper construction procedures can age asphalt prematurely, example mixing
asphalt with overheated aggregate
5.) Storing the mixed materials, or an extended period of mixing, the temperature
produces substantial reduction of asphalt penetration
6.) Climatic conditions can seriously affect the behavior of asphalt binder

Bituminous Pavement
- Combination of mineral aggregates and binders, the mixture of rock material particles with
asphalt. It has many names: asphalt road, asphalt macadam, bituminous roadways, etc.
- Qualities of Asphalt Road
1.) Surface must be free from cracks or raveling due to shrinkage and fatigue failure.
2.) Must withstand weather condition, including the effect of surface water, heat, cold
and oxidation (discoloration).
3.) Must be resistant to internal moisture such as water vapor
4.) Must possess a tight or porous impermeable surface as the case may be suitable to
underlying base or sub-base
5.) Must be smooth riding and skid free surface

Asphalt Concrete Pavement

- A dense graded road surface made of hot mineral aggregates, mixed with hot asphalt and laid
at high temperature of about 275°F to 300°F.
- It is the highest type of dense bituminous pavement suitable for the most heavily traveled
- Prime coat is first applied over untreated and treated base before asphalt concrete is laid. This
is bind the lose particles of the base and the pavement and to deter rising moisture from
penetrating the pavement.
- The thickness for compacted asphalt concrete ranges from 2 inches for lightly traveled road
to 6 inches or more for roads where traffic is considerably heavy.
Asphalt Pavement Failure
Surface Treatment
- Road Surface Treatment Method is applied to upgrade untreated surface and to rejuvenate an
existing pavement.
- The inverted penetration method is applied wherein the binder asphalt is first sprayed over a
prepared surface then covered with fine aggregates.
- Dust Palliative is a surface treatment or application of asphalt to control dust and fine sand
along the highway

- Prime Coat or tack coat treating the surface to provide new wearing coarse, and to improve
adhesion between the base and the surface coarse.
- Armor Coat surface treatment use a thin bituminous bonder covered by mineral aggregate
applied to an earth, gravel or water bound macadam surface or to stabilize the base.
- Seal Coat is the application of asphalt binder to a pavement surface covered with aggregate.
This treatment is sometimes called Black Seal or Color Coat.
- Sheet Asphalt is a mixture of sand fillers and asphalt cement.
- Cold Laid Asphalt is a mixture of coarse and fine aggregates and liquid asphalt or emulsion.
Aeration before spreading maybe required for evaporation of some solvent water otherwise
the pavement might be over lubricated
- Slurry Seal is a combination of sand, crushed stone, emulsified asphalt and water. It is an
effective solution in filling cracks and rejuvenating the surface of badly deteriorated surface.
- Asphalt Overlay is a layer of asphalt bound aggregate laid to an existing pavement to level
out distorted surface or to cover cracks and joints of the pavement.

Aggregate for Bituminous Concrete

- Fine Aggregates shall consist of natural sand, stone screening or slag screenings or a
combination thereof that shall pass the 2.36mm (No.8) sieve.
- Coarse Aggregate is open graded asphalt concrete friction coarse. Pure carbonate aggregates
or any aggregates known to be polishing should not be used as coarse aggregate.
- Lightweight Aggregate could be manufactured by the rotary kiln process if permitted by
the special provisions of the specifications.