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DEUTSCHE NORM Julv 2000

Crosslinked high-density polyethylene DIN


(PE-X) pipes -
General quality requirements and testing 16892
I C s 23.040.20 Supersedes
March 1985 edition.
Rohre aus vernetztem Polyethylen hoher Dichte (PE-X) -
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Allgemeine Güteanforderungen, Prüfung

In keeping with current practice in standards published by the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), a comma has been used throughout as the decimal marker.

Contents
Page Page
Foreword 1 5.5 Crosslinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1 Scope 2 5.6 Heat reversion 4
2 Normat .................. 2 6 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6.1 Surface finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Material (moulding material) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4
6.3 Ovality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.1 General 6.4 Long-term hydrostatic pressure
resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6.5 Crosslinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5 Requirements 4 6.6 Heat reversion 6
5.1 Form sutmlied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I I
4 6.7 Test certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5.2 Surface finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5.3 Dimensions and tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.4 Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance 4 Other relevant standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Foreword
This standard has been prepared by Technical Committee Prüfverfahren für Rohre of the Normenausschuss
Kunststoffe (Plastics Standards Committee).

Amendments
This standard differs from the March 1985 edition as follows:
a) the long-term hydrostatic pressure curves have been revised;
b) the degree of crosslinking for type PE-Xa polyethylene has been reduced;
c) requirements for resistance t o hydrostatic pressure have been modified;
d) ovality testing has been included.

Previous edition
DIN 16892: 1985-03.

Continued on pages 2 t o 7

Translation b y DIN-Sprachendienst.
In case of doubt, the German-language original should be consulted as the authoritative text.

Q No pari of this translation may be reproduced without the prior permission of Ref. No. DIN 16892 : 2000-07
DIN Deutsches Institut fürNonunge. V., Berlin. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 10772 Berlin, Germany, English price group O7 Sales No. 0107
has the exclusive right of sale for German Standards (DIN-Normen).
09.01
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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

All dimensions are in millimetres.

1 Scope
This standard specifies requirements and methods of test for seamless pipes of circular cross section made
from crosslinked high-density (PE-X) polyethylene.
Individual requirements specified here may be superseded by technical delivery conditions for particular ap-
plications.
NOTE: Any relevant European Standards shall also be observed.

2 Normative references
This standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These norma-
tive references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the titles of the publications are listed below.
For dated references, subsequent amendments t o or revisions of any of these publications apply t o this
standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references, the latest edition of
the publica on referred t o applies.
DIN 323-1 Preferred numbers and preferred number series - Basic, calculated and rounded values
DIN 8075 Polyethylene pipes - General quality requirements and testing
DIN 16887 Determination of the long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance of thermoplastics pipes
DIN 16893 Crosslinked polyethylene (PE-X) pipes - Dimensions
DIN 5001 1- 1 Artificial climates in technical applications - Controlled-atmosphere test installations -
General concepts and requirements
DIN EN 921 Thermoplastics pipes - Determination of resistance t o internal pressure at constant tem-
perature
DIN EN 10204 Inspection documents for metallic products (includes Amendment A l : 1995)
IEC 60093 Methods of test for insulating materials for electrical purposes -Volume resistivity of solid
electrical insulating materials
ISO/TR 9080 : 1992 Thermoplastics pipes for the transport of fluids - Methods of extrapolation of hydrostatic
stress rupture data t o determine the long-term hydrostatic strength of thermoplastics
pipe materials

3 Concepts
3.1 Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance
The strength of a pipe required to resist an induced internal hydrostatic pressure, o, in N/mm2, calculated as
fo IIows:

o = p ’ -d - s
2s
where
p is the induced hydrostatic pressure;
d is the outside diameter;
o is the wall thickness.

3.2 Ovality
The difference between the maximum and minimum pipe outside diameters, at the same cross section (cf.
DIN 8075).

4 Material (moulding material)


4.1 General
Pipes shall be made from cross-linkable moulding mass manufactured on the basis of high-density poly-
ethylene (PE-X). The choice of stabilizers and other additives shall be left t o the pipe manufacturer. Materials
of unknown composition shall not be used.

4.2 Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance


In the case of pipes made from crosslinked polyethylene, values for hydrostatic pressure resistance shall lie on
or above the time-to-failure curves, as shown in figure 1. The dashed lines apply for longer exposure times at
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110°C.
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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

The long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance is to be extrapolated as in DIN 16887 and ISO/TR 8090. The
time-to-failure curves for testing at temperatures from 1O " C to 95 " C are established using equation (2); the
curves for testing at 11O " C are-not based on this equation.
Ig(t) = -1 05,861 8 - (18 506,15 / T ) . Ig(o) + 57 895,49 / T - 24,799 7 . Ig(o)

where
t is the time, in hours;
T is the temperature, in K;
o is the induced hydrostatic stress, in N/mm2.

