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Index No.

3 7 - F C 1 7 111 S - G 0 1 - 0 1

Shenhua Guohua Indonesia Jawa-7 Coal Fired Power Plant Project


2×1050MW Detail Design

Report on Geotechnical
Engineering Investigation

Engineering Consulting Qualification Certificate No. A11820060021
Engineering Investigation Qualification Certificate No. B137010481 
August 2016    JINAN
Content
1 Preface ......................................................................................................1 

2 Engineering geological condition ............................................................1 

2.1 Geomorphology ............................................................................1 


2.2 Sub-soils ........................................................................................2 
2.3 Water conditions in the site ...........................................................5 
2.4 Frozen depth..................................................................................6 
3 Evaluation of physical and mechanical parameters of foundation ..........7 

3.1 Characteristic value of bearing capacity .......................................7 


3.2 Groundwater corrosivity ...............................................................7 
3.4 Soil corrosivity ..............................................................................7 
3.5 Recommended physical and mechanical parameters of foundation 7 
4 Seismic effect .........................................................................................10 

4.1 Foundation soil type and site classification ................................10 


4.2 Seismic parameters .....................................................................10 
4.3 Liquefaction ................................................................................10 
4.4 Classification of Seismic Fortification .......................................10 
5 Evaluation of subsoil.............................................................................. 11 

5.1 Evaluation of soft soil ................................................................. 11 


5.2 Evaluation of natural foundation ................................................ 11 
5.3 Evaluation of soft soil foundation............................................... 11 
5.4 Evaluation of artificial foundation ..............................................12 
5.5 Assessment on pile foundation ...................................................12 
6 Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................14 
1 Preface
The proposed site of Shenhua Guohua Indonesia jawa7 coal fired power plant
project 2×1050MW is located at Selang Java, Cilegon, Indonesia, southeast of
Jakarta city about 85km.
2 Engineering geological condition
2.1 Geomorphology
The proposed site is located in the western coastal plain in Java Island with flat
terrain, and the geomorphogenesis type is alluvial plain. The geomorphic type is
coastal inclined plain and intertidal belt. The proposed site is mainly occupied
with pond and ditch, and the pond is connected with the ditch by earth dam made
through artificial deposit. During the survey, the elevation of the site varies from
-0.62 to 2.50m. The land-form is shown in the figure below. During the survey,
drainage work and earth work were in progress and the original land-form of the
site has been destroyed.

The land-form of the proposed site

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2.2 Sub-soils
The overlying stratum of the proposed site is artificial filling stratum (Q4s)and
paralic sedimentary stratum (Q4mc) in Holocene, and alluvium in upper
pleistocene(Q3al+pl) in Quaternary Period and the lithology is the plain fill, mud,
muddy clay, silty clay, medium-coarse sands and clay. Subterrane stratum is the
volcanic rock, and the lithology is primarily the basalt. Now the sub-soils
characteristics of the site are described from the new to the old and from the upper
to the lower:
2.2.1 Artificial filling stratum in Holocene (Q4s)
①Plain fill: Being dark gray and yellowish-brown in slightly dense state and
wet~saturated. It is mainly formed by mud filling, and the clay soil is mainly
material. The plant root is visible. The stratum thickness is 0.30~2.80m, burial
depth of stratum bottom is 0.30~2.80m, and the elevation of stratum bottom is
-1.59~0.58m.
2.2.2 The alluvium of marine and continent inter-bedding in Holocene (Q4mc)
②Mud: Being livid, ash black and other colors and in liquid-plastic and saturated
state with shell fragments and high organic contents partly. The stratum thickness
is 0.70~18.80m, burial depth of stratum bottom is 2.10~19.30m, and the
elevation of stratum bottom is -18.91 ~ -1.48m. This stratum is general
distribution in the site.
②-1Muddy clay: Being ash black and in flow plastic to soft plastic state. Being
saturated, and mingled with rotten wood partly and high organic contents with the
smell of stench.Stratum thickness is 0.45~6.00m, burial depth of stratum bottom
is 3.50~18.00m, and the elevation of stratum bottom -17.30~-1.88m. This
stratum is primarily existed in the ② stratum with the type of interlayer or
lenticular body.
②-2Clay: Being livid, grayish brown and in the plastic state. Being very wet and
mixed with lots of fine sands partly. Stratum thickness is 0.50~4.70m, burial
depth of stratum bottom is 0.80~17.30m, and the elevation of stratum bottom

