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106

Two rods AC and CE are connected by a pin at C and by a spring AE. The

constant of the spring

constant spring is

is 27.16 N/m,and

1.5 N/m, andthe

thespring

springisisunstretched

unstretchedwhen

when

θ = 30°. Knowing that l = .254 m and neglecting the weight of the rods,

determine the value of θ corresponding to equilibrium when P = 40 N.

SOLUTION

yE = l cosθ

δ yE = − l sin θ δθ

δ x = 4 l cosθ δ θ

FSP = k ( x − 2l )

= k ( 4 l sinθ − 2 l )

Virtual Work:

δU = 0: P δ yE − FSP δ x = 0

P 1 − 2sin θ

or =

8kl tan θ

We have lb, l = 10

P = 40 N, in., m,

0.254 andand = 27.16

k =k1.5 lb/in. N/m

Thus

(40(40

N )N )

=

1 −θ2sin θ

1 − 2sin

=

8(1.5 N/in.

27.16 N/m)( )(0.254

10 in.) m) θ an θ

tan

Solving θ = 24.98

21.1°°

or 21.1° t

θ = 25.0

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1780

PROBLEM 10.107

For the linkage shown, determine the couple M required for equilibrium

when l = .548 m, Q = 40 N, and θ = 65°.

SOLUTION

1

δ xB = l δφ

2

δCx δ xB l δφ

δC = = =

cosθ cosθ 2cosθ

Virtual Work:

δU = 0: Mδφ − Q δ C = 0

l

Mδφ − Q δφ = 0

2cosθ

Ql

or M=

2cosθ

1 ( 40 N )(1.8 ft ) m)

0.548

Thus M= = 25.9

= 25.5 N⋅ m

N⋅ m

2 cos65

cos65 ° °

or M = 25.5

25.9 N ⋅m t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1781

PROBLEM 10.108

Determine the vertical force P which must be applied at G so that the

linkage is in equilibrium for the position shown.

SOLUTION

Assuming

δ yA

it follows

120

δ yC = δ y = 1.5δ yA

80 A

δ yE = δ yC = 1.5δ yA

180

δ yD = δ y = 3(1.5δ yA ) = 4.5δ yA

60 E

100 100

δ yG = δy =

60 E 60

(1.5δ yA ) = 2.5δ yA

Then, by Virtual Work

δU = 0: (300 N) δ yA − (100 N) δ yD + Pδ yG =0

P = +60 N P = 60 N t

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be displayed, reproduced

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1782

PROBLEM 10.109

Determine the vertical movement of joint D if the length of member BF

is increased by 75 mm. (Hint: Apply a vertical load at joint D, and, using

the methods of Chap. 6, compute the force exerted by member BF on

joints B and F. Then apply the method of virtual work for a virtual

displacement resulting in the specified increase in length of member BF.

This method should be used only for small changes in the lengths of

members.)

SOLUTION

Apply vertical load P at D.

ΣM H = 0: − P (12 m) + E (36 m) = 0

P

E=

3

3 P

ΣFy = 0: FBF − = 0

5 3

5

FBF = P

9

Virtual Work:

We remove member BF and replace it with forces FBF and −FBF at pins

F and B, respectively. Denoting the virtual displacements����of points B and

F as δ rB and δ rF , respectively, and noting that P and δ D have the same

direction, we have

Pδ D − FBF (δ rB cosθ B − δ rF cosθ F ) = 0

member BF. Thus,

Pδ D − FBFδ BF = 0

5

Pδ D − P (75 mm) = 0

9

δ D = +41.67 mm

δ D = 41.7 mm t

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1783

PROBLEM 10.110

Determine the horizontal movement of joint D if the length of member

BF is increased by 75 mm. (See the hint for Prob. 10.109.)

SOLUTION

ΣM H = 0: P (9 m) − E y (36 m) = 0

P

Ey =

4

3 P

ΣFy = 0: FBF − = 0

5 4

5

FBF = P

12

We remove member BF and replace it with forces FBF and −FBF at pins

F and B, respectively. Denoting the virtual displacements����of points B and

F as δ rB and δ rF , respectively, and noting that P and δ D have the same

direction, we have

member BF. Thus,

Pδ D − FBFδ BF = 0

5

Pδ D − P (75 mm) = 0

12

δ D = 31.25 mm δ D = 31.3 mm t

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1784

PROBLEM 10.111

Two uniform rods, AB and CD, are attached to gears of equal radii as

shown. Knowing that mAB = 3.5 kg and mCD = 1.75 kg, determine the

positions of equilibrium of the system, and state in each case whether the

equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral.

SOLUTION

Potential Energy

( l

2 )

( l

2

V = 3.5 kg × 9.81 m/s2 − sin θ + 1.75 kg × 9.81 m/s2 cosθ

)

= (8.5838 N) l ( −2sin θ + cosθ )

dV

= (8.5838 N) l ( −2cosθ − sinθ )

dθ

d 2V

= (8.5838 N) l (2sin θ − cosθ )

dθ 2

dV

Equilibrium: = 0: − 2cosθ − sin θ = 0

dθ

or tan θ = −2

Stability

d 2V

At θ = −63.4°: = (8.5838 N) l 2sin ( −63.4°) − cos ( −63.4°)

dθ 2

∴ θ = −63.4°, Unstable t

d 2V

At θ = 116.6°: = (8.5838 N) l 2sin (116.6°) − cos (116.6°)

dθ 2

= (8.5838 N) l (1.788 + 0.447) > 0

∴ θ = 116.6°, Stable t

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1785

PROBLEM 10.112

A slender rod AB of mass m is attached to two blocks A and B that can

move freely in the guides shown. Knowing that the spring is unstretched

when AB is horizontal, determine three values of θ corresponding to

equilibrium when m = 125 kg, l = 320 mm, and k = 15 kN/m. State in

each case whether the equilibrium is stable, unstable, or neutral.

SOLUTION

= l (sin θ + cosθ − 1)

Potential Energy:

1 2 l

V = ks − W sin θ

2 2

1 2 l

kl (sinθ + cosθ − 1) − mg sinθ

2

=

2 2

dV 1

= kl 2 (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(cosθ − sinθ ) − mgl cosθ

dθ 2

dV mg

Equilibrium:

dθ

= 0: (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(cosθ − sinθ ) − 2kl cosθ = 0

mg

or cosθ (sinθ + cosθ − 1)(1 − tan θ ) − =0

2kl

Now with (

W = mg = (125 kg) 9.81 m/s2 = 1226.25 N )

l = 320 mm, and k = 15 kN/m,

1226.25 N

cosθ (sin θ + cosθ − 1)(1 − tan θ ) − =0

2 (15000 N/m)(0.32 m)

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1786

PROBLEM 10.112 CONTINUED

Stability

d 2V 1

2 = kl (cos θ − sin θ )( cos θ − sin θ ) + (sin θ + cosθ − 1)( − sin θ − cosθ ) + mgl sin θ

2

dθ 2

mg

= kl 2 1 + sin θ + cosθ − 2sin2θ

2kl

2

= (15000 N/m)(0.32 m) 1 +

(1226.25 N)

sin θ + cos θ − 2sin2θ

2 (15000 N/m)(0.32 m)

Thus

∴ θ = 90.0°, Stable t

d 2V

At θ = 90°: = 1732.2 > 0

dθ 2

∴ θ = 9.69°, Stable t

d 2V

At θ = 9.6883°: = 786.4 > 0

dθ 2

∴ θ = 33.8°, Unstable t

d 2V

At θ = 33.8351°: = − 600.6 < 0

dθ 2

or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and

educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1787

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