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# FORMULA BOOKLET FOR BOARDS JEE MAINS & ADVANCE

MATHEMATICS
FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICS
1. Number System :

Natural Numbers : The counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, .... are called Natural Numbers.
The set of natural numbers is denoted by N. Thus N = {1, 2, 3, 4, ....}.

Whole Numbers : Natural numbers including zero are called whole numbers.
The set of whole numbers, is denoted by W. Thus W = {0, 1, 2, .........}

Integers : The numbers ... – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 .... are called integers and the set is denoted by
 or Z. Thus  (or Z) = {.. – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3...}

## (d) Set of non-positive integers is {......, –3, –2, –1, 0}

Even Integers : Integers which are divisible by 2 are called even integers. e.g. 0, ± 2, ± 4, ...
Odd Integers : Integers, not divisible by 2 are called as odd integers. e.g. ± 1, ± 3, ± 5, ± 7......

Prime Number : Let p be a natural number greater than 1, p is said to be prime if it has exactly
two distinct positive integral factors, namely 1 and itself. e.g. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, ...
Composite Number : Let 'a' be a natrual number, 'a' is said to be composite if, it has atleast
three distinct factors.
'1' is neither prime nor composite, '2' is the only even prime number, Number which are not prime are
composite numbers (except 1), '4' is the smallest composite number.

Co-prime Number or relatively prime: Two natural numbers are coprime, if there H.C.F
(Highest common factor) is one. e.g. (1, 2), (1, 3), (3, 4), (3, 10), (3, 8), (5, 6), (7, 8) etc.

Twin Prime Numbers : If the difference between two prime numbers is two, then the numbers
are twin prime numbers. e.g. {3, 5}, {5, 7}, {11, 13}, {17, 19}, {29, 31}

Rational Numbers : All the numbers that can be represented in the form p/q, where p and q are
integers and q  0 set is denoted by Q.

Irrational Numbers : There are real numbers which can not be expressed in p/q form.

Real Numbers : The complete set of rational and irrational number is the set of real numbers
and is denoted by R. Thus R = Q  QC.

Complex Number : A number of the form a + ib is called complex number, where a,b  R and
i=  1 . Set is represented by C.

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2. Divisibility Test :
(i) A number will be divisible by 2 iff the digit at the unit place of the number is divisible by 2.

(ii) A number will be divisible by 3 iff the sum of all digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(iii) A number will be divisible by 4 iff last two digits of the number together are divisible by 4.

(iv) A number will be divisible by 5 iff the digit of the number at the unit place is either 0 or 5.

(v) A number will be divisible by 6 iff the digit at the unit place of the number is divisible by 2 &
sum of all digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(vi) A number will be divisible by 8 iff the last 3 digits of the number all together are divisible by 8.

(vii) A number will be divisible by 9 iff sum of all it's digits is divisible by 9.

## (viii) A number will be divisible by 10 iff it's last digit is 0.

(ix) A number will be divisible by 11, iff the difference between the sum of the digits at even places
and sum of the digits at odd places is 0 or multiple of 11.

## 3. (i) Remainder Theorem :

Let p(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or equal to one and 'a' be any real number. If p(x) is
divided by (x – a), then the remainder is equal to p(a).
(ii) Factor Theorem :
Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than of equal to 1 and 'a' be a real number such that
p(a) = 0, then (x – a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x – a) is a factor of p(x), then p(a) = 0.
(iii) Some important formulae :
(1) (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a – b)2 + 4ab
2 2 2
(2) (a – b) = a – 2ab + b = (a + b)2 – 4ab
(3) a2 – b2 = (a + b) (a – b)
(4) (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)
(5) (a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b)
(6) a3 + b3 = (a + b)3 – 3ab (a + b) = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab)
(7) a3 – b3 = (a – b)3 + 3ab (a – b) = (a – b) (a2 + b2 + ab)
(8) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca
 1 1 1
= a2 + b2 + c2 + 2abc    
a b c

1
(9) a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca = [(a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2]
2

## (10) a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca)

1
= (a + b + c) [(a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2]
2
(11) a4 – b4 = (a + b) (a – b) (a2 + b2)
(12) a4 + a2 + 1 = (a2 + 1)2 – a2 = (1 + a + a2) (1 – a + a2)
(13) (a + b + c)3 = a3 + b3 + c3 + 3(ab + bc + ca)(a + b + c) - abc

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4. Definition of indices : am = a. a. a. ...a (m times). Here a is called the base and m is the index,
power or exponent.

## (i) Law of indices :

1
(1) a0 = 1, (a  0) (2) a–m = , (a  0) (3) am + n = am . an , where m and n are rational
am
numbers

am q
(4) am – n = , where m and n are rational numbers, a  0, (5) (am)n = amn (6) ap/q = ap
an

Ratio : If A and B be two quantities of the same kind, then their ratio is A : B; which may be denoted
A
by the fraction (This may be an integer or fraction)
B
Ratio between two ratios may be represented as the ratio of two integers

e.g. : = = or ad : bc.
b d c/d bc

a c e ace
Ratios are compounded by multiplying them together i.e. . . .... = ....
b d f bdf

If a : b is any ratio then its duplicate ratio is a2 : b2 ; triplicate ratio is a3 : b3 ..... etc.

If a : b is any ratio, then its sub-duplicate ratio is a1/2 : b1/2 ; sub-triplicate ratio is a1/3 : b1/3 etc.
(ii) Proportion :
a c
= , then it is written as a : b = c : d or a : b :: c : d
b d
If a : b = c : d, then b : a = d : c (Invertando), If a : b = c : d, then a : c = b : d (Alternando)

## ab cd ab cd

If a : b = c : d, then = (Componendo), If a : b = c : d, then = (Dividendo)
b d b d

ab cd
If a : b = c : d, then = (Componendo and dividendo)
ab cd
5. Intervals :
Intervals are basically subsets of R and are commonly used in solving inequalities or in finding
domains. If there are two numbers a, b  R such that a < b, we can define four types of intervals as
follows :
Symbols Used
(i) Open interval : (a, b) = {x : a < x < b} i.e. end points are not included. ( ) or ] [
(ii) Closed interval : [a, b] = {x : a  x  b} i.e. end points are also included. []
This is possible only when both a and b are finite.
(iii) Open-closed interval : (a, b] = {x : a < x  b} ( ] or ] ]
(iv) Closed - open interval : [a, b) = x : a  x < b} [ ) or [ [
The infinite intervals are defined as follows :
(i) (a, ) = {x : x > a} (ii) [a, ) = {x : x  a}
(iii) (– , b) = {x : x < b} (iv) (, b] = {x : x  b}
(v) (– ) = {x : x  R}
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6. Properties of Modulus :
For any a, b  R
a |a|
|a|  0, |a| = |–a|, |a|  a, |a|  –a, |ab| = |a| |b|, = |b|,
b
|a + b|  |a| + |b|, |a – b|  ||a| – |b||

Greatest Integer Function or Step Up Function : The function y = f (x) = [x] is called the greatest
integer function where [x] equals to the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

## (a) x  1 < [x]  x (b) [x ± m] = [x] ± m iff m is an integer.

 0 ; if x is an int eger
(c) [x] + [y]  [x + y]  [x] + [y] + 1 (d) [x] + [ x] = 
  1 otherwise

## Properties of fractional part function

0 , if x is an int eger
(a) {x ± m} = {x} iff m is an integer (b) {x} + {–x} = 
1 , otherwise
7. Graph of Logarithmic function :

f(x) = logax is called logarithmic function where a > 0 and a  1 and x > 0. Its graph can be as follows:
Case-  Case- 
For a > 1 For 0 < a < 1

## 8. Fundamental Logarithmic Identity :

loga N = N, a > 0, a  1 & N > 0
a
9. The Principal Properties of Logarithm:
Let M & N are arbitrary positive numbers, a > 0, a  1, b > 0, b  1 and are any real numbers,
then :
(i) loga (M.N) = loga M + loga N ; in general loga (x1 x2 ......xn) = logax1 + loga x2 + ........+ loga xn
(ii) loga (M/N) = loga M  loga N
(iii) loga M =  loga M
1
(iv) loga M = logaM

loga M
(v) logb M = (base changing theorem)
loga b

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10. Logarithmic Equation :
The equality loga x = loga y is possible if and only if x = y i.e.

## 11. Logarithmic Inequality :

Let 'a' is a real number such that
(i) If a > 1, then logax > loga y  x > y
(ii) If a > 1, then logax <   0 < x < a
(iii) If a > 1, then logax >   x > a
(iv) If 0 < a < 1, then logax > logay  0 < x < y
(v) If 0 < a < 1, then loga x <   x > a
Form - I : f(x) > 0, g(x) > 0, g(x)  1
Form Collection of system

 f(x)  1 , g( x )  1
(a) logg(x) f(x)  0  
0  f ( x )  1 , 0  g( x )  1

 f (x)  1 , 0  g( x )  1
(b) logg(x) f(x)  0  
0  f ( x )  1 , g( x )  1

 f ( x )  (g( x ))a , g( x )  1
(c) logg(x) f(x)  a   a
0  f ( x )  (g( x )) , 0  g( x )  1

## 0  f ( x )  (g( x ))a , g( x )  1

(d) logg(x) f(x) a   a
 f ( x )  (g( x )) , 0  g( x )  1

## From - II : When the inequality of the form

Form Collection of system

 f ( x )  g( x ), ( x )  1,
(a) log(x) f(x) log(x) g(x)   
0  f ( x )  g( x ); 0  ( x )  1

 0  f ( x )  g( x ), ( x )  1,
(b) log(x) f(x) log(x) g(x)   
f ( x )  g( x )  0, 0  ( x )  1

STRAIGHT LINE
1. Distance Formula: d= x1  x 2 2  y1  y 2 2 .

mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1
2. Section Formula : x= ;y= .
mn mn

## + ve for internal division & –ve for external division.

3. Centroid, Incentre & Excentre:
 x1  x 2  x 3 y1  y 2  y 3   ax 1 bx 2  cx 3 ay1 by 2  cy 3 
Centroid G  ,  , Incentre I  , 
 3 3   abc abc 

  ax1  bx 2  cx 3  ay1  by 2  cy 3 
Excentre I1  abc
,
abc
 and so on.
 

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4. Area of a Triangle:

x1 y1 1
1
 ABC = x2 y2 1
2
x3 y3 1

1  x1 x 2 x2 x3 x n1 x n xn x1 
Area of polygon = 2  y y  y y3
 ...............
y n1 y n

yn

y1 
 1 2 2

5. Slope Formula:
y1  y 2
(i) Line Joining two points (x1 y1) & (x2 y2), m =
x1  x 2

– coff . of x – b
(ii) Slope of line ax + by + c = 0 is 
coff . of y a

x1 y1 1
6. Condition of collinearity of three points: x2 y2 1 = 0
x3 y3 1
7. Equation of a Straight Line in various forms:
(i) Point - Slope form : y  y1 = m (x  x1)
(ii) Slope  intercept form : y = mx + c

y 2  y1
(iii) Two point form : y  y1 = (x  x1)
x 2  x1

x y 1
(iv) Determinant form : x1 y1 1  0
x2 y2 1
x y
(v) Intercept form :  =1
a b

## (vi) Perpendicular/Normal form : xcos  + ysin  = p

(vii) Parametric form : x = x1 + r cos , y = y1 + r sin 
x  x1 y  y1
(viii) symetric form  =r
cos sin
c c
(ix) General Form : ax + by + c = 0, x - intercept = – y - intercept = –
a b

## 8. Angle between two straight lines in terms of their slopes: tan  = m1  m 2 .

1  m1m 2
a b c
9. Parallel Lines : Two lines ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + c = 0 are parallel if =  .
a b c
Thus any line parallel to ax + by + c = 0 is of the type ax + by + k = 0, where k is a parameter.

c 1 c 2
Distance between two parallel lines = .
a 2 b 2

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10. Perpendicular Lines:
Two lines ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + c = 0 are perpendicular if aa + bb = 0.
11. Position of the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) relative of the line ax + by + c = 0:
In general two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) will lie on same side or opposite side of ax + by + c = 0
according as ax1 + by1 + c and ax2 + by2 + c are of same or opposite sign respectively.
12. The ratio in which a given line divides the line segment joining two points:
m ax1by1c
ratio m : n is given by  .
n ax 2 by 2 c

a x1  b y1  c
13. Length of perpendicular from a point on a line: .
a 2  b2
14. Reflection of a point about a line:
x  x1 y  y 1 ax1by1c
(i) Foot of the perpendicular from a point on the line is   
a b a 2 b 2

xx1 yy1 ax 1  by 1  c
(ii) image of (x1, y1) in the line ax + by + c = 0 is  2 .
a b a 2 b 2

ax  by  c ax  by  c 
15. Bisectors of the angles between two lines: =±
2
a b 2 a 2  b 2

16. Methods to discriminate between the acute angle bisector & the obtuse angle
bisector:
If aa + bb < 0, cc > 0, then the equation of the bisector of acute angle is

a x + by + c a  x + b  y + c
=+
2 2
a b a  2  b 2

If aa+ bb > 0, cc > 0, then equation of the bisector of obtuse angle is :

a x + by + c a  x + b  y + c
=+
2 2
a b a  2  b 2
17. Discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing a point:
To discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing the origin & that of the angle not containing
the origin. Rewrite the equations, ax + by + c = 0 & ax + by + c = 0 such that the constant terms

a x + by + c a  x + b  y + c
c, c  are positive. Then ; =+ gives the equation of the bisector of the
2 2
a b a  2  b 2
a x + by + c a  x + b  y + c
angle containing the origin & = gives the equation of the bisector of the
a 2  b2 a  2  b 2
angle not containing the origin. In general equation of the bisector which contains the point (, ) is,

a x  by  c a  x  b  y  c a x  by  c a  x  b  y  c
= or = according as
a 2  b2 a  2  b 2 a 2  b2 a  2  b 2
a  + b  + c and a + b + c having same sign or otherwise.
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a1 b1 c1
18. Condition of Concurrency :of three straight lines aix + biy + ci = 0, i = 1,2,3 is a 2 b 2 c2 = 0.
a3 b3 c3

## 19. Family Of Straight Lines:

The equation of a family of straight lines passing through the point of intersection of the lines,
L1  a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & L2  a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 is given by L1 + k L2 = 0
20. A Pair of straight lines through origin: ax² + 2hxy + by² = 0
2 h 2  ab
If  is the acute angle between the pair of straight lines, then tan = ab .

## ax² + 2hxy + by² + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines if :

a h g
h b f
abc + 2fgh  af²  bg²  ch² = 0, i.e. if = 0.
g f c

CIRCLE
1. Equation of a Circle in Various Form:
(a) Standard form : x2 + y2 = r2. (b) General form : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
(c) Diameter form : (x  x1) (x  x2) + (y  y1) (y  y2) = 0.
2. Intercepts made by Circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the Axes:
2
(a) 2 g2 c on x -axis (b) 2 f c on y - aixs
3. Parametric Equations of a Circle: x = h + r cos  ; y = k + r sin 
4. Position of a point with respect to a circle:
The point (x1, y1) is inside, on or outside the circle S  x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.
according as S1  x1² + y1² + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c <, = or > 0.
5. Line and a Circle: line is y = mx + c and circle is x2 + y2 = a2
(i) c2 < a2 (1 + m2) the line is a secant of the circle.
(ii) c2 = a2 (1 + m2)  the line touches the circle. (It is tangent to the circle)
2 2 2
(iii) c > a (1 + m )  the line does not meet the circle i. e. passes out side the circle.
6. Tangent :
 a2m a2 
(a) Slope form : y = mx ± a 1  m2 and points of contact are   ,  .
 c c 

(b) Point form : Equation of tangent is T = 0
(c) Parametric form : Tangent to circle x2 + y2 = a2 at (a cos , a sin ) is x cos  + y sin  = a.
7. Pair of Tangents from a Point: SS1 = T².
8. Power of a Point: Power of a point is S1
9. Length of a Tangent : Length of tangent is S1

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10. Director Circle: Director circle of the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2
11. Chord of Contact: Equation of chord of contact is T = 0

2 LR
Length of chord of contact = , where R = radius; L = length of tangent.
R 2  L2

R L3
Area of the triangle formed by the pair of the tangents & its chord of contact =
R 2  L2

 2R L 
(d) Tangent of the angle between the pair of tangents from (x1, y1) =  2 
2 
L R 
(e) Equation of the circle circumscribing the triangle PT1 T2 is:
(x  x1) (x + g) + (y  y1) (y + f) = 0.

## 13. Equation of the chord joining two points of circle :

   
x cos + y sin = a cos .
2 2 2

## 14. Common Tangents to two Circles:

(i) Four common tangents if the two circles are disjoint i.e r1 + r 2 < c 1 c 2 .
(ii) 3 common tangents if two circles touch each other externally i.e r1 + r2 = c1 c2.
(iii) 2 common tangents if two circles intersect each other i.e r1  r2 < c1 c2 < r1 +
r2
(iv) 1 common tangent if the circles touch each other internally i.e r1  r2 = c1 c2.
(v) No common tangent if one circles is in the interior of the other i.e c1 c2 < r1  r2.
15. Condition of orthogonality of Two Circles: 2 g1 g2 + 2 f1 f2 = c1 + c2.
16. Radical Axis : S1  S2 = 0 i.e. 2 (g1  g2) x + 2 (f1  f2) y + (c1  c2) = 0.
17. Family of Circles: S1 + K S2 = 0, S + KL = 0.
PARABOLA
1. Equation of standard parabola :
y2 = 4ax, Vertex is (0, 0), focus is (a, 0), Directrix is x + a = 0 and Axis is y = 0
Length of the latus rectum = 4a, ends of the latus rectum are L(a, 2a) & L’ (a,  2a).

## 2. Parametric Representation: x = at² & y = 2at

3. Position of a point Relative to a Parabola:

The point (x1 , y1) lies outside, on or inside the parabola y² = 4ax according as y1²  4ax1 >, = or < 0
4. Line & a Parabola:

 4  a (1  m 2 ) (a  m c) .
Length of the chord intercepted on the line y = mx + c is  
 m2 

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5. Tangents to the Parabola y² = 4ax: T=0

a  a , 2a
y = mx + (m  0) is tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax at  2 
m m m
6. Normals to the parabola y² = 4ax :
y1
y  y1 =  (x  x1) at (x1, y1) ; y = mx  2am  am3 at (am2 2am) ; y + tx = 2at + at 3 at (at2, 2at).
2a
7. Pair of Tangents: SS1 = T²
8. Chord of Contact: T = 0
9. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1

ELLIPSE
x2 y2
1. Standard Equation :  = 1, where a > b & b² = a² (1  e²).
a2 b2

b2 a a
Eccentricity: e = 1  2 , (0 < e < 1) , Directrices : x = & x =  .
a e e

Focii : S  (a e, 0) & S ( a e, 0). Length of major axes = 2a, length of minor axes = 2b
Vertices : A ( a, 0) & A  (a, 0) .

2
2b 2 minor axis
Latus Rectum : =
a

major axis

 2a 1 e 2 
2. Auxiliary Circle : x² + y² = a²
3. Parametric Representation : x = a cos  & y = b sin 
4. Position of a Point w.r.t. an Ellipse:
x12y2
The point P(x1, y1) lies outside, inside or on the ellipse according as ;  1  1 > < or = 0.
a2 b2
2 y2
5. Line and an Ellipse: The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse x2  = 1 in two points real,
a b2
coincident or imaginary according as c² is < = or > a²m² + b².
x x1 yy1
6. Tangents: Slope form: y = mx ± a 2m 2  b 2 , Point form :  1,
a2 b2

xcos ysin
Parametric form:  1
a b

7.
a2 x b2 y
Normals: x  y = a²  b², ax. sec   by. cosec  = (a²  b²), y = mx 
a2  b2 m
.
 
1 1 a 2  b 2m 2

## 8. Pair of Tangents: SS1 = T²

9. Director Circle: x² + y² = a² + b²
10. Chord of Contact: T = 0
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11. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1,
12. Important High Lights :
 If P be any point on the ellipse with S & S as its focii then  (SP) +  (SP) = 2a.
 If the normal at any point P on the ellipse with centre C meet the major & minor axes in G & g
respectively, & if CF be perpendicular upon this normal , then
(i) PF. PG = b²
(ii) PF. Pg = a²
(iii) PG. Pg = SP. S P
(iv) CG. CT = CS 2
(v) locus of the mid point of Gg is another ellipse having the same eccentricity as that of the
original ellipse.
[where S and S are the focii of the ellipse and T is the point where tangent at P meet the major axis]
 If the tangent at the point P of a standard ellipse meets the axis in T and t and CY is the perpendicular
on it from the centre then,
(i) T t. PY = a2  b2 and
(ii) least value of T t is a + b.

