0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

5 просмотров39 страницAug 13, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

5 просмотров39 страниц© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

Mains Test Series Test No : 8

Section A : Water Resource Engineering + Building Materials + Railway & Airport

Q.1 (a) Solution:

(a) Time factor : The ratio of actual operating period (in days) of a canal to the base

period (in days) is called the time factor of the distributary. This factor is less than 1.

(b) Capacity factor : The capacity factor for the canal is the ratio of the mean supply

discharge in a canal during a period to its designed full capacity discharge.

(c) Full supply coefficient : Full supply coefficient is the design duty at the head of the

canal. In other words,

Full supply coefficient =

Design full supply discharge at the head of the canal

during peak demand

(d) Nominal duty : It is the ratio of the area actually irrigated by the cultivators to the

mean supply discharge let out from the outlet of the distributary over the base period.

Q.1 (b) Solution:

It is seen that adjustments are required for water absorption.

Given mix proportions are:

Cement (kg) Water (lit) Sand (kg) Coarse aggregates (kg)

472 188.8 537.39 1195

10 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

1195 × 0.50

Water absorption by coarse aggregates = = 5.975 kg=5.975 litre 5.98 litre

100

Free water in coarse aggregate = Nil

537.39 × 2

Free water in fine aggregate = = 10.75 kg = 10.75 litres

100

Therefore, actual quantity of water required = 188.80 + 5.98 – 10.75 = 184.03 litres

Actual quantity of coarse aggregate = 1195 – 5.98 = 1189.02 kg

and

Actual quantity of sand required = 537.39 + 10.75 = 548.14 kg

Therefore, the actual quantities of materials required are :

Cement (kg) Water (lit) Sand (kg) Coarse aggregates (kg)

472 184.03 548.14 1189.02

We know,

In one bag of cement, quantity of cement = 50 kg

∴ The mix proportions are

184.03

Water = × 50 = 19.49 litres

472

548.14

Sand = × 50 = 58.07 kg

472.0

1189.02

Coarse aggregate = × 50 = 125.96

472

Cement (kg) Water (lit) Sand (kg) Coarse aggregates (kg)

50 19.49 58.07 125.96

∵ The force required to prevent the expansion due to temperature is given by

F = αtAE where stress in rail per degree rise in temperature = αE

Substituting the given values, we get

F = 1.15 × 10–5 × 30 × 76.86 × 21.5 × 105

= 57011 kg

(i) Length of track to overcome temperature stresses

57011

Lt = = 80.30 m

710

(ii) Length of track to overcome creep for equilibrium;

= 2 × (Lt)

= 2 × 80.30 = 160.60 m

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 11

Q.1 (d) Solution:

(i)

Gate capacity : Gate capacity is the minimum number of aircrafts that a specified number

of gates can accommodate during a specified interval of time when there is continuous

demand for service.

Factors affecting gate capacity determination are:

• Number and type of gates provided for the service.

• Type of aircraft demanding services which includes originating, turnaround or

through flights.

• Gate occupancy times of several type of aircraft designing service.

This may range from 30 minutes to high as more than one hour.

(ii)

(a) For unrestricted gate-use

12

Gate capacity, C = = 13.7

⎛ 30 ⎞ ⎛ 45 ⎞ ⎛ 60 ⎞

⎜⎝ 0.1 × ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 0.3 × ⎟⎠ + ⎜⎝ 0.6 × ⎟⎠

60 60 60

C = 13 aircraft/hour

(b) For restricted gate use

3 × 60

CA = = 60 aircraft/hour

0.1 × 30

2 × 60

CB = = 8.9 aircraft/hour 8 aircraft/hour

0.3 × 45

7 × 60

CC = 11 aircraft/hour

0.6 × 60

∴ Gate capacity, Ci (min) 8 aircrafts/hour

The gate capacity is 8 aircrafts/hour.

Vee-Bee consistometer method (IS 1199 : 1959)

In Vee-Bee consistometer method the apparatus consists of a vibrator table resting on

elastic supports, a metal pot, a sheet metal cone open at both ends and a standard

tamping rod.

A slump test is performed in the cylindrical pot of the consistometer. The glass disc

attached to the swivel arm is moved and placed just on the top of the slump cone in the

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

12 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

pot and before the cone is lifted up, the position of the concrete cone is noted by adjusting

the glass disc attached to the swivel arm. The cone is then lifted up and the slump noted

on graduated rod by lowering the glass disc on the top of the concrete cone. The electrical

vibrator is switched on and the concrete is allowed to spread out in the pot. The vibration

is then continued until the whole concrete surface uniformly adheres to the glass disc

and the time taken for this to be attained is noted with a stop watch. The consistency of

concrete is expressed in Vee-Bee degree which is equal to recorded time in seconds.

Funnel

Swivel arm (mm)

Glass disc

Cone pot

Slump (mm)

Cylindrical

metal pot

Wing nuts

Vibrating

Table Arm holder

Base

Vee Bee degree in seconds

The test determines the ‘time in seconds called Vee Bee (degree) required for transforming

by vibration, a concrete specimen in the shape of conical frustum into the cylinder.

Degree of workability Slump (mm) Vee Bee (degree) in seconds

Extremely low 0 > 20

Very low 0 - 25 12 - 20

Low 25 - 50 6 - 12

Medium 50 - 100 3-6

High 100 - 175 0-3

Let runway length after temperature correction is x.

20

∵ Correction for gradient = × x × 0.5

100

⇒ Corrected length after gradient = 3130 m

20

∴ 3130 = x + × x × 0.5

100

So, x = 2845.45 m

Aerodrome reference temperature = 25°C

Standard atmosphere temperature at aerodrome = 15°C

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 13

Rise in temperature = 25 – 15 = 10°C

Let corrected length after elevation correction = y

y

∴ Temperature correction = × 10

100

Also corrected length after temperature correction = 2845.45 m

y

∴ 2845.45 = y + × 10

100

⇒ y = 2586.77 m

Now,

Let the aerodrome elevation = h

7 h

Correction for elevation = × 2500 ×

100 300

7 h

∴ 2586.77 = × 2500 × + 2500

100 300

⇒ h = 148.75 m

So, the aerodrome elevation = 148.75 m

(i)

(a) Hygroscopic water : This water forms very thin film around soil particles and is not

available to the plant. The water is held so tightly by the soil that it cannot be taken

up by the roots.

• Not held in the pores, but on the particle surface. This means clay will contain much

more of this type of water than sands because of surface area differences.