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-16.40~-0.10m. This stratum is primarily existed in the ② stratum with the type
of interlayer or lenticular body.
②-3Medium-coarse sand: Being grayish black, grayish yellow and loose and
saturated state with high clay contents and rotten wood partly. The stratum
thickness is 0.65~3.70m, burial depth of stratum bottom is 8.00~21.60m, and
the elevation of stratum bottom is -20.55~-6.70m. This stratum is primarily
existed in the bottom of ②stratum with the type of interlayer or lenticular body.
②-4 Mixed coral fragments and mud: The mud is livid and in liquid-plastic and
saturated state. The coral fragments are ashen with the contents of 20~40% in the
layer. The general grain size is 1.0~3.0cm with the maximum grain size larger
than 7cm and column rock is appeared partly in the core. The stratum thickness is
3.00~5.60m, burial depth of stratum bottom is 6.10~7.40m, and the elevation of
stratum bottom is -5.93~-5.74m. This stratum is mainly distributed in the north
of aeration tank, in the south of the water center, and in the eastern scope of the
coal transporting trestle. The exposure thickness is larger in the holes of D99,
D112, D125 and D126 and the contents of coral fragments are higher, while the in
the holes of D98 and D113 it is only about 20cm.
2.2.3 Alluvium in upper pleistocene of Quaternary (Q3al+pl)
③Medium-coarse sand: Being livid, yellowish-brown and in dense and saturated
state. The core is cemented partly and the blocks and column rock are exposed
with the thin interlayer of silty-fine sands. The stratum thickness is 3.70~21.40m,
burial depth of stratum bottom is 17.00~30.30m, and the elevation of stratum
bottom is -29.60~-16.05m. This stratum is general distribution in the site.
③-1Medium-coarse sand: Being yellowish-brown, grayish-yellow and in medium
dense to dense and saturated state and partly changes into silty-fine sands. The
stratum thickness is 0.65~4.00m, burial depth of stratum bottom is 5.00~
28.60m, and the elevation of stratum bottom is -27.50~-4.40m. This stratum is
primarily existed in the top of ③stratum with the type of interlayer or lenticular
body.

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③-2Silty clay: Being livid, grayish-yellow and in the plastic and very wet state
mixed with many silty-fine sands partly. The stratum thickness is 0.50~5.50m,
burial depth of stratum bottom is 7.10~19.00m, and the elevation of stratum
bottom is -18.50~-7.23m. This stratum is primarily existed in the top of ②
stratum with the type of interlayer and lenticular body.
④Clay: Being yellowish-brown, livid and grayish-yellow and in hard plastic and
very wet state mixed with many loess-dolls and rubbles partly. The grain size is
generally 0.5~2.0cm with the maximum grain size 4cm. The stratum thickness is
0.30 ~ 22.70m, burial depth of stratum bottom is 24.50 ~ 54.50m, and the
elevation of stratum bottom is -53.62 ~ -23.32m. This stratum is general
distribution in the site.
④-1Medium-coarse sand: Being yellowish-brown and lividand in medium dense
to dense and saturated state. The clay contents are high and mixed with many
rubble and shell fragments partly. The stratum thickness is 0.60~9.65m, burial
depth of stratum bottom is 26.70~49.50m, and the elevation of stratum bottom is
-49.16~-25.72m. This stratum is primarily existed in the middle of ④stratum
with the type of interlayer or lenticular body.
④-2Clay: Being yellowish-brown and grayish-yellow in plastic and very wet state
with the interlayer of silty-fine sand. This stratum is distributed in the 500kV GIS
district, and only exposed in the holes of D3 and D6.
2.2.4 Volcanic rock (β)
The lithology of the volcanic rock exposed in this survey is mainly the basalt.
Strong-weathered basalt: Being gray and grayish-brown with the porphyritic
texture and block structure. The rock core exposed is blocks and short column
type and easy to fragile. The stratum thickness is 0.40~11.00m, burial depth of
stratum bottom is 25.30 ~ 52.00m, and the elevation of stratum bottom is
-51.53~-24.12m.
Moderate-weathered basalt: Being grayish green and gray with the porphyritic
texture and block structure. The rock core is column typeand is uneasy to fragile

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when hammered. The bottom of this stratum can not reach in this survey, and the
maximum exposed thickness is 2.00m.