5 10 25 50 100
Time to failure, in years-

10 10 10
Time to failure, in hours -
Figure 1 : Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance of pipes made from PE-X

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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

5 Requirements
5.1 Form supplied
Pipe ends should be cut as square as possible to the pipe axis. Pipes shall be free from any blisters and
irregularities (including foreign matter) which could affect their performance. Pigmentation shall be uniform
throughout.

5.2 Surface finish


Pipes shall be smooth both inside and outside. Minor irregularities and shallow grooves are permissible,
provided the minimum wall thickness as specified in DIN 16893 is maintained throughout. Sharp-edged
grooves are not permissible.

5.3 Dimensions and tolerances

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The pipe outside diameter and wall thickness shall comply with the specifications of DIN 16893.In the case of
pipes of dimensions not covered by preferred number series (cf. DIN 323-1)or international specifications,
calculation shall be on the basis of DIN 16893.

5.4 Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance


When tested in accordance with subclause 6.4under the conditions specified in table 1 , pipes shall neither fail
nor develop any signs of leakage.
Table 1: Test conditions for hydrostatic pressure testing

Period of stressing
Test temperature, Proof stress,
Exposure medium (minimum time t o failure),
in " C o, in N/mm2
t . in hours
I 95 I Air or water I 4,7 I 22 I
46 165
95 Air or water
4,4 1 O00
110 Air 2,s 8 7601)

5.5 Crosslinking
When tested as in subclause 6.5,the degree of crosslinking shall be as follows:
type a (peroxide crosslinked) pipes: 70 %;
type b (hydrosilicon crosslinked) pipes: 65 %;
type c (electron beam crosslinked) pipes: 60 %.

5.6 Heat reversion


When testing in accordance with subclause 6.6,
the mean relative change in pipe length shall not be greaterthan
3 YO,
except where the wall thickness is greater than 16 mm.

6 Testing
6.1 Surface finish
The inside and outside surfaces of the pipe shall be inspected with back light.

6.2 Dimensions
The mean pipe outside diameter shall be determined t o an accuracy of 0,l mm by circumferential measurement
at both pipe ends, at a point at least 0,5 d from the cut edge. The wall thickness shall be determined t o an
accuracy of 0,l mm at both ends, at at least four points spaced evenly around the circumference of the pipe.
Measurements shall be taken at (2312) "C.

6.3 Ovality
Immediately after production, ovality shall be determined by measuring the minimum and maximum outside
diameters to an accuracy of 0,l mm.
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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

6.4 Long-term hydrostatic pressure resistance


General information on testing is given in DIN EN 921. For each proof stress value as given in table 1, three
sections of pipe (referred t o below as pipes) with a length, Z,, as follows shall be taken as specimens:

2, =3.d+2.Z5+250mm (3)

Figure 2: Specimen for hydrostatic pressure resistance test

where, in figure 2 and the preceding equation,


d is the pipe outside diameter, in mm;
1, is the specimen length, in mm;
1, is the test length, in mm;
1, is the length of pipe affected by the sealing devices being clamped, in mm: 1, = d ;
1, is the assessment length, in mm (2, - 2 . 2,);
1, is the free length, in mm (for mounting a sealing device).
Along the assessment length, the wall thickness and the outside diameter shall be determined by circumfer-
ential measurement at eight and three points respectively, t o an accuracy of 0 , l mm, and the minimum wall
and the mean outside diameter, d, established.
thickness, .srnini
Sealing devices shall be fitted t o both ends of the specimen, allowing it free axial movement during the test.
The specimen shall be filled with water at the test temperature specified in table 1 (to within I5 K) through an
opening in one of the sealing devices, placed in a tank which has been heated t o test temperature (maintained
t o within I1 K) and left there for at least one hour t o reach thermal equalization. If the pipe is filled with cooler
water, it shall be left in the tank for 12 hours.
With the pipe remaining in the tank, hydrostatic pressure shall be steadily increased to proof pressure within
one minute. The pressure shall be maintained t o within 2,5 YOthroughout the period specified in table 1 (mini-
mum time to failure).
The proof pressure, Pe,p,shall be calculated as follows:

where
d is the mean outside diameter over 1,;
smin is the minimum wall thickness over 1,;
o, is the proof stress as specified in table 1.
Check whether the pipe has failed or developed signs of leakage during the specified period of stressing. If the
pipe has failed within 1, during this period, the results of the test shall not count and the test shall be repeated.

6.5 Crosslinking
6.5.1 General
The degree of crosslinking shall be determined by measuring the fraction of PE-X being insoluble in boiling
xy Ien e.