• Hygroscopic water is held very tightly by forces of adhesion and this water is not

available to the plant.

• Gravity is always acting to pull water down through the soil profile. However, the

force of gravity is counteracted by forces of attraction between water molecules and

the soil particles and by the attraction of water molecules to each other.

(b) Permanent wilting point : The permanent wilting is that water content at which

plant can no longer extract sufficient water for its growth, and wilts up. It is the point

at which permanent wilting of plants takes place. It therefore, becomes evident that

the water which is available to the plants is the difference of field capacity water and

permanent wilting point water.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

14 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

Field capacity

Available water or

capillary water

Wilting point

Hygroscopic water

may be defined as the total amount of water used by the plant in evapotranspiration

(building of plant tissues) and evaporation from adjacent soil or from plant leaves in

any specified time.

The value of consumptive use (cu) may be different for different crops, may be different

for the same crop at different times and places.

Factors affecting consumptive use :

• Evaporation which depends on humidity.

• Mean monthly temperature.

• Growing monthly temperature.

• Growing season of crop and cropping pattern.

• Monthly precipitation.

• Irrigation depth or the depth of water applied for irrigation.

• Wind velocity in the locality.

• Soil and topography.

• Irrigation practices and methods of irrigation.

(ii)

For maximum discharge, the pipe outlet must be at the maximum water level in the

water course.

⎛ 0.15 ⎞

∴ H = (101.50 − 101.15) − ⎜⎝ ⎟ = 0.275 m

2 ⎠

We know, Discharge, Q = C d A 2 gH

π

= 0.62 × (0.15) 2 × 2 × 9.81 × 0.275 = 0.0254 m 3 /s

4

m h

Flexibility, F = ×

n H

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 15

m 1 3

and = × = 0.30

n 2 5

(∵ q ∝ H1/2 and Q ∝ H5/3 from Manning’s equation)

0.3 × (101.5 − 101.15)

∴ F = = 0.38 < 1

0.275

Hence, the setting is sub-proportional.

(i) Chemical composition of Portland cement

Oxide Composition (%)

Lime (CaO) 60 - 65

Silica (SiO2) 17 - 25

Alumina (Al2O3) 3-8

Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 0.5 - 6

Sulphur tri-oxide (SO3) 1-2

Alkalies (Soda and Potash) 0.5 - 1

Calcium sulphate (CaSO4) 3

Functions:

• Lime (CaO) : It controls strength and soundness. It is the major ingredient of cement

and constitutes about two-third of cement. It’s quantity should be maintained very

carefully, as excess quantity and low quantity of lime both are harmful to cement. If

it is used in excess quantity, some of lime remains present unused or uncombined

or as free lime. Its deficiency reduces strength and setting time.

• Silica (SiO2) : Its presence in proper quantity forms calcium silicates which gives

strength to cement. If silica is used in excess, the setting time of cement gets increased

and the strength also increases.

• Alumina (Al2O3) : It reacts with water very quickly and makes the cement to set

quickly. If it is used in excess quantity it will weaken the cement as it acts as flux

which lowers the clinkering temperature. But since high temperature is essential for

formation of proper cement and hence it should not be used in excess.

• Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) : Iron-oxide imparts colour and hardness to cement. It reacts with

lime and silica during manufacture which reduces the calcination temperature. Its

presence also imparts strength to the cement.

• Lime : When a desirable amount of lime (not exceeding 5%) is present in the clay, it

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

16 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

results in good bricks, but if it is present in excess then it changes the colour of the

brick from red to yellow and causes bricks to melt and hence change in shape.

• Pebbles, gravels and grits : They do not allow the clay to be mixed thoroughly and

spoil the appearance of the brick. Bricks with pebbles and gravels results in weak

and porous bricks.

• Iron pyrites : They tend to oxidise and decompose the brick during burning. The

brick may split into pieces. Pyrites decolourize the bricks.

• Alkalies : Alkalies forming less than 10% of the raw clay, are of great value as fluxes

especially when combined with silicates of alumina. It is in the form of soda or potash.

Alkalies cause the bricks to loose their shape.

• Organic matter : On burning green bricks, the organic matter gets charred and leaves

pores making the bricks porous and hence the water absorption is increased and

strength is reduced.

• Carbonaceous materials : It is in the form of bituminous matter or carbon and greatly

affects the colour of raw clay.

• Sulphur : It will cause formation of spongy, swollen structure in the brick and the

brick will be decoloured by white patches.

• Water : A large proportion of free water generally causes clay to shrink considerably

during drying whereas combined water causes shrinkage during burning.

Efflorescence in bricks:

This defect is caused because of alkalies present in the bricks. When bricks come in

contact with moisture, water is absorbed and alkalies crystallise. On drying, grey or

white powder patches appear on the brick surface. This can be minimised by selecting

proper clay materials for brick manufacturing, preventing moisture to come in contact

with the masonry, by providing waterproof coping and by using water repellant

materials in mortar and by providing damp proof course.

Remedy:

The only satisfactory treatment may be to render the wall after removing all loose material

and raking out the mortar which may itself be impregnated.

Q.3 (a) Solution:

(i)

We know, f = 1.76 dmm = 1.76 2 = 2.49

f 5/3

Canal bed slope =

3340 Q 1/6

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 17

(2.49) 5/3

= 1/6

= 7.135 × 10 −4 ( > 1.5 × 10 −4 )

3340 × (50)

The computed bed slope is much larger than the available ground slope of 1.5 × 10–4

which is to be adopted as the channel bed slope. Therefore, the median size of the

sediment which the channel would be able to carry can be determined by computing

new value of fnew for S = 1.5 × 10–4 and given discharge and then obtaining the value of

d for this value of f.

f 5/3

∴ 1.5 × 10–4 =

3340 (50)1/6

⇒ f = 0.976

2

⎛ f ⎞

∴ d = ⎜ = 0.31 mm

⎝ 1.76 ⎟⎠

Therefore, the material coarser than 0.30 mm will have to be removed for the efficient

functioning of the channel.