2.3 Water conditions in the site


The water within the proposed site includes the underground water and surface
water.
2.3.1Undergound water
The type of underground water in the proposed site is pore-phreatic water,
perched groundwater and bedrock fissure water of Quaternary. The pore-phreatic
water and perched groundwater are mainly reserved in the stratum of top filling,
mud and medium-coarse sand, and the supply source is seawater, surface water
and rainfall. The water in this stratum is greatly influenced by the sea tide. When
the tide is rising, the water level will elevate, and when the tide is falling, the
water level will fall. It is recorded that the amplitude of variation is about 1.00m
all the year; The bedrock fissure water is mainly existed in the bedrock fissure,
and its main supply source is seawater and Quaternary phreatic water.
During the survey, the burial depth of underground water level in the land part of
the proposed site is 0.00~2.70m and the elevation of water level is -0.69~0.78m.
This district is influenced by the seawater supply in long-term, and the annual
precipitation is large, so the surface water in the rainy season can obviously
supply the underground water. It is suggested to design and use the perennial
highest underground water level in the site with the height of 1.00m below the
zero design elevation.
2.3.2 Surface water
Before the site leveling, the surface water in the site is mainly distributed in the
ditches and ponds of the site. After leveling, the surface water in the ponds is
drained, so the surface water is mainly distributed in the ditches. The main supply
source is river water and rainfall and the main drainage forms are surface runoff
and atmospheric evaporation. Influenced by the tide water level, the depth of
surface water in the ditch of the factory site is about 0.50~1.50m.
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2.4 Frozen depth
Perennial minimum air temperature is above zero in the site, therefore, the
influence of frozen soil can be ignored.

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3 Evaluation of physical and mechanical parameters of foundation
3.1 Characteristic value of bearing capacity
Characteristic values of bearing capacity from different methods are listed in table
below and recommended characteristic values are provided.
Comprehensive determination of characteristic value of bearing capacity
Methods Physical
fak
Recommanded
and mechanical SPT value
value
parameters (kPa)
Stratum (kPa)
(kPa)

② mud <40 30

②-1muddy clay <105.0 45

②-2 clay 115.0 110

②-3medium-coarse sand <80.0 60

③medium-coarse sand >500.0 400

③-1medium-coarse sand 272.2 180

③-2 silty clay 415.0 230

3.2 Groundwater corrosivity


According to the investigation result,the groundwater is moderate corrosion on
concrete structure and is strong corrosion on the reinforcing steel bar in reinforced
concrete structures in the circumstance of alternation of wetting and drying(less
than 4m under surface)while weak corrosion in the circumstance without
alternation of wetting and drying(more than 4m under surface).
3.4 Soil corrosivity
According to the investigation result,the soil in the field is micro corrosion on
concrete structure and is strong corrosion on the reinforcing steel bar in reinforced
concrete structures.
3.5 Recommended physical and mechanical parameters of foundation
According to statistical data and caculated results, the recommended physical and
mechanical parameters of foundation are listed as below:

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Table 3.5 Recommended physical and mechanical parameters of foundation
Triaxial shear Compressi
Moisture Unit Natural Triaxial shear (CU) Triaxial shear Permea-
Saturation Plasticity liquid (UU) on
Content Weight Void bility
Stratum W γ Ratio
Sr index index cohesion friction cohesion friction cohesion friction
Coefficient
Es
(%) Ip IL a1-2
(%) (kN/m3) e0 c(kPa) Ø(degree) c(kPa) Ø(degree) c(kPa) Ø(degree) (MPa-1)
(MPa)

②mud 115.4 13.5 3.211 92.2 25.5 3.01 6.9 8.6 4.4 9.0 2.82 1.5

②-1 muddy clay 102.0 13.2 3.142 87.4 33.0 1.35 15.3 11.0 2.15 1.8

②-2clay 4.0
②-3 medium-
6.0
coarse sand
③medium-
18.0 27.7
coarse sand
③-1 medium-
18.0 10.2
coarse sand
③-2 silty clay 14.7

④ clay 50.7 16.8 1.197 96.8 24.2 0.08 51 14.8 0.23 10.9
④-1 medium-
18.0 9.8
coarse sand
④-2caly 4.5
Strong weathered
39.2
basalt

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Table3.5(continued) Recommended physical and mechanical parameters of foundation
Recommanded
Vertical Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Preconsolidati SPT Value of
consolidation permeability consolidation permeability on pressure value characteristic
Stratum N bearing capacity
Cv Kv Cv Kv Pc
(cm2/s) (cm/s) cm2/s cm/s (kPa) (blow) fak
(kPa)

②mud 4.09E-03 9.60E-06 4.10E-03 9.63E-06 173.5 0.6 30

②-1 muddy clay 5.69E-03 6.06E-05 4.96E-03 5.60E-05 191.9 1.5 40

②-2clay 3.5 110


②-3 medium-
7.5 60
coarse sand
③medium-
6.00E-03 57.1 450
coarse sand
③-1 medium-
18.7 180
coarse sand
③-2 silty clay 16.5 230

