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Objectives

This Strategic Intervention material in


Mathematics IX is intended to teach
students’ the easy and simple way of
finding and computing Sine, Cosine and
Tangent;

To explain further the three basic


troigonometry ratios and;

To evaluate the understanding and


comprehension skills of the students at the
end of the discussion.
Guide Card

The trigonometry has six ratios that are known as


trigonometric ratios. These are sine, cosine, tangent,
cotangent, secant and cosecant. Instead of their
whole name, we represent them in short as sin for
sine, cos for cosine, tan for tangent, cosec or csc for
cosecant, sec for secant and cot for
cotangent. Among those, basic trigonometric ratios
are three - sine, cosine and tangent – to which we
are discussing further.
SINE and COSINE
The sine (abbreviated "sin") and cosine ("cos") are the two most
prominent trigonometric functions. All other trig functions can be
expressed in terms of them. In fact, the sine and cosine functions are
closely related and can be expressed in terms of each other.

It is the simplest and most intuitive definition of the sine and cosine
function. The sine definition basically says that, on a right triangle, the
following measurements are related:

 the measurement of one of the non-right angles (q)


 the length of the side opposite to that angle
 the length of the triangle's hypotenuse

Alternately, the cosine definition basically says that, on a right triangle,


the following measurements are related:

 the measurement of one of the non-right angles (q)


 the length of the side adjacent to that angle
 the length of the triangle's hypotenuse

Futhermore, the first given definition gives exact equations that describe
each of these relations:

sin(q) = opposite / hypotenuse


cos(q) = adjacent / hypotenuse

This first equation says that if we evaluate the sine of that angle q,
we will get the exact same value as if we divided the length of the
side opposite to that angle by the length of the triangle's hypotenuse.
This second equation says that if we evaluate the cosine of that
angle q, we will get the exact same value as if we divided the length of
the side adjacent to that angle by the length of the triangle's
hypotenuse. This relation holds for any right triangle, regardless of size.
The main result is this: If we know the values of
any two of the above quantities, we can use the
above relation to mathematically derive the third
quantity. For example, the sine function allows us to
answer any of the following three questions:

"Given a right triangle, where the measurement


of one of the non-right angles (q) is known and the
length of the side opposite to that angle q is
known, find the length of the triangle's hypotenuse."

"Given a right triangle, where the measurement


of one of the non-right angles (q) is known and the
length of the triangle's hypotenuse is known, find the
length of the side opposite to that angle q."

"Given a right triangle, where the length of the


triangle's hypotenuse and the length of one of the
triangle's other sides is known, find the measurement
of the angle (q) opposite to that other side."
The cosine is similar, except that the adjacent side is
used instead of the opposite side.

The functions takes the forms y = sin(q) and x =


cos(q). Usually, q is an angle measurement and x and
y denotes lengths.

The sine and cosine functions, like all trig


functions, evaluate differently depending on the units
on q, such as degrees, radians, or grads. For
example, sin(90°) = 1, while sin(90)=0.89399...
If there is a degree sign after the angle, the trig
function evaluates its parameter as a degree
measurement. If there is no unit after the angle, the trig
function evaluates its parameter as a radian
measurement. This is because radian measurements are
considered to be the "natural" measurements for angles.
(Calculus gives us a justification for this. A partial
explanation comes from the formula for the area of a
circle sector, which is simplest when the angle is in
radians).

Calculator note: Many calculators


have degree, radian, and grad modes (360° = 2p rad =
400 grad). It is important to have the calculator in the
right mode since that mode setting tells the calculator
which units to assume for angles when evaluating any of
the trigonometric functions. For example, if the calculator
is in degree mode, evaluating sine of 90 results in 1.
However, the calculator returns 0.89399... When in radian
mode. Having the calculator in the wrong mode is a
common mistake for beginners, especially those that are
only familiar with degree angle measurements.

For those who wish to reconcile the various trig


functions that depend on the units used, we
can define the degree symbol (°) to be the value
(PI/180). Therefore, sin(90°), for example, is really just an
expression for the sine of a radian measurement when
the parameter is fully evaluated. As a demonstration,
sin(90°) = sin(90(PI/180)) = sin(PI/2). In this way, we only
need to tabulate the "natural" radian version of the sine
function. (This method is similar to defining percent % =
(1/100) in order to relate percents’ to ratios, such as 50%
= 50(1/100) = 1/2.)
Both functions are trigonometric cofunctions of each other, in that
function of the complementary angle, which is the "cofunction," is
equal to the other function:

sin(x) = cos(90°-x) and cos(x) = sin(90°-x).