1/6 1/6

⎛ Qf 2 ⎞ ⎛ 50 × 0.976 2 ⎞

v = ⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟⎠ = 0.8355 m/s

⎝ 140 ⎠ ⎝ 140

The hydraulic radius of this channel is obtained as

5 ⎛ v 2 ⎞ 5 ⎛ 0.8355 2 ⎞

R = 2 ⎜ f ⎟ = 2 ⎜ 0.976 ⎟ = 1.788 m

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

For a trapezoidal channel (0.5H : 1V) side slope;

P = B + 5h = 33.59

⇒ B = 33.59 – 2.24 h

h2

and A = Bh + = PR = 33.59 × 1.783 = 59.89 m 2

2

⇒ 33.59 h – 2.24 h2 + 0.5 h2 = 59.89

⇒ 1.74h2 – 33.59h + 59.89 = 0

On solving, we get

h = Depth of flow = 17.32 m or 1.99 m

Obviously h = 1.99 m as the other root of h, i.e., 17.32 m would result in too narrow

channel section.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

18 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

⇒ B = 29.13 m 30 m (say)

2m 1

0.5

30 m

(ii)

Pressure relief arrangements:

1. Case I : Water table below canal bed level.

• No pressure relief arrangements are provided.

2. Case II : Water table between canal bed level and FSL.

• Bed : Longitudinal and transverse drains with pressure relief valves.

• Sides : Pressure relief valves in pockets at sides @ 1 for every 100 sqm.

3. Case III : Water table above canal FSL.

Same as above of case II.

(i) Creep of rail : Creep is defined as the longitudinal movement of rails with respect to

sleepers on a track. Occurrence of creep can be noticed from the following

observations:

• Closing of successive expansion spaces at rail joints in the direction of creep.

• Marks on flanges and webs of rails made of spike heads, by scraping or scratching as

the rail slide.

(ii) Suspended rail joint : When rails ends are projected beyond sleepers called “shoulder

sleeper” then this joint is termed as suspended joint. This joint is generally used

with timber and steel trough sleepers on Indian Railways.

Joint

Rail Rail

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 19

(iii)Tractive resistance : Tractive resistance are the forces which resist the movement

and speed of train. The speed of train must be adequate enough to overcome the

resistance offered by the locomotive trailing the load and other agencies against its

movement. The various forces are classified into four categories:

(a) Train resistance

(b) Resistance due to track profile

(c) Resistance due to starting and acceleration

(d) Wind resistances

(iv)Coning of wheels : The wheel is coned at a slope of 1 in 20 to keep it in the central

position automatically. It has the following advantages:

(a) Coning prevents wheels from slipping

(b) It reduces wear and tear of the wheel flanges and rails which occurs due to rubbing

action of flanges with inside faces of the rail head.

(c) It provides a possibility of lateral movement of the axle with its wheels.

(v) Objectives of signalling : The various objects of providing and operating signals

are as follows:

(a) To provide facilities for the efficient movement of trains.

(b) To ensure safety between two or more trains which cross or approach each other’s

path.

(c) To provide facilities for the maximum utility of the track.

(d) To provide facilities for safe and efficient shunting operations.

(e) To guide the trains movement during maintenance and repairs of the track.

(f) To safeguard the trains at converging junctions and to give directional indications at

diverging junctions.

(i)

According to percentage of calcium oxide and clayey impurities in it, lime can be

classified as lean, hydraulic and fat lime.

1. Lean or poor lime : It consists of CaO and MgO where CaO is about 80-85% with

MgO less than 5% and clayey impurities of about more than 7% in the form of silica,

alumina and iron-oxide. It sets on absorbing CO2 from atmosphere.

Characteristics:

• Slaking requires more time and so it hydrates slowly. Its expansion is less than that

of fat lime.

• It makes thin paste with water.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

20 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

• Its colour varies from yellow to grey.

Uses: It gives poor and inferior mortar and is recommended for less important structures.

2. Hydraulic lime : It is the product obtained by moderate burning (900°C – 1100°C) of

raw limestone which contains small proportions of clay (silica and alumina,

about 5-30%) and iron oxide in chemical combination with calcium oxide

(CaO + MgO with CaO of about 70-80% and MgO less than 5%). Depending upon

percentage of clay it is classified as :

Feebly hydraulic lime Moderately hydraulic lime Eminently hydraulic lime

< 5 - 10% of silica and alumina i.e. impurities 10 - 20% impurities 20 - 30% impurities

Slaking time 5 - 15 min Slaking time 1 - 2 hours Slakes very slowly

Setting time 21 days Setting time 7 days Setting time - 2 hours

Used in damp places Used in damp places Used in damp places & for all

structural purposes

3. Pure, Rich or Fat Lime : It is a soft lime (CaO + MgO where CaO is more than 85%

with MgO less than 4%) obtained by calcination of nearly pure limestone, marble,

chalk powder, oolitic limestone and calcareous tuta.

Also known as white washing lime, does not have impurities of clay and stones

more than 5%. Fat lime is nearly pure calcium oxide and when it is hydrated with

the required amount of water, the solid lumps form a soft fine powder of Ca(OH)2

and high heat of hydration produces a cloud of steam.

Characteristics:

• Slaking is vigorous and the volume becomes 2-3 times.

• It sets slowly in contact with air and hence not suitable for thick walls or in wet

climate.

• Specific gravity of pure lime is about 3.4.

• If kept under water, fat lime does not lose its plasticity and consequently does not

set and gets hard.

Uses: Fat lime finds extensive use in making mortar, matrix for concrete, base for

distemper and in whitewash, manufacturing of cement and in metallurgical industry.

(ii)

Admixtures may be classified as follows:

1. Accelerators : These admixtures normally reduce the final setting time, i.e., accelerate

the rate of hydration of cement and consequently the rate of gain of strength.

Example : AlCl3, CaCl2, NaCl, NaOH, KOH, Calcium formate, formaldehyde etc.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 21

2. Retarders : These normally increase the initial setting time and thus delay the setting

of cement. Since these reduce the rate of hydration, more water is available and

better is the workability.

Example : Calcium sulphate, sugar, starch cellulose, ammonium chloride, ferrous

chloride and ferric chloride etc.

3. Air Entraining Agents : Air entrainment increases workability and resistance of

concrete to weathering. The possibility of bleeding or segregate and laitance also

gets reduced. However there is some loss in the strength of concrete.

Example: Wood resins, fats, lignosulphonate etc.

4. Plasticizers : These are organic or combination of organic and inorganic substances

which allow a water reduction for a given workability or give higher workability at

same water content.

Examples : Carboxylic acids, calcium lignosulphonate , hydroxy carboxylic acids

etc.

5. Superplasticizers : They are hydrodynamic lubricants which impart high workability

by reducing the amount of water to be added. They are improved version of

plasticizers which interact both physically and chemically with cement particles.

They are anionic in nature and impart negative charge to the cement particles.

Examples : Sulphonated melamine formaldehyde, napthalene sulphonated

formaldehyde condensates, mixture of saccharates and acid amides.

