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 Definitions
 Types of Sprinklers
 Deflector Orientation
 Peaks
 Steep Slopes
Victoria B. Valentine, P.E.
Director of Product Standards  Hydraulic Area Distances
April 6, 2010  Hanging Considerations
 FPRF Sloped Ceiling Project

All section references are based on the 2010 Edition of


NFPA 13 unless otherwise noted.
©2010 National Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 1 2

 3.3.5.3 Sloped Ceiling  Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers


◦ A ceiling with a slope exceeding 2 in 12.  Sidewall Spray Sprinklers
◦ 8.4.2(1) They can be used in light hazard
occupancies with smooth, horizontal or sloped, f lat
ceilings.
◦ They cannot be used in ordinary hazard with sloped
ceilings.

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 Extended Coverage Pendent and Upright  Control Mode Specific Application Sprinklers
Spray Sprinklers ◦ They can be used under a sloped ceiling for non-
◦ 8.4.3(4) They can be used with slopes up to 4 in 12 storage applications.
when listed for such use.  Early Suppression Fast Response Sprinklers
 Ext
Extended Covera e Sidewall S ra S rinklers ◦ 8.4.
8.4.6.
6.2
2 The
The canno
annott be used
sed where
ere the slo
slo e
◦ 8.4.3(5) They can be used per 8.9.4.2.2 for slopes exceeds 2 in 12.
that are more than 2 in 12.

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 12.1.2 Ceiling Slope  8.5.4.2 Deflectors of


◦ The sprinkler system criteria sprinklers shall be
specified in Chapter 12 and aligned parallel to
Chapters 14 through 20 are ceilings, roofs, or the
intended to apply to buildings
wit cei ing s opes not
incline of stairs
exceeding 2 in 12 (16.7  Helps the spray
percent) unless modified by a pattern form
specific section in Chapter 12 properly
and Chapters 14 through 20.

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 8.6.4.2.2 Where  8.6.4.2.3 Roofs having


sprinklers are a pitch not exceeding
installed in the peak 1 in 12 pitch 2 in 12 (16.7 percent)
below a sloped are considered
ceilin or roof   horizontal in the
surface, the application of 8.6.4.2,
sprinkler shall be and sprinklers shall be
installed with the permitted to be
deflector horiztonal. installed with
deflectors horizontal.

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 8.7.4.2.2 Sidewall sprinklers, where installed  8.6.4.1.3 Sprinklers


under a sloped ceiling with a slope exceeding under or near the peak
of a roof or ceiling shall
2 in 12, shall be located at the high point of have deflectors located
the slope and positioned to discharge not more than 36 inches
. verticall down from the
peak as indicated in
 Same applies to extended coverage sidewall Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1 (a)
sprinklers. and (b).
 Same applies to
extended coverage spray
pendent and upright
sprinklers

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 Under saw-toothed roofs, sprinklers at the


highest elevation shall not exceed a distance
of 36 inches measured down the slope from
the peak.

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 A.8.6.4.1.3.2  Under a steeply pitched


◦ Saw-toothed roofs have surface, the distance
regularly spaced monitors
of saw tooth shape, with from the peak to the
the nearly vertical side deflectors shall be
glazed and usually
arranged for venting. permitted to be
prn er p acement s ncrease to ma nta n a
limited to a maximum of 3
feet down the slope from horizontal clearance of
the peak because of the not less than 24 inches
effect of venting on
sprinkler sensitivity. from other structural
◦ Also applies to extended members as indicated
coverage sprinklers. in Figure 8.6.4.1.3.3.

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 A.8.6.4.1.3.3  8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in


◦ Generally, where applying the requirements of this combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or wood
section, a surface having a slope greater than or truss construction with members 3 feet or less on
equal to 18 in 12 is needed. center and a slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or greater:

18 i n 1 2
12 in 12
8 in 12

4 in 12

2 in 12

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 8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in  8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in
combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or wood combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or wood
truss construction with members 3 feet or less on truss construction with members 3 feet or less on
center and a slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or greater: center and a slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or greater:
◦ ◦

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 8.6.4.1.4 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in


 11.3.4 Sprinklers under a roof or ceiling in
combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or wood combustible concealed spaces of wood joist or
truss construction with members 3 feet or less on wood truss construction with members 3 feet or
center and a slope having a pitch of 4 in 12 or greater: less on center and a slop having a pitch of 4 in