Furthermore, sine and cosine are mutually orthogonal.

Orthogonal…
is used to describe lines that meet at a right angle, it also describes events that are
statistically independent, or do not affect one another in terms of outcome.

So, let’s go back to SINE…


In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle. The
sine of an acute angle is defined in the context of a right triangle: for the
specified angle, it is the ratio of the length of the side that is opposite that angle
to the length of the longest side of the triangle the hypotenuse.

At angle theta, compute for the value of


sin…
A. B.
While cosine is simply, the trigonometric function that is equal to
the ratio of the side adjacent to an acute angle (in a right-angled
triangle) to the hypotenuse.

But, the law of cosines generalizes the Pythagorean theorem,


which holds only for right triangles: if the angle γ is a right angle (of
𝜋
measure 90°, or radians), then cos γ = 0, and thus the law of
2
cosines reduces to the Pythagorean theorem:

c2 = a 2 + b 2
The law of cosines is useful for computing the third side of a
triangle when two sides and their enclosed angle are known, and
in computing the angles of a triangle if all three sides are known.

At angle theta, find the value of cosine


for following:

A.

B.
TANGENT
In a right triangle, the tangent of an angle is the length of
the opposite side divided by the length of the adjacent side.

The tangent function, along with sine and cosine, is one of


the three most common trigonometric functions. In any right
triangle, the tangent of an angle is the length of the opposite side
(O) divided by the length of the adjacent side (A). In a formula, it
is written simply as 'tan'.
𝑂
Tan =
𝐴

Often remembered as "TOA" - meaning


Often remembered as "TOA" - meaning Tangent is Opposite over Adjacent.
Tangent is Opposite over Adjacent

As an example, let's say we want to find the tangent of


angle C in the figure above. From the formula above we know
that the tangent of an angle is the opposite side divided by the
adjacent side. The opposite side is AB and has a length of 15. The
adjacent side is BC with a length of 26.
So we can write,
15
tanC= 26

This division on the calculator comes out to 0.577. So we can say


"The tangent of C is 0.5776" or;
 tan C = 0.577

If we look at the general definition -

𝑂
tan x = 𝐴

we see that there are three variables: the measure of the angle x, and
the lengths of the two sides (Opposite and Adjacent). So if we have any
two of them, we can find the third. In the figure above, Imagine we
didn't know the length of the side BC. We know that the tangent of A
(60°) is the opposite side (26) divided by the adjacent side AB - the one
we are trying to find.
𝐵𝐶
Tan 60o= 15

From our calculator we find that tan 60° is 1.733, so we can write
𝐵𝐶
1.733 = 15

Transposing:
BC = 15*1.733
which comes out to 26, which matches the figure above.
At angle theta, find the value of
A. tangent for following:

B.
Assessment Card

1. Mr. Hippopotenuse was struggling to climb the wedge stairs up to


his house when a mathematician saw him. He then tried to
compute the cosine of the wedge at angle C considering that
side A is 23, side B is 12 and side C is 48.

2-3. Also, he tried to look for sine at angle A and tangent at


angle B.
Enrichment Card

I. Determine the value of the following


trigonometric functions in the triangle ABC.

1. Sin A
2. Cos A
3. Tan C
4. Sin C
5. Tan A

II. Perform the following operations.

1. Sine θ
2. Cosine θ
3. Tangent θ
Enrichment Card

III. Determine which trigonometric function was used


given its value and line C as the hypotenuse

1. ____ A = 𝑎⁄𝑏
2. ____ B= 𝑎⁄𝑐
3. ____ B = 𝑏⁄𝑐
4. ____ B = 𝑎⁄𝑏
5. ____ A = 𝑏⁄𝑐

IV. Perform the following operations.

1. Sine θ
2. Cosine θ
3. Tangent θ
Reference Card

*Tutorvista
@https://math.tutorvista.com/trigonometry/trigonometric
-ratios-in-right-triangles.html

*Math Open Reference


@https://www.mathopenref.com/trigtangent.html

*MathisFun
@https://www.mathsisfun.com/algebra/sohcahtoa.html

*MathWorld
@http://mathworld.wolfram.com/SOHCAHTOA.html

*Mathwords
@http://www.mathwords.com/s/sohcahtoa.htm