6.5.2 Sampling
Chips (0,2 I 0 , 0 2 ) mm thick shall be taken from the pipe, using a lathe if possible. The width of the chips shall
correspond t o the pipe wall thickness, and their length shall be at least equal t o the pipe circumference.
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6.5.3 Procedure
Weigh the chips t o an accuracy of 1 mg (m,) and place in a wire net or perforated metal container. Place the
container in boiling, technically pure xylene, t o which 1 % antioxidant (2,2' methylene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert-
butylphenol) or pentaerythrityl tetrakis (3-(3,5di-tert.butyl-4-hydroxiphenyl)-propionate)) has been added.
Leave for 8 h I5 min, then lift the container out of the boiling solvent, allow it t o cool to ambient temperature
and dry it.
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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

The samples shall then be dried for three hours in an oven with forced circulation, at 140 " C . After cooling to
ambient temperature, the residue mass, m2,shall be weighed to an accuracy of 1 mg.

6.5.4 Expression of results


The degree of crosslinking, G, expressed as a percentage, is to be calculated using equation (5):

6.6 Heat reversion


Specimens shall be three pipe sections, each approximately 200 mm long. Gauge marks shall be made on the
outside of each specimen, approximately 50 mm from each end, along the pipe axis. The distance between the
two reference marks, lo, shall be approximately 1 O0 mm, measured at (2312) "C to an accuracy of 0,25mm.
The specimens shall be laid convex side down on a glass plate dusted with talcum so that any change in length
will not be hindered.
Subsequently, the glass plate shall be placed in an oven with forced air circulation in accordance with
DIN 5001 1-1 1 , which has been preheated to test temperature, as specified in table 2.

Table 2: Conditions for heat reversion test

Wall thickness, Test tempera- Test period, t ,


s , in mm ture, in "C in minutes
Up to 8 I
120I2 I
60I2
Over 8 up to 16 I 120 I 2 120I2

After removing the specimens from the oven and allowing them to cool to (2312)" C in the same position,
the minimum distance between the two gauge marks, Imin,shall be measured.
The relative change in length, E , shall be calculated as follows:
lo - Imin hl
E=-' 100=-~10O
10 10

where
1, is the distance between gauge marks before heat treatment, in mm;
Imin is the distance between the gauge marks after heat treatment and cooling, in mm;
A1 = 1, - Imin.
The arithmetical mean of E , calculated as in equation (6),shall be taken as the mean relative change in length
for the tested pipe.

6.7 Test certificate

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By agreement, the pipe manufacturer shall issue a DIN EN 10204 inspection document.
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DIN 16892 : 2000-07

Explanatory notes
This standard is a basic standard and therefore does not coverthe scope of testing, inspection, or requirements
relating to special applications.
The hydrostatic pressure resistance requirements specified in this standard are based on experiments which
have taken the probable service life of the pipes into consideration. These experiments have shown that when
crosslinked polyethylene fulfilling the requirements of this standard is tested for resistance t o hydrostatic
pressure, the result is linear on a log-log scale, unlike common polyolefines, which produce a sharply bent
curve.
Heat reversion testing provides important information for processing, because heating in order t o bend and
assembly moulded parts will change the dimensions of the pipes.
PE-X pipes cannot be recycled for use as reworked material.
The following table gives guideline values for the properties of PE-X pipes specified in this standard.

Table: Properties and guideline values

I ProDertv I Guideline value I


Density (testing as in DIN 53479) 0,94 g/cm3
Mean coefficient of linear thermal expansion at temperatures between O "C and 70 "C 1,5. 10-4 K-1
(testing as in DIN 53752)
I Thermal conductivitv ftestina as in DIN 52612-1) I 0.41 WK-1m-1 I
I Minimum modulus of elasticity (testing as in DIN EN IS0 178) I 600N/mm2 I
Surface resistivity (testing as in IEC 60093) > 1012

Other relevant standards


DIN 41 02-1 Fire behaviour of building materials and elements - Classification of building materials -
Requirements and testing
DIN 41 02-4 Fire behaviour of building materials and elements - Overview and design of classified

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building materials, elements and components
DIN 53752 Determination of coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics
DIN 5261 2-1 Determination of the thermal conductivity of thermal insulating materials by the guarded
hotplate apparatus - Procedure and evaluation
DIN 53479 Determination of density of plastics and elastomers
DIN EN IS0 178 Determination of the flexural properties of plastics (IS0 178 : 1993)
DIN EN IS0 1872-2 Plastics - Polyethylene (PE) moulding and extrusion materials - Part 2: Preparation of test
specimens and determination of properties
(IS0 1872-2 : 1997, including Amendment 1 : 2000)