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PROBLEM 10.

106
Two rods AC and CE are connected by a pin at C and by a spring AE. The
constant of the spring
constant spring is
is 27.16 N/m,and
1.5 N/m, andthe
thespring
springisisunstretched
unstretchedwhen
when
θ = 30°. Knowing that l = .254 m and neglecting the weight of the rods,
determine the value of θ corresponding to equilibrium when P = 40 N.

SOLUTION
yE = l cosθ

δ yE = − l sin θ δθ

Spring: Unstretched length = 2 (2 l sin30°) = 2 l

x = 2 (2l sin θ ) = 4 l sin θ

δ x = 4 l cosθ δ θ

FSP = k ( x − 2l )

= k ( 4 l sinθ − 2 l )

Virtual Work:
δU = 0: P δ yE − FSP δ x = 0

P ( − l sinθ δθ ) − k ( 4 l sinθ − 2l )( 4l cosθ δθ ) = 0

or − P sin θ − 8kl (2sin θ − 1) cosθ = 0

P 1 − 2sin θ
or =
8kl tan θ

We have lb, l = 10
P = 40 N, in., m,
0.254 andand = 27.16
k =k1.5 lb/in. N/m

Thus
(40(40
N )N )
=
1 −θ2sin θ
1 − 2sin
=
8(1.5 N/in.
27.16 N/m)( )(0.254
10 in.) m) θ an θ
tan

Solving θ = 24.98
21.1°°

or 21.1° t
θ = 25.0

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1780
PROBLEM 10.107
For the linkage shown, determine the couple M required for equilibrium
when l = .548 m, Q = 40 N, and θ = 65°.

SOLUTION

1
δ xB = l δφ
2
δCx δ xB l δφ
δC = = =
cosθ cosθ 2cosθ
Virtual Work:
δU = 0: Mδφ − Q δ C = 0

 l 
Mδφ − Q  δφ = 0
 2cosθ 

Ql
or M=
2cosθ

1 ( 40 N )(1.8 ft ) m)
0.548
Thus M= = 25.9
= 25.5 N⋅ m
N⋅ m
2 cos65
cos65 ° °

or M = 25.5
25.9 N ⋅m t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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1781
PROBLEM 10.108
Determine the vertical force P which must be applied at G so that the
linkage is in equilibrium for the position shown.

SOLUTION

Assuming

δ yA

it follows

120
δ yC = δ y = 1.5δ yA
80 A

δ yE = δ yC = 1.5δ yA

180
δ yD = δ y = 3(1.5δ yA ) = 4.5δ yA
60 E

100 100
δ yG = δy =
60 E 60
(1.5δ yA ) = 2.5δ yA
Then, by Virtual Work

δU = 0: (300 N) δ yA − (100 N) δ yD + Pδ yG =0

300δ yA − 100 (4.5δ yA ) + P (2.5δ yA ) = 0

300 − 450 + 2.5P = 0

P = +60 N P = 60 N t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
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1782
PROBLEM 10.109
Determine the vertical movement of joint D if the length of member BF
is increased by 75 mm. (Hint: Apply a vertical load at joint D, and, using
the methods of Chap. 6, compute the force exerted by member BF on
joints B and F. Then apply the method of virtual work for a virtual
displacement resulting in the specified increase in length of member BF.
This method should be used only for small changes in the lengths of
members.)

SOLUTION
Apply vertical load P at D.
ΣM H = 0: − P (12 m) + E (36 m) = 0

P
E=
3
3 P
ΣFy = 0: FBF − = 0
5 3
5
FBF = P
9
Virtual Work:
We remove member BF and replace it with forces FBF and −FBF at pins
F and B, respectively. Denoting the virtual displacements����of points B and
F as δ rB and δ rF , respectively, and noting that P and δ D have the same
direction, we have

Virtual Work: δU = 0: Pδ D + FBF ⋅δrF + ( −FBF ) ⋅δrB = 0

Pδ D + FBF δ rF cosθ F − FBFδ rB cosθ B = 0


Pδ D − FBF (δ rB cosθ B − δ rF cosθ F ) = 0

where (δ rB cosθ B − δ rF cosθ F ) = δ BF , which is the change in length of


member BF. Thus,
Pδ D − FBFδ BF = 0
5 
Pδ D −  P (75 mm) = 0
9 
δ D = +41.67 mm

δ D = 41.7 mm t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
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1783
PROBLEM 10.110
Determine the horizontal movement of joint D if the length of member
BF is increased by 75 mm. (See the hint for Prob. 10.109.)

SOLUTION

Apply horizontal load P at D.