④ clay 205.1 14.0


④-1 medium-
16.9
coarse sand
④-2caly 4.2

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4 Seismic effect
4.1 Foundation soil type and site classification
According to the wave velocity test results,the equivalent shear wave velocity
value of the top 20m in height range from 79.15 to 97.18m/s. As per the table d
4.1.6 in code for seismic design of buildings (GB50011-2010), the site is
classified to grade Ⅲ.
According to the wave velocity test results in “FINAL REPORT
PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD (PSHA) AND SITE-SPECIFIC
RESPONSE ANALYSIS TO DERIVE SEISMIC CRITERIA FOR
PLTU-CILEGON”, the equivalent shear wave velocity value of the top 30m in
height is 102.16~123.03m/s,the equivalent SPT value is 1.50-2.18. As per
SNI-1726-2012,site is classified to grade SE, which means soft soil profile.
4.2 Seismic parameters
According to “INAL REPORT PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD
(PSHA) AND SITE-SPECIFIC RESPONSE ANALYSIS TO DERIVE SEISMIC
CRITERIA FOR PLTU-CILEGON”(Referring to Table 6-9 and Fig.6-5),the peak
surface acceleration at site with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years is
0.33g and the second group in the design earthquake groups is suggested to be
utilized.The Spectral Response Acceleration at period 0.2-sec is 0.761g and 1-sec
period is 0.32g while the long- period transition period TL=25s.
4.3 Liquefaction
If the earthquake intensity reached 8 degree, liquefaction may happen in the
stratums which are ②-3medium-coarse sand. The liquefaction grade may be
sligh to rmedium and the liquefaction depth may be 20.00m.
4.4 Classification of Seismic Fortification
According to table 4.1.1ofCode for seismic design of buildings (GB50011-2001),
the proposed site is an unfavorable section can be built on.

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5 Evaluation of subsoil
5.1 Evaluation of soft soil
The mud in the stratum of ② in the proposed site is distributed generally
with the liquid-plastic state. The standard penetration test value is 0~1 strike, and
the characteristic value of bearing capacity is 30kPa. The muddy clay is
distributed mostly in liquid-plastic state while partly in the liquid-plastic state.
The characteristic value of bearing capacity is 40kPa, and the engineering
property is extremely bad.
5.2 Evaluation of natural foundation
According to the survey results, the burial depth of foundation for all kinds of
buildings is located in ② mud and ②-1muddy clay, the engineering property of
①plain fill, ②mud, ②-1 muddy clay, ②-2 clay, ②-3 medium-coarse sands and
②-4 mixed coral fragments and mud cannot satisfy the requirement as the natural
subsoil without any treatment.
For the upper elevation of medium-coarse sands of ③ is -20.55~-3.26m, and
the upper elevation of bedrock is -50.25~-23.32m, the burial depth cannot satisfy
the main building foundation. Meanwhile, the upper elevation of ③ -1
medium-coarse sands is -26.40~-3.10m, and the upper elevation of ③-2 silty
clay is -16.40~-5.72m. The ③-1 medium-coarse sands, ③-2 silty clay , ③
medium-coarse sands and stratum below cannot satisfy the requirement as the
natural subsoil bearing stratum in the burial depth. Therefore, the stratum in the
site cannot satisfy the requirements of natural foudation.
5.3 Evaluation of soft soil foundation
According to the survey results, the mud with the thickness of 5.60~18.80m and
the muddy clay stratum are distributed in the proposed site with the characteristic
value of bearing capacity of 30kPa and 40kPa. They both are soft soil stratum
with high compressibility and the characteristics of high water content, large void
ratio, high compressibility and low shearing strength. The engineering property of
this two strata are extremely bad, and the construction equipment and vehicles
cannot go through normally. Also, after the completion of base, the basement
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would have greater settlement and differential settlement. Meanwhile, the mud
and muddy clay stratum in the site both are seismic subsidence soil that will be
collapsed when earthquake happens.
According to the comparative analysis on the construction mothod, treatment
effect and construction duration of all kinds of foundation treatment scheme, the
method of vacuum pre-loading, surcharge pre-loading or combined pre-loading
can be used combined with plastic drainage plate to pre-treat the ②mud and ②
-1 muddy clay stratum to improve the strength of subsoils and reduce the
post-construction settlement.
5.4 Evaluation of artificial foundation
After the pre-loading on ②mud and ②-1 muddy clay stratum, for the small
buildings, auxiliary or subsidiary buildings with lighter loads, the processed mud
and muddy clay stratum can be selected as the foundation bearing stratum when
the post-treatment foundation strength and deformation can satisfy the design
requirements.
If the requirements can not be satisfied, the cement soil mixing pile shall be used
based on the pre-loading treatment. Compare the costs of cast-in-situ pile plan and
cement soil mixing pile plan referring to the loads and deformation requirements
in the design, and the cast-in-situ pile plan should be used when the cost
difference between the two plans is quite small.
5.5 Assessment on pile foundation
It is suggested to adopt the pile foundation plan for the main power house, boiler,
chimney and other main buildings, auxiliary and subsidiary planned buildings
with large loads.
5.5.1 Selection of pile tip bearing stratum
It is shown that the ③medium-coarse sands, ④clay, ④-1medium-coarse sands
and strong-weathered and medium-weathered basalt can be chose as the pile tip
bearing stratum for pile foundation. The selection of suitable pile foundation
bearing stratum shall be considered comprehensively refering to the upper load,
settlement ,deformation requirements, costs and other factors in the design.
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Considering the burial depth of bearing stratum, the ③medium-coarse sands, ④
clay and ④-1 medium-coarse sands can be chose as the bearing stratum in main
building districts, and the ③medium-coarse sands can be chose as the bearing
stratum in the districts of auxiliary and subsidiary buildings and coal yard.
5.5.2 Pile parameters and piling control
The design of pile foundation should be based on the Report of Pile
Tests.The Rotary drilling machine is suggested to be used for piling.