(i)

Design considerations for earth dams in earthquake or seismic regions:

1. Cohesionless graded filter upstream : When the central core made of tough cohesive

material i.e. clay develops cracks due to earthquakes there must be the provision of

an upstream graded filter with fine sand.

Graded filter

with fine sand

Graded filter

Loose rock Clay core

Cohesionless graded filter downstream : Large cracks in the core due to earthquake

may develop excessive leakage and piping through the embankment. There must

be the provision of a cohesionless graded filter placed just downstream of the core

and extending upto the top of the dam.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

22 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

2. Highly porous downstream zone : When the core of the dam is cracked by the

earthquake, large quantity of water may get into the downstream portion. The

excessive flows so develop should be discharged as quickly as possible otherwise

critically high water pressure may develop on the downstream side.

3. Thicker top dam section : During an earthquake, the top of the dam vibrates with

much greater amplitude than the base and is therefore more prone to damage.

Some other design considerations which are also considered are:

• Thicker core section : A thicker core section provides greater resistance to piping

and makes the dam safe against the tendency of earthquakes to twist the dam

alignment.

• Foundation treatment : Since a dam founded on soft soil is more severely shaken in

an earthquake and thus all loose or soft soils from the foundation should be removed

and replaced with hard and compact stone materials.

• Slope stability analysis with earthquake acceleration : An earthquake may occur

under any of the following conditions of reservoir operations:

– Steady state (reservoir full)

– Sudden draw down

Proper slope – stability analysis must be carried out for each of the above cases.

(ii)

N = 8.5

G = 1.676 m

d = 11.4 cm = 0.114 m

• Curve lead (C.L.) = 2GN

= 2 × 1.676 × 8.5 = 28.49 m

G

• Radius (R) = R0 −

2

where, R0 = 2GN 2 + 1.5G

= 2 × 1.676 × 8.52 + 1.5 × 1.676

= 244.69 m

1.676

∴ R = 244.69 − = 243.86 m

2

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 23

Q.4 (b) Solution:

(i)

• Equilibrium cant required for main track = 40 kmph

1720

= 3.6 − 60 = 44.8 kmph

8

2

GVMT

So, e = where G = 1.0 m for MG and V = 40 kmph

1.27 R

1720

R = = 215 m

8

1 × (40) 2

∴ e = = 5.86 cm

1.27 × 215

• For metre gauge (MG), the cant deficiency for mainline = 50 mm = 5.0 cm is permitted.

• So, the cant for mainline track = (5.86 – 5.0) = 0.86 cm

• Therefore, the cant to be provided for branchline track = 0.86 cm i.e. negative cant.

With cant deficiency of 5.0 cm which is permissible, the speed of train will be for a

cant of (5.0 – 0.86) = 4.14 cm

Hence, permissible speed on the branch line is given by

2

1.0 × VBT 9

4.14 = ×

1.27 1720

⇒ 2 = 1004.824

VBT

⇒ VBT = 31.70 kmph

1720

Check Vmax,BT = 3.6 RBT − 60 = 3.6 − 60

9

= 41.22 kmph

So, the restricted speed on the branch track = 31.7 kmph

(ii)

Ballast performs the following functions:

• It transfers the load from the sleeper to the subgrade soil and then distributes it

uniformly over a large area of the formation.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

24 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

• It holds the sleeper in position and prevents the lateral and longitudinal movement

of sleepers due to dynamic loads.

• It imparts some degree of elasticity to the track.

• It provides easy means of maintaining the correct levels of the two rail lines of the

track and for correcting track alignment.

• It provides good drained foundation immediately below the sleepers and helps to

protect the top surface of the foundation.

Requirements of good ballast: To perform the above mentioned functions, the ballast

should have the following characteristics :

• It should be able to withstand crushing under dynamic loads.

• It should allow easy drainage and the voids should be large enough to prevent

capillary-action.

• It should not make the track dusty or muddy due to ballast getting powdered under

dynamic wheel loads.

• It should retain its position laterally and longitudinally under all conditions of traffic.

• It should not produce any chemical action with rail and metal sleepers.

Given: Grade of concrete is M25

Mean target strength, ft = fck + 1.65σ

= 25 + 1.65 × 4 = 31.6 N/mm2 at 28 days age

(for good quality control)

Acceptance criteria

1. Individual test results

≥ f ck − 3 ≥ 22 N/mm 2

Shift Cube Test results Average, f av 0.85 f av

1.15 f av 2. Mean of 4 Consecutive

(sample) N/mm 2 N/mm 2 N/mm 2

test results

≥ f ck + 0.825σ ≥ 25 + 0.825 × 4

= 28.3 28 N/mm 2

1 22, 28, 26 25.3 21.5 29.1 f avg = 25.3

2 26, 24, 28 26.0 22.1 29.9 f avg = 26.0

3 31, 35, 33 33.0 28.1 38.0 f avg = 33.0

4 32, 31, 33 32.0 27.2 36.8 f avg = 32.0

5 31, 32, 33 32.0 27.2 36.8 f avg = 32.0

6 26, 25, 24 25.0 21.3 28.8 f avg = 25.0

(i) All the individual cube strengths of specimens are within ±15% of average. Hence,

test results are valid.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 25

(ii)

25.3 + 26.0 + 33.0 + 32

(a) Average of samples 1, 2, 3 and 4 cubes =

4

= 29.1 N/mm2 ≥ 28 N/mm2 (OK)

26 + 33 + 32 + 32

(b) Average of samples 2, 3, 4 and 5 cubes =

4

= 30.8 N/mm2 ≥ 28 N/mm2 (OK)

33 + 32 + 32 + 25

(c) Average of samples 3, 4, 5 and 6 cubes =

4

= 30.5 N/mm2 > 28 N/mm2 (OK)

Individual cube strength ≥ 22 N/mm2

It is concluded that roof slab concrete complies with compressive strength requirement

of M25 grade as per IS 456 : 2000.

