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MATHEMATICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICS

1. Number System :

Natural Numbers : The counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, .... are called Natural Numbers.

The set of natural numbers is denoted by N. Thus N = {1, 2, 3, 4, ....}.

Whole Numbers : Natural numbers including zero are called whole numbers.

The set of whole numbers, is denoted by W. Thus W = {0, 1, 2, .........}

Integers : The numbers ... – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 .... are called integers and the set is denoted by

or Z. Thus (or Z) = {.. – 3, – 2, – 1, 0, 1, 2, 3...}

Even Integers : Integers which are divisible by 2 are called even integers. e.g. 0, ± 2, ± 4, ...

Odd Integers : Integers, not divisible by 2 are called as odd integers. e.g. ± 1, ± 3, ± 5, ± 7......

Prime Number : Let p be a natural number greater than 1, p is said to be prime if it has exactly

two distinct positive integral factors, namely 1 and itself. e.g. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, ...

Composite Number : Let 'a' be a natrual number, 'a' is said to be composite if, it has atleast

three distinct factors.

'1' is neither prime nor composite, '2' is the only even prime number, Number which are not prime are

composite numbers (except 1), '4' is the smallest composite number.

Co-prime Number or relatively prime: Two natural numbers are coprime, if there H.C.F

(Highest common factor) is one. e.g. (1, 2), (1, 3), (3, 4), (3, 10), (3, 8), (5, 6), (7, 8) etc.

Twin Prime Numbers : If the difference between two prime numbers is two, then the numbers

are twin prime numbers. e.g. {3, 5}, {5, 7}, {11, 13}, {17, 19}, {29, 31}

Rational Numbers : All the numbers that can be represented in the form p/q, where p and q are

integers and q 0 set is denoted by Q.

Irrational Numbers : There are real numbers which can not be expressed in p/q form.

Real Numbers : The complete set of rational and irrational number is the set of real numbers

and is denoted by R. Thus R = Q QC.

Complex Number : A number of the form a + ib is called complex number, where a,b R and

i= 1 . Set is represented by C.

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2. Divisibility Test :

(i) A number will be divisible by 2 iff the digit at the unit place of the number is divisible by 2.

(ii) A number will be divisible by 3 iff the sum of all digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(iii) A number will be divisible by 4 iff last two digits of the number together are divisible by 4.

(iv) A number will be divisible by 5 iff the digit of the number at the unit place is either 0 or 5.

(v) A number will be divisible by 6 iff the digit at the unit place of the number is divisible by 2 &

sum of all digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(vi) A number will be divisible by 8 iff the last 3 digits of the number all together are divisible by 8.

(vii) A number will be divisible by 9 iff sum of all it's digits is divisible by 9.

(ix) A number will be divisible by 11, iff the difference between the sum of the digits at even places

and sum of the digits at odd places is 0 or multiple of 11.

Let p(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or equal to one and 'a' be any real number. If p(x) is

divided by (x – a), then the remainder is equal to p(a).

(ii) Factor Theorem :

Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than of equal to 1 and 'a' be a real number such that

p(a) = 0, then (x – a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x – a) is a factor of p(x), then p(a) = 0.

(iii) Some important formulae :

(1) (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a – b)2 + 4ab

2 2 2

(2) (a – b) = a – 2ab + b = (a + b)2 – 4ab

(3) a2 – b2 = (a + b) (a – b)

(4) (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)

(5) (a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b)

(6) a3 + b3 = (a + b)3 – 3ab (a + b) = (a + b) (a2 + b2 – ab)

(7) a3 – b3 = (a – b)3 + 3ab (a – b) = (a – b) (a2 + b2 + ab)

(8) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca

1 1 1

= a2 + b2 + c2 + 2abc

a b c

1

(9) a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca = [(a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2]

2

1

= (a + b + c) [(a – b)2 + (b – c)2 + (c – a)2]

2

(11) a4 – b4 = (a + b) (a – b) (a2 + b2)

(12) a4 + a2 + 1 = (a2 + 1)2 – a2 = (1 + a + a2) (1 – a + a2)

(13) (a + b + c)3 = a3 + b3 + c3 + 3(ab + bc + ca)(a + b + c) - abc

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4. Definition of indices : am = a. a. a. ...a (m times). Here a is called the base and m is the index,

power or exponent.