HYPERBOLA
x2 y2
1. Standard Equation: Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2  2  1 , where b2 = a2 (e2  1).
a b

a a
Focii : S  (ae, 0) & S  ( ae, 0), Directrices : x = & x= .
e e
Vertices : A (a, 0) & A ( a, 0)
2
2 b2 C . A .
Latus Rectum (  ) : =  = 2a (e2  1).
a T . A.

x2 y2 x2 y2
2. Conjugate Hyperbola :   1 &    1 are conjugate hyperbolas of each.
a2 b2 a2 b2

## 3. Auxiliary Circle : x2 + y2 = a2.

4. Parametric Representation : x = a sec & y = b tan 
5. Position of A Point 'P' w.r.t. A Hyperbola :
2 2
x y
S1  1  1  1 >, = or < 0 according as the point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the curve.
a2 b2
6. Line And A Hyperbola :

x2 y2
The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes outside the hyperbola  1
a2 b2
according as : c2 > or = or < a2 m2  b2, respectively.
7. Tangents :

## (i) Slope Form : y = m x  a 2 m2  b 2

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xx1 yy1
(ii) Point Form : at the point (x1, y1) is   1.
2
a b2
x sec  y tan 
(iii) Parametric Form :   1.
a b

8. Normals :

a 2 x b2 y
(a) at the point P (x1, y1) is  = a 2 + b 2 = a 2 e 2.
x1 y1

ax by
(b) at the point P (a sec , b tan ) is  = a 2 + b 2 = a 2 e 2.
sec tan

## (c) Equation of normals in terms of its slope 'm' are y = mx 

a 2

 b2 m
.
a 2  b2m 2
9. Pair of Tangents: SS1 = T²
10. Director Circle : x2 + y2 = a2  b2.
11. Chord of Contact: T = 0
12. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1
2
13. Diameter : y =  b2 x.
a m
x y x y x2 y2
14. Asymptotes :  0 and   0 . Pair of asymptotes :  2  0.
a b a b a2 b

## Vertices : (c, c) & ( c,  c); Focii :    

2 c , 2 c &  2 c ,  2 c , Directrices : x + y =  2 c

## Latus Rectum (l ) :  = 2 2 c = T.A. = C.A.

Parametric equation x = ct, y = c/t, t  R – {0}

x y x
Equation of the tangent at P (x1, y1) is  = 2 & at P (t) is + t y = 2 c.
x1 y1 t
Equation of the normal at P (t) is x t3  y t = c (t4  1).
Chord with a given middle point as (h, k) is kx + hy = 2hk.
Important Results :
x2 y2
 Locus of the feet of the perpendicular drawn from focus of the hyperbola   1 upon any
a2 b2
tangent is its auxiliary circle i.e. x2 + y2 = a2 & the product of these perpendiculars is b2.
 The portion of the tangent between the point of contact & the directrix subtends a right angle at the
corresponding focus.
 The tangent & normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect the angle between the focal radii. This spells
the reflection property of the hyperbola as "An incoming light ray " aimed towards one focus is
reflected from the outer surface of the hyperbola towards the other focus. It follows that if an ellipse
and a hyperbola have the same focii, they cut at right angles at any of their common point.

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2 2
x2 y2 x y
Note that the ellipse  2  1 & the hyperbola 2  = 1 (a > k > b > 0) are confocal
a 2
b a  k2 k2  b2
and therefore orthogonal.
 The foci of the hyperbola and the points P and Q in which any tangent meets the tangents at the
vertices are concyclic with PQ as diameter of the circle.
 If from any point on the asymptote a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis, the
product of the segments of this line, intercepted between the point & the curve is always equal to the
square of the semi conjugate axis.
 Perpendicular from the focii on either asymptote meet it in the same points as the corresponding
directrix & the common points of intersection lie on the auxiliary circle.

x2 y2
 The tangent at any point P on a hyperbola   1 with centre C, meets the asymptotes in Q and
a2 b2
R and cuts off a  CQR of constant area equal to ab from the asymptotes & the portion of the tangent
intercepted between the asymptote is bisected at the point of contact. This implies that locus of the
centre of the circle circumscribing the  CQR in case of a rectangular hyperbola is the hyperbola
itself & for a standard hyperbola the locus would be the curve, 4 (a2x2  b2y2) = (a2 + b2)2.

x2 y2
 If the angle between the asymptote of a hyperbola 2
 2  1 is 2  then the eccentricity of the
a b
hyperbola is sec .
 A rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle also passes through the orthocentre of this triangle.

   c 
If  c t i , c  i = 1, 2, 3 be the angular points P, Q, R then orthocentre is  t t t , c t1 t 2 t 3  .
 t i  1 2 3 
 If a circle and the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 meet in the four points t1, t2, t3 & t4, then
(a) t1 t2 t3 t4 = 1
(b) the centre of the mean position of the four points bisects the distance between the centres of
the two curves.
(c) the centre of the circle through the points t1, t2 & t3 is :
c  1 c1 1 1 
 2  t1  t 2  t 3  t t t , 2  t  t  t  t1 t 2 t 3 
  1 2 3   1 2 3 

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1. Qu ad ratic Eq u atio n : a x2 + b x + c = 0, a  0

 b  b2  4 a c
x= , The expression b2  4 a c  D is called discriminant of quadratic equation.
2a
b c
If ,  are the roots, then (a)  +  =  (b)  =
a a
A quadratic equation whose roots are  & , is (x ) (x ) = 0 i.e. x2  ( +  ) x +  = 0

2. Nature of Roots:
Consider the quadratic equation, a x2 + b x + c = 0 having ,  as its roots; D  b2  4 a c

D=0 D0
Roots are equal =  =  b/2a Roots are unequal

## a, b, c  R & D > 0 a, b, c  R & D < 0

Roots are real Roots are imaginary  = p + i q,  = p  i q

a, b, c  Q & a, b, c  Q &
D is a perfect square D is not a perfect square
 Roots are rational  Roots are irrational
 i.e.  = p + q ,  = p  q
a = 1, b, c   & D is a perfect square
 Roots are integral.
3. Common Roots:
Consider two quadratic equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c 1 = 0 & a2 x2 + b2 x + c 2 = 0.

a1 b c
(i) If two quadratic equations have both roots common, then = 1 = 1 .
a 2 b2 c2

c a  c2 a1 b c  b2 c1
(ii) If only one root  is common, then  = 1 2 = 1 2
a1 b2  a 2 b1 c1 a 2  c2 a1
 If a x2 + b x + c a perfect square of a linear expression, then D b2  4 a c = 0.
 If ax² +2 hxy + by² +2 gx+ 2 fy + c can be resolved into two linear factors, then

a h g
 abc + 2 fgh  af²  bg²  ch² = 0 OR h b f = 0.
g f c

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D b
5.  If a > 0, then least value of a x2 + b x + c  
IS
4 a and occurs at x = 2 a

D b
 If a < 0, then greatest value of a x2 + b x + c IS  and occurs at x = 
4a 2a

## Range in restricted domain: Given x  [x1, x2]

b
(a) If 
2a
 
 [x1, x2] then, f (x)  min f ( x1 ) , f ( x 2 ) ,  
max f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) 

b   D  D 
(b) If   [x1, x2] then, f(x)   min  f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) ,  4 a  , max  f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) ,  4 a  
2a      

## 7. Sign of Quadratic Expressions:

(i)  x  R, y > 0 only if a > 0 & D  b²  4ac < 0
(ii)  x  R, y < 0 only if a < 0 & D  b²  4ac < 0

## 8. Solution of Quadratic Inequalities:

The values of ' x ' satisfying the inequality, ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a  0) are:
(i) If D > 0, a > 0, then ax 2 + bx + c > 0 (a  0) x  ( )  ( )
If D > 0, a < 0, then ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a  0) x  ( )
(ii) If D = 0, then a > 0  x  (, )  ( ), a < 0  x 

## (iii) If D < 0, then a > 0  x  R, a < 0  x  

9. Location of Roots:
Let f (x) = ax² + bx + c, where a > 0 & a, b, c  R.

(i) Conditions for both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be greater than a specified number‘x0’ are
b²  4ac  0; f (x0) > 0 & ( b/2a) > x0.
(ii) Conditions for both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be smaller than a specified number ‘x0’ are
b²  4ac  0; f (x0) > 0 & ( b/2a) < x0.
(iii) Conditions for both roots of f (x) = 0 to lie on either side of the number ‘x0’ (in other words the
number ‘x0’ lies between the roots of f (x) = 0), is f (x0) < 0.

(iv) Conditions that both roots of f (x) = 0 to be confined between the numbers x1 and
x2, (x1 < x2) are b²  4ac  0; f (x1) > 0 ; f (x2) > 0 & x1 < ( b/2a) < x2.

(v) Conditions for exactly one root of f (x) = 0 to lie in the interval (x1, x2) i.e.
x1 < x < x2 is f (x1). f (x2) < 0.

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SEQUENCE & SERIES
1. Sequence : A sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers.
A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.

2. Series
By adding or substracting the terms of a sequence, we get an expression which is called a series.

## 3. An arithmetic progression (A.P.) : a, a + d, a + 2 d,....... a + (n  1) d is an A.P.

Let a be the first term and d be the common difference of an A.P., then nth term = tn = a + (n – 1) d
The sum of first n terms of are A.P.
n n
Sn = [2a + (n – 1) d] = [a + ]
2 2
rth term of an A.P. when sum of first r terms is given is tr = Sr – Sr – 1.

Properties of A.P.
(i) If a, b, c are in A.P.  2 b = a + c & if a, b, c, d are in A.P.  a + d = b + c.

(ii) Three numbers in A.P. can be taken as a  d, a, a + d; four numbers in A.P. can be taken as
a  3d, a  d, a + d, a + 3d; five numbers in A.P. are a  2d, a  d, a, a + d, a + 2d & six terms in A.P.
are a  5d, a  3d, a  d, a + d, a + 3d, a + 5d etc.

(iii) Sum of the terms of an A.P. equidistant from the beginning & end = sum of first & last term.

## 4. Arithmetic Mean (Mean or Average) (A.M.):

If three terms are in A.P. then the middle term is called the A.M. between the other two, so if a, b, c
are in A.P., b is A.M. of a & c.

## n  Arithmetic Means Between Two Numbers:

If a, b are any two given numbers & a, A1, A2,...., An, b are in A.P. then A1, A2,... An are the
ba 2 (b  a ) n (b  a )
n A.M.’s between a & b. A1 = a + , A2 = a + ,......, An = a +
n1 n1 n1
n
 Ar = nA where A is the single A.M. between a & b.
r 1

5. Geometric Progression: a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,...... is a G.P. with a as the first term & r as common
ratio.

a rn  1
  , r 1
(i) nth term = a rn1 (ii) Sum of the first n terms i.e. Sn =  r  1
 na , r 1
a
(iii) Sum of an infinite G.P. when r < 1 is given by S =
1 r

r 1 . 
6. Properties of G.P.
(i) If a, b, c are in G.P.  b2 = ac, if a1, a2, a3, a4,...an – 1 , an are in G.P, then a1an = a1an – 1 = a3 an – 2 ...
a
(ii) Any three consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as , a , ar..
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a a
(iii) Any four consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as , , ar, ar3
r3 r
(iv) If each term of a G.P. be multiplied or divided or raised to power by the some nonzero quantity, the
resulting sequence is also a G.P..

(v) If a1, a2, a3,........ and b1, b2, b3,......... are two G.P’s with common ratio r1 and r2 respectively then the
sequence a1b1, a2b2, a3b3, ..... is also a G.P. with common ratio r1 r2.

(vi) If a1, a2, a3,... is a G.P. of positive term, then log a1, loga2, loga3,... are in A.P. and conversely.

## 7. Geometric Means (Mean Proportional) (G.M.):

If a, b, c > 0 are in G.P., b is the G.M. between a & c, then b² = ac
nGeometric Means Between positive number a, b: If a, b are two given numbers & a, G1,
G2,....., Gn, b are in G.P.. Then G1, G2, G3,...., Gn are n G.M.s between a & b.
G1 = a(b/a)1/n+1, G2 = a(b/a)2/n+1,......, Gn = a(b/a)n/n+1

## 8. Harmonic Mean (H.M.):

2ac
If a, b, c are in H.P., b is the H.M. between a & c, then b = .
ac

1 1  1  1  .......  1 
H.M. H of a1, a2 , ........ an is given by =  
H n  a1 a 2 an 

## 9. Relation between means :

G² = AH, A.M.  G.M.  H.M. and A.M. = G.M. = H.M. if a1 = a2 = a3 = ...........= an

## 10. Arithmetico-Geometric Series: a, (a + d) r, (a + 2 d) r², ..... , [a + (n  1)d] rn1 are in A.G.P.

Sn =
a

d r 1  r n 1

 
a  (n  1) d r n , r  1. Sum To Infinity: If r < 1, then S = a  d r

1  r 1  r 2
1 r 1  r 2 1 r
.

Important Results
n n n n n n
(i)  (ar ± br) =  ar ±  br. (ii)  k ar = k  ar. (iii)  k = nk; where k is a constant.
r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1

n n
n (n 1) n (n  1) (2n  1)
(iv)  r = 1 + 2 + 3 +...........+ n =
2
(v)  r² = 12 + 22 + 32 +...........+ n2 =
6
r 1 r 1

n
n 2 (n  1) 2
(vi)  r3 = 13 + 23 + 33 +...........+ n3 =
4
r 1

n
(vii) 2 a
i j 1
i a j = (a1 + a2 + ........+ an )2 – (a12 + a22 + ...... + an2)

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BINOMIAL THEOREM
1. Statement of Binomial theorem : If a, b  R and n  N, then
n
n
(a + b)n = nC0 anb0 + nC1 an–1 b1 + nC2 an–2 b2 +...+ nCr an–r br +...+ nCn a0 bn =  C r a n r b r
r0
n n n n 2 n r n n
(1 + x) = C0 + C1 x + C2 x +... + Cr x +...+ Cn x

## (i) The number of terms in the expansion is n + 1.

(ii) The sum of the indices of a and b in each term is n.
(iii) The binomial coefficients (nC0, nC1 ..........nCn) of the terms equidistant from the beginning and
the end are equal, i.e. nC0 = nCn, nC1 = nCn–1 etc. { nCr = nCn–r}

## (iv) General term : Tr+1 = nCr an–r br

(v) Middle term (s) :
n2
(a) If n is even, there is only one middle term, which is   th term.
 2 
 n  1 n 1 
(b) If n is odd, there are two middle terms, which are   th and   1 th terms.
 2   2 
n
(vi) Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (x + y) , n  N

 (n  1) | y |  (n  1) | y |
Let r =  | x |  | y |  . If | x |  | y | is not an integer, then tr + 1 is numerically greatest.
 
(n  1) | y |
If | x |  | y | is an integer, then tr = tr + 1 and both are numercally greatest.

n!
3. Multinomial Theorem : (x1 + x2 + x3 + ........... xk)n = 
r1  r2 ...rk
r !
n 1 2
r !... rk !
x1r1 . x r22 ...x rkk

n+k–1
Here total number of terms in the expansion = Ck–1
4. Application of Binomial Theorem :

If ( A  B)n =  + f where  and n are positive integers, n being odd and 0 < f < 1 then ( + f)
f = kn where A – B2 = k > 0 and A – B < 1.
If n is an even integer, then ( + f) (1 – f) = kn
5. Properties of Binomial Coefficients :
n
(i) C0 + nC1 + nC2 + ........+ nCn = 2n
n
(ii) C0 – nC1 + nC2 – nC3 + ............. + (–1)n nCn = 0
n
(iii) C0 + nC2 + nC4 + .... = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 + .... = 2n–1

n
Cr n r 1
n
(iv) Cr + nCr–1 = n+1
Cr (v) n =
Cr 1 r

## 6. Binomial Theorem For Negative Integer Or Fractional Indices

n(n  1) 2 n(n  1)(n  2) 3 n(n  1)(n  2).......(n  r  1) r
(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + x + x + .... + x + ....,| x | < 1.
2! 3! r!

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n(n  1)(n  2).........(n  r  1)
Tr+1 = r! xr

## Expansions to be remembered (|x| < 1)

(a) (1 + x)–1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + ....+ (–1)r xr + ....

## PERMUTATION & COMBINNATION

Permutations are arrangements and combinations are selections.
1. Fundamental Principle of Counting :
(i) Principle of Multiplication:
If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, following which another event can occur in ‘n’ different
ways, then total number of different ways of simultaneous occurrence of both the events in a definite
order is m  n.
If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, and another event can occur in ‘n’ different ways, then
exactly one of the events can happen in m + n ways.
2. Arrangement : number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time =
n
n!
Pr = n (n  1) (n  2)... (n  r + 1) =
(n  r )!
3. Circular Permutation :
The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time is; (n  1) !.

n! n
P
4. Selection : Number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time = nCr = = r
r! (n  r )! r!

5. The number of permutations of 'n' things, taken all at a time, when 'p' of them are similar & of one
type, q of them are similar & of another type, 'r' of them are similar & of a third type & the remaining
n!
n  (p + q + r) are all different is .
p! q! r !
6. Formation of Groups :

Number of ways in which (m + n + p) different things can be divided into three different groups
m  n  p !
containing m, n & p things respectively is ,
m!n!p!
If m = n = p and the groups have identical qualitative characteristic then the number of groups
(3n)!
= .
n! n! n! 3!
(3n)!
However, if 3n things are to be divided equally among three people then the number of ways = .
n!3

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7. Selection of one or more objects
(a) Number of ways in which atleast one object be selected out of 'n' distinct objects is
n
C1 + nC2 + nC3 +...............+ nCn = 2n – 1
(b) Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected out of 'p' alike objects of one
type 'q' alike objects of second type and 'r' alike of third type is
(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) – 1
(c) Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected from 'n' objects where 'p' alike
of one type 'q' alike of second type and 'r' alike of third type and rest
n – (p + q + r) are different, is
(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) 2n – (p + q + r) – 1
8. Multinomial Theorem:
Coefficient of xr in expansion of (1  x)n = n+r1Cr (n  N)
Number of ways in which it is possible to make a selection from m + n + p = N things, where p are
alike of one kind, m alike of second kind & n alike of third kind taken r at a time is given by coefficient
of xr in the expansion of
(1 + x + x2 +...... + xp) (1 + x + x2 +...... + xm) (1 + x + x2 +...... + xn).

(i) For example the number of ways in which a selection of four letters can be made from the
letters of the word PROPORTION is given by coefficient of x4 in
(1 + x + x2 + x3) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x) (1 + x) (1 + x).
(ii) Method of fictious partition :
Number of ways in which n identical things may be distributed among p persons if each
person may receive none, one or more things is; n+p1Cn.
9. Let N = pa. qb. rc...... where p, q, r...... are distinct primes & a, b, c..... are natural numbers then :
(a) The total numbers of divisors of N including 1 & N is = (a + 1) (b + 1) (c + 1)........
(b) The sum of these divisors is =
(p0 + p1 + p2 +.... + pa) (q0 + q1 + q2 +.... + qb) (r0 + r1 + r2 +.... + rc)........

## (c) Number of ways in which N can be resolved as a product of two factors is

1 (a  1)(b  1)(c  1).... if N is not a perfect square
= 2
1
2
(a  1)(b  1)(c  1)....1 if N is a perfect square

(d) Number of ways in which a composite number N can be resolved into two factors which are
relatively prime (or coprime) to each other is equal to 2n1 where n is the number of different prime
factors in N.
10. Let there be 'n' types of objects, with each type containing atleast r objects. Then the number of ways
of arranging r objects in a row is nr.
11. Dearrangement :
Number of ways in which 'n' letters can be put in 'n' corresponding envelopes such that no letter goes
 1 1 1 1 n 1
to correct envelope is n ! 1     ............  ( 1) 
 1! 2! 3 ! 4 ! n! 