Section B : Design of Steel Structure-1+ Hydrology-1 Structural Analysis-2 + CPM PERT-2

Net cross-sectional area is given by,

⎛ 2 t ⎞

An = A g − n ( d ht ) + ∑ ⎜ Ps

⎝ 4 g ⎟⎠

For 16 mm rivets, diameter of holes,

d h = 16 + 1.5 = 17.5 mm

I, II

35 mm ps

16 mm diameter

75 mm rivets

40 mm + + +

140 mm

40 70 mm

mm

65 mm — + + +

35 mm

I

ps II

Effective width = (75 + 75 – 10) = 140 mm

Net cross-sectional areas along the sections I-I and II-II of connections are computed as:

(i) For section I-I,

An = (140 – 17.5)10 = 1225 mm2

1

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

26 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

⎛ p s2 ⎞

(ii) For section II-II, An = ⎜⎝ 140 − 2 × 17.5 + ⎟ 10

2 4 × 70 ⎠

ps2 × 10

= 1400 − 2 × 17.5 × 10 +

4 × 70

p s2 × 10

= 1050 +

4 × 70

Therefore, the net cross-sectional areas along the sections II and II are to be equal.

p s2 × 10

∴ 1050 + = 1225

4 × 70

⇒ p s2 = 175 × 28 ⇒ ps = 70 mm

Thus, the pitch of rivets should be 140 mm on each leg and rivets on two legs are

staggered by 70 mm as shown in above figure.

(i) Turnkey contract : As the name suggests, this comprehensive contract entrusts the

responsibility of all activities involved to the contracting agency, and the owner

simply wants to ‘turn the key’ at completion to take over the facility. Thus, in such

contracts all activities related to surveying, drawings, specifications, design, project

planning, construction and test operations are entrusted to one large contracting

organization, which may break the activities down and engage other agencies to

carry out specific jobs. At times, the contract may also include operating the facility

for the limited period. Such contracts have been found to be especially useful in

projects involving a combination of civil, electrical, mechanical, chemical and mining.

Turnkey contracts are seen typically in design and construction of industrial

complexes including petochemical plants and nuclear power stations.

These comprehensive contracts may include not only civil engineering and building

works but also procurement and installation of equipment and systems.

(ii) BOT contract : It is an acronym for build, operate and transfer (BOT) contract. Apart

from the responsibilities of the the turnkey contract, this throws the responsibility of

fund raising for the project in the contractor’s court. In return, the contractor is allowed

to ‘operate’ the facility for an agreed period of time to recover the cost incurred in

the design and construction of the facility. This system of contracting is useful when

the client does not want to invest directly in the project and wants to encourage

development projects through external funding as investment. It is also a method of

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 27

attracting and involving the private sector in public sector projects and infrastructure

development which typically involve very high capital investment. Since these

contracts often involve long-term relationship and commitments, it is crucial that

the contractor carries out his own research, not only the economic and technical

feasibility but also the social and administrative aspects of the project. Often, the

client somehow guarantees the contractor’s operating income.

1. Class 1 (Plastic compression member) : Class 1 cross-sections are those which can

form a plastic hinge and have (inelastic) rotation mechanism. In other words, the

cross-sections have sufficient plastic hinge rotation capacity to allow redistribution

of moments within the structure. The stress distribution for these sections is

rectangular.

2. Class 2 (Compact compression member) : Class 2 cross-sections are those which are

capable of developing a fully plastic stress distribution i.e. the plastic moment

capacity, but local buckling may prevent the development of plastic hinge with

sufficient rotation capacity at the section. In other words, these sections have limited

plastic hinge (inelastic) rotation capacity for formation of plastic mechanism. The

stress distribution for these sections is rectangular.

3. Class 3 (Semi compact compression member) : These are the cross-sections in which

the stress in the extreme compression member/fibre of the section (assuming elastic

distribution of stresses) can reach the yield strength, but the section is not capable of

developing the plastic moment of resistance due to local buckling effects. The w/t

ratio of plate elements should be equal or less than that specified under class 3 but

greater than that specified under class 2 (compact). The stress distribution for these

sections is triangular.

4. Class 4 (Slender compression member) : These are the cross-sections in which one

or more parts of the cross-section buckle locally even before reaching yield stress.

The reduction in design stress is severe. In such cases, to account for the post-local

buckling strength of the cross-section, the width of the compression plate element in

excess of the semi-compact section limit is deducted.

As a result, it is usually more economically to thicken the members to take them out

of slender range.

Partially penetrating wells :

A partially penetrating artesian well is the one in which the well screen does not penetrate

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

28 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

to the full depth of the confined aquifer. The pattern of flow in the aquifer in the vicinity

of such a well deviates from that for a fully penetrating well. In practice, we often

encounter such wells that extend only part way through the water bearing strata.

The below figure shows a partially penetrating artesian well in which strainer length b1

is less than the aquifer thickness b. The discharge QP, from such well can be computed

from the following:

2 πkb 1 ( H − h w ) ⎡ rw ⎛ πb ⎞ ⎤

QP = ⎢1 + 7 cos ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎥

⎛ R⎞ 2b1 ⎝ 2H ⎠

ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎦

⎝ rw ⎠

(Kozeny’s equation)

QP

Ground surface

ression

Co ne of d ep

h hw b1

b Confined aquifer

Impervious layer

(i) We have,

Discharge of single tubewell,

2 πkHs

Q1 =

⎛ R⎞

2.303 log 10 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ rw ⎠

Substituting the given values,

2 × 3.14 × 10 −3 × 12 × 5

Q = = 0.0496 m 3 /sec

⎛ 300 ⎞

2.303 log 10 ⎜

⎝ 0.15 ⎟⎠

(ii) Discharge for each identical tubewell, when both are working is given by,

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 29

2 πkHs

Q =

⎛ R2 ⎞

2.303 log 10 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ rw B ⎠

2 × 3.14 × 10 −3 × 12 × 5

Q2 = = 0.0465 m 3 /sec

⎛ 300 2 ⎞

2.303 log ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 0.15 × 180 ⎠

⎛ 0.0496 − 0.0465 ⎞

Percentage decrease in discharge = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ × 100 = 6.25%

0.0496

Total factored load = 1.5 × 40 = 60 kN

Maximum bending moment,

( wl)l 60 × 4

Mmax = = = 30 kN.m

8 8

wl 60

Maximum shear force, Vmax = = = 30 kN

2 2

Plastic section modulus required,

M max × γ m0 6 1.1

Zp,required = = 30 × 10 ×

fy 250

= 132 × 103 mm3

< Zpz of ISLB 200 (= 184.34 × 103 mm3)

Check for shear capacity

Maximum shear force, V = 30 kN

Design shear strength of the section,

fy

Vd = ( ht w )

3 γ mo

250 × 200 × 5.4

=

3 × 1.1 × 1000

= 141.713 kN > 30 kN

Hence OK

Check for high/low shear

0.6 Vd = 0.6 × 141.713 = 85.02 kN

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

30 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

⇒ V < 0.6 Vd

⇒ Low shear case

Check for design bending strength

fy

Md = β b z p

γ m0

250

3

= 1 × 184.34 × 10 × × 10 −6 = 41.895 kNm

1.1

fy

Also; Md ≤ 1.2 Z e

γ mo

250

3

= 1.2 × 169.7 × 10 × × 10 −6 = 46.28 kNm

1.1

Md (=41.895 kNm) < 46.28 kNm

⇒ Hence safe in bending

⇒ Md = 41.895 kNm

Check for deflection

l 4 × 10 3

δlimit = = = 13.13 mm

300 300

5 wl 4

δ =

384 EI

5 40 × 10 3 × (4 × 10 3 ) 3

= × = 9.82 mm

384 2 × 10 5 × 1696.6 × 10 4

δlimit > δ

⇒ Safe in deflection

Check for web buckling and crippling

Since ISLB 200 is a rolled section, thus dimensions are so adjusted that check for

secondary criteria i.e. for web crippling and buckling is not required.