1

(1) a0 = 1, (a 0) (2) a–m = , (a 0) (3) am + n = am . an , where m and n are rational

am

numbers

am q

(4) am – n = , where m and n are rational numbers, a 0, (5) (am)n = amn (6) ap/q = ap

an

Ratio : If A and B be two quantities of the same kind, then their ratio is A : B; which may be denoted

A

by the fraction (This may be an integer or fraction)

B

Ratio between two ratios may be represented as the ratio of two integers

a c a/b ad

e.g. : = = or ad : bc.

b d c/d bc

a c e ace

Ratios are compounded by multiplying them together i.e. . . .... = ....

b d f bdf

If a : b is any ratio then its duplicate ratio is a2 : b2 ; triplicate ratio is a3 : b3 ..... etc.

If a : b is any ratio, then its sub-duplicate ratio is a1/2 : b1/2 ; sub-triplicate ratio is a1/3 : b1/3 etc.

(ii) Proportion :

a c

= , then it is written as a : b = c : d or a : b :: c : d

b d

If a : b = c : d, then b : a = d : c (Invertando), If a : b = c : d, then a : c = b : d (Alternando)

If a : b = c : d, then = (Componendo), If a : b = c : d, then = (Dividendo)

b d b d

ab cd

If a : b = c : d, then = (Componendo and dividendo)

ab cd

5. Intervals :

Intervals are basically subsets of R and are commonly used in solving inequalities or in finding

domains. If there are two numbers a, b R such that a < b, we can define four types of intervals as

follows :

Symbols Used

(i) Open interval : (a, b) = {x : a < x < b} i.e. end points are not included. ( ) or ] [

(ii) Closed interval : [a, b] = {x : a x b} i.e. end points are also included. []

This is possible only when both a and b are finite.

(iii) Open-closed interval : (a, b] = {x : a < x b} ( ] or ] ]

(iv) Closed - open interval : [a, b) = x : a x < b} [ ) or [ [

The infinite intervals are defined as follows :

(i) (a, ) = {x : x > a} (ii) [a, ) = {x : x a}

(iii) (– , b) = {x : x < b} (iv) (, b] = {x : x b}

(v) (– ) = {x : x R}

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6. Properties of Modulus :

For any a, b R

a |a|

|a| 0, |a| = |–a|, |a| a, |a| –a, |ab| = |a| |b|, = |b|,

b

|a + b| |a| + |b|, |a – b| ||a| – |b||

Greatest Integer Function or Step Up Function : The function y = f (x) = [x] is called the greatest

integer function where [x] equals to the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

0 ; if x is an int eger

(c) [x] + [y] [x + y] [x] + [y] + 1 (d) [x] + [ x] =

1 otherwise

0 , if x is an int eger

(a) {x ± m} = {x} iff m is an integer (b) {x} + {–x} =

1 , otherwise

7. Graph of Logarithmic function :

f(x) = logax is called logarithmic function where a > 0 and a 1 and x > 0. Its graph can be as follows:

Case- Case-

For a > 1 For 0 < a < 1

loga N = N, a > 0, a 1 & N > 0

a

9. The Principal Properties of Logarithm:

Let M & N are arbitrary positive numbers, a > 0, a 1, b > 0, b 1 and are any real numbers,

then :

(i) loga (M.N) = loga M + loga N ; in general loga (x1 x2 ......xn) = logax1 + loga x2 + ........+ loga xn

(ii) loga (M/N) = loga M loga N

(iii) loga M = loga M

1

(iv) loga M = logaM

loga M

(v) logb M = (base changing theorem)

loga b

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10. Logarithmic Equation :

The equality loga x = loga y is possible if and only if x = y i.e.

Let 'a' is a real number such that

(i) If a > 1, then logax > loga y x > y

(ii) If a > 1, then logax < 0 < x < a

(iii) If a > 1, then logax > x > a

(iv) If 0 < a < 1, then logax > logay 0 < x < y

(v) If 0 < a < 1, then loga x < x > a

Form - I : f(x) > 0, g(x) > 0, g(x) 1

Form Collection of system

f(x) 1 , g( x ) 1

(a) logg(x) f(x) 0

0 f ( x ) 1 , 0 g( x ) 1

f (x) 1 , 0 g( x ) 1

(b) logg(x) f(x) 0

0 f ( x ) 1 , g( x ) 1

f ( x ) (g( x ))a , g( x ) 1

(c) logg(x) f(x) a a

0 f ( x ) (g( x )) , 0 g( x ) 1

(d) logg(x) f(x) a a

f ( x ) (g( x )) , 0 g( x ) 1

Form Collection of system

f ( x ) g( x ), ( x ) 1,

(a) log(x) f(x) log(x) g(x)