12 or greater:

measured perpendicular to the slope, the minimum


Combustible concealed space sprinkler discharge pressure shall be 7 psi.
15 ft parallel
under a pitched roof having
to the slope
◦ Where sprinkler spacing exceeds 8 feet measured
combustible wood joist or wood perpendicular to the slope, the minimum sprinkler
truss construction with members All 120 ft2 discharge pressure shall be 20 psi.
less than 3 feet on center with 10 ft
perpendicular ◦ Hose stream allowance and water supply duration
slopes having a pitch of 4 in 12
to the slope* requirements shall be in accordance with those for light
or greater
hazard occupancies in Table 11.2.3.1.2.
*See 8.6.2.2.1.1: if the dimension perpendicular to the slope
exceeds 8 feet, .
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 8.10.3.5 – Residential Sprinklers


◦ The maximum distance shall be measured along
the slope of the ceiling as shown in Figure 8.10.3.5
(a) and (b).
 Perpendicular to

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 8.10.3.6 Where sprinklers are installed along


 11.2.3.2.4 The system area of operation shall
sloped ceilings, the sprinklers shall maintain the
minimum listed spacing, but no less than 8 feet, be increased by 30 percent without revising
measured in the plan view from one sprinkler to the density when the following types of
another as shown in Figures 8.10.3.6 (a) and (b) sprinklers are used on sloped ceilings with a
itch exceedin 1 in 6 a rise of 2 units in a
run of 12 units, a roof slope of 16.7 percent)
in nonstorage applications:
◦ Spray sprinklers, including extended coverage
sprinklers listed in accordance with 8.4.3.4(4), and
quick-response sprinklers
◦ CMSA sprinklers

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 Example: Wet system, light hazard, 4 in 12  11.2.3.2.3.3 Where quick-response sprinklers


pitch, 22-foot peak height are used on a sloped ceiling or roof, the
◦ Select 0.10 gpm/ft2 over 1500 ft2 from Figure maximum ceiling or roof height shall be used
11.2.3.1.1 for determining the percent reduction in
◦ 1500 x 1.3 (slope) = 1950 ft2 desi n area..
◦ Density remains unchanged
 Other requirements must still be met to take
 0.10 gpm/ft2 over 1950 ft2 the reduction

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 More than one adjustment may be applicable  22.4.4.5.6


 Area adjustments are compounded ◦ For sloped ceiling applications, the area of sprinkler
application for density calculations shall be based
 Example: Dry system, ordinary hazard group
upon the projected horizontal area.
2, 8 in 12 pitch, 18-foot peak
◦ e ec . gpm over
◦ 1500 x 1.3 (slope) x 1.3 (dry) = 2535 ft2
S
 0.2 gpm/ft2 over 2535 ft 2

Projected horizontal
distance

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Pitch = 6 in 12
 A.22.4.4.5.6  S = 15 feet, L = 14 feet
◦ Where the slope is parallel  What is the coverage
with the branch lines, the
area per sprinkler for area of one sprinkler?
hydraulic calculation 1 opp 1 6
ur oses would be found    tan  ( )  tan  ( )
a
as As=S’ x L.
   26.6 

 Where S’ = (cos   ) S
  = the angle of the slope
S '  (cos ) S   (cos 26.6)(15 ft )
 S = the distance between
sprinklers on the branch S '  13.4 ft 
line per 8.5.2.1.2
 See Figure 22.4.4.5.6  Aspr   S ' L  13.4 ft 14 ft 
 Aspr   187.6  ft 2
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 9.1.2.3 Where the pitch of the branch line is 6


in 12 or greater, a reduction in the lateral
loading on branch line hanger rods shall be
done by one of the following:
1.. A second han er installed in addition to the
required main hangers
2. Lateral sway brace assemblies on the mains
3. Branch line hangers utilizing an articulating
structural attachment
4. Equivalent means providing support to the branch
line hanger rods

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 Fire Protection Research Foundation Project


 Full-scale fire testing
◦ Pendent and sidewall sprinklers
◦ 155ºF activation temperature

◦ Current 13D densities


 Examine impact of slope, beam, sprinkler
type, fire location

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 Fuel Package

une n pr , or ro em o ut ons
in Building and Life Safety Codes presented
by Jeff Hugo, CBO.

37 ©2010 National Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 38