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PROBABILITY
1. (i) Random Experiment : An experiment which on repeated performances gives different results.
(ii) Sample Space : Collection of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is the sample
(iii) Event : It is subset of sample space.
(iv) Complement of event : An event is called complement of the event A if it occurs when ever
A does not occur and vice-versa. It is denoted by A, A or AC.
(v) Compound Event : A  B , A  B, A – B etc. are compound events.
(vi) Equally likely Events : If events have same chance of occurrence, then they are said to be
equally likely.
(vii) Mutually Exclusive / Disjoint / Incompatible Events : A  B = 
(viii) Exhaustive Events : E1, E2, E3, .........En are exhaustive if E 1 E2 E3.........En = S.
2. Classical (A priori) Definition of Probability :
If an experiment results in a total of (m + n) outcomes which are equally likely and mutually exclusive
with one another and if ‘m’ outcomes are favorable to an event ‘A’ while ‘n’ are unfavorable, then the

m n( A )
probability of occurrence of the event ‘A’ = P(A) = = .
mn n(S)
We say that odds in favour of ‘A’ are m : n, while odds against ‘A’ are n : m.
n
P( A ) = = 1 – P(A)
mn

## 3. Addition theorem of probability : P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) – P(AB)

De Morgan’s Laws : (a) (A B)c = Ac Bc (b) (A B)c = Ac Bc
Distributive Laws :(a) A  (B C) = (A B)  (A C) (b) A  (B C) = (A B)  (A C)

(i) P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A B) – P(B C) – P(C A) + P(A B C)
(ii) P (at least two of A, B, C occur) = P(B  C) + P(C  A) + P(A  B) – 2P(A B C)
(iii) P(exactly two of A, B, C occur) = P(B C) + P(C A) + P(A B) – 3P(A B  C)
(iv) P(exactly one of A, B, C occur) =
P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – 2P(B C) – 2P(C A) – 2P(A B) + 3P(A B C)
P(A  B)
4. Conditional Probability : P(A/B) = P(B)
.

5. Independent and dependent events : P(A  B) = P(A) P(B), then A and B are independent.
(i) If A and B are independent, then (a) A and B are independent, (b) A and B are independent
and (c) A and B are independent.
(ii) If A and B are independent, then P(A / B) = P(A).
Independency of three or more events

Three events A, B & C are independent if & only if all the following conditions hold :
P(A  B) = P(A) . P(B) ; P(B  C) = P(B) . P(C)
P (C  A) = P(C) . P(A) ; P(A  B  C) = P(A) . P(B) . P(C)

## 6. Binomial Probability Theorem

If an experiment is such that the probability of success or failure does not change with trials, then
the probability of getting exactly r success in n trials of an experiment is nCr pr qn – r, where ‘p’ is the
probability of a success and q is the probability of a failure. Note that p + q = 1.

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7. Expectation :
If a value Mi is associated with a probability of pi , then the expectation is given by  piMi.

n
8. Total Probability Theorem : P(A) =  P(B ) . P( A / B )
i1
i i

9. Bayes’ Theorem :
If an event A can occur with one of the n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events B1, B2 , ....., Bn
and the probabilities P(A/B1), P(A/B2) .... P(A/Bn) are known, then

P(B i ) . P( A / B i )
P(Bi / A) = n

 P(Bi ) . P( A / B i )
B1, B2, B3,........,B
i 1
n

n

i 1
i

## 10. Binomial Probability Distribution :

 pi x i
(i) Mean of any probability distribution of a random variable is given by : µ = =  pi xi
 pi

(ii) Variance of a random variable is given by, 2 = (xi – µ)2 . pi = pi xi2 – µ2

COMPLEX NUMBER
1. The complex number system
A number of the form a + bi where a and b are real number and i2 = – 1 is called a complex number.
It is denoted by z i.e. z = a + ib. a is called as real part of z which is denoted by (Re z) and b is called
imaginary part of z which is denoted by (Im z).
(i) Purely real, if b = 0 (ii) Purely imaginary, if a = 0 (iii) Imaginary, if b  0.
z = a + ib, then a – ib is called congugate of z and is denoted by z .

2. Algebraic Operations:
Fundamental operations with complex numbers
1. (a + bi) + (c + di) = a + bi + c + di = (a + c) + (b + d) i
2. (a + bi) – (c + di) = a + bi – c – di = (a – c) + (b – d) i
3. (a + bi) (c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac – bd) + (ad+ bc)i

## a  bi a  bi c  bi ac  adi  bci  bdi 2 ac  bd  (bc  ad)i ac  bd bc  ad

4. = . = = = 2 2 +
i
c  di c  di c  di 2
c d i 2 2 2
c d 2 c d c 2  d2

## 4. Representation Of A Complex Number:

(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation) :
Every complex number z = x + i y can be represented by the point P(x, y).
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Length OP is called modulus of z and is denoted by z Angle XOP =  is called argument
or amplitude of z.

y
z = x 2  y 2 & tan =
x
(i) If  is the argument of z, then 2 n + ; n  I is also argument of z. Any two arguments
of a complex number differ by 2n
(ii) The unique value of  such that   <   is called the principal value of the argument.
(iii) For the complex number 0 + 0 i the argument is not defined.

## (b) Trignometric/Polar Representation :

z = r (cos  + i sin ) where z = r; arg z = ; z = r (cos  i sin )

## eix e ix eix e ix

Also cos x = & sin x = are known as Euler's identities.
2 2
(c) Euler's Representation :
z = rei; z = r; arg z = ; z = re i
5. Properties of modulus

z1 z1
(i) |z1z2| = |z 1| |z2| (ii) = (provide z2  0)
z2 z 2
(iii) |z1 + z2|  |z1| + |z2| (iv) |z1 – z2|  ||z1| – |z2||

(Equality in (iii) and (iv) holds if and only if origin, z1 and z2 are collinear with z1 and z2 on the same
side of origin).
6. Properties of arguments
(i) arg(z1z2) = arg(z1) + arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.
(ii) arg(z1/z2) = arg (z1) – arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.
(iii) arg (z2) = 2arg(z) + 2m for some integer m.
(iv) arg(z) = 0  z is a positive real number
(v) arg(z) = ± /2  z is purely imaginary and z  0
7. Properties of conjugate

## (i) |z| = | z | (ii) z z = |z|2 (iii) z1  z 2 = z1 + z2

 z1  z
(iv) z1  z 2 = z1 – z2 (v) z1z 2 = z1 z2 (vi)   = 1 (z2  0)
z
 2 z 2

## (viii) ( z1 ) = z (ix) If w = f(z), then w = f( z )

(x) arg(z) + arg( z )

8. Rotation theorem

(i) If P(z1) and Q(zz) are two complex numbers such that |z1| = |z 2|, then z2 = z1 eiwhere  = POQ

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 z3  z2  z3  z2
(ii) If P(z1), Q(z2) and R(z3) are three complex numbers and PQR = , then  z  z  = z1  z 2 e
i
 1 2 

z3  z 4 z3  z 4
(iii) If P(z1), Q(z2), R(z3) and S(z4) are complex numbers and STQ = , then z  z = i
1 2 z1  z 2 e
9. Demoivre’s Theorem:
Case  : If n is any integer then
(i) (cos  + i sin  )n = cos n + i sin n
(ii) (cos 1 + i sin 1) (cos 2 + i sin 2) (cos3 + i sin 2) (cos 3 + i sin 3) ....
.(cos n + i sin n) = cos (1 + 2 + 3 + ......... n) + i sin (1 + 2 + 3 + ....... + n)
 2k  p   2k  p 
Case If p, q  Z and q  0 then (cos  + i sin )p/q = cos   + i sin  
 q   q 
where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ......, q – 1

## (i) The cube roots of unity are 1,  1  i 3 ,  1  i 3 .

2 2
(ii) If  is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 +  + ² = 0. In general 1 + r + 2r = 0;
where r  I but is not the multiple of 3.

2 2 4
(iii) In polar form the cube roots of unity are :cos 0 + i sin 0; cos + i sin , cos + i sin
3 3 3

4
3
(iv) The three cube roots of unity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the vertices of an
equilateral triangle.

(v) The following factorisation should be remembered : (a, b, c  R &  is the cube root of unity)
a3  b3 = (a  b) (a  b) (a  ²b) ; x2 + x + 1 = (x  ) (x  2) ;
a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a + b) (a + 2b) ; a2 + ab + b2 = (a – bw) (a – bw2)
a3 + b3 + c3  3abc = (a + b + c) (a + b + ²c) (a + ²b + c)
11. nth Roots of Unity :
If 1, 1, 2, 3..... n  1 are the n, nth root of unity then :
(i) They are in G.P. with common ratio ei(2/n)

p p p
(ii) 1p +  1 +  2 +.... + n  1 = 0 if p is not an integral multiple of n
= n if p is an integral multiple of n
(iii) (1  1) (1  2)...... (1  n  1) = n &
(1 + 1) (1 + 2)....... (1 + n  1) = 0 if n is even and 1 if n is odd.
(iv) 1. 1. 2. 3......... n  1 = 1 or 1 according as n is odd or even.

## 12. The Sum Of The Following Series Should Be Remembered :

sin  n / 2  n  1
cos  + cos 2  + cos 3  +..... + cos n  =
(i)
sin  / 2 cos  2  
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sin  n / 2  n  1
sin  + sin 2  + sin 3  +..... + sin n  =
(ii)
sin  / 2 sin  2  

## 13. Logarithm Of A Complex Quantity :

1  1  
(i) Loge (+ i ) = Loge (² + ²) + i  2 n   tan  where n  .
2  

 
 2 n   
 2
(ii) ii represents a set of positive real numbers given by e , n  .
14. Geometrical Properties:
Distance formula : |z1 – z2|.
mz 2  nz1 mz 2  nz1
Section formula : z = (internal division), z = (external division)
mn mn
If a, b, c are three real numbers such that az1 + bz2 + cz3 = 0 ; where a + b + c = 0 and a,b,c are not
all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z1, z2 & z3 are collinear.

(1) If the vertices A, B, C of a  represent the complex nos. z1, z2, z3 respectively and
a, b, c are the length of sides then,
z1  z 2  z 3
(i) Centroid of the  ABC = :
3
(ii) Orthocentre of the  ABC =

## asec A z1  b sec Bz 2  c secCz 3 z1tan A  z 2 tanB  z 3 tan C

asec A  bsec B  c secC or tanA  tan B  tanC

## (iv) Circumcentre of the  ABC = :

(Z1 sin 2A + Z2 sin 2B + Z3 sin 2C)  (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C).

(2) amp(z) =  is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle  to the x axis.

## (3) z  a = z  b is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b.

(4) The equation of a line joining z1 & z2 is given by, z = z1 + t (z1  z2) where t is a real parameter.

(5) z = z1 (1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through the point z1 & perpendicular to the
line joining z 1 to the origin.

(6) The equation of a line passing through z1 & z2 can be expressed in the determinant form as

z z 1
z1 z1 1 = 0. This is also the condition for three complex numbers to be collinear.. The above
z 2 z2 1
equation on manipulating, takes the form  z   z  r = 0 where r is real and  is a non zero
complex constant.

NOTE : If we replace z by zei and z by ze – i then we get equation of a straight line which. Passes through
the foot of the perpendicular from origin to given straight line and makes an angle with the given
straight line.

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(7) The equation of circle having centre z0 & radius  is :

## z  z0 =  or z z  z0 z  z 0 z + z 0 z0  ² = 0 which is of the form

z z   z   z + k = 0, k is real. Centre is  & radius =    k .
Circle will be real if    k  0..
(8) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z1 & z2 as diameter is

z  z2 
arg =± or (z  z 1) ( z  z 2) + (z  z 2) ( z  z 1) = 0.
z  z1 2

(9) Condition for four given points z1, z2, z3 & z4 to be concyclic is the number
z 3  z1 z 4  z 2
. should be real. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear
z 3  z 2 z 4  z1
 z  z 2   z 3  z1 
points z1, z2 & z3 can be taken as is real
 z  z1   z 3  z 2 
 z  z 2   z 3  z 1   z  z 2   z 3  z1 
 = .
 z  z 1   z 3  z 2   z  z1   z 3  z 2 
 z  z1 
(10) Arg  z  z  = represent (i) a line segment if  = 
 2
(ii) Pair of rays if  = 0 (iii) a part of circle, if 0 <  < 

z1 z1 1
1
(11) Area of triangle formed by the points z1, z2 & z3 is z2 z2 1
4i
z 3 z3 1
(12) If |z1 – z1| + |z – z2| = K > |z1 – z2| then locus of z is an ellipse whose focii are z1 & z2

z  z1
(13) If z  z = k  1, 0, then locus of z is circle.
2

(14) If z – z1  – z – z2 = K < z1 – z2 then locus of z is a hyperbola, whose focii are

z 1 & z 2.

## TRIGONOMETRY RATIOS AND IDENTITIES

1. Basic Trigonometric Identities:
(a) sin² + cos² = 1; 1  sin   1; 1  cos   1    R
  
(b) sec²  tan² = 1 ; sec   1    R – 2n  1 , n   
 2 
(c) cosec²  cot² = 1 ; cosec   1    R – n , n  
2. Trigonometric Functions Of Allied Angles:

If  is any angle, then  90 ± , 180 ± , 270 ± , 360 ±  etc. are called ALLIED ANGLES.
(a) sin ( ) =  sin  ; cos ( ) = cos 
(b) sin (90°  ) = cos  ; cos (90°  ) = sin 
(c) sin (90° + ) = cos  ; cos (90° + ) =  sin 
(d) sin (180°  ) = sin  ; cos (180°  ) =  cos 

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(e) sin (180° + ) =  sin  ; cos (180° + ) =  cos 
(f) sin (270°  ) =  cos  ; cos (270°  ) =  sin 
(g) sin (270° + ) =  cos  ; cos (270° + ) = sin 
(h) tan (90° ) = cot  ; cot (90° ) = tan 

## 3. Trigonometric Functions of Sum or Difference of Two Angles:

(a) sin (A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB
(b) cos (A ± B) = cosA cosB  sinA sinB
(c) sin²A  sin²B = cos²B  cos²A = sin (A+B). sin (A B)
(d) cos²A  sin²B = cos²B  sin²A = cos (A+B). cos (A  B)

## tan A  tan B cot A cot B  1

(e) tan (A ± B) = 1  tan A tan B (f) cot (A ± B) = cot B  cot A

## tan A  tan B  tanCtan A tan B tan C

(g) tan (A + B + C) = .
1  tan A tan B  tan B tan C tan C tan A
4. Factorisation of the Sum or Difference of Two Sines or Cosines:
CD CD CD CD
(a) sinC + sinD = 2 sin cos (b) sinC  sinD = 2 cos sin
2 2 2 2

## CD CD CD CD

(c) cosC + cosD = 2 cos cos (d) cosC  cosD =  2 sin sin
2 2 2 2

## 5. Transformation of Products into Sum or Difference of Sines & Cosines:

(a) 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(AB) (b) 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B)  sin(AB)

(c) 2 cosA cosB = cos(A+B) + cos(AB) (d) 2 sinA sinB = cos(AB)  cos(A+B)

## 6. Multiple and Sub-multiple Angles :

 
(a) sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA ; sin  = 2 sin cos
2 2

 
(b) cos 2A = cos²A  sin²A = 2cos²A  1 = 1  2 sin²A; 2 cos² = 1 + cos , 2 sin² = 1  cos .
2 2

## 2 tan A 2 tan 2 2 tan A 1tan 2 A

(c) tan 2A = ; tan  = (d) sin 2A = , cos 2A =
1  tan 2 A 1  tan 2 2 1  tan 2 A 1 tan 2 A

## (e) sin 3A = 3 sinA  4 sin3A (f) cos 3A = 4 cos3A  3 cosA

3 tan A  tan 3 A
(g) tan 3A =
1  3 tan 2 A

## 7. Important Trigonometric Ratios:

(a) sin n  = 0 ; cos n  = (1) ; tan n  = 0, where n  

 3 1 5
(b) sin 15° or sin = = cos 75° or cos ;
12 2 2 12

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 3 1 5
cos 15° or cos = = sin 75° or sin ;
12 2 2 12

3 1 3 1
tan 15° = = 2 3 = cot 75° ; tan 75° = = 2 3 = cot 15°
3 1 3 1

 5 1  5 1
(c) sin or sin 18° = & cos 36° or cos =
10 4 5 4

8. Conditional Identities:
If A + B + C =  then :
(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4 sinA sinB sinC

A B C
(ii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4 cos cos cos
2 2 2
(iii) cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C =  1  4 cos A cos B cos C

A B C
(iv) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin sin sin
2 2 2
(v) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC

A B B C C A
(vi) tan tan + tan tan + tan tan =1
2 2 2 2 2 2

A B C A B C
(vii) cot + cot + cot = cot . cot . cot
2 2 2 2 2 2
(viii) cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot C cot A = 1

(ix) A+B+C= then tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1
2

## 9. Sine and Cosine Series:

n
sin 2  n1 

sin  + sin (+) + sin ( + 2 ) +...... + sin   n 1 =   
 sin 
sin 2

2 

n
sin 2  n 1 

cos  + cos (+) + cos ( + 2 ) +...... + cos   n  1 =   
 cos 
sin 2 2 


TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
1. Principal Solutions: Solutions which lie in the interval [0, 2) are called Principal solutions.
2. General Solution :
  
(i) sin  = sin    = n  + (1)n  where    ,  , n  .
 2 2
(ii) cos  = cos    = 2 n  ±  where   [0, ], n  .

  
(iii) tan  = tan    = n  +  where    ,  , n  .
 2 2
(iv) sin²  = sin² , cos²  = cos² , tan²  = tan²    = n  ± 
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3. Types Of Trigonometric Equations:
(i) which can be factorised. (ii) Reducible to quadratic equations.
(iii) a sin x + b cos x = a  b 2 2 (iv) a sin x + b cos x = k, where |k|  a2  b2
(v) Involving trigonometric identities (vi) Involving cos x ± sin x
(vii) Involving Boundary conditions (vii) Involving sum of squares = 0

SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE

a b c
1. Sine Rule:   .
sin A sin B sin C

b 2  c2  a 2 c2  a 2  b 2 a 2  b 2  c2
2. Cosine Formula: (i) cos A = (ii) cos B = (iii) cos C =
2bc 2 ca 2a b

3. Projection Formula: (i) a = b cosC + c cosB (ii) b = c cosA + a cosC (iii) c = a cosB + b cosA

## BC bc A CA c a B AB ab C

(i) tan = cot (ii) tan = cot (iii) tan = cot
2 bc 2 2 c a 2 2 ab 2

## 5. Trigonometric Functions of Half Angles:

A (s  b) (s  c) B (s  c) (s  a ) C (s  a ) (s  b)
(i) sin = ; sin = ; sin =
2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A s (s  a ) B s (s  b) C s (s  c)
(ii) cos = ; cos = ; cos =
2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A (s  b) (s  c)  abc
(iii) tan = = where s = is semi perimetre of triangle.
2 s (s  a ) s (s  a ) 2

2 2
(iv) sin A = s(s  a )(s  b)(s  c) =
bc bc

1 1 1
6. Area of Triangle () :  = ab sin C = bc sin A = ca sin B = s (s  a ) (s  b) (s  c)
2 2 2
7. m - n Rule:
If BD : DC = m : n, then

## (m + n) cot   m cot   n cot 

 n cot B  m cot C

a b c a bc
R=   =
2 sinA 2 sinB 2 sinC 4
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9. Radius of The Incircle :
 A B C
(i) r = (ii) r = (s  a) tan = (s  b) tan = (s  c) tan
s 2 2 2
a sin B2 sin C2 A B C
(iii) r = & so on (iv) r = 4R sin sin sin
cos A2 2 2 2

## 10. Radius of The Ex- Circles :

 ;  ;  A ;
B ;
C
(i) r1 = r = r = (ii) r1 = s tan r2 = s tan r3 = s tan
sa 2 sb 3 sc 2 2 2

a cos B2 cos C2 A B C
(iii) r1 = & so on (iv) r1 = 4 R sin . cos . cos
cos A2 2 2 2

## 11. Length of Angle Bisectors, Medians & Altitudes :

2 bc cos A
2
(i) Length of an angle bisector from the angle A = a = ;
bc

1
(ii) Length of median from the angle A = ma = 2 b2  2 c2  a 2
2
2
& (iii) Length of altitude from the angle A = Aa =
a

12. The Distances of The Special Points from Vertices and Sides of Triangle:

A
(i) Circumcentre (O) : OA = R & Oa = R cos A (ii) Incentre (I) : IA = r cosec & Ia = r
2
A
(iii) Excentre (I1) : I1 A = r1 cosec (iv) Orthocentre : HA = 2R cos A & Ha = 2R cos B cos C
2
1 2
(v) Centroid (G) : GA = 2b2 2c2 a 2 & Ga =
3 3a

## 13. Orthocentre and Pedal Triangle:

The triangle KLM which is formed by joining the feet of the altitudes is called the Pedal Triangle.
(i) Its angles are  2A,  2B and  2C.
(ii) Its sides are a cosA = R sin 2A,
b cosB = R sin 2B and
c cosC = R sin 2C

(iii) Circumradii of the triangles PBC, PCA, PAB and ABC are equal.
14. Excentral Triangle:

The triangle formed by joining the three excentres 1, 2 and 3 of  ABC is called
the excentral or excentric triangle.