0 f ( x ) g( x ); 0 ( x ) 1

0 f ( x ) g( x ), ( x ) 1,

(b) log(x) f(x) log(x) g(x)

f ( x ) g( x ) 0, 0 ( x ) 1

STRAIGHT LINE

1. Distance Formula: d= x1 x 2 2 y1 y 2 2 .

mx 2 nx1 my 2 ny1

2. Section Formula : x= ;y= .

mn mn

3. Centroid, Incentre & Excentre:

x1 x 2 x 3 y1 y 2 y 3 ax 1 bx 2 cx 3 ay1 by 2 cy 3

Centroid G , , Incentre I ,

3 3 abc abc

ax1 bx 2 cx 3 ay1 by 2 cy 3

Excentre I1 abc

,

abc

and so on.

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4. Area of a Triangle:

x1 y1 1

1

ABC = x2 y2 1

2

x3 y3 1

1 x1 x 2 x2 x3 x n1 x n xn x1

Area of polygon = 2 y y y y3

...............

y n1 y n

yn

y1

1 2 2

5. Slope Formula:

y1 y 2

(i) Line Joining two points (x1 y1) & (x2 y2), m =

x1 x 2

– coff . of x – b

(ii) Slope of line ax + by + c = 0 is

coff . of y a

x1 y1 1

6. Condition of collinearity of three points: x2 y2 1 = 0

x3 y3 1

7. Equation of a Straight Line in various forms:

(i) Point - Slope form : y y1 = m (x x1)

(ii) Slope intercept form : y = mx + c

y 2 y1

(iii) Two point form : y y1 = (x x1)

x 2 x1

x y 1

(iv) Determinant form : x1 y1 1 0

x2 y2 1

x y

(v) Intercept form : =1

a b

(vii) Parametric form : x = x1 + r cos , y = y1 + r sin

x x1 y y1

(viii) symetric form =r

cos sin

c c

(ix) General Form : ax + by + c = 0, x - intercept = – y - intercept = –

a b

1 m1m 2

a b c

9. Parallel Lines : Two lines ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + c = 0 are parallel if = .

a b c

Thus any line parallel to ax + by + c = 0 is of the type ax + by + k = 0, where k is a parameter.

c 1 c 2

Distance between two parallel lines = .

a 2 b 2

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10. Perpendicular Lines:

Two lines ax + by + c = 0 and ax + by + c = 0 are perpendicular if aa + bb = 0.

11. Position of the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) relative of the line ax + by + c = 0:

In general two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) will lie on same side or opposite side of ax + by + c = 0

according as ax1 + by1 + c and ax2 + by2 + c are of same or opposite sign respectively.

12. The ratio in which a given line divides the line segment joining two points:

m ax1by1c

ratio m : n is given by .

n ax 2 by 2 c

a x1 b y1 c

13. Length of perpendicular from a point on a line: .

a 2 b2

14. Reflection of a point about a line:

x x1 y y 1 ax1by1c

(i) Foot of the perpendicular from a point on the line is

a b a 2 b 2

xx1 yy1 ax 1 by 1 c

(ii) image of (x1, y1) in the line ax + by + c = 0 is 2 .

a b a 2 b 2

ax by c ax by c

15. Bisectors of the angles between two lines: =±

2

a b 2 a 2 b 2

16. Methods to discriminate between the acute angle bisector & the obtuse angle

bisector:

If aa + bb < 0, cc > 0, then the equation of the bisector of acute angle is

a x + by + c a x + b y + c

=+

2 2

a b a 2 b 2

If aa+ bb > 0, cc > 0, then equation of the bisector of obtuse angle is :

a x + by + c a x + b y + c

=+

2 2

a b a 2 b 2

17. Discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing a point:

To discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing the origin & that of the angle not containing

the origin. Rewrite the equations, ax + by + c = 0 & ax + by + c = 0 such that the constant terms

a x + by + c a x + b y + c

c, c are positive. Then ; =+ gives the equation of the bisector of the

2 2

a b a 2 b 2

a x + by + c a x + b y + c

angle containing the origin & = gives the equation of the bisector of the

a 2 b2 a 2 b 2

angle not containing the origin. In general equation of the bisector which contains the point (, ) is,

a x by c a x b y c a x by c a x b y c

= or = according as

a 2 b2 a 2 b 2 a 2 b2 a 2 b 2

a + b + c and a + b + c having same sign or otherwise.

