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CHAPTER 4

DESIGN CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the proposed design will be analyzed and backed by design calculations taking
into consideration the water demand of Waterloo Hostel.

4.2 Pump Discharge

Through research the following information was gathered;

 Diameter of pipe (d) = 0.0762m


 Population of Students at the hostel=150
 Average water usage by students = 11 gallons/day

1 gallons: 3.785 litres

11 gallons: 41.635 litres

Total water consumption of both students and tenants per day = 41.635×150

= 6245.25 ≃ 7000litres

Because some will be used for miscellaneous purpose

1 litres = 0.001m3

7000 litres = 7m3

Time use to fill the tank = 1 hour

= 3600s

Volume(m3 )
Discharge =
Time(s)
7
Discharge(Q) = = 0.00194m3 ∕ s
36000

Discharge(Q)
Velocity of flow = (Rajput, 2008)
Area of pipe(A)

πd2
Cross Sectional Area of Pipe =
4

π × (0.07622 )
Therefore Cross Sectional Area =
4

= 0.004560m3

0.00194
Velocity(𝑢) = = 0.4254m ∕ s
0.004560

In other to determine the type of flow of the fluid, the Reynolds number Re is calculated

ρud
Reynold number(Re) = (Michael and Khepar, 1999)
μ

Where, 𝜌 is the density of the water = 1 × 103 kg/m3

u is the velocity of flow = 0.425m/s

𝜇 is absolute or dynamic viscosity = 1.14 × 10−3

d is cross sectional area of the pipe = 0.0762 m

(1 × 103 ) × 0.4254 × 0.0762


Re = = 28434.63158
1.14 × 10−3

Since Re is greater than 4000, the flow of the water in the pipe is turbulent.

The experimental work done by Blasius on smooth pipes yielded the relationship,

0.3164
Frictional Coefficient(λ) = 1 (Mc Keon et al, 2005)
Re4
0.3164
=
12.9856

= 0.02436

Frictional Coefficient(λ) = 4F

0.02436
F=
4

F = 0.00609

Calculating for the selection of pressure booster pump

 𝑃𝐵 =150kPa

 UA = UB is the velocity of the fluid in the pipe = 0.425m/s

 ZA is the suction head = 0

 ZB is the delivery head = 10m

 Pb= Pressure of the booster pump


Applying the continuity equation

QA = QB (Rajput, 2005)

A A UA = A B UB
Bernoulli’s equation is given as

PA UA2 PB UB2
+ + ZA = + + ZB + ∑ hl
ρg 2g ρg 2g

Σhl is the sum of head losses (frictional losses + minor losses)

For the purpose of this design there are two 90° elbow bends and delivery pipe lengths of 10 m

2×0.3(0.180965) 0.2436×0.180965
hl = +
2×9.81 2×9.81×0.0762

hl = 0.005340 + 0.02949

hl = 0.034826

PA 150 × 103
= + 10 + 0.034826
9810 9810

𝑃𝐴 = 9810 ×25.3387

𝑃𝐴 = 248.487kPa

𝑃𝑜 = 150𝑘𝑃𝑎
Pressure Booster (𝑃𝑏 ) = 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 − 𝐼𝑛itial pressure in the suction line
𝑃𝑏 = 𝑃𝐴 − 𝑃𝑂
𝑃𝑏 = (248.48 − 150)kPa
𝑃𝑏 = 98kPa
100 kPa booster pump is selected to be installed at point A to deliver the fluid at a pressure of
150 kPa
Selecting of booster pump for the low output pressure
Pressure in the Tank (P𝐴 ) = 120kPa
UA = UB is the velocity of the fluid in the pipe = 0.425m/s
ZA is the suction head = 0
ZB is the delivery head = 12m
Pb= Pressure of the booster pump
Applying the continuity equation
𝑄1 = 𝑄2
𝐴1 𝑈1 = 𝐴2 𝑈2
Bernoulli’s equation is given as
PA U2A PB U2B
+ + ZA = + + ZB + ∑ hl
ρg 2g ρg 2g

Σhl is the sum of head losses (frictional losses + minor losses)


For the purpose of this design there an elbow bend and delivery pipe lengths of 13 m
where, λ is the friction coefficient
l is the length of the pipe
g is the acceleration due to gravity
u is the flow velocity
d is the diameter of the pipe

𝐾𝑢2 4𝑓𝑙𝑢2
hl = +
2𝑔 2𝑔𝑑

0.3(0.180965) 0.2436×0.180965
hl = +
2×9.81 2×9.81×0.0762

hl = 0.00276705 + 0.030197
hl = 0.032964
PA 120 × 103
= + 12 + 0.032964
9810 9810
𝑃𝐴 = 9810 × 24.32
𝑃𝐴 = 238.04kPa

𝑃𝑜 = 120𝑘𝑃𝑎
Pressure Booster (𝑃𝑏 ) = 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 − Initial pressure in the suction line
𝑃𝑏 = 𝑃𝐴 − 𝑃𝑂
𝑃𝑏 = (238.043 − 120)kPa
𝑃𝑏 =118.04kPa
120kPa booster pump is selected to be installed at point A to deliver the fluid at a pressure of
150kPa