Thus section ISLB 200 is safe for the given loading and support conditions.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 31

Q.6 (b) Solution:

W = 3000 m

PI PII

U/S l = 500 m D/S

h1 = 1.0 m

h2 =1.5 m

Unconfined

aquifer H = 60 m

as alluvial valley of unconfined aquifer

Given:

Hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer material = 30 m/day

Distance between two piezometers = 500 m

Difference of water levels between two piezometers = 0.5 m = (1.5 – 1.0) m

Average height of the aquifer material = 60 m

Porosity of the aquifer material = 30% or 0.30

Travelling distance of water or length = 15 km or 15000 m

Consumption of water per head per day = 140 litres

(i) Velocity of groundwater flow :

ν = ki

⎛ h − h1 ⎞

where, k = hydraulic conductivity (m/day), i = hydraulic gradient = ⎜ 2 ⎟⎠

⎝ l

l = distance between two piezometers

(1.5 − 1.0)

Therefore, v = 30 × = 0.03 m/day

500

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

32 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

L ⎛ L⎞

Tw = = ⎜ ⎟ ×n

vs ⎝ v ⎠

where, L = travelling distance of water or length (m), v = velocity of the ground water

v

flow (m/day), n = porosity of aquifer material, vs = seepage velocity =

n

⎛ 15000 ⎞ ⎛ 30 ⎞ 1

∴ Tw = ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ × ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ ×

0.03 100 365

(iii) Population that can use the groundwater (Pg ):

Q

Pg = , where Q = v × A and A = W × H

Cw

where, Q = total quantity of water flowing into the aquifer, Cw = consumption of water

per head per day, v = velocity of groundwater flow (m/day), A = area of cross-section of

the valley, W = Width of aquifer material, H = Height of the aquifer material (m)

then A = 60 × 3000 = 180000 m2

and Q = 0.03 × 180000

= 5400 m3/day = 5400000 l/day

5400000

∴ Pg = = 38571.43 38570 (say)

140

Thus, the availability of groundwater is 5400 m3/day, which can be utilised by 38570

people.

Given, span of arch = 48 m,

⎛ x2 ⎞

Equation of arch, y = x − ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 40 ⎠

at x = 0, y = 0

x = 48, y = –9.6 m

dy

= 0

dx

2x

⇒ 0 = 1−

40

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 33

⇒ x = 20 m

at x = 20 m, y = 10 m

The arch and the loading is shown below

20 kN/m C

y D

10 m

A 19.6 m

x

HA

6m

20 m B

VA

HB

28 m

VB

∑MA = 0

VB × 48 – 20 × 20 × 10 – HB × 9.6 = 0

VB – 0.2 HB = 83.33 ...(i)

∑Fx = 0

HA = HB ...(ii)

MC = 0 [Consider left part of the arch ADC]

VA × 20 – HA × 10 – 20 × 20 × 10 = 0

2VA – HA = 400 ...(iii)

∑Fy = 0

⇒ VA + VB = 20 × 20 = 400 kN ...(iv)

From equation (i), (ii) and (iii), we get

VB – 0.2 (2VA – 400) = 83.33

VB – 0.4VA + 80 = 83.33

VB – 0.4VA = 3.33 ...(v)

Solving equation (iv) and (v), we get

V B = 116.67 kN

VA = 283.33 kN

From equation (iii), we get

HA = HB = 166.67 kN

Let θ be the inclination of the arch axis at section D. [x = 6 m]

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

34 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

dy ⎛ 2x ⎞

tan θ = = ⎜1 − ⎟

dx ⎝ 40 ⎠

⎛ 2 × 6⎞

tan θ = ⎜⎝ 1 − ⎟ = 0.7

40 ⎠

θ = 35°

Vr VD

θ ND

20 kN/m θ

H = 166.67 kN

VA = 283.33 kN

ND = H cos θ + VD sin θ

V D = VA – (20 × 6)

= 283.33 – (20 × 6)

V D = 163.33 kN

= 166.67 × cos 35° + 163.33 sin 35°

ND = 230.2 kN (Compression)

Radial shear, Vr = VD cos θ – H sin θ

= 163.33 (cos 35°) – 166.67 (sin 35°)

Vr = 38.2 kN

(ii) Maximum bending moment (+ve) →

Let the maximum +ve bending moment occurs at section X-X distant x the left end.

Then, the moment

x2

Mx = 283.33x − 20 × − 166.67 × y x

2

2 ⎛ x2 ⎞

283.33 x − 10 x − 166.67 ⎜ x −

=

⎝ 40 ⎟⎠

= (116.67x – 5.83x2)

dM x

For maximum Mx, = 0 to obtain the value for x

dx

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 35

dM x

⇒ = 116.67 – 11.66x

dx

⇒ x = 10 m from left support.

∴ Mmax (+ve) = 583.4 kNm

Maximum (–ve) BM

Again, taking X-X section distant x from support B, moment

Mx = 116.67 x – 166.67 yx

= 7.5x2 – 180x

⎛ x2 ⎞

Maximum (–ve) = 116.67 x − 166.67 × ⎜ x −

⎝ 40 ⎟⎠

= 116.67x – 166.67x + (4.167)x 2

= –50x + (4.167)x 2

dM x( − ve )

For maximum negative moment =0

dx

x = 6.0 m

∴ M(–ve) = –150 kNm

+ve

–ve

10 m 6m

BMD

(i)

t 0 + 4t m + t p

Expected time, te =

6

2

⎛ t p − t0 ⎞

Variance, σ2 = ⎜

⎝ 6 ⎟⎠

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

36 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

Activity te σ2

1-2 3 0.250

1-3 6 0.111

1-4 4 0.444

2-5 7 0.694

3-5 4 0.340

4-6 5 0.250

5-6 5 0.111

4

4 5

3

1 2 5 6

7 5

6 4

3

Here both the paths 1-2-5-6 and 1-3-5-6 have same project duration.