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(i)  ABC is the pedal triangle of the  1 2 3.

 A  B  C
(ii) Its angles are  ,  &  .
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
(iii) Its sides are 4 R cos , 4 R cos & 4 R cos .
2 2 2
A B C
(iv) 1 = 4 R sin ; 2 = 4 R sin ; 3 = 4 R sin .
2 2 2
(v) Incentre  of  ABC is the orthocentre of the excentral  1 2 3.

## 15. Distance Between Special Points :

(i) Distance between circumcentre and orthocentre OH2 = R2 (1 – 8 cosA cos B cos C)

A B C
(ii) Distance between circumcentre and incentre O2 = R2 (1 – 8 sin sin sin ) = R2 – 2Rr
2 2 2
1 2
(iii) Distance between circumcentre and centroid OG2 = R2 – (a + b2 + c2)
9

## Function Domain Range

 
(i) y = sin1 x where 1x1  y
2 2

## (ii) y = cos1 x where 1x1 0y

 
(iii) y = tan1 x where xR  y
2 2

 
(iv) y = cosec 1 x where x   1 or x  1  y ,y0
2 2

(v) y = sec1 x where x  1 or x  1 0  y  ; y 
2

## (v) sec (sec1 x) = x, x  1, x  1 (vi) cosec (cosec1 x) = x, x  1, x  1

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 
P-2 (i) sin1 (sin x) = x,  x (ii) cos1 (cos x) = x; 0  x  
2 2
 
(iii) tan1 (tan x) = x;  x (iv) cot1 (cot x) = x; 0<x<
2 2

  
(v) sec1 (sec x) = x; 0  x  , x  (vi) cosec1 (cosec x) = x; x  0, x
2 2 2
P-3 (i) sin1 (x) =  sin1 x, 1  x  1 (ii) tan1 (x) =  tan1 x, xR
(iii) cos1 (x) =   cos1 x, 1  x  1 (iv) cot1 (x) =   cot1 x, xR
1 1
P-4 (i) cosec1 x = sin1 ;x  1, x  1 (ii) sec1 x = cos1 ;x  1, x  1
x x

 1 1
1  tan x ; x  0
(iii) cot x  
1
  tan 1 ; x  0
 x
1 1
 
P-5 (i) sin x + cos x = , 1  x  1 (ii) tan1 x + cot1 x = , xR
2 2

(iii) cosec1 x + sec1 x = , x  1
2
2
P-6 (i) sin (cos1 x) = cos (sin1 x) = 1  x , 1  x  1

1
(ii) tan (cot1 x) = cot (tan1 x) = , x  R, x  0
x

x
(iii) cosec (sec1 x) = sec (cosec1 x) = , x > 1
x2  1
3. Identities of Addition and Substraction:
 2 2
I-1 (i) sin1 x + sin1 y = sin1 x 1  y  y 1  x  , x  0, y  0 & (x2 + y2)  1
 
 2 2
=   sin1 x 1  y  y 1  x  , x  0, y  0 & x2 + y2 > 1
 

Note that: x2 + y2  1  0  sin1 x + sin1 y 
2

x2 + y2  1   sin1 x + sin1 y  
2
 2
1  y 2  , x  0, y  0
(ii) cos1 x + cos1 y = cos1 x y  1  x 

xy
(iii) tan1 x + tan1 y = tan1 , x > 0, y > 0 & xy < 1
1  xy
xy 
=  + tan1 , x > 0, y > 0 & xy > 1 = , x > 0, y > 0 & xy = 1
1  xy 2
 2 2 
I-2 (i) sin1 x  sin1 y = sin1  x 1  y  y 1  x  , x  0, y  0
 
 2
1  y 2  , x  0, y  0, x  y
(ii) cos1 x  cos1 y = cos1  x y  1  x 

xy
(iii) tan1 x  tan1y = tan1 1  xy , x  0, y  0

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 2 sin x
1
if | x |  1

2
I-3 (i) sin1  2 x 1  x 2 
1
=    2 sin x if x 1
   2

   2 sin 1 x

 if x 1
2

 2 cos 1 x if 0  x 1
(ii) cos1 (2 x2  1) =  1
2   2 cos x if  1  x  0

 2 tan 1x if | x |  1
2x  1
(iii) tan1
=    2 tan x if x  1
1 x2

   2 tan 1x  if x 1

 2 tan 1x if | x | 1
2x 
(iv) sin1 =    2 tan 1x if x  1
1  x2

   2 tan 1x  if x  1

1 x2  2 tan 1x if x  0
(v) cos1 =  1
1x 2  2 tan x if x  0

 x  y  z  x yz 
If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z = tan1  1  xy  yz  zx  if, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 & (xy + yz + zx) < 1
 
NOTE:
(i) If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z =  then x + y + z = xyz

(ii) If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z = then xy + yz + zx = 1
2
1 1 
(iii) tan1 1 + tan1 2 + tan1 3 =  (iv) tan1 1 + tan1 + tan1 =
2 3 2

FUNCTION
1. Definition :
Function is a special case of relation, from a non empty set A to a non empty set B, that associates
each member of A to a unique member of B. Symbolically, we write f: A  B. We read it as "f is a
function from A to B".
Set 'A' is called domain of f and set 'B' is called co-domain of f.
2. Image of a point and Range of a Function :
Let f: A  B, then the set A is known as the domain of f & the set B is known as codomain of f. If a
member 'a' of A is associated to the member 'b' of B, then 'b' is called the f-image of 'a' and we write
b = f (a). Further 'a' is called a pre-image of 'b'. The set {f(a):  a A} is called the range of f and
is denoted by f(A). Clearly f(A)  B.
3. Classification of Functions :
One  One Function (Injective Mapping) : x1  x2  f(x1)  f(x2).
Many  One function : f(x1) = f(x2) for some x1  x2.
Onto function (Surjective mapping) : Range = codomain
Into function : range codomain

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4. Various Types of Functions :
(i) Polynomial Function : f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 +... + an1 x + an where n is a non
negative integer and a0, a1, a2,........., an are real numbers and a0  0 is called a polynomial
function of degree n.
There are two polynomial functions, satisfying the relation; f(x).f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x), which are
f(x) = 1  xn
(ii) Exponential Function : A function f(x) = ax = ex In a (a > 0, a  1, x  R)

(iii) Logarithmic Function : f(x) = logax where a > 0 and a  1 and x > 0.
 x if x0
(iv) Absolute Value Function / Modulus Function : f (x) = x  
 x if x0

 1 for x  0 | x |
  ; x0
(v) Signum Function : sgn (x) =  0 for x  0 =  x
 1 for x  0  0 ; x  0

(vi) Greatest Integer Function : f (x) = [x] is greatest integer  x.

## Properties of greatest integer function :

 0 ; if x is an int eger
x  1 < [x]  x, [x ± m] = [x] ± m if m  . [x] + [ x] = 
  1 otherwise
(vii) Fractional Part Function: f(x) = {x} = x  [x].

## 5. Odd & Even Functions :

(i) If f (x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an even function.
(ii) If f (x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an odd function.
If an odd function is defined at x = 0, then f(0) = 0
6. Periodic Function : If T  0, x – T and x + T domain of f, f(x) = f(x + T) x domain of f, then
f is called periodic and T is its period.

The least positive period is called principal or fundamental period of f or simply the period of f.
Properties of Periodic Function
1
(a) If f(x) has a period T, then and f ( x ) also have a period T.
f( x )
T
(b) If f(x) has a period T then f (ax + b) has a period | a | .

f(x)
(c) If f (x) has a period T1 & g (x) has a period T2, then period of f(x) ± g(x) or f(x) . g(x) or
g( x )
is L.C.M. of T1 & T2 provided their L.C.M. exists. However that L.C.M. (if exists) need not to be
f(x)
fundamental period. If L.C.M. does not exists f(x) ± g(x) or f(x) . g(x) or is aperiodic.
g( x )
7. Composite Function :
Let f: XY1 and g: Y2 Z be two functions and the set D = {x X: f(x) Y2}. If D  , then the function h
defined on D by h(x) = g{f(x)} is called composite function of g and f and is denoted by gof. It is also called
function of a function. D  X
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Properties of Composite Functions :
If f and g both are one-one, then gof if defined is also be one-one.

If f and g both are onto, then gof may or may not be onto.

The composite of two bijections is a bijection iff f & g are two bijections such that gof is defined, then
gof is also a bijection only when co-domain of f is equal to the domain of g.

If g is a function such that gof is defined on the domain of f and f is periodic with T, then gof is also
periodic with T as one of its periods. Further if g is one-one, then T is the period of gof ; if g is
also
periodic with T as the period and the range of f is a sub-set of [0, T ], then T is the period of gof

8. Inverse of a Function :
Let f : A  B be a function. Then f is invertible iff there is a function g : B  A such that gof is an
identity function on A and fog is an identity function on B. Then g is called inverse of f and is denoted
by f1.
For a function to be invertible it must be bijective
9. Equal or Identical Function :
Two functions f & g are said to be identical (or equal) iff :The domain of f  the domain of g,

The range of f  the range of g and f(x) = g(x), for every x belonging to their common domain.

LIMITS
1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as x  a when,
Limit f (a  h) = Limit f (a + h) = some finite value M.
h 0 h 0

## (Left hand limit) (Right hand limit)

Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a. Also note that if L.H.L. &
R.H.L. are both tending towards '  ' or ‘–’ then it is said to be infinite limit.

Remember, Limit
x a  x  a

2. Indeterminant Forms:

0 
, , 0 , º, 0º,and 1.
0 
3. Method of Removing Indeterminancy : Factorisation, Rationalisation or double
rationalisation, Substitution, Using standard limits, Expansions of functions.
4. Fundamental Theorems on Limits:
Let Limit Limit
x a f (x) =  & x a g (x) = m. If  & m exist then:

## (i) Limit { f (x) ± g (x) } =  ± m (ii) Limit { f(x). g(x) } =  . m

x a x a

(iii) Limit f ( x) =  , provided m  0 (iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.
x a x a x a
g ( x) m

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 
(v) Limit f [g(x)] = f  Limit g ( x )  = f (m); provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.
x a  
 x a 

5. Standard Limits:

Limit sinx tanx Limit tan 1x Limit sin 1x ex  1 n(1  x )
x 0 = Limit
x 0 = x 0 = x 0 = Limit
x 0 = Limit
x 0 =1
x x x x x x

x x n n
Limit (1 + x)1/x = Limit 1  1  = e, Limit a  1 = log a, a > 0, Limit x  a = nan – 1.
x 0 x  x x 0 e x a
 x xa

## 6. Limits Using Expansion

x ln a x 2 ln 2 a x 3 ln3 a x x2 x3
(i) ax 1    .........a  0 (ii) ex  1     ......
1! 2! 3! 1 ! 2! 3!

x2 x3 x4 x3 x5 x7
(iii) ln (1+x) = x     .........for  1  x  1 (iv) sin x x     .....
2 3 4 3! 5! 7!

x2 x4 x6 x 3 2x 5
(v) cosx 1     ..... (vi) tan x = x    ......
2! 4! 6! 3 15

## x3 x5 x7 12 3 12.3 2 5 12.3 2.5 2 7

(vii) tan-1x = x     .... (viii) sin-1x = x  x  x  x  .....
3 5 7 3! 5! 7!
x 2 5 x 4 61x 6
(ix) sec-1x = 1     ......
2! 4! 6!

## n(n  1) n(n  1)(n  2)

(x) for |x| < 1, n  R (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 1. 2 x +
2
1. 2 . 3 x3 + ............

## 7. Limits of form 1, 00, 0

0
All these forms can be convered into form in the following ways
0

nx 0
(i) If x  1, y  , then z = (x)y  n z = y n x n z = ; form
(1/ y ) 0

1
Since y   hence  0 and x  1 hence nx  0
y

y 0
(ii) If x  0, y  0, then z = xy  n z = y n x  n z = 1/ ny ; form
0

y 0
(iii) If x   , y  0, then z = xy  n z = y n x  n z = ; form
1/ nx 0
also for (1) type of problems we can use following rules.

## lim (1 + x)1/x = e, lim [f(x)]g(x) , where f(x)  1 ; g(x) as x  a = xlim = e xlim

a
[ f ( x )1] g( x )
x 0 x a a

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8. Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem:

## If f(x)  g(x)  h(x)  x & Limit Limit Limit

x a f(x) =  = x a h(x) then x  a g(x) =  .

## 9. Some Important Notes :

lim nx = 0
x
(i) (ii) lim =0
x  x x  ex
As x  , n x increnes much slower than any (+ve) power of x where e x increases much faster than
(+ve) power of x

n  n 

## (iv) If Limit Limit

x  a f(x) = A > 0 & x  a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then;

x a x a

CONTINUITY

## 1. A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = c, if Limit

x c f(x) = f(c).

2. Types of Discontinuity :

## (a) Removable Discontinuity : Limit

x c f(x) exists but is not equal to f(c)

## (i) Missing Point Discontinuity : Where Limit

x a f(x) exists finitely but f(a) is not defined.

## (ii) Isolated Point Discontinuity: Where Limit Limit

x a f(x) exists but x a f(x)  f(a).

## (b) Irremovable Discontinuity: Limit

x c f(x) does not exist. However if both the limits (i.e. L.H. L.

& R.H.L.) are finite, then discontinuity is said to be of first kind otherwise it is nonremovable
discontinuity of second kind.
Irremovable type of discontinuity can be further classified as:
(i) Finite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = x  [x] at all integral x.
1 1
(ii) Infinite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = or g(x) = at x = 4.
x4 ( x  4)2

1
(iii) Oscillatory discontinuity e.g. f(x) = sin at x = 0.
x
In all these cases the value of f (a) of the function at x = a (point of discontinuity) may or may not exist

but Limit
x a does not exist.

## (c) Discontinuity of st kind

If L.H.L. and R.H.L both exist finitely then discontinuity is said to be of st kind

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(d) Discontinuity of nd kind
If either L.H.L. or R.H.L does not exist then discontinuity is said to be of nd kind

(e) Point functions defined at single point only are to be treated as discontinuous.
eg. f(x) = 1  x  x  1 is not continuous at x = 1.

## 3. Jump of discontinuity : | Limit

x a 
f(x) – Limit
x a –
f(x)|

4. Continuity on an Interval :

(a) A function f is said to be continuous on (a, b) if f is continuous at each & every point (a, b).

## (b) A function f is said to be continuous on a closed interval [ a, b ] if:

(i) f is continuous in the open interval (a, b) &
(ii) f is right continuous at a and left continuous at b

(c) All Polynomials, Trigonometrical functions, Exponential and Logarithmic functions are
continuous at every point in their domains.

(d) {f(x)} and [f(x)] may not be continuous where f(x) becomes integer.

## (e) sgn (f(x)) may not be continuous where f(x) = 0

5. If f & g are two functions which are continuous at x = c then the functions defined by:
F1(x) = f(x)  g(x) ; F 2(x) = K f(x), K any real number ; F 3(x) = f(x).g(x) are also continuous at x = c.

f ( x)
Further, if g (c) is not zero, then F4(x) = g( x ) is also continuous at x = c.

## 6. Continuity of Composite Function : If f is continuous at x = c & g is continuous at x =

f(c) then the composite g[f(x)] is continuous at x = c.
7. Intermediate Value Theorem :
A function f which is continuous in a , b possesses the following properties:
(i) If f(a) & f(b) possess opposite signs, then there exists at least one solution of the equation
f(x) = 0 in the open interval (a, b).

(ii) If K is any real number between f(a) & f(b), then there exists at least one solution of the
equation f(x) = K in the open inetrval (a, b).

DERIVABILITY

## 1. Differentiability of a function at a point:

f(a  h)f(a)
f (a+) = Limit
h0  is the right hand derivative at x = a, provided the limit exists.
h

f(a  h)f(a)
f  (a– ) = Limit
h0  is the left hand derivative at x = a, provided the limit exists.
h
A function f(x) is said to be differentiable(finitely) at x = a if f (a+) = f  (a–) = finite

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2. Concept of Tangent and its Association with Derivability:
Tangent :- The tangent is defined as the limiting case of a chord or a secant

f (b )  f ( a )
slope of chord joining (a, f(a)) and (b, (f(b)) =
ba
f ( a  h)  f ( a )
slope of the line joining a and (a,f(a)) and (a + h, f(a + h)) =
h
f ( a  h)  f ( a ) f ( a  h)  f (a )
R.H.D. = f(a+) = h lim
 0 , L.H.D. = f(a–) = h lim
 0
h h
A function will have a tangent at point x = a if f(a+) = f(a–) (may or may be finite)
and equation of tangent at (a, f(a)) is given by y – f(a) = f(a) (x – a)

## 3. Relation between Differentiability & Continuity: If f(x) is differentiable at a point of its

domain, then it is continuous at that point but the converse is not true.
4. Differentiability Over an Interval:
f (x) is said to be differentiable over an open interval if it is differentiable at every point of the interval
and f(x) is said to be differentiable over a closed interval [a, b] if f is differentiable on (a, b) and
f (a+) = a finite number and f (b–) = a finite number

Important : -
All polynomial, exponantial, logrithimic and trigonometric (inverse trigonomettric not included) are
differentiable at every point of their domain.

## 5. Differentiabilty of sum, product & composition of functions

At x = a, if f(x) & g(x) are diffrerentiable, then f(x)  g(x), f(x). g(x) are also differentiable.
further if g (a)  0 then the function f(x)/g(x) is also be differentiable.

## If f(x) is not differentiable at x = a & g(x) is differentiable at x = a, then f + g is not differentiable,

f(x). g(x) may or may not be differentiable at x = a
If f(x) & g(x) both are not differentiable at x = a then each of f(x).g(x) and f + g may or may not be
differentiable.
f (a  g(h))  f (a  p(h))
If f is differentiable at x = a, then hlim
0 g(h)  p(h) = f(a), where , hlim
0
P(h) = hlim
0
g(x) = 0

METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION
A. First Principle Of Differentiation

## 1. The derivative of a given function f at a point x = a on its domain is defined as:

Limit f (a  h)f (a) or Limit f ( x )f (a) provided the limit exists & is denoted by f (a).
h0 x a xa
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2. If x and x + h belong to the domain of a function f defined by y = f(x), then

Limit f ( x  h)f ( x ) if it exists, is called the Derivative of f at x & is denoted by f (x) or dy . i.e.,
h0 dx
h
f ( x  h)f ( x )
f (x) = Limit
h0
h
This method of differentiation is also called ab-initio method or first principle.

## 3. Differentiation of some elementary functions

d d d 1 d 1
1. (xn) = nxn – 1 2. (ax) = ax n a 3. (n |x|) = 4. (logax) =
dx dx dx x dx x n a

d d d
5. (sin x) = cos x 6. (cos x) = – sin x 7. (sec x) = sec x tan x
dx dx dx

d d d
8. (cosec x) = – cosec x cot x 9. (tan x) = sec2 x 10. (cot x) = – cosec2 x
dx dx dx

4. Basic Theorems
d d d d
1. (f ± g) = f(x) ± g(x) 2. (k f(x)) = k f(x) 3. (f(x) . g(x)) = f(x) g(x) + g(x) f(x)
dx dx dx dx

d  f (x)  g( x ) f ( x )  f ( x ) g( x ) d
4.   = 5. (f(g(x))) = f(g(x)) g(x)
dx  g( x )  g2 ( x ) dx

dy dy dz dy 1
6. = . 7. =
dx dz dx dx dx / dy

another way of expressing the same concept is by considering y = f(x) and x = g(y) as inverse
functions of each other.

dy dx 1
= f(x) and dy = g(y)  g(y) =
dx f ( x )

## B. Derivative Of Inverse Trigonometric Functions.

d sin –1 x 1 d cos –1 x 1
= 2
, =– , for – 1 < x < 1.
dx 1 x dx 1 x2

d tan –1 x 1 d cot –1 x 1
= 2 , =– (x  R)
dx 1 x dx 1 x2

## d sec –1 x 1 d cos ec –1x 1

= , =– , for x  (– , – 1)  (1, )
dx 2
| x | x 1 dx | x | x2  1

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1. Implicit differentiation
If f(x, y) = 0, is an implicit function then in order to find dy/dx, we differentiate each term w.r.t.
x regarding y as a functions of x & then collect terms in dy/dx.

## Following substitutions are normally used to sumplify these expression.

 
(i) x 2  a2 by substituting x = a tan , where – < 
2 2

 
(ii) a2  x 2 by substituting x = a sin , where –  
2 2

(iii) x 2  a2 by substituting x = a sec , where [0, ], 
2

xa
(iv) by substituting x = a cos , where (0, ].
ax
3. Parametric Differentiation
dy dy / d
If y = f() & x = g() where is a parameter, then dx  dx / d .