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6 Conclusions and Recommendations
(1) The geomorphogenesis type is alluvial plain and the geomorphic type is
coastal inclined plain and intertidal belt. the elevation of the site varies form -0.62
to 2.50m.
(2) The overlying stratum of the proposed site is artificial filling stratum
(Q4s), paralic sedimentary stratum in Holocene (Q4mc) , and alluvium in upper
pleistocene(Q3al+pl) in Quaternary Period and the lithology is the plain fill, mud,
muddy clay, silty clay, medium-coarse sands and clay. Subterrane stratum is the
volcanic rock, and the lithology is primarily the basalt.
(3) The type of underground water in the proposed site are pore-phreatic
water, perched groundwater and bedrock fissure water of Quaternary. It is
suggested to design and use the perennial highest underground water level in the
site with the height of 1.00m below the zero design elevation.
The groundwater is moderate corrosion on concrete structure and is strong
corrosion on the reinforcing steel bar in reinforced concrete structures in the
circumstance of alternation of wetting and drying(less than 4m under surface)
while weak corrosion in the circumstance without alternation of wetting and
drying(more than 4m under surface)
(4) As per SNI-1726-2012,site is classified to grade SE, which means soft
soil profile. As per the GB50011-2010, the site is classified to grade Ⅲ. The
proposed site is an unfavorable section can be built on.
(5) The Spectral Response Acceleration at period 0.2-sec is 0.761g and 1-sec
period is 0.32g while the long- period transition period TL=25s.
The peak surface acceleration at site with 10% probability of exceedance in
50 years is 0.33g and the second group in the design earthquake groups is
suggested to be utilized.
(6) If the earthquake intensity reached 8 degree, liquefaction may happen in
②-3 medium-coarse sand stratum. The liquefaction grade may be sligh to
rmedium and the liquefaction depth may be 20.00m.
(7) The method of vacuum pre-loading, surcharge pre-loading or combined
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pre-loading can be used combined with plastic drainage plate to pre-treat the
②mud and ②-1 muddy clay stratum to improve the strength of subsoils and
reduce the post-construction settlement.
It is suggested to adopt the cast-in-situ pile plan for the main power house,
boiler, chimney and other main buildings, auxiliary and subsidiary planned
buildings with large loads. ③medium-coarse sands, ④clay, ④-1medium-coarse
sands and strong-weathered and medium-weathered basalt can be chosen as the
pile tip bearing stratum for pile foundation.
After the pre-loading on ②mud and ②-1 muddy clay stratum, for the small
buildings, auxiliary or subsidiary buildings with lighter loads, the preloaded mud
and muddy clay stratum can be selected as the foundation bearing stratum when
the post-treatment foundation strength and deformation can satisfy the design
requirements. If the requirements can not be satisfied, the cement soil mixing pile
plan and pile cast-in-situ pile plan shall be used based on the pre-loading
treatment.

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