ΣM H = 0: P (9 m) − E y (36 m) = 0

P
Ey =
4

3 P
ΣFy = 0: FBF − = 0
5 4

5
FBF = P
12

We remove member BF and replace it with forces FBF and −FBF at pins
F and B, respectively. Denoting the virtual displacements����of points B and
F as δ rB and δ rF , respectively, and noting that P and δ D have the same
direction, we have

Virtual Work: δU = 0: Pδ D + FBF ⋅δ rF + ( −FBF ) ⋅δ rB = 0

Pδ D + FBFδ rF cosθ F − FBFδ rB cosθ B = 0

Pδ D − FBF (δ rB cosθ B − δ rF cosθ F ) = 0

where (δ rB cosθ B − δ rF cosθ F ) = δ BF , which is the change in length of


member BF. Thus,

Pδ D − FBFδ BF = 0

5 
Pδ D −  P (75 mm) = 0
 12 

δ D = 31.25 mm δ D = 31.3 mm t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1784
PROBLEM 10.111
Two uniform rods, AB and CD, are attached to gears of equal radii as
shown. Knowing that mAB = 3.5 kg and mCD = 1.75 kg, determine the
positions of equilibrium of the system, and state in each case whether the
equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral.

SOLUTION

Potential Energy

(  l
 2 )
 ( l
2

V = 3.5 kg × 9.81 m/s2  − sin θ  + 1.75 kg × 9.81 m/s2  cosθ 
 )
= (8.5838 N) l ( −2sin θ + cosθ )

dV
= (8.5838 N) l ( −2cosθ − sinθ )

d 2V
= (8.5838 N) l (2sin θ − cosθ )
dθ 2

dV
Equilibrium: = 0: − 2cosθ − sin θ = 0

or tan θ = −2

Thus θ = −63.4° and 116.6°

Stability

d 2V
At θ = −63.4°: = (8.5838 N) l 2sin ( −63.4°) − cos ( −63.4°)
dθ 2

= (8.5838 N) l ( −1.788 − 0.448) < 0

∴ θ = −63.4°, Unstable t

d 2V
At θ = 116.6°: = (8.5838 N) l 2sin (116.6°) − cos (116.6°)
dθ 2
= (8.5838 N) l (1.788 + 0.447) > 0

∴ θ = 116.6°, Stable t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1785
PROBLEM 10.112
A slender rod AB of mass m is attached to two blocks A and B that can
move freely in the guides shown. Knowing that the spring is unstretched
when AB is horizontal, determine three values of θ corresponding to
equilibrium when m = 125 kg, l = 320 mm, and k = 15 kN/m. State in
each case whether the equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral.

SOLUTION

Elongation of Spring: s = l sinθ + l cosθ − l

= l (sin θ + cosθ − 1)
Potential Energy:
1 2 l
V = ks − W sin θ
2 2
1 2 l
kl (sinθ + cosθ − 1) − mg sinθ
2
=
2 2
dV 1
= kl 2 (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(cosθ − sinθ ) − mgl cosθ
dθ 2
dV mg
Equilibrium:

= 0: (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(cosθ − sinθ ) − 2kl cosθ = 0
 mg 
or cosθ (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(1 − tan θ ) − =0
 2kl 

Now with (
W = mg = (125 kg) 9.81 m/s2 = 1226.25 N )
l = 320 mm, and k = 15 kN/m,

 1226.25 N 
cosθ (sin θ + cosθ − 1)(1 − tan θ ) − =0
 2 (15000 N/m)(0.32 m) 

or cosθ (sin θ + cosθ − 1)(1 − tan θ ) − 0.12773 = 0

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
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1786
PROBLEM 10.112 CONTINUED

By inspection, one solution is cosθ = 0 or θ = 90.0°

Solving numerically: θ = 0.38338 rad = 9.6883° and θ = 0.59053 rad = 33.8351°

Stability

d 2V 1
2 = kl (cos θ − sin θ )( cos θ − sin θ ) + (sin θ + cosθ − 1)( − sin θ − cosθ ) + mgl sin θ
2
 
dθ 2

 mg  
= kl 2 1 +  sin θ + cosθ − 2sin2θ 
  2kl  

2 
= (15000 N/m)(0.32 m) 1 +
(1226.25 N) 
sin θ + cos θ − 2sin2θ


 2 (15000 N/m)(0.32 m)  

= (1536 N ⋅ m) [1.12773 sin θ + cosθ − 2sin2θ ]

Thus

∴ θ = 90.0°, Stable t
d 2V
At θ = 90°: = 1732.2 > 0
dθ 2

∴ θ = 9.69°, Stable t
d 2V
At θ = 9.6883°: = 786.4 > 0
dθ 2

∴ θ = 33.8°, Unstable t
d 2V
At θ = 33.8351°: = − 600.6 < 0
dθ 2

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced
or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and
educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1787