## 4. Derivative of one function with respect to another

dy dy / dx f ' (x)
Let y = f(x); z = g(x) then   .
dz dz / dx g' (x)
f ( x) g( x ) h( x )
5. If F(x) = l( x ) m( x ) n( x ) , where f, g, h, l, m, n, u, v, w are differentiable functions of x then
u( x ) v( x ) w( x )

## f ' ( x ) g' ( x ) h' ( x )

f ( x ) g( x ) h( x ) f ( x) g( x ) h( x )
F  (x) = l( x ) m( x ) n( x ) + l' ( x ) m' ( x ) n' ( x ) + l( x ) m( x ) n( x )
u( x ) v( x ) w( x ) u( x ) v( x ) w( x ) u' ( x ) v ' ( x ) w ' ( x )

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES
1. Equation of tangent and normal

Tangent at (x1, y1) is given by (y – y1) = f(x1) (x – x1) ; when, f(x1) is real.

1
And normal at (x1 , y1) is (y – y1) = – (x – x1), when f(x1) is nonzero real.
f ( x1 )

## 2. Tangent from an external point

Given a point P(a, b) which does not lie on the curve y = f(x), then the equation of possible tangents
to the curve y = f(x), passing through (a, b) can be found by solving for the point of contact Q.

f (h)  b
f(h) =
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f (h )  b
And equation of tangent is y – b = (x – a)
ha

## 3. Length of tangent, normal, subtangent, subnormal

1
(i) PT = | k | 1  = Length of Tangent
m2

2
(ii) PN = | k | 1  m = Length of Normal

k
(iii) TM = = Length of subtangent
m

## (iv) MN = |km| = Length of subnormal.

4. Angle between the curves
Angle between two intersecting curves is defined as the acute angle between their tangents (or normals) at
the point of intersection of two curves (as shown in figure).

m1  m 2
tan  =
1  m1m 2

where m1 & m2 are the slopes of tangents at the intersection point (x1, y1).

Notes : (i) The angle is defined between two curves if the curves are intersecting. This can be ensured by
finding their point of intersection or graphically.

(ii) If the curves intersect at more than one point then angle between curves is found out with respect
to the point of intersection.
(iii) Two curves are said to be orthogonal if angle between them at each point of intersection is right
angle. i.e. m1 m2 = – 1.
5. Shortest distance between two curves
Shortest distance between two non-intersecting differentiable curves is always along their common normal.
(Wherever defined)
6. Rolle’s Theorem :
If a function f defined on [a, b] is
(i) continuous on [a, b] (ii) derivable on (a, b) and
(iii) f(a) = f(b),
then there exists at least one real number c between a and b (a < c < b) such that f(c) = 0
7. Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem (LMVT) :
If a function f defined on [a, b] is
(i) continuous on [a, b] and (ii) derivable on (a, b)
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f (b )  f ( a )
then there exists at least one real numbers between a and b (a < c < b) such that = f(c)
ba
B. Monotonicity of a function :
Let f be a real valued function having domain D(D  R) and S be a subset of D. f is said to be
monotonically increasing (non decreasing) (increasing) in S if for every x1, x2  S, x1 < x2  f(x1) 
f(x2). f is said to be monotonically decreasing (non increasing) (decreasing) in S if for every x 1, x2  S,
x1 < x2  f(x1)  f(x2)
f is said to be strictly increasing in S if for x1, x2  S, x1 < x2  f(x1) < f(x2). Similarly, f is said to be
strictly decreasing in S if for x1, x2  S, x1 < x2  f(x1) > f(x2) .
1. Application of differentiation for detecting monotonicity :
Let  be an interval (open or closed or semi open and semi closed)
(i) If f(x) > 0  x  , then f is strictly increasing in 
(ii) If f(x) < 0  x  , then f is strictly decreasing in 

Note : Let I be an interval (or ray) which is a subset of domain of f. If f (x) > 0,  x   except for countably
many points where f (x) = 0, then f(x) is strictly increasing in .
{f (x) = 0 at countably many points  f (x) = 0 does not occur on an interval which is a subset of  }
2. Monotonicity of function about a point :
(i) A function f(x) is called as a strictly increasing function about a point (or at a point) a  Df if it is
strictly increasing in an open interval containing a (as shown in figure).

(ii) A function f(x) is called a strictly decreasing function about a point x = a, if it is strictly decreasing in
an open interval containing a (as shown in figure).

Note : If x = a is a boundary point then use the appropriate one sided inequality to test monotonicity of f(x).

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3. Test for increasing and decreasing functions about a point
Let f(x) be differentiable.
(i) If f(a) > 0 then f(x) is increasing at x = a.
(ii) If f(a) < 0 then f(x) is decreasing at x = a.
(iii) If f(a) = 0 then examine the sign of f(x) on the left neighbourhood and the right neighbourhood of a.
(a) If f(x) is positive on both the neighbourhoods, then f is increasing at x = a.
(b) If f(x) is negative on both the neighbourhoods, then f is decreasing at x = a.
(c) If f(x) have opposite signs on these neighbourhoods, then f is non-monotonic at x = a.

Results : 1. If f(x) > 0  x  (a, b), then the curve y = f(x) is concave in (a, b)

## 2. If f(x) < 0  x  (a, b) then the curve y = f(x) is convex in (a, b)

3. If f is continuous at x = c and f(x) has opposite signs on either sides of c, then the
point (c, f(c)) is a point of inflection of the curve

4. If f(c) = 0 and f(c)  0, then the point (c, f(c)) is a point of inflection

## 4. Proving Inequalities using curvature :

Generally these inequalities involve comparison between values of two functions at some particular
points.
C. Maxima and Minima
1. (i) Global Maximum :
A function f(x) is said to have global maximum on a set E if there exists at least one c E such that f(x) 
f(c) for all x E.
We say global maximum occurs at x = c and global maximum (or global maximum value) is f(c).

## 1. (ii) Local Maxima :

A function f(x) is said to have a local maximum at x = c if f(c) is the greatest value of the function in a small
neighbourhood (c – h, c + h), h > 0 of c.
i.e. for all x (c – h, c + h), x c, we have f(x)  f(c).
i.e. f(c – )  f(c)  f(c + ), 0 < h
Note : If x = c is a boundary point then consider (c – h, c) or (c, c + h) (h > 0) appropriately.

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1. (iii) Global Minimum :
A function f(x) is said to have a global minimum on a set E if there exists at least one c E such that
f(x)  f(c) for all x E.

## 1. (iv) Local Minima :

A function f(x) is said to have a local minimum at x = c if f(c) is the least value of the function in a small
neighbourhood (c – h, c + h), h > 0 of c.
i.e. for all x (c –h, c + h), x c, we have f(x)  f(c).
i.e. f(c – )  f(c)  f(c + ), 0 < h

2. Extrema :
A maxima or a minima is called an extrema.
3. Maxima, Minima for differentiable functions :

## 4. Sufficient condition for an extrema :

A sufficient condition for f(c) to be an extremum of f(x) is that f(x) changes sign as x passes through c.

i.e. f(c) is an extrema (see figure)  f(x) changes sign as x passes through c.

## x = c is a point of maxima. f(x) changes sign from positive to negative.

x = c is a point of local minima (see figure), f(x) changes sign from negative to positive.
5. Stationary points :
The points on graph of function f(x) where f(x) = 0 are called stationary points.
Rate of change of f(x) is zero at a stationary point.

## 6. First Derivative Test :

Let f(x) be continuous and differentiable function.
Step -  Find f(x)
Step - . Solve f(x) = 0, let x = c be a solution. (i.e. Find stationary points)
Step - . Observe change of sign

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(i) If f(x) changes sign from negative to positive as x crosses c from left to right then x = c is a point
of local minima
(ii) If f(x) changes sign from positive to negative as x crosses c from left to right then x = c is a point
of local maxima.
(iii) If f(x) does not changes sign as x crosses c then x = c is neither a point of maxima nor minima.

Note : In case of continuous functions points of maxima and minima are alternate.

7. Critical points :

The points where f(x) = 0 or f(x) is not differentiable are called critical points.
Stationary points  Critical points.

Important Note :
For f(x) defined on a subset of R, points of extrema (if exists) occur at critical points

## 8. Global extrema for continuous functions :

(i) Function defined on closed interval

## Let f(x), x [a, b] be a continuous function

Step - I : Find critical points. Let it be c1, c2 ......., cn
Step - II: Find f(a), f(c1).........., f(cn), f(b)
Let M = max· { f(a), f(c1),..........., f(cn), f(b)}
m = min · {f(a), f(c1), ........f(cn), f(b)}
Step -  M is global maximum.
m is global minimum.
(ii) Function defined on open interval.
Let f(x), x (a, b) be continuous function.
Step - I Find critical points . Let it be c1, c2, .......cn
Step - II Find f(c1), f(c2), ........., f(cn)
Let M = max · {f(c1), .......f(cn)}
m = min· {f(c1),............,f(cn)}

## Step - III Lim f(x) =  (say), Lim f(x) =  (say).

x  a 1 x  b– 2

## Let  = min. {1, 2}, L = max. {1, 2}

Step - IV
(i) If m  then m is global minimum
(ii) If m >  then f(x) has no global minimum
(iii) If M  L then M is global maximum
(iv) If M < L , then f(x) has no global maximum

## 9. Maxima, Minima by higher order derivatives :

Second derivative test :
Let f(x) have derivatives up to second order
Step - I. Find f(x)
Step - II. Solve f(x) = 0. Let x = c be a solution

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Step - III. Find f(c)
Step - IV.
(i) If f(c) = 0 then further investigation is required
(ii) If f(c) > 0 then x = c is a point of minima.
(iii) If f(c) < 0 then x = c is a point of maxima.

For maxima f(x) changes from positive to negative (as shown in figure).
 f(x) is decreasing hence f(c) < 0

## 10. nth Derivative test :

Let f(x) have derivatives up to nth order
If f(c) = f(c) = ..........= fn–1(c) = 0 and
fn(c) 0 then we have following possibilities
(i) n is even, f(n)(c) < 0 x = c is point of maxima
(ii) n is even, f(n)(c) > 0 x = c is point of minima.
(iii) n is odd, f(n)(c) < 0 f(x) is decreasing about x = c
(iv) n is odd, f(n) > 0 f(x) is increasing about x = c.
11. Application of Maxima, Minima :
Useful Formulae of Mensuration to Remember :

## 2. Surface area of cuboid = 2(b + bh + h).

3. Volume of cube = a3

## 4. Surface area of cube = 6a2

1 2
5. Volume of a cone = r h.
3

## 8. Total surface area of a cylinder = 2rh + 2r2.

4 3
9. Volume of a sphere = r .
3
10. Surface area of a sphere = 4r2.

1 2
11. Area of a circular sector = r , when  is in radians.
2
12. Volume of a prism = (area of the base) × (height).

## 13. Lateral surface area of a prism = (perimeter of the base) × (height).

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14. Total surface area of a prism = (lateral surface area) + 2 (area of the base)
(Note that lateral surfaces of a prism are all rectangle).

1
15. Volume of a pyramid = (area of the base) × (height).
3

1
16. Curved surface area of a pyramid = (perimeter of the base) × (slant height).
2
(Note that slant surfaces of a pyramid are triangles).

INDEFINITE INTEGRATION
1. If f & g are functions of x such that g(x) = f(x) then,

d
 f(x) dx = g(x) + c 
dx
{g(x)+c} = f(x), where c is called the constant of integration.

2. Standard Formula:

ax  b n 1 dx 1
(i)  (ax + b) n
dx =
a  n  1
+ c, n  1 (ii)  = n (ax + b) + c
ax  b a

1 ax+b 1 a px  q
(iii)  eax+b dx =
a
e +c (iv)  apx+q dx =
p n a
+ c; a > 0

1 1
(v)  sin (ax + b) dx = 
a
cos (ax + b) + c (vi)  cos (ax + b) dx =
a
sin (ax + b) + c

1 1
(vii)  tan(ax + b) dx =
a
n sec (ax + b) + c (viii)  cot(ax + b) dx =
a
n sin(ax + b)+ c

1 1 cot(ax + b)+ c
(ix)  sec² (ax + b) dx =
a
tan(ax + b) + c (x)  cosec²(ax + b) dx = 
a

1
(xi)  sec (ax + b). tan (ax + b) dx =
a
sec (ax + b) + c

1 cosec (ax + b) + c
(xii)  cosec (ax + b). cot (ax + b) dx = 
a

   x  + c
(xiii)  secx dx = n (secx + tanx) + c OR n tan
 4 2
x
(xiv)  cosec x dx = n (cosecx  cotx) + c OR n tan
2
+ c OR  n (cosecx + cotx) + c

dx x dx 1 x
(xv)  2
a x 2
= sin1
a
+c (xvi)  2
a x 2
= tan1
a a
+c

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dx 1 x
(xvii)  2
| x | x a 2
=
a
sec1
a
+c (xviii)

dx
2
x a 2
= n x  x2  a2  +c

dx dx 1 ax
(xix)  x2  a 2
= n x  x2  a 2  +c (xx)  a x 2 =
2
2a
n ax + c

dx 1 xa x a2 x
(xxi)  2
x a 2 =
2a
n xa + c (xxii)  2
a x 2
dx =
2
2
a x 2
+
2
sin1 + c
a

 x  x 2  a2 
x a2  
(xxiii)  2
x  a dx = 2
2
2
x a 2
+
2
n 

a + c

 x  x 2  a2 
x a2  
(xxiv)  2
x  a dx = 2
2
2
x a 2

2
n 

a  +c

e ax
(xxv)  eax. sin bx dx =
a 2  b2
(a sin bx  b cos bx) + c

e ax
(xxvi)  eax. cos bx dx =
a 2  b2
(a cos bx + b sin bx) + c

3. Theorems on integration

## (i)  c f ( x).dx =c  f (x).dx (ii)  (f (x)  g(x)) dx =  f (x)dx  g( x) dx

g(ax  b)
(iii)  f (x)dx  g( x)  c   f (ax  b)dx = a
+c

4. Integration by Subsitutions

## If we subsitute f(x) = t, then f (x) dx = dt

5. Integration by Part :
 d 
 f (x) g(x) dx  g(x) dx –   dx f ( x)  g( x) dx  dx
= f(x)

(i) when you find integral  g( x ) dx then it will not contain arbitarary constant.

## (ii)  g(x) dx should be taken as same both terms.

(iii) the choice of f(x) and g(x) is decided by ILATE rule.

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dx dx
6. Integration of type  ax 2
bx  c
,  2
ax bx  c
,
 ax 2 bx c dx

b
Make the substitution x + =t
2a

7. Integration of type

px  q px  q
 ax 2
bx  c
dx,  2
ax bx  c
dx,  (px  q) ax 2  bx  c dx

b
Make the substitution x + = t , then split the integral as some of two integrals one containing the
2a
linear term and the other containing constant term.

## 8. Integration of trigonometric functions

dx dx dx
(i)  a  b sin x 2
OR  a  b cos 2 x
OR  a sin 2
x  b sinx cos x  c cos 2 x
put tan x = t.

dx dx dx x
(ii)  a  b sinx OR  a  b cosx
OR  a  b sin x  c cos x
put tan = t
2

a.cos x b.sinx c d
(iii)  .cos x m.sinx n
dx. Express Nr  A(Dr) + B
dx
(Dr) + c & proceed.

m
9. Integration of type  sin x. cos n x dx

Case - 
If m and n are even natural number then converts higher power into higher angles.
Case - 
If at least m or n is odd natural number then if m is odd put cosx = t and vice-versa.
Case -
When m + n is a negative even integer then put tan x = t.
10. Integration of type
x2  1
 x 4  Kx 2  1
dx where K is any constant.

1
Divide Nr & Dr by x² & put x  = t.
x
11. Integration of type

dx dx
(ax b) px q
OR  ax 2

bx  c px q
; put px + q = t2.

## 12. Integration of type

dx 1 dx 1
(ax , put ax + b =
t
; (ax 2
b) px q2
, put x =
t
b) px 2 qx r
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13. Integration of type

β dx or  x α
 β
 x ; put x =  cos2  +  sin2 
x

 dx or  x α
 x β
 ; put x =  sec2   tan2 

dx
put x  = t2 or x  = t2.
 xα xβ 
;

n n
n

x dx , cot x dx ,  sec x dx , cos ecn x dx

14. Reduction formula of
 tan
tann1 x cot n1 x
 tann x dx , then n = If n = cot n x dx , then n = –
(i) If n =
n 1
– n – 2 2.  n 1
– n – 2

## n tan x sec n2 x n2

(ii) 
If n = sec x dx , then n =
n 1
+ 
n 1 n–2

## n cot x cos ec n2 x n2

(iii) If n = cos ec x dx , then n =
 + 
n 1 n 1 n–2

## (sin x )m1(cos x )n1 n 1

(iv) If m,n =  (sin x) m
(cos x)n dx then m,n =
mn
+ .
m  n m,n–2

DEFINITE INTEGRATION
Properties of definite integral

b b b a b c b

1.  f ( x ) dx =  f ( t ) dt 2.  f ( x ) dx = – 
b
f ( x ) dx 3. 
a
f ( x ) dx =
 f ( x ) dx +  f ( x ) dx
a a a a c

a a  a
2 f ( x ) dx , f (– x )  f ( x )

4. f ( x ) dx = ( f ( x )  f (  x )) dx = 
 
a 0  0
 0 , f (– x )  – f ( x )
b b a a

5.  f ( x ) dx = 
a
f (a  b  x ) dx 6. 
0
f ( x ) dx =  f (a  x) dx
0
a

 a
2a 2 f ( x ) dx , f ( 2a – x )  f ( x )
a
f ( x ) dx = ( f ( x )  f (2a  x )) dx =  0

7.   
0 , f (2a – x )  – f ( x )
0 0 
8. If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, then

nT T a nT T

 f ( x ) dx = n 
0
f ( x ) dx, n  z, 
a
f ( x ) dx = n  f ( x ) dx, n  z, a  R
0
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nT T a nT a

 f ( x) dx = (n – m)  f ( x ) dx, m, n  z,  f ( x) dx =  f ( x ) dx, n  z, a  R
0 nT 0
mT

b  nT a

 f ( x) dx =  f ( x ) dx, n  z, a, b  R
a  nT a

b b b

## 9. If (x)  f(x)   (x) for a  x  b, then  ( x ) dx   f ( x ) dx   ( x) dx

a
a a
b
10. If m  f(x)  M for a  x  b, then m (b – a)   f ( x ) dx  M (b – a)
a
b b b

11. a
f ( x ) dx  
a
f ( x ) dx 12. If f(x)  0 on [a, b] then  f ( x) dx  0
a

h( x )
dF( x )
Leibnitz Theorem : If F(x) =
 f (t) dt , then
g( x )
dx
= h(x) f(h(x)) – g(x) f(g(x))

PART - 

## Definite Integral as a Limit of Sum.

b n 1 n 1
ba  (b a ) r 
   a  
 f ( x ) dx = Lt
n

r0
h f (a  rh) = Lt
n r 0
n  f  n

a

2
m
m,n =  sin x cos n x dx , m, n  N then,
0

 (m  1) (m  3) (m  5) .........(n  1) (n  3) (n  5)....... 
 when both m, n are even
(m  n) (m  n  2) (m  n  4)........ 2

m,n = 
 (m  1) (m  3) (m  5) .........(n  1) (n  3) (n  5).......
 otherwise
 (m  n) (m  n  2) (m  n  4)........

## AREA UNDER CURVE

1. Curve Tracing :
To find the approximate shape of a curve, the following procedure is adopted in order:

## (i) Symmetry about x  axis, (ii) Symmetry about y  axis:

(iii) Symmetry about the line y = x, (v) Symmetry in opposite quadrants:

(v) Find the points where the curve crosses the xaxis and also the yaxis.

dy
(vi) Find and equate it to zero to find the points on the curve where you have horizontal tangents.
dx

## (vii) Examine if possible the intervals when f (x) is increasing or decreasing.

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(viii) Examine what happens to ‘y’ when x   or x   .

