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1st Quarter Reviewer for
3. Question
Research II 4. Hypothesis: An educated guess; an

attempt to explain a certain

Lesson 1: Nature and Inquiry of

Research 5. Experiments

6. Analyses
7. Conclusion: The process of making

- Came from the French word, inferences from concrete data to rule

“recherché,” which means “the act of out opinion.

searching closely” 8. Replication: It means doing the same

study but with a different set of

Research and Science
respondents to test the obtained

- Science is conceptualized as a

procedural and systematic approach in

Additional Purposes of Duplication
gaining new knowledge by making

thorough observations and using a. Establishment of Reliability and

controlled and precise methods. Findings

- For research to be more accurate and b. Discovery of new knowledge

beneficial, science is embedded in its c. Ascertainment of the

process. generalizability of results

Goals of Research:

Scientific Method:

1. Empirical Approach
1. Description: refers to the way in which - Constructs that can be understood

the phenomena being studied is differently because of their differences

defined, classified, and categorized. in values

2. Prediction: entails stating the possible - Ex: Age (18 y/o, 50y/o, 80y/o), Height

consequences of present events based (5’11, 6’3) Weight (75kg, 80kg)

on existing knowledge. Its purpose is

Kinds of Variables
to control one’s actions through

careful planning derived from a set of 1. Independent: These are

information. manipulated variables that cause a

3. Understanding/Explanation: the change in another variable. These

process of analyzing information to

are treatments or conditions that
find out the causes behind the
produce a varied response or

Lesson 2: Constructs and 2. Dependent: These are variables

Variables in Research that are affected by independent

variables. These are the responses

or effects that result from the

- These are mental abstractions derived treatment or conditions employed.

from the combination of concepts, or
Example: Peace-loving Learning
your mental representation of the
Environment (I.V) Reduces Test Anxiety
world around you.

- Ex: Age, Height, Weight Levels (D.V.) of Grade School Students

Variables - I.V. – It is the condition

- D.V. - it stems from the condition

3. Categorical: These are variables that These are often categorized into

characterize and describe the quality names, labels, or groups.

of data.

Two types of Categorical Variable

Level of Measurement of Variables

a. Mutuality Exclusive: it must describe the

1. Nominal: It is just concerned with the
data into the given options. (Nominal
names and categories of responses. Ex:
variables). Ex: Civil Status (Could only be:
Sex, Gender, Race
Single, Married, Widowed, Annulled)
2. Ordinal: These are used for data that
b. Mutuality Extensive: it characterizes the
intends to be ranked. Ex: Academic
data using a definite range. (Ordinal

variables). Ex: Sizes (Small, Medium, Large) Ranking

3. Interval: It uses equal units of

4. Continuous: These are variables in measurement and intervals to know

which values are based on a given the distance between them more than

interval or continuum. These variables the sequence. Ex: Temperature

rely on numbers for description. Ex: 4. Ratio: Unlike interval scales, ratio

Temperature (370C, 380C, 350C) scales uses 0 as its base point. It

5. Quantitative: These are variables that shows comparison of both differences

give details regarding the number or in scores and relative magnitude of

level of something. These variables scores. Ex: Height, Weight, Age,

count the frequency of response or electricity charge

Lesson 3: Major Approaches in
6. Qualitative: These are variables that
represent kinds or types of objects.
1. Qualitative: aims to provide - it uses the scientific method

- a certain level of bias is removed

description of characteristics, of a
- the generalizability of findings is high
subject, while interpreting and
- it can be applied to larger populations
attempting to understand an event.


- focus of study is limited only to the object

- descriptions about real-life experiences
under investigation
- less formal
- interpretation of results will be based only
- ideas can be expounded more by the
on the findings derived from statistical data
- explanations and descriptions are narrow
- participants can elaborate their answers

3. Mixed Approach: It involves

collection and analysis of data using

- data is more verbal than numerical both quantitative and qualitative

- few and chosen samples are used to

participate in the study

- it is dependent on the subjective view of


the researcher
- it makes the description easier because it
- generalizability of the findings are lacking
has both subjective and objective data
and results are limited to selected people
- it increases the validity and reliability of the

2. Quantitative Research: It aims to variables under investigation

provide objectivity of results. It tests

hypotheses and makes predictions

- time-consuming
through numerical figures to describe
- discrepancies in findings are difficult to
an event.