Standard deviation, σ along path 1-2-5-6,

σ1-2-5-6 = σ 12− 2 + σ 22 − 5 + σ 25 − 6

Now, standard deviation, σ along path 1-3-5-6,

σ1-3-5-6 = σ 12− 3 + σ 32 − 5 + σ 52 − 6

Among the two paths,

Path 1-2-5-6 have more standard deviation, hence 1-2-5-6 is critical path.

(ii)

Rate Analysis : The method of determination of rate per unit of a particular item of

work considering the cost of quantities of materials, the cost of labourers, hire of tools

and plants, overhead charges, water charges, contractor’s profit etc. is known as rate

analysis.

Purpose of rate analysis :

• To determine the current rate per unit of an item of work at the locality.

• To examine the viability of rates quoted by the contractors.

• To ascertain the quantity of materials and labour strengths required to complete

the project.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 37

• To revise the schedule of rates due to increase in the cost of materials and labour

or due to changed situations.

Factors affecting rate analysis: The following factors affect the rate of a particular item

of work:

• Specifications of works and materials, quality of material, proportion of mix,

method of construction, operation etc.

• Quantities of materials and their rates.

• Number of different types of labour and their rates.

• Location of site of work and its distance from the sources of materials and rates

of transport.

• Availability of water.

• Miscellaneous and overhead expenses of contractor.

• Location of site and its conditions.

(i)

Stage is defined as the height of the water surface above a datum plane, whereas gauge

height can be defined as the water surface elevation to some predetermined gauge datum.

Methods of measurement of stage of a channel:

• Actual wading through the stream with a staff gauge.

• Fixing gauges along the cross-section.

• By suspending the gauge from a structure.

• Recording type of gauge.

• Automatic water stage recorder.

(ii)

Discharge is given by Manning’s formula :

1

Q = AR 2/3S 1/2

n

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

38 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

1 2

TEL

V12

(Hf + He) = 0.98

2g

y1 V22

HGL

2g

h1

y2

h2

z1

z2

1 2

⎛ Q⎞

This formula is further modified to take average conveyance ⎜ K = ⎟ into account as

⎝ S⎠

follows:

Q = K 1K 2 S

1

where, K = AR 2/3 for each section

n

Conveyance for section 1-1,

2/3

1 ⎛ A⎞

K1 = ⎜ ⎟ ×A

0.045 ⎝ P ⎠

2/3

1 ⎛ 206 ⎞

K1 = ⎜ ⎟ × 206 = 9876.97 9877

0.045 ⎝ 65 ⎠

Conveyance for section 2-2

2/3

1 ⎛ 200 ⎞

K2 = ⎜ ⎟ × 200 = 10665.53 10666

0.045 ⎝ 53.8 ⎠

As a first approximation,

S = slope of energy line

S = = = = 7.84 × 10 −3

Length of fall L 125

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 39

With this discharge, average velocity of flow at both the sections can be calculated.

The energy loss due to contraction/expansion is computed as :

908.8

V1 = = 4.41 m/s

206

908.8

V2 = = 4.54 m/s

200

⎛ V12 V22 ⎞ 4.41 2 4.54 2

Δh v = ⎜ − ⎟ = − = −0.059 m

⎝ 2 g 2 g ⎠ 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81

Since Δhv is negative,

Δh + Δh v ⎛ 0.98 + 0.059 ⎞

S = =⎜ ⎟⎠ = 0.008312

L ⎝ 125

2nd Iteration

935.8

V1 = = 4.54 m/s

206

935.8

V2 = = 4.68 m/s

200

V12 V22 4.54 2 4.68 2

Δh v = − = − = −0.0657

2 g 2 g 2 × 9.81 2 × 9.81

Since Δhv is negative,

Δh + Δh v 0.98 + 0.0657

S = = = 8.365 × 10 −3

L 125

Q = 938.77 cumecs

3rd iteration

938.77

V1 = = 4.55 m/s

206

938.77

V2 = = 4.69 m/s

200

Δh v = –0.0659

S = 8.367 × 10–3

Q = 938.85 cumecs

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

40 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

(i)

We know,

wl 2 1 × (140) 2

Horizontal thrust, H = = = 175 kN

8yc 8 × 14

wl 1 × 140

Vertical reaction, V = = = 70 kN

2 2

Maximum tension, Tmax = (175) 2 + (70) 2 = 188.48 kN

The shape of the cable is parabola and thus its equation taking the origin at top of left

pier is:

4yc

y = (l − x ) x

l2

dy 4yc

Slope of the cable, = at x = 0

dx l

4 × 14

⇒ tan θ = = 0.40

140

∴ θ = 21°48′

(a) Horizontal pull on the pier in case of frictionless pulley on top of piers,

30° θ

T

T

H = 11.77 kN

Vertical pressure on pier,

= 164.24 kN

(b) In case of saddle on rollers,

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 41

30° θ

T1

T2

H1 = H2 = 175 kN

T1 cos 21°48′ = T2cos 30°

T2 = = = 202.07 kN

cos 30° cos 30°

Vertical pressure on pier = T1 sin 21°48′ + T2 sin 30°

= 188.48 (0.371368) + 202.07 (0.50)

= 171.03 kN

(ii)

∵ W1 = 0.25 MN

W2 = 0.6 MN

Δx = 8 × 10–2 m

∵ We know that F = kx (spring constant in springs)

∴ (0.6 – 0.25) × 106 = k × 8 × 10–2

∴ k = 4375000 N/m

1 k

∵ Natural frequency, fn =

2π m

Case-1: When wagon is empty

1 k 1 4375000

fn = = × 9.81 = 2.085 sec −1

2 π m 2 π 0.25 × 10 6

⇒ T 1 = 0.479 s

Case-2: When wagon is loaded

m 0.6 × 10 −6

T2 = 2π = 2π = 0.743s

k 4375000 × 9.81

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

42 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

(i)

Principle of recuperation test : Although the pumping test gives accurate value of the

safe yield, it sometimes becomes very difficult to adjust rate of pumping so as to keep

the well level constant. In such cases, recuperation test is adopted.

In this method, the water is first of all drained from the well at a fast rate. So as to cause

sufficient drawdown. The pumping is then stopped. The water level in the well start

rising. The time taken by the water to come back to its normal level or same other

measured level is then noted.