(ix) Asymptotes :

(a) If x Lt Lt
 a f(x) =  or x  a f(x) = – , then x = a is asymptote of y = f(x)

## (b) If Lt f(x) = k or Lt f(x) = k, then y = k is asymptote of y = f(x)

x   x  

f ( x)
(c) If x Lt
 = m1, x Lt
  (f(x) – m1x) = c, then y = m1x + c1 is an asymptote.
x

b
(i) If f(x)  0 for x  [a, b], then area bounded by curve y = f(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b is  f (x) dx
a

(ii) If f(x)  0 for x  [a, b], then area bounded by curve y = f(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b is –  f ( x) dx
a

(iii) If f(x) > 0 for x  [a,c] and f(x) < 0 for x  [c,b] (a < c < b) then area bounded by curve y = f(x) and x–axis
c b

between x = a and x = b is a

f ( x ) dx  f ( x ) dx .
c

(iv) If f(x) > g(x) for x[a,b] then area bounded by curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) between ordinates x = a and
b
x = b is  f ( x)  g( x )dx .
a

(v) If g (y)  0 for y  [c,d] then area bounded by curve x = g(y) and y–axis between abscissa y = c and

d
y = d is
 g( y)dy
y c

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1. Order and Degree of a Differential Equation:

## 2. Order : Order is the highest differential appearing in a differential equation.

3. Degree :
It is determined by the degree of the highest order derivative present in it after the differential
equation is cleared of radicals and fractions so far as the derivatives are concerned.

n1 n2 nk
 dm y   dm1y   dy 
f1 (x, y)  m  + f2 (x, y)  m1  + ........ fk(x, y)   =0
 dx   dx   dx 

## The above differential equation has the order m and degree n 1.

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dy
4. Differential Equation of First Order and First Degree : + f(x, y) = 0
dx

## Homogeneous Differential Equations :

dy f ( x, y )
A differential equation of the from = where f and g are homogeneous function of
dx g( x, y )
x and y, and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential equaiton and can be solved
easily by putting y = vx.

## Exact Differential Equation :

dy
The differential equation M + N =0 ...........(1)
dx
Where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct differentiation
(without any subsequent multiplication, elimination etc.) of an equation of the form f(x, y) = c

## xdy  ydx y xdy  ydx  y

xdy + y dx = d(xy), 2 = d   , 2(x dx + y dy) = d (x 2 + y2), xy = d  ln 
x x  x

## xdy  ydx  1 y  xdy  ydx xdy  ydx  1

2 2 = d  tan , = d(ln xy), = d   
x y  x xy x2 y2  xy 

## 6. Linear Differential Equation :

Linear differential equations of first order :
dy
The differential equation + Py = Q , is linear in y, where P and Q are functions of x.
dx
Pdx
I.F for linear differential equation = e 

 Pdx
The solution is given by y. e  Pdx =  Q. e C .

dy
Bernoulli’s equation : Equations of the form + Py = Q.yn, n  0 and n  1
dx
where P and Q are functions of x, is called Bernoulli’s equation and can be made linear in v
by dividing by yn and putting y –n+1 = v. Now its solution can be obtained as in (v).

dy
7. Clairaut’s Equation : y = px + f(p), where p = is known as Clairout’s Equation.
dx
To solve , differentiate it w.r.t. x, which gives

dp
either =0p=c or x + f(p) = 0 p is eliminated
dx

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8 Orthogonal Trajectory :
An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts every member of
a given family of curve at right angle.
Steps to find orthogonal trajectory :

(i) Let f (x, y, c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
(ii) Differentate the given equation w.r.t. x and then eliminate c.

dy dx
(iii) Replace by – in the equation obtained in (ii).
dx dy

## (iv) Solve the differential equation obtained in (iii).

Hence solution obtained in (iv) is the required orthogonal trajectory.

## MATRICES & DETERMINANTS

MATRICES : Any rectangular arrangement of numbers in m rows and n columns is called a matrix of
order
m × n.

##  a11 a12 a13 ...... a1j .....

a1n 
 
 a 21 a 22 a 23 ...... a 2 j .....
a 2n 
 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 
A =  ai1 ai2 a i3 ...... aij ...... a in 

 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 
 
a m1 am2 a m3 ..... a mj ..... a mn 

where aij denote the element of ith row & jth column. The above matrix is usually denoted as [aij]m × n .

The elements a11, a22, a33,........ are called as diagonal elements. Their sum is called as trace of
A denoted as Tr(A)
1. Basic Definitions
(i) Row matrix : A matrix having only one row is called as row matrix
(ii) Column matrix : A matrix having only one column is called as column matrix.
(iii) Square matrix : A matrix of order m × n is called square matrix if m = n.
(iv) Zero matrix : A = [aij]m × n is called a zero matrix, if aij = 0  i & j.

(v) Upper triangular matrix : A = [aij]m × n is said to be upper triangular, if aij = 0 for i > j

(vi) Lower triangular matrix : A = [aij]m×n is said to be a lower triangular, if aij = 0 for i < j.

(vii) Diagonal matrix : A square matrix [aij]n is said to be a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for i  j.
Diagonal matrix of order n is denoted as Diag (a11, a22, ......ann).

## (viii) Scalar matrix : A diagonal matrix A = [aij]n is a scalar matrix, if a ij = k for i = j.

(ix) Unit matrix (Identity matrix) : A diagonal matrix A = [aij]n is a unit matrix, if aij = 1 for i = j.

(x) Comparable matrices : Two matrices A & B are said to be comparable, if they have
the same order.
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(xi) Equality of matrices : Two matrices A = [aij] m×n and B= [bij]p × q are said to be equal if
m = p, n = q and aij = bij  i & j.

## (xii) Multiplication of matrix by scalar :

Let  be a scalar, then A = [bij]m × n where bij = aij  i & j.

## (xiii) Addition of matrices : Let A = [aij]m × n and B = [bij]m × n. be two matrices,

then A + B = [aij]m × n + [bij]m × n. = [cij]m × n where c ij = aij + bij  i & j.

## (xv) Properties of addition & scalar multiplication :

(i)  (A + B) = A + B (ii) A = A (iii) (1 + 2) A = 1A + 2A

## (xvi) Multiplication of matrices : Let A = [aij]m × p & B = [bij]p × n., then

p
AB = [c ij]m × n where cij = a
k 1
ik b kj ,

(xvii) Properties of matrix multiplication : We have the following when ever defined
(i) In general AB  BA (ii) (AB) C = A(BC) (iii) An = A = n A
(iv) For every non singular square matrix A (i.e., |A|  0) there exist a unique matrix B so
that AB = n = BA. In this case we say that A & B are multiplicative inverses of one
another. In notations, we write B = A–1 or A = B–1.

2. Transpose of a Matrix

Let A =[aij]m × n. Then A( or AT ) the transpose of A is defined as A = [bji]n × m where bji = aij  i & j.

## (i) (A) = A (ii) (A) = A (iii) (A + B) = A + B & (A – B) = A – B

(iv) (AB) = BA
(v) Symmetric & skew symmetric matrix : A square matrix A is said to be symmetric if A = A
A square matrix A is said to be skew symmetric if A = – A

3. Submatrix of a Matrix

Submatrix : Let A be a given matrix. The matrix obtained by deleting some rows or columns of
A is called as submatrix of A.

## (i) Some properties of determinant

(a) |A| = |A| for any square matrix A.

(b) If two rows are identical (or two columns are identical) then |A| = 0.

## (c) |A| = n |A|, when A = [a ij]n.

(d) If A and B are two square matrices of same order, then |AB| = |A| |B|.

(ii) Singular & non singular matrix : A square matrix A is said to be singular or non singular
according as |A| is zero or non zero respectively.

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(iii) Cofactor & adjoint matrix :Let A = [aij]n be a square matrix. The matrix obtained
by replacing each element of A by corresponding cofactor is called as matrix of cofactor of A.
The transpose of matrix of cofactor of A is called as adjoint of A, denoted as adj A.
(a) A . adj A = |A| n = (adj A) A where A = [aij]n.
(b) |adj A| = |A|n – 1, where n is order of A.
(c) If A is a symmetric matrix, then adj A is also symmetric matrix.
(d) If A is singular, then adj A is also singular.
(v) Inverse of a matrix (reciprocal matrix) : Let A be a non singular matrix. Then the matrix
1
adj A is the multiplicative inverse of A and is denoted by A–1.
|A|
Remarks :
1. A–1 is always non singular.
2. If A = dia (a11, a12, ....., ann) where aii  0  i, then A–1 = diag (a11– 1, a22–1, ...., ann–1).

3. (A–1) = (A)–1 for any non singular matrix A. Also adj (A) = (adj A).

## 4. (A–1)–1 = A if A is non singular.

1 –1
5. Let k be a non zero scalar & A be a non singular matrix. Then (kA)–1 = A .
k
1
6. |A–1| = | A | for |A|  0.

## 9. In general AB = 0 does not imply A = 0 or B = 0. But if A is non singular and AB = 0, then B = 0.

Similarly B is non singular and AB = 0  A = 0. Therefore, AB = 0  either both are singular or one
of them is 0.
4. System of Linear Equations & Matrices
System of linear equations AX = B is said to be consistent if it has atleast one solution.
(i) System of linear equations and matrix inverse:
If A is nonsingular, solution is given by X = A–1B.
If A is singular, (adj A) B = 0 and no two columns of A are proportional, then the system has
infinite many solution.
If A is singular and (adj A) B  0, then the system has no solution

## (ii) Homogeneous system and matrix inverse:

If the above system is homogeneous, n equations in n unknowns, then in the matrix form it is
AX = O. ( in this case b1 = b2 = ....... bn = 0), where A is a square matrix.
If A is nonsingular, the system has only the trivial solution (zero solution) X = 0
If A is singular, then the system has infinitely many solutions (including the trivial solution)
and hence it has non trivial solutions.

## (iii) Elementary row transformation of matrix :

The following operations on a matrix are called as elementary row transformations.
(a) Interchanging two rows.
(b) Multiplications of all the elements of row by a nonzero scalar.
(c) Addition of constant multiple of a row to another row.
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Remark :
Two matrices A & B are said to be equivalent if one is obtained from other using elementary
transformations. We write A  B.

5. More on Matrices
(i) Characteristic polynomial & Characteristic equation :
Let A be a square matrix. Then the polynomial | A – x| is called as characteristic polynomial
of A & the equation | A – x| = 0 is called as characteristic equation of A.
Remark :
Every square matrix A satisfy its characteristic equation (Cayley - Hamilton Theorem).
i.e. a0 xn + a, xn – 1 + ........ + an – 1x + an = 0 is the characteristic equation of A, then
a0An + a1An – 1 + ......... + an – 1 A + an  = 0
(ii) More Definitions on Matrices :
(a) Nilpotent matrix: A square matrix A is called nilpotent if Ap = O for some positive
integer
p. If p is smallest such positive integer then p is called its nilpotency
(b) Idempotent matrix: A square matrix A is said to be idempotent if, A2 = A.
(c) Involutory matrix: A square matrix A is said to be involutory if A2 = .
(d) Orthogonal matrix: A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal, if A A =  = AA.
(e) Unitary matrix: A square matrix A is said to be unitary if A( A ) = , where A is the
complex conjugate of A.
DETERMINANTS
1. Definition:
a 1 b1 a 1 b1
We write the expression a1b2 – a2b1 as and is called a determinant of order 2.
a2 b2 a2 b2
2. Expansion of Determinant:

a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c 2 is called the determinant of order three.
a3 b3 c3

## Its value can be found as:

b2 c 2 b1 c1 b1 c1 b2 c 2 a2 c2 a2 b2
D = a1  a2 + a3 = a1  b1 + c1 ... & so on.
b3 c 3 b3 c3 b2 c2 b3 c 3 a3 c3 a3 b3

In this manner we can expand a determinant in 6 ways using elements of ; R1, R2, R3 or C1, C2, C3.

3. Minors:

The minor of aij is obtained deleting ith row & jth column from the determinant. It is denoted by Mij.

4. Cofactor:
Cofactor of the element aij is Cij = (1)i+j. Mij;
D = a11M11  a12M12 + a13M13 = a11C11 + a12C12 + a13C13

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5. Transpose of a Determinant:
The transpose of a determinant is a determinant obtained after interchanging the rows & columns.

a1 b1 c1 a1 a 2 a3
T
D = a2 b2 c2  D  b1 b 2 b3
a3 b3 c3 c1 c 2 c3

## 6. Symmetric, Skew-Symmetric, Asymmetric Determinants:

(i) A determinant is symmetric if it is identical to its transpose. Its ith row is identical to its ith
column i.e. aij = aji for all values of ' i ' and ' j '
(ii) A determinant is skew-symmetric if it is identical to its transpose having sign of each element
inverted i.e. aij = – aji for all values of ' i ' and ' j '. A skew-symmetric determinant has all
elements zero in its principal diagonal.
(iii) A determinant is asymmetric if it is neither symmetric nor skew-symmetric.
7. Properties of Determinants:
(i) D = D
(ii) If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant be interchanged, then D =  D.
(iii) If a determinant has all the elements zero in any row or column then D = 0.
(iv) If a determinant has any two rows (or columns) identical, then D = 0.
(v) If all the elements of any row (or column) be multiplied by the same number k, then D= kD
(vi) If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms then the
determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants,

## a1x b1y c 1z a1 b1 c1 x y z

a2 b2 c2  a2 b2 c 2  a2 b2 c2
i.e.
a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3

(vii) The value of a determinant is not altered by adding to the elements of any row (or column) a
constant multiple of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column),

a1 b1 c1 a1  ma 2 b1  mb 2 c 1  mc 2
i.e. D = a2 b2 c2 and D = a2 b2 c2 . Then D= D.
a3 b3 c3 a 3  na1 b 3  nb1 c 3  nc 1

## 8. Multiplication Of Two Determinants:

a1 b1  m1 a  b  a1m1b1m 2
 1  1 1 1 2
a2 b2  2 m2 a 2  1b 2  2 a 2 m1b 2 m 2

9. Summation of Determinants

n n n

## f(r) g(r ) h(r ) n 

r 1
f (r ) 
r 1
g(r )  h(r )
r 1
Let (r) = a1 a 2 a 3 , then  (r ) =
r 1
a1 a2 a3
b1 b 2 b 3 b1 b2 b3
where a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3 are constants indepedent of r

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10. Integration of a determinant

b b b

f ( x ) g( x ) h( x )
b

a
f ( x ) dx 
a
g( x ) dx  h( x) dx
a
a1 b1 c1
Let (x) =
a2 b2 c2
, then  ( x ) dx = a1 b1 c1
a a2 b2 c2

## 11. Differentiation of Determinant:

f1( x ) f2 ( x ) f3 ( x )
Let (x) = g1( x ) g2 ( x ) g3 ( x )
h1( x ) h 2 ( x ) h3 ( x )

## f1( x ) f2 ( x ) f3 ( x ) f1( x ) f2 ( x ) f3 ( x ) f1( x ) f2 ( x ) f3 ( x )

g
then (x) = 1 ( x ) g 2 ( x ) g 3 ( x ) g
+ 1 ( x ) g2 ( x ) g3 ( x ) + 1( x ) g 2 ( x ) g 3 ( x )
g
h1( x ) h 2 ( x ) h3 ( x ) h1( x ) h2 ( x ) h3 ( x ) h1 ( x ) h2 ( x ) h3 ( x )

## 12. Cramer's Rule: System of Linear Equations

(i) Two Variables
(a) Consistent Equations: Definite & unique solution. [ intersecting lines ]
(b) Inconsistent Equation: No solution. [ Parallel line ]
(c) Dependent equation: Infinite solutions. [ Identical lines ]

## Let a1x + b1y + c 1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c 2 = 0 then:

a1 b c
 1  1  Given equations are inconsistent &
a2 b2 c2
a1 b c
 1  1  Given equations are dependent
a2 b2 c2
(ii) Three Variables

## Let, a1x + b1y + c1z = d1............ (I)

a2x + b2y + c2z = d2............ (II)
a3x + b3y + c3z = d3............ (III)

D1 D2 D3
Then, x= ,Y= ,Z= .
D D D

a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1 a1 d1 c1 a1 b1 d1
a2 b2 c2 d b2 c2 a d2 c2 a b2 d2
Where D = ; D1 = 2 ; D2 = 2 & D3 = 2
a3 b3 c3 d3 b 3 c3 a3 d3 c3 a3 b3 d3

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(iii) Consistency of a system of Equations

(a) If D  0 and alteast one of D1, D2, D3  0, then the given system of equations are consistent
and have unique non trivial solution.

(b) If D  0 & D1 = D2 = D3 = 0, then the given system of equations are consistent and have trivial
solution only.

(c) If D = D1 = D2 = D3 = 0, then the given system of equations have either infinite solutions or no
solution.

## (Refer Example & Self Practice Problem with*)

(d) If D = 0 but atleast one of D1, D2, D3 is not zero then the equations are inconsistent and have
no solution.

(e) If a given system of linear equations have Only Zero Solution for all its variables then the given
equations are said to have TRIVIAL SOLUTION.

## (iv) Three equation in two variables :

If x and y are not zero, then condition for a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 &
a1 b1 c1
a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 to be consistent in x and y is a 2 b 2 c 2 = 0.
a3 b3 c3
13. Application of Determinants:
Following examples of short hand writing large expressions are:
(i) Area of a triangle whose vertices are (xr, yr); r = 1, 2, 3 is:

x1 y1 1
1
D= x2 y2 1 If D = 0 then the three points are collinear.
2
x3 y3 1

VECTORS
1. Vectors & Their Representation:
Vector quantities are specified by definite magnitude and definite directions. A vector is generally
represented by a directed line segment, say AB . A is called the initial point & B is called the
terminal point. The magnitude of vector AB is expressed by  AB .

## Zero Vector : A vector of zero magnitude is a zero vector.

 
Unit Vector : A vector of unit magnitude in the direction of a vector a is called unit vector along a

a
and is denoted by â symbolically, aˆ   .
|a |
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Equal Vectors: Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude, direction &
represent the same physical quantity.

Collinear Vectors: Two vectors are said to be collinear if their directed line segments are parallel
   
irrespective of their directions. If a and b are collinear, then a  kb , where k  R, k  0
  a1 a2 a3
Vectors a = a1 î + a 2 ĵ + a 3k̂ and b = b1 î + b 2 ĵ + b 3k̂ are collinear if b = b = b
1 2 3

Coplanar Vectors:
A given number of vectors are called coplanar if their line segments are all parallel to the same plane.
Note that “TWO VECTORS ARE ALWAYS COPLANAR”.

## 2. Angle Between two Vectors

It is the smaller angle formed when the initial points or the terminal points of the two vectors are
brought together. It should be noted that 0º    180º .

     
 If two vectors a & b are represented by OA & OB , then their sum a  b is a vector represented

by OC , where OC is the diagonal of the parallelogram OACB.
         
 a  b  b  a (commutative)  (a  b)  c  a  ( b  c) (associativity)
         
 a 0  a  0a  a  ( a )  0  ( a )  a
     
 |ab||a||b|  | a  b |  || a |  |b||
     
 a  b = | a |2  | b |2 2 | a || b | cos  where  is the angle between the vectors

 
  a b
 A vector in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the two vectors a & b is    . Hence
a b

 
bisector of the angle between the two vectors a and b is  a  b , where   R+. Bisector of the
 
 
exterior angle between a & b is  a  b ,  R+.
 
4. Multiplication Of A Vector By A Scalar:
  
If a is a vector & m is a scalar, then m a is a vector parallel to a whose modulus is m times that
  
of a . This multiplication is called SCALAR MULTIPLICATION. If a and b are vectors & m, n are scalars,
then:
     
m ( a )  (a ) m  m a m (na )  n(m a )  (mn )a
     
(m  n) a  m a  na m (a  b )  m a  m b

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5. Position Vector Of A Point:
 
let O be a fixed origin, then the position vector of a point P is the vector OP . If a and b are position
 
vectors of two points A and B, then, AB = b  a = pv of B  pv of A.

   
DISTANCE FORMULA : Distance between the two points A (a) and B (b) is AB = a  b
   
 na  m b ab
SECTION FORMULA : r  . Mid point of AB = .
mn 2

    
6. Scalar Product Of Two Vectors: a . b = | a | | b | cos , where | a |, | b | are magnitude of a
  
and b respectively and  is angle between a and b .

  a . b
(i) i.i = j.j = k.k = 1; i.j = j.k = k.i = 0  projection of a on b  
|b|

   
(ii) if a = a1i + a2j + a3k & b = b1i + b2j + b3k then a . b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3
 
a  a12  a 2 2  a 3 2 , b  b1 2  b2 2  b3 2

  a.b
 , 0 
(iii) the angle  between a & b is given by cos   
|a| |b|

       
(iv) a . b  a b cos  (0    ) , note that if  is acute, then a . b > 0 & if  is obtuse, then a . b < 0

  2            
(v) a . a  a  a2, a . b  b . a (commutative)  a . (b  c )  a . b  a . c (distributive)

     
(vi) a.b  0  a  b (a  0 b  0 )

   
(vii) (m a ) . b = a . (m b) = m (a . b) (associative) where m is scalar..
Note:
   
(a) Maximum value of a . b is  a  b 
   
(b) Minimum value of a . b is –  a  b 
    
(c)   
Any vector a can be written as, a = a . iˆ iˆ  a . ˆj ˆj  a . kˆ kˆ .   
7. Vector Product Of Two Vectors:
       
(i) If a & b are two vectors &  is the angle between them then a  b  a b sin  n , where n is the unit
    
vector perpendicular to both a & b such that a , b & n forms a right handed screw system.
   