Lesson 4: Quantitative Research 6. Data are in the form of numbers and

Quantitative Research: It focuses on
7. The project can be used to generalize
objective measurements and numerical
concepts more widely, predict future
analysis of data collected through
results, or investigate causal
questionnaires or surveys and generalizing the
results across groups of people. It classifies
8. The researcher uses questionnaires or
feature, count them, and construct statistical
other forms of research tools to collect
models to explain observable phenomenon.
numerical data.
Main Characteristics:

1. The data are usually gathered using

1. Quantitative approach involves a
more structured research instruments.
greater number of subjects and

2. The results are based on larger sample enables a broader study, as well as
enhancing the generalization of the
sizes that are representative of the
2. Study results are more objective and

3. The research study can usually be accurate. Usually, to support a certain

generalization by using a summary of
replicated or repeated, given its high
data, quantitative research employs
reliability. certain procedures on a few variables
to ensure the reliability of data.
4. The researcher has a clearly defined
3. Quantitative research, when the right
research question to which objective
procedure is used, can be replicated,
answers are sought. as well as analyzed in comparison with

other similar works.

5. All aspects of the study are carefully
4. You can summarize vast sources of
designed before data are collected. information and make comparisons
across categories and over time.
5. Personal bias can be avoided by describe the variables mentioned in
keeping a “distance” from participating
the study.
subjects and employing facilitators
Ex: The Harmful Impact of the typical
unknown to them.
Filipino Diet (2008)

a. Correlational: you have 2 or more

quantitative variables from the

1. Quantitative data, while they can test same group of participants, and

hypothesis, may be limited in you are trying to determine if

explaining their context. This is there is a relationship between two

because the explanation often focuses variables.

on numerical results as basis. b. Survey: It encompasses any

2. The research is often concluded in an measurement procedure that

artificial setting, where a certain level involves asking questions to

of control is exercised. Because of this, respondents.

the results may not necessarily reflect 2. Causal- Comparative: It aims to

the real-life situation presented in the establish cause-effect relationships

problem. among the variables of the study.

3. The use of research tools may only Ex: Low Percentage of Jobless People

reflect the researcher’s point of view Reduces the Poverty Rate of the

instead of the subject. Country

3. Experimental:
Types of Quantitative Research:
a. True: It is similar to causal-
1. Descriptive: It involves the collection
comparative research; however, the
of data to either test a hypothesis or
researcher can control the

independent variables in the study,

wherein the participants are 2. It should identify areas that could be

randomly assigned. studied

Ex: The Impact of the Level of 3. It forms the very significance of your

Native Language Proficiency on paper

the Literacy Achievement of 4. It gives justification as to how your

English Language Leisure (2012) research will fit into the existing body

b. Quasi: Variables cannot be of knowledge

subjected to experimental control.

Sources of Information:
Most of the time, this design is

 General
used on a naturally given
o articles, book and other
phenomenon documents
 Primary
Ex: The Impact of El Nino on Rice
o journals
Production in the Philippines  Secondary
o textbooks

How to select Relevant Literature

Lesson 5: Review of Related
1. What issue or problem has the author
Literature formulated?
2. What do you think is the orientation of
RRL - It is a comprehensive classification and the researcher?

evaluation of what other researchers have 3. Does the author provide contrasting

results from previous researches in the

written about your topic.
literature section of the paper?

Characteristics of a good RRL 4. What research design did the author

use in the paper?

1. It presents contradictory results of 5. How does the author structure the

arguments in the paper?
previous studies
6. In what ways does this contribute to 2. Thematic: Thematic reviews of
your understanding of your own
literature are organized around a topic
or issue, rather than the progression of


3. Conceptual: This allows for more

What should be in the RRL? flexibility and less rigor. In essence, it's

1. Select and analyze studies that have the first step in analyzing an idea and

been done about your topic. may be floated for the purpose of

2. Choose scholarly articles. stimulating feedback.

3. Choose a consistent way of organizing 4. Methodological: A methodological

your literature. approach focuses on the methods

4. Present how the previous studies utilized by the researcher. It will

relate to one another as well as the influence either the types of

limitations of these researchers. documents in the review or the way in

5. Discuss how your own research fits which these documents are discussed.

into the literature.

Literature Review Process:
o How does your study relate to
1. Select a topic
the previous studies?
2. Search the literature
3. Write the review
Types of Literature Organizations:
4. Survey the literature

1. Chronological: It applies to research in 5. Critique the literature

6. Develop your argument
several ways and refers to the

sequencing of events as they

successively occur or have occurred.