Let k0 = Specific capacity of well which depends upon characteristics of the aquifer and

area of the well.

h at t

H2 at t = T

I = dh

H1 at t = 0

Let the well be pumped at a constant rate Q till draw down H1 is obtained. The pump is

now stopped and well is allowed to recuperate. The water depth in the well is measured

at various intervals t of time.

From stopping of the well,

H1 = drawdown at start of recuperation, t = 0

H2 = drawdown at a time, t = Tr

h = drawdown at time t

Δh = decrease in drawdown in time Δt

At any time t, the flow into the well Q = k0h

In a time interval, Δt causing a small change Δh in the water table level,

QΔt = k0hΔt = –AΔh ...(i)

where A is the area of the well. In differential form, eq. (i) can be written as,

A dh

dt = −

k0 h

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 43

Integrating for interval Tr

Tr H2

A dh

∫ dt = −

k0 ∫ h

0 H1

A ⎛ H1 ⎞

⇒ Tr = ln

k 0 ⎜⎝ H 2 ⎟⎠

k0 1 ⎛H ⎞

⇒ = ln ⎜ 1 ⎟

A Tr ⎝ H 2 ⎠

k0

The term = ks represents specific capacity per unit well area of the aquifer and is

A

essentially a property of the aquifer.

∴ Yield Q from an open well under a depression head H is given as

Q = ksAH

(ii)

Given, Yield, Q = 0.01 m3/s = 10 l/s

Depression head, H = 2.5 m

ks = specific capacity per unit area = 0.60/hour

3 3

∴ Q = 0.01 m /s = 0.01 × 60 × 60 = 36 m /hour

We know,

Q = ksAH

where, A = Area of dug well

∴ 36 = 0.6 × A × 2.5

⇒ A = 24 m2

Let dw be the diameter of well, then

2

πd w

= 24

4

⇒ dw = 5.53 m 5.6 m

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

44 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

P

3m Z Z L/2

6m y y y y

Y Y z z

3m L/2

Z

Z

buckling buckling

The column is effectively restrained at mid-height by a bracing member in y-y direction

as shown above.

∴ Effective length, ly = kyl

6

⇒ ly = 1 × = 3 m for buckling in y-y axis.

2

Now, for ISMB 350

The buckling curve to be used along y-y axis will be curve b.

∴ Imperfection factor, α = 0.34

Non dimensional slenderness ratio,

2

⎛ ly ⎞

fy × ⎜ ⎟

⎝ ry ⎠

λy =

π 2E

2

⎛ 3 × 10 3 ⎞

250 × ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 28.4 ⎠

= = 1.189 1.19

π 2 × 2 × 10 5

∴ (

φy = 0.5 ⎡⎣ 1 + α λ y − 0.2 + λ 2y ⎤⎦)

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 45

f y / γ m0

Design compressive stress, fcd =

( )

⎡ 2 2 0.5 ⎤

⎢⎣ φ y + φ y − λ y ⎥⎦

( 250/1.1)

=

⎡

⎢(1.376) +

⎣

{(1.376) 2

− ( 1.19 ) }

2 0.5 ⎤

⎥

⎦

= 109.98 N/mm2

Area of cross-section = 6671 mm2

∴Design compressive strength,

P d = Ae fcd

= 109.98× 6671 N 733.7 kN (say) ...(i)

(ii) Buckling about z-z axis:

Effective length in z-z direction,

lz = kz l

= 1.0 × 6.0 = 6 m

(∵ both ends of column are pinned and no restraint at mid height in z-z direction)

For buckling in z-z direction, the buckling curve will be ‘a’ curve, and thus α = 0.21

Non-dimensional slenderness ratio,

2 2

⎛l ⎞ ⎛ 6000 ⎞

fy ⎜ z ⎟ 250 × ⎜

⎝ rz ⎠ ⎝ 142.9 ⎟⎠

λz = = = 0.473

π 2E π 2 × 2 × 10 5

∴ φz = 0.5 ⎡⎣ 1 + α ( λ z − 0.2 ) + λ 2z ⎤⎦

2

= 0.5 ⎡⎣ 1 + 0.21 ( 0.473 − 0.2 ) + ( 0.473) ⎤⎦ 0.64

( f y / γ m0 ) =

( 250 / 1.1)

∴ fcd =

( ) ( )

⎡ 2 2 0.5 ⎤ ⎡ 2 2 0.5 ⎤

⎢⎣ φ z + φ z − λ z ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 0.64 + 0.64 − 0.473 ⎥⎦

= 212.18 N/mm2

∴ Design compressive strength,

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

46 | ESE 2018 : MAINS TEST SERIES

fcd = Ac fcd

= 6671 × 212.18 N

= 1415.45 kN ...(ii)

Hence, the design compressive strength is the least of (i) and (ii) i.e., 733.7 kN.

K-system of forces:

The forces in the members due to unit vertical load applied at C.

Taking moments about A,

RD × 4 sin 60° = 1 × 2 × 4 sin 60°

⇒ R D = 2.0 kN

At joint C,

kCB = kCD

and kCD = 1 kN (compressive), kCB = 1 kN (Tensile)

At joint B,

kAB = kBC = 1 kN (tensile)

kBD = kBA cos 60° + kBC cos 60° = 1 cos 60° + 1 cos 60°

= 2 × cos 60° = 1 kN (compressive)

At joint D

kDA sin 60° = kDC sin 60°

⇒ kDA = kDC = 1 kN (compressive)

These forces are tabulated below with tensile forces as positive and compressive forces

as negative.

Extension due to given loading of W = 80 kN

P

For all members, = 100 N/mm2

A

where, L = 4000 mm and E = 200 kN/mm2 = 2 × 105 N/mm2

PL

Therefore, change in length Δ =

AE

100 × 4000

= = 2 mm

2 × 10 5

These values are tabulated below.

Extension due to erroneous fabrication δ f : Only length of member BD is erroneous. It

is 5 mm long. These values are tabulated and total Δ values are calculated.

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in

Test No : 8 CIVIL ENGINEERING | 47

AB 1 2 0 2 2

BC 1 2 0 2 2

CD −1 −2 0 −2 2

DA −1 −2 0 −2 2

BD −1 −2 5 3 −3

∑kΔ = 5

PkL ⎛ PL ⎞

Therefore, vertical deflection of joint C is

AE

= ∑ ⎜⎝ AE ⎟⎠ k

∑kΔ = 5 mm

© Copyright: www.madeeasy

www.madeeasy.in

.madeeasy.in