(ii) Geometrically a  b = area of the parallelogram whose two adjacent sides are represented by a & b .

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(iii) î  î  ĵ  ĵ  k̂  k̂  0 ; î  ĵ  k̂, ĵ  k̂  î, k̂  î  ĵ

iˆ ˆj kˆ
   
(iv) If a = a1 î +a2 ĵ + a3 k̂ & b = b1 î + b2 ĵ + b3 k̂ then a  b  a1 a 2 a3
b1 b2 b3

   
(v) a x b  b x a (not commutative)
   
(vi) (m a )  b 
=a  m b ( ) = m (a  b) (associative) where m is a scalar..
      
(vii) a  (b  c )  (a  b)  (a  c ) (distributive)

        
(viii) a  b  o  a and b are parallel (collinear) ( a  0 , b  0) i.e. a  K b , where K is a scalar..
 
  a b
(ix) Unit vector perpendicular to the plane of a & b is nˆ    
a b
 
  a xb
 If  is the angle between a & b then sin   
ab
  
 If a , b & c are the pv’s of 3 points A, B & C then the vector area of triangle ABC =
1         
a b  b  c  c a . The points A, B & C are collinear if a  b  b  c  c  a  0
2  

  1  
 Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors are d 1 & d 2 is given by d1 x d 2
2

   2  2  2   2 a . a  
 a .b
 Lagrange's Identity: for any two vectors a & b ;( a  b )  a b  ( a . b )     
a .b b .b
8. Scalar Triple Product:
        
 The scalar triple product of three vectors a , b & c is defined as: a  b . c  a b c sin  cos  where

      
 is the angle between a & b &  is the angle between a x b & c . It is also written as [ a b c ] and
spelled as box product.

##  Scalar triple product geometrically represents the volume

of the parallelopiped whose three coterminous edges are
     
represented by a , b & c i.e. V  [ a b c ]

 In a scalar triple product the position of dot & cross can be interchanged i.e.
             
a . (b  c )  (a  b ). c OR [ a b c ]  [ b c a ]  [ c a b ]
       
 a . ( b x c)   a .( cx b) i. e. [ a b c ]   [ a c b ]

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a a a
   
1 2 3

##  If a = a1i+a2j+a3k; b = b1i+b2j+b3k & c = c1i+c2j+c3k then [a b c ]  b1 b2 b3 .

c1 c2 c3
           
In general, if a  a1l  a2 m  a3n ; b  b1l  b2 m  b3n & c  c1l  c2 m  c3n

a1 a2 a3
    
then a b c   b1 b2 b3 l mn  ; where  , m & n are non coplanar vectors.
c1 c2 c3

    
 If a , b , c are coplanar  [ a b c ]  0 .

         
 [i j k] = 1  [ K a b c ]  K[ a b c ]  [(a  b ) c d ]  [ a c d ]  [ b c d ]

   1 
 Volume of tetrahedron OABC with O as origin & A( a ), B( b ) and C( c ) be the vertices = [a b c ]
6
   
 The positon vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron if the pv’s of its vertices are a , b , c & d are given

1    
by [a  b  c  d ].
4

                 
9. Vector Triple Product: a x ( b x c ) = (a . c) b  (a . b) c , (a x b) x c = (a . c ) b  (b . c) a
     
 (a  b )  c  a  (b  c ) , in general

## 10. Reciprocal System Of Vectors:

         
If a, b , c & a' , b' , c' are two sets of non coplanar vectors such that a.a' = b.b' = c.c' = 1 then the
     a xb  
 b x c 
two systems are called Reciprocal System of vectors, where a =    , b= c x a , c=   
[a b c ]   [a b c]
[a b c]

## 11. Linear Combinations:

      
Given a finite set of vectors a , b , c ,...... then the vector r  xa  yb  zc  ........ is called a linear
  
combination of a , b , c ,...... for any x, y, z..... R. We have the following results:

     
(i) If a , b are non zero, noncollinear vectors then xa  yb  x' a  y' b  x  x' ; y  y'

  
(ii) FundamentalTheorem: Let a , b be non zero, non collinear vectors. Then any vector r coplanar
   
with a , b can be expressed uniquely as a linear combination of a , b

  
i.e. There exist some uniquely x, y  R such that xa  yb  r .

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  
(iii) If a , b , c are nonzero, noncoplanar vectors then:

     
xa  yb  zc  x ' a  y ' b  z ' c  x  x ' , y  y ' , z  z '
  
(iv) Fundamental Theorem In Space: Let a , b , c be nonzero, noncoplanar vectors in space. Then
   
any vector r , can be uniquly expressed as a linear combination of a , b , c i.e. There exist some
   
unique x,y  R such that xa  yb  zc  r .
  
(v) If x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are n non zero vectors, & k 1 , k 2 ,.....k n are n scalars & if the linear
  
combination k 1 x 1  k 2 x 2  ........ k n x n  0  k 1  0 , k 2  0 ..... k n  0 then we say that
  
vectors x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are LINEARLY INDEPENDENT VECTORS.
  
(vi) If x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are not LINEARLY INDEPENDENT then they are said to be LINEARLY DEPENDENT vectors.
     
i.e. if k 1 x 1  k 2 x 2  ........  k n x n  0 & if there exists at least one k r  0 then x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are
said to be LINEARLY DEPENDENT.
    
Note 1: If k1 x1  k 2 x 2  k 3 x 3  ....  k n x n  o , for some kr  0, then
   
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , ...., x n form a linearly dependent set of vectors.

##  î , ĵ , k̂ are Linearly Independent set of vectors. For K1 î + K2 ĵ + K3 k̂ = 0 K1= K2= K3 = 0

     
 Two vectors a & b are linearly dependent  a is parallel to b i.e. a  b  0 linear dependence
      
of a & b . Conversely if a  b  o , then a and b are linearly independent.

     
 If three vectors a, b , c are linearly dependent, then they are coplanar i.e. [ a , b, c ]  0 , conversely,,
  
if [ a, b, c ]  0 , then the vectors are linearly independent.

## Note: Test Of Collinearity:

  
Three points A,B,C with position vectors a, b , c respectively are collinear, if & only if there exist
  
scalars x, y, z not all zero simultaneously such that; xa  yb  zc  0 , where x + y + z = 0.
Note: Test Of Coplanarity:

   
Four points A, B, C, D with position vectors a , b , c , d respectively are coplanar if and only if there
   
exist scalars x, y, z, w not all zero simultaneously such that xa +yb + zc + wd = 0
where, x + y + z + w = 0.

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THREE DIMENSION GEOMETRY

## 1. Vector representation of a point : Position vector of point P (x, y, z) is x î + y ĵ + z k̂ .

 
2. Distance formula : ( x1  x2 ) 2  ( y1  y 2 ) 2  ( z1  z2 ) 2 , AB = | OB – OA |

## mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1 m z 2  nz1

4. Section Formula : x = ,y= ,z=
mn mn mn

x1  x 2 y  y2 z  z2
Mid point : x  , y 1 ,z 1
2 2 2

 x1  x2  x3 y1  y 2  y3 z1  z2  z3 
5. Centroid of a triangle : G   , , 
 3 3 3 

##  ax1  bx 2  cx3 ay1  by 2  cy 3 az1  bz 2  cz3 

6. Incentre of triangle ABC :  , , 
 abc abc abc 

  xi  yi  zi 
7. Centroid of a tetrahedron :  4 , 4 , 4 
 
8. Direction Cosines And Direction Ratios
(i) Direction cosines: Let  be the angles which a directed
line makes with the positive directions of the axes of x, y and z
respectively, then cos , cos cos  are called the direction cosines
of the line. The direction cosines are usually denoted by (, m, n).
Thus  = cos , m = cos , n = cos .
(ii) If , m, n be the direction cosines of a line, then 2 + m2 + n2 = 1
(iii) Direction ratios: Let a, b, c be proportional to the direction cosines , m, n then a, b, c are
called the direction ratios.

If a, b, c, are the direction ratios of any line L then a î  b ĵ  ck̂ will be a vector parallel to the line L.

If , m, n are direction cosines of line L then  î + m ĵ + n k̂ is a unit vector parallel to the line L.

(iv) If , m, n be the direction cosines and a, b, c be the direction ratios of a vector, then

a b c
 ,m  ,n 
2 2 2 2 2 2
a b c a b c a  b2  c 2
2

a b c
or = 2 2 2 ,m= 2 2 2 ,n=
a b c a b c a  b2  c 2
2

(v) If OP = r, the direction cosines of OP are , m, n then the coordinates of P are (r, mr, nr).
If direction cosines of the line AB are , m,n, |AB| = r, and the coordinates of A is (x1, y1, z1)
then the coordinates of B is given as (x1 + r, y1 + rm, z 1 + rn)

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(vi) If the coordinates P and Q are (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) then the direction ratios of line PQ

x 2  x1
are, a = x2  x1, b = y2  y1 & c = z 2  z1 and the direction cosines of line PQ are  = ,
| PQ |
y 2  y1 z 2  z1
m= and n =
| PQ | | PQ |

## (vii) Direction cosines of axes:

Direction cosines of xaxis, y -axis and z-axis are (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) respectively

## 9. Angle Between Two Line Segments:

a1a 2  b1b 2  c 1c 2
cos  = .
a12  b12  c 12 a 22  b 22  c 22

a1 b c1
The line will be perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0, parallel if = 1 =
a2 b2 c2

## 10. Projection of a line segment on a line

If P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) then the projection of PQ on a line having direction cosines , m, n is

## (x 2  x1 )  m(y 2  y1 )  n(z2  z1 )

A PLANE
If line joining any two points on a surface lies completely on it then the surface is called a plane.

11. Equation Of A Plane : General form: ax + by + cz + d = 0, where a, b, c are not all zero,
a, b, c, d  R.

## (i) Normal form : x + my + nz = p

(ii) Plane through the point (x1, y1, z1) : a (x  x1) + b( y  y1) + c (z  z1) = 0

x y z
(iii) Intercept Form:   1
a b c
      
(iv) Vector form: ( r  a ). n = 0 or r . n = a . n

## (v) Planes parallel to the axes:

(a) plane parallel to the xaxis is by + cz + d = 0.
(b) planes parallel to yand zaxis are ax + cz +d = 0 and ax + by + d = 0 respectively.

## (vii) Transformation of the equation of a plane to the normal form: ax + by + cz  d = 0

ax by cz d
in normal form is + + =
2 2 2
 a b c 2
 a b c 2 2 2
 a b c 2 2
 a  b 2  c2
2

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(viii) Any plane parallel to the given plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is ax + by + cz +  = 0.

| d1  d2 |
Distance between ax + by + cz + d1 = 0 and ax + by + cz + d2 = 0 is =
a2  b2  c 2

(ix) Equation of a plane passing through a given point & parallel to the given vectors:
   
r = a + b +  c (parametric form) where  &  are scalars.
     
or r . ( b  c) = a . ( b  c) (non parametric form)

(x) A plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 divides the line segment joining (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2). in the

##  ax1  by1  cz1  d 

ratio  
 ax2  by2  cz2  d 

(xi) Coplanarity of four points : The points A(x1 y1 z1), B(x2 y2 z2) C(x3 y3 z3) and D(x4 y4 z4) are

x 2  x1 y 2  y 1 z 2  z1
x 3  x 1 y 3  y 1 z 3  z1
coplaner then =0
x 4  x 1 y 4  y 1 z 4  z1

## ax' by' cz' d

(i) Distance of the point (x, y, z) from the plane ax + by + cz+ d = 0 is given by .
a 2  b 2  c2
 
   | a .n  d |
(ii) Length of the perpendicular from a point ( a ) to plane r . n = d is given by p =  .
|n|
(iii) Foot (x  , y  , z  ) of perpendicular drawn from the point (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) to the plane

## x ' x 1 y ' y 1 z' z 1 (ax1  by1  cz1  d)

ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by   =–
a b c a2  b2  c 2
(iv) To find image of a point w.r.t. a plane:
Let P (x1, y1, z1) is a given point and ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given plane Let (x, y, z) is the

## x ' x 1 y ' y 1 z' z1 (ax1  by1  cz1  d)

image point. then   =–2
a b c a2  b2  c 2
(v) The distance between two parallel planes ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ax + by + cz + d’ = 0 is

| d  d' |
given by
a  b2  c 2
2

## 13. Angle Between Two Planes:

aa'bb'cc'
cos  =
a  b  c2
2 2
a '2  b '2  c '2

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a b c
Planes are perpendicular if aa + bb + cc = 0 and planes are parallel if = =
a' b' c'
 
    n1 . n 2
The angle  between the planes r . n1 = d1 and r . n 2 = d2 is given by, cos  =  
| n1 | . | n 2 |
   
Planes are perpendicular if n1 . n 2 = 0 & planes are parallel if n1 =  n 2 ,  is a scalar

## 14. Angle Bisectors

(i) The equations of the planes bisecting the angle between two given planes
a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are

## a1x  b1y  c1z  d1 a 2 x  b 2 y  c2 z  d 2

a12  b12  c12 a 22  b22  c22
(ii) Equation of bisector of the angle containing origin: First make both the constant terms
p o s i t i v e .

## a1x  b1y  c1z  d1

Then the positive sign in = ± a 2 x  b2 y  c2 z  d 2 gives the bisector of the
a12  b12  c12 a 22  b22  c22
angle which contains the origin.

(iii) Bisector of acute/obtuse angle: First make both the constant terms positive. Then
a 1a 2 + b 1b 2 + c 1c 2 > 0  origin lies on obtuse angle
a 1a 2 + b 1b 2 + c 1c 2 < 0  origin lies in acute angle

## 15. Family of Planes

(i) Any plane through the intersection of a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 &a2x + b2y + c 2z + d2 = 0 is
a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 +  (a2x + b2y + c2z + d2) = 0

 
(ii) The equation of plane passing through the intersection of the planes r . n1 = d 1 &
   
r . n 2 = d2 is r . (n1 +  n 2 ) = d1 d2 where  is arbitrary scalar
16. Area of a triangle:
Let A (x1, y1, z1), B (x2, y2, z2), C (x3, y3, z3) be the vertices of a triangle, then  = (2x  2y  2z )

y1 z1 1 z1 x1 1 x1 y1 1
1 1
where x = y2 z2 1 , y = z2 x 2 1 and z = x 2 y2 1
2 2
y3 z3 1 z3 x3 1 x3 y3 1
  1  
Vector Method  From two vector AB and AC . Then area is given by | AB x AC |
2
17. Volume Of A Tetrahedron: Volume of a tetrahedron with vertices A (x1, y1, z1), B( x2, y2, z2), C

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x1 y1 z1 1
x y2 z2 1
1 2
(x3, y3, z3) and D (x4, y4, z4) is given by V =
6 x3 y3 z3 1
x4 y4 z4 1

A LINE
18. Equation Of A Line
(i) A straight line is intersection of two planes.
it is reprsented by two planes a1x + b1y + c 1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + +c 2z + d2 =0.

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
(ii) Symmetric form : = = = r..
a b c
  
(iii) Vector equation: r = a +  b
(vi) Reduction of cartesion form of equation of a line to vector form & vice versa

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1  = (x + y + z ) +  (a + b + c ).
= =  r 1 î 1 ĵ 1 k̂ î ĵ k̂
a b c

## 19. To find image of a point w. r. t a line

x  x2 y  y2 z  z2
Let L  = = is a given line
a b c
Let (x, y, z) is the image of the point P (x1, y1, z1) with respect to the line L. Then

x1  x y1  y z1  z
 x2  y2  z2
(i) a (x1 – x) + b (y1 – y) + c (z1 – z) = 0, (ii) 2 = 2 = 2 =
a b c

## from (ii) get the value of x, y, z in terms of  as

x = 2a + 2x2 – x1, y = 2b – 2y2 – y1, z = 2c + 2z2 – z1
now put the values of x, y, zin (i) get  and resubtitute the value of  to to get (x y z).

## 20. Angle Between A Plane And A Line:

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
(i) If  is the angle between line = = and the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0,
 m n

a  bm  c n
then sin  = .
(a2  b2  c 2 )  2  m2  n2
 
   b.n 
(ii) Vector form: If  is the angle between a line r = ( a +  b ) and r . n = d then sin =     .
| b | | n |
 m n  
(iii) Condition for perpendicularity = = , b xn = 0
a b c
 
(iv) Condition for parallel a + bm + cn = 0 b.n = 0

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21. Condition For A Line To Lie In A Plane

x  x1 y  y1 z  z1
(i) Cartesian form: Line = = would lie in a plane
 m n
ax + by + cz + d = 0, if ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 & a + bm + cn = 0.
        
(ii) Vector form: Line r = a +  b would lie in the plane r . n = d if b.n = 0 &a.n = d
22. Skew Lines:

(i) The straight lines which are not parallel and noncoplanar i.e. nonintersecting are called

## ' '  ' 

skew lines. If  =  m n  0, then lines are skew..
' m' n'

= = and  
 m n ' m' n'

## (  ' ) (mn'm' n)  (  ' ) (n  n' )  (   ' ) (m'' m)

S.D. =
2
 (mn'm' n)
' '  ' 
=
 m n   (mn  mn) 2

## ' m' n'

         
(iii) Vector Form: For lines r = a 1 +  b1 and r = a 2 +  b 2 to be skew ( b1 x b 2 ). ( a 2  a1 )  0
  
     (a 2  a1 )  b
(iv) Shortest distance between lines r = a 1 +  b & r = a 2 +  b is d=  .
|b|
23. Sphere

General equation of a sphere is x2 + y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0. (u, – v, w) is the centre

## SETS & RELATIONS

1. SET
A set is a collection of well defined objects which are distinct from each other. Set are generally denoted
by capital letters A, B, C, ........ etc. and the elements of the set by a, b, c ....... etc.
2. Methods to write a set :
(i) Roster Method : In this method a set is described by listing elements, separated by commas and
enclose then by curly brackets.
(ii) Set builder from : In this we write down a property or rule which gives us all the element of the set.
A = {x " P(x)} where P(x) is the property by which x  A.
3. Types of sets:
(i) Null set or empty set : A set having no element in it is called an empty set or a null set or void set, it
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is denoted by  or { }
(ii) Singleton : A set consisting of a single element is called a singleton set.
(iii) Finite set : A set which has only finite number of elements is called a finite set.
(iv) Infinite set : A set which has an infinite number of elements is called an infinite set.
(v) Equal sets : Two sets A and B are said to be equal if every element of A is member of B, and every
element of B is a member of A.
(vi) Equivalent sets : Two finite sets A and B are equivalent if their number of elements are same
i.e. n(A) = n(B)
(vii) Subset : Let A and B be two sets if every element of A is an element B, then A is called a subset of
B if A is a subset of B. We write A  B
(viii) Proper subset : If A is a subset of B s.t. A  B then A is a proper subset of B. and we write A   B
(ix) Universal set : A set consisting of all possible elements which occur in the discussion is called a
universal set and is denoted by U
(x) Power set : Let A be any set. The set of all subsets of A is called power set of A and is denoted by
P(A)
4. Some Operation on sets :
(i) Union of two sets : A  B = {x : x  A or x  B}
(ii) Intersection of two sets : A  B = {x : x  A and x  B}
(iii) Difference of two sets : A – B = {x : x  A and x  B}
(iv) Complement of a set : A' = {x : x  A but x  U} = U – A
(v) De-morgan laws : (A  B)' = A'  B' ; (A  B)' = A'  B'
(vi) Distributive laws : A (B  C) = (A  B)  (A  C) ; A  (B  C) = (A  B)  (A  C)
(vii) Commutative laws : (A  B) = B  A ; A  B = B  A
(viii) Associative laws : (A  B)  C = A  (B  C) ; (A  B)  C = A  (B  C)
(ix) A   =  ; A  U = A A =A;AU=U
(x) A  B  A ; A  B  B (xi) A  A  B ; B  A  B (xii) A  B  A  B = A
(xiii) A  B  A  B = B
5. Disjoint sets :
If A  B = , then A, B are disjoint
6. Symmetric difference of sets :
A  B = (A – B)  (B – A) (A')' = A A  B  B'  A'
7. Venn diagrame

## AB AB A–B B–A

Clearly (A – B)  (B – A)  (A  B) = A  B

## A' (A B) = (A – B)  (B – A) Disjoint

8. Some important results on number of elements in sets :
If A, B and C are finite sets, and U be the finite universal set, then
(i) n(A  B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A  B)
(ii) n(A  B) = n(A) + n(B)  A, B are disjoint non-void sets.

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(iii) n(A – B) = n(A) – n(A  B) i.e. n(A – B) + n(A  B) = n(A)
(iv) n(A  B  C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A  B) – n(B  C) – n(A  C) + n(A  B  C)
(v) Number of elements in exactly two of the sets A, B, C
= n(A  B) + n(B  C) + n(C  A) – 3n(A  B  C)
(vi) Number of elements in exactly one of the sets A, B, C
= n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – 2n(A  B) – 2n(A  B) – 2n(B  C) – 2n(A  C) + 3n(A  B 
C)

## (vii) n(A'  B') = n((A  B)') = n(U) – n(A  B)

RELATION
Introduction :
1. Cartesian Product : The set of all possible ordered pairs (a, b), where a  A and b  B i.e. {(a, b) ;
a  A and b  B} is called the cartesian product of A to B and is denoted by A × B,
usually A × B  B × A.
Relation : Let A and B be two sets. Then a relation R from A to B is a subset of A × B. Thus, R is a relation
from A to B  R  A × B.
Total number of relations : Let A and B be two non-empty finite sets consisting of m and n elements
respectively. Then A × B consists of mn ordered pairs. So, total number of subsets of A × B is 2mn.
Domain and Range of a relation : Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B. Then the set of all first
components of coordinates of the ordered pairs belonging to R is called to domain of R, while the set of all
second components of coordinates of the ordered pairs in R is called the range of R.
Thus, Dom (R) = {a : (a, b)  R} and, Range (R) = {b : (a, b)  R
It is evident from the definition that the domain of a relation from A to B is a subset of A and its range is a
subset of B.
Inverse relation : Let A, B be two sets and let R be a relation from a set A to a set B. Then the inverse
of R, denoted by R–1, is a relation from B to A and is defined by R–1 = {(b, a) : (a, b)  R}
2. Types of relations :
Void relation : Let A be a set. Then   A × A and so it is a relation on A. This relation is called the void or
empty relation on A.

Universal relation : Let A be a set. Then A × A  A × A and so it is a relation on A. This relation is called
the universal relation on A.

Identity relation : Let A be a set. Then the relation IA = {(a, a) : a  A on A is called the identity relation
on A.
Reflexive relation : A relation R on a set A is said to be reflexive if every element of A is related to itself.
Thus, R on a set A is not reflexive if there exists an element a  A such that (a, a)  R.
Transitive relation : Let A be any set. A relation R on A is said to be a transitive relation iff (a, b)  R
and (b, c)  R  (a, c)  R for all a, b, c,  A i.e. a R b and b R c  a R c for all a, b, c  A
Antisymmetric relation : Let A be any set. A relation R on set A is said to be an antisymmetric relation
iff (a, b)  R and (b, a)  R  a = b all a, b  A
Equivalence relation : A relation R on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation of A iff
(i) it is reflexive i.e. (a, a)  R for all a  A
(ii) it is symmetric i.e. (a, b)  R  (b, a)  R for all a, b,  A
(iii) it is transitive i.e. (a, b)  R and (b, c)  R  (a, c)  R for all a, b,  A
Partial order relation :
A relation R on set A is said to be an partial order relation on A if
(i) R is reflexive i.e. (a, a)  R,  a  A
(ii) R is antisymmetric i.e. (a, b)  R and (b, a)  R only possible when a = b  a, b  A
(iii) R is transitive i.e. (a, b)  R and (b, c)  R  (a, c)  R  a, b, c  R

STATISTICS
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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY :
It is that single value which may be taken as the most suitable representative of the data. This single
value is known as the average. Averages are generally, the central part of the distribution and therefore,
they are also called the measures of Central Tendency.
It can be divided into two groups :
(a) MATHEMATICAL AVERAGE :
I. Arithmetic mean or mean
II. Geometric mean
III. Harmonic mean
(b) POSITIONAL AVERAGE :
I. Median
II. Mode or positional average
ARITHMETIC MEAN :
Individual observation or unclassified data :
If x1, x2 , ......, xn be n observations, then their arithmetic mean is given by
n

x  x 2  ....  x n
x i
x 1 or x  i 1
n n
Arithmetic mean of discrete frequency distribution :
Let x1 , x2 , ...., xn be n observation and let f1, f2 , ......, fn be their corresponding frequencies, then their
n

f1x1  f2 x 2  ....  fn x n
fx
i 1
i i
mean x  or x 
f1  f2  ....  fn n

f
i1
i

## Short cut method :

If the values of x or (and) f are large, the calculation of arithmetic mean by the previous formula used,
is quite tedious and time consuming. In such case we take the deviation from an arbitrary point A.
 fi di
xA
 fi
where A = Assumed mean
di = xi – A = deviation for each term

## Step deviation method :

Sometimes during the application of shortcut method of finding the mean, the deviation di are divisible
by a common number h(say). In such case the arithmetic is reduced to a great extent taken by
xi  A
ui = , i = 1, 2, ..., n
h
 f u 
 mean x  A  h  i i 
  fi 
Weighted arithmetic mean : If w1 , w2 , w3 , ....., wn are the weight assigned to the value
x1, x2, x3, ..., xn respectively, then the weighted average is defined as -
w 1x1  w 2 w 2  ....  w n x n
Weighted A.M. = w 1  w 2  ...  w n

w
i1
i xi
x n

w
i 1
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Combined mean : If x1, x 2 , ....., x k are the mean of k series of sizes n1, n2, ...., nk respectively then

n1x1  n 2 x 2  .....  nk x k
the mean x of the composite series is given by x 
n1  n 2  ......  nk
Properties of Arithmetic Mean :
(i) If x is the mean of x1, x2, ....., xn . The mean of ax1 + b, ax2 + b, .... axn + b is ax + b
where a, b are any real numbers (a  0).

## (ii) Arithmetic mean is dependent on change of origin & scale.

Merits of Arithmetic Mean :
(i) It is rigidly defined.
(ii) It is based on all the observation taken.
(iii) It is calculated with reasonable ease and repidity.
(iv) It is least affected by fluctations in sampling.
(v) It is based on each observation and so it is a better representative of the data.
(vi) It is relatively reliable
(vii) Mathematical analysis of mean is possible.
Demerits of Arithmetic Mean :
(i) It is severely affected by the extreme values.
(ii) It cannot be represented in the actual data since the mean does not coincide with any of the
observed value.
(iii) It cannot be computed unless all the items are known.
(iv) It cannot be calculated for qualitative data incapable of numerical measurements.
(v) It cannot be used in the study of ratios, rates etc.
MEDIAN :
Median is the middle most or the central values of the variate in a set of observations, when the
observations are arranged either in ascending or in descending order of their magnitudes. It divides
the arranged series in two equal parts.
Median of an individual series : Let n be the number of observations-
(i) arrange the data in ascending or descending order.
(ii) (a) If n is odd then -
th
 n  1
Median (M) = Value of   observation
 2 
(b) If n is even then
th th
n n 
Median (M) = mean of   and   1 observation
2 2 
th th
n n 
  observation    1 observation
2 2 
i.e. M=
2
Median of the discrete frequency distribution : Algorithm to find the median :
Step - I : Find the cumulative frequency (C.F.)
n
N
Step - II : Find
2
, where N = f
i 1
i

N
Step - III : See the cumulative frequency (C.F.) just greater than and determine the
2
corresponding value of the variable.

## Median of grouped data or continuous series : Let the number of observation be n

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(i) Prepare the cumulative frequency table
th
N
(ii) Find the median class i.e. the class in which the   observation lies
2
(iii) The median value is given by the formulae

 N  
   F 
2
Median (M) =  +     ×h
 f 
 
 
N = total frequency = fi
I = lower limit of median class
f = frequency of the median class
F = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class
h = class interval (width) of the median class
MODE :
Mode is that value in a series which occurs most frequently. In a frequency distrinuction, mode is that
variate which has the maximum frequency.
Computation of Mode :
Mode for individual series :
In the case of individual series, the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of
the series.
Mode for grouped data (discreate frequency distribution series) :
In the case of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the
maximum frequency.
Mode for continuous frequency distribution :
(i) First find the model class i.e. the class which has maximum frequency. The model class can
be determined either by inspecting or with the help of grouping data.
(ii) The mode is given by the formula
fm  fm1
Mode =  + 2f  f h
m m 1  fm 1
where   lower limit of the model class
h  width of the model class
fm  frequency of the model class
fm–1  frequency of the class preceding model class
fm+1  frequency of the class succeeding model class
Relationship between mean, mode and median
(i) In symmetrical distribution
Mean = Mode = Median
(ii) In skew (moderately symmetrical) distribution, mode = 3 median – 2 mean

MEASURES OF DISPERSION :
Dispersion is the measure of the variations. The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about
an average value is classed the dispersion of the data. The measures of dispersion commonly used
are:
(i) Range
(ii) Mean deviation
(iii) Standard Deviation

RANGE :
It is the difference between maximum and minimum values of variate i.e. range is = L – S where L is
the largest value and S is the smallest value.

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MEAN DEVIATION :
Mean deviation is defined as the arithmetic mean of the absolute deviations of all the values taken

## I. Mean deviation of individual observations : If x1 , x2 , ....., xn are n values of a variable x,

then the mean deviation from an average A (median or AM) is given by
n
1 1
M.D. =
4  |x A| =
i1
i
4
|di|, where di = xi – A

II. Mean deviation of a discrete frequency distribution : If x1, x2 , ...., xn are n observation
with frequencies f1, f2, ...., fn , then mean deviation from an average A is given by -
1
Mean Deviation =  fi |xi – A|
N
n

where N =  f i
i 1

## III. Mean deviation of a grouped or continuous frequency distribution : For calculating

mean deviation of a continuous frequency distribution the procedure is same as for a discrete
frequency distribution. The only difference is that the here we have to obtain the midpoint of
the various classes and take the deviations of these mid point from the given central value
(median or mean).

## VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION :

The variance of a variate x is the arithmetic mean of the squares of all deviations of x from the
arithmetic mean of the observations and is denoted by var(x) or 2 .
The positive square root of the variance of a variate x is known as standard deviation

## i.e. standard deviation = + var( x )

(i) Variance of Individual observations : If x1 , x2 , ......, xn are n values of a variable x, then by
definition

1  
n
var (x) = ( x i  x )2  = 2
 .........(i)
4 i  1 
 

n
1 2
or var (x) = x i  x2 .........(ii)
4 i 1

If the value of variable x are large, the calculation of variance from the above formulae is quite tedious
and time consuming. In that case, we take deviation from an arbitrary point A (say) then
2
1
n 1 n 
di   di 
2
var (x) =
n
 n   .........(iii)
i 1  i 1 

## (ii) Variance of a discrete frequency distribution : If x1 , x2 , ...., xn are n observation with

1  n 
frequencies f1, f2, ...., fn , then var(x) =  fi ( x i  x )2  .....(i)
N  i  1 

n
1 2
or var(x) =  fx i i  x2 .....(ii)
N
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If the value of x or f are large, we take the deviations of the values of variable x from an
arbitrary point A. (say)
 di = xi – A ; i = 1, 2, ...., n

1  n  1 n 
fi di  –  fi di 
2 2
 Var (x) =
N  i 1  N  
.....(iii)
   i 1 
n
 where N = f
i 1
i

## Sometime di = xi – A are divisible by a common number h(say)

xi  A di
then ui = = , i = 1, 2, ....., n
h h

 n 2
 n  
1 2 1
fiui 

then var (x) = h  2

N i 1
fiui 
N    .....(iv)
  i 1  

## (iii) Variance of a grouped or continuous frequency distribution : In a grouped or continuous

frequency distribution any of the formulae discussed in discrete frequency distribution can be
used.

COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION :
The mean deviation and standard deviation have the same units in which the data is given. Whenever
we want to compare the variability of two series with data expressed in different units, we require
measure of dispersion which is independent of the units. This measure is coefficient of variation
(C.V.)
S.D 
C.V. = ×100 = × 100, x  0
Mean x
The series having greater C.V. is said to be more variable and less consistent than the other.

MATHEMATICAL REASONING
STATEMENTS :
In reasoning we communicate our ideas or thoughts with the help of sentences in a particular language. “A
sentence is called a mathematically acceptable statement if it either true or false but not both”. A state-
ment is assumed to be either true or false. A true statement is known as a valid statement and a false
statement is known as an invalid statement.

Note : A statement can not be both true and false at the same time.
llustration 1 :
consider the following sentences :
(i) Three plus two equals five.
(ii) The sum of two negative number is negative
(iii) Every square is a rectangle.
Each of these sentences is a true sentence,
therefore they are statements.

## llustration 2: Consider the following sentences :

(i) Three plus four equals six.
(ii) All prime numbers are odd.
(iii) Every relation is a function.
Each of these sentences is a false sentence,
therefore they are statements.

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llustration 3:
Consider the following sentences :
(i) The sum of x and y is greater than 0.
(ii) The square of a number is even.
Here, we are not in a position to determine whether it is true of false unless we know what the numbers are.
Therefore these sentences are not a statement.
Note : (i) Imperative (expresses a request or command), exclamatory sentences (expresses some strong
feeling), Interrogative sentences (asks some questions) do not considered as a statement in math
emetical language.
(ii) Sentences involving variable time such as “today”, “tomorrow” or “yesterday” are not statements.

## llustration 4: Consider the sentences :

(i) Give me a glass of water.
(ii) Is very set finite ?
(iii) How beautiful ?
(iv) Tomorrow is Monday.
These all the sentences are not a statement.
TRUTH TABLE :
Truth table is that which gives truth values of compound statements.
It has a number of rows and columns. The number of rows depend upon the number of simple statements.
Note truth table for simple statement :
Note that for n statements, there are 2n rows,
(i) Truth table for single statement p:
Number of rows = 21 = 2

p
T
F
(ii) Truth table for two statements p and q :
Number of rows = 22 = 4

p q
T T
T F
F T
F F

## (iii) Truth table for three statements p, q are r.

Number of rows = 23 = 8
p q r
T T T
T T F
T F T
T F F
F T T
F T F
F F T
F F F

NEGATION OF A STATEMENT :

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The denial of a statement p is called its negation and is written as ~ p, and read as ‘not p’. Negation of any
statement p is formed by writting “It is not the case that ..........”
or “It is false that ............”
or inserting the word “not” in p.
For example consider the statement:

COMPOUND STATEMENTS :
If a statement is combination of two or more statements, then it is said to be a compound statement.
And each statement which form a compound statement are known as its sub-statements or component
statements.
BASIC CONNECTIVES :
In the compound statement, we have learnt that the words ‘or’ and ‘and’ connect two or more statements.
These are called connectives. When we use these compound statements, it is necessary to understand
the role of these words.
THE WORD “AND” :
Any two statements can be connected by the word “and” to form a compound statement.
The compound statement with word “and” is true if all its component statements are true. The compound
statement with word “and” is false if any or all of its component statements are false. The compound
statement “p and q” is denoted by “p ^ q”.
Truth table
p q p ^q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F

## THE WORD “OR” :

Any two statements can be connected by the word “OR” to form a compound statement. For example,
consider the statement. The compound statement with word “or” is true if any or all of its component
statements are true. The compound statement with word “or” is false if all its component statement are
false.
The compound statement “p or q” is denoted by “p v q.”
Truth table
p q pvq
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
NEGATION OF “AND, OR” :
~(p or q) is ~ p and ~ q ~ (pvq)  ~ p ^ ~ q

## ~(p and q) is ~ p or ~ q ~ (p^ q)  ~ p v ~ q

ALGEBRA OF STATEMENTS :
Statements satisfy many laws some of which are given below -
(1) Idempotent Laws : If p is any statement then
(i) p v p  p (ii) p ^ p  p

## (2) Associative Laws : If p, q, r are any three statements, then

(i) p v (q v r) = (p v q) v r
(ii) p ^ (q ^ r) = (p ^ q) ^ r

## (3) Commutative Laws : If p, q are any two statements, then

(i) p v q = q v p (ii) p ^ q = q ^ p

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(4) Distributive Laws : If p,q,r are any three statements, then
(i) p v (q v r) = (p ^ r) v (p ^ r) (ii) p v (q ^ r) = (p v q) ^ (p v r)
(5) Identity Laws : If p is any statement-1, t is tautalogy and c is a couthdiction, then
(i) p v t = t (ii) p ^ t = p (iii) p v c = p (iv) p ^ c = c

## (6) Complement Laws : If t is a tautology, c is a contradiction and p is any statement, then

(i) p v (~ p) = t (ii) p ^ (~ p) = c (iii) ~ t = c (iv) ~ c = t

## (8) De morgan’s law : if p and q are two statements, then

(i) ~ (p v q)  (~p) ^ (~ q) (ii) ~ (p ^ q)  (~p) v (~ q)

## CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS OR IMPLICATIONS :

If p and q are any two statement then the compound statement in the form “If p then q” is called a
conditional statement or an implication. The statement “If p then q” is denoted by p  q or p  q
(to be read as p implies q) In the implication “p  q”, p is called the antecedent (or the hypothesis) and q
the consequent (or the conclusion)
For examples : Consider the statements -
(i) If x = 4, then x2 = 16
(ii) If ABCD is a parallelogram, then AB = CD
(iii) If Mumbai is in England, then 2 + 2 = 5
(iv) If Shikha works hard, then it will rain today.
Remark :
In the first two statements given above we observe that the hypothesis and conclusion have related subject
matters where as in the last two statements do not have related subject matters. In mathematical logic such
type of statements are also accepted as a conditional statements.

p q pq qp
T T T T
T F F T
F T T F
F F T T

## NEGATION AND CONTRAPOSITIVE OF A CONDITIONAL STATEMENT :

(1) Negation : If p and q are two statements then negation of p  q is ~ (p  q) which is equivalent
to p^~q
(2) Contrapositive : If p and q are two statements, then the contrapositive of p  q is (~q)  (~p)

BICONDITIONAL STATEMENTS :
If p and q are any two statements then the compound statement in the form of “p if and only if q” is called
a biconditional statements and is written in symbolic form p  q or p q
Ex. The following statements are biconditional statements
(i) A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of the digits forming the number is divisible by 3.
(ii) One is less than seven if and only if two is less than eight.
(iii) A triangle is equilateral if and only if it is equiangular.
Truth table for a biconditional statement :
p q pq qp
Rule : p  q is true only when both p and q have the same value.
T T T T
T F F F
Negation of biconditional statement : F T F F
~ (p q) = (p ^ ~ q) v (~ p ^ q) F F T T

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(a) Tautology : This is a statement which is true for all truth values of its components.
Ex. Consider p v ~ p
Truth table

p ~ p p v ~p
T F T
F T T
we observe that last columns is always true Hence p v ~ p is a tautology.
(b) Fallacy (contradiction) : This is statement which is false for all truth values of its components.
Ex. Consider p ^ ~ p
p ~ p p ^ ~p
T F F
F T F
We observe that last columns is always false. Hence p ^ ~ p is a fallacy (contradiction).
DUALITY :

The compound statements s1 and s2 are said to be dauls of each other if one can be obtained from the other
by replacing ^ by v and by v by ^.The connectives ^ and v are also called duals of each other. Let
s(p, q) = p ^ q be a compound statement then s * (p, q) = p v q where s * (p, q) is the dual statement of
s(p,q).

## ARGUMENTS AND THEIR VALIDITY :

An argument is an assertion that a given set of statements s1, s2, .... sn implies other statement. In other
word, an argument is an assertion that the statement s follows from statements S1, S2, ...., Sn are called
hypotheses (or premises) and the statement s is called the conclusion.
We denote the argument containing hypotheses
s1, s2,.... sn and conclusion s by

## s1, s2, .... sn ; s

or
s1, s2 ..... sn /- s
or
(s1 ^ s2 ^ ..... ^ sn)  s
or
s1
s2
s3
...
...
sn
____
so s
The symbol “/-” is read as turnstile.

VALID ARGUMENT :
An argument is said to be a valid argument if the conclusion s is true whenever all the hypotheses s1, s2,
.... sn are true or equivalently argument is valid when it is a tautology, otherwise the argument is called an
invalid argument.
Method of testing the validity of arguments :
Step I - Construct the truth table for conditional
statements s1 ^ s2 ^ s3 ^ .... ^ sn  s.
Step II - Check the last column of truth table. If the last column contains T only, then the given argument
is valid. otherwise, it is an invalid argument.

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