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a1 b1 c1

18. Condition of Concurrency :of three straight lines aix + biy + ci = 0, i = 1,2,3 is a 2 b 2 c2 = 0.

a3 b3 c3

The equation of a family of straight lines passing through the point of intersection of the lines,

L1 a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & L2 a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 is given by L1 + k L2 = 0

20. A Pair of straight lines through origin: ax² + 2hxy + by² = 0

2 h 2 ab

If is the acute angle between the pair of straight lines, then tan = ab .

a h g

h b f

abc + 2fgh af² bg² ch² = 0, i.e. if = 0.

g f c

CIRCLE

1. Equation of a Circle in Various Form:

(a) Standard form : x2 + y2 = r2. (b) General form : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

(c) Diameter form : (x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) = 0.

2. Intercepts made by Circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the Axes:

2

(a) 2 g2 c on x -axis (b) 2 f c on y - aixs

3. Parametric Equations of a Circle: x = h + r cos ; y = k + r sin

4. Position of a point with respect to a circle:

The point (x1, y1) is inside, on or outside the circle S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.

according as S1 x1² + y1² + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c <, = or > 0.

5. Line and a Circle: line is y = mx + c and circle is x2 + y2 = a2

(i) c2 < a2 (1 + m2) the line is a secant of the circle.

(ii) c2 = a2 (1 + m2) the line touches the circle. (It is tangent to the circle)

2 2 2

(iii) c > a (1 + m ) the line does not meet the circle i. e. passes out side the circle.

6. Tangent :

a2m a2

(a) Slope form : y = mx ± a 1 m2 and points of contact are , .

c c

(b) Point form : Equation of tangent is T = 0

(c) Parametric form : Tangent to circle x2 + y2 = a2 at (a cos , a sin ) is x cos + y sin = a.

7. Pair of Tangents from a Point: SS1 = T².

8. Power of a Point: Power of a point is S1

9. Length of a Tangent : Length of tangent is S1

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10. Director Circle: Director circle of the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2

11. Chord of Contact: Equation of chord of contact is T = 0

2 LR

Length of chord of contact = , where R = radius; L = length of tangent.

R 2 L2

R L3

Area of the triangle formed by the pair of the tangents & its chord of contact =

R 2 L2

2R L

(d) Tangent of the angle between the pair of tangents from (x1, y1) = 2

2

L R

(e) Equation of the circle circumscribing the triangle PT1 T2 is:

(x x1) (x + g) + (y y1) (y + f) = 0.

x cos + y sin = a cos .

2 2 2

(i) Four common tangents if the two circles are disjoint i.e r1 + r 2 < c 1 c 2 .

(ii) 3 common tangents if two circles touch each other externally i.e r1 + r2 = c1 c2.

(iii) 2 common tangents if two circles intersect each other i.e r1 r2 < c1 c2 < r1 +

r2

(iv) 1 common tangent if the circles touch each other internally i.e r1 r2 = c1 c2.

(v) No common tangent if one circles is in the interior of the other i.e c1 c2 < r1 r2.

15. Condition of orthogonality of Two Circles: 2 g1 g2 + 2 f1 f2 = c1 + c2.

16. Radical Axis : S1 S2 = 0 i.e. 2 (g1 g2) x + 2 (f1 f2) y + (c1 c2) = 0.

17. Family of Circles: S1 + K S2 = 0, S + KL = 0.

PARABOLA

1. Equation of standard parabola :

y2 = 4ax, Vertex is (0, 0), focus is (a, 0), Directrix is x + a = 0 and Axis is y = 0

Length of the latus rectum = 4a, ends of the latus rectum are L(a, 2a) & L’ (a, 2a).

3. Position of a point Relative to a Parabola:

The point (x1 , y1) lies outside, on or inside the parabola y² = 4ax according as y1² 4ax1 >, = or < 0

4. Line & a Parabola:

4 a (1 m 2 ) (a m c) .

Length of the chord intercepted on the line y = mx + c is

m2

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5. Tangents to the Parabola y² = 4ax: T=0

a a , 2a

y = mx + (m 0) is tangent to the parabola y2 = 4ax at 2

m m m

6. Normals to the parabola y² = 4ax :

y1

y y1 = (x x1) at (x1, y1) ; y = mx 2am am3 at (am2 2am) ; y + tx = 2at + at 3 at (at2, 2at).

2a

7. Pair of Tangents: SS1 = T²

8. Chord of Contact: T = 0

9. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1

ELLIPSE

x2 y2

1. Standard Equation : = 1, where a > b & b² = a² (1 e²).

a2 b2

b2 a a

Eccentricity: e = 1 2 , (0 < e < 1) , Directrices : x = & x = .

a e e

Focii : S (a e, 0) & S ( a e, 0). Length of major axes = 2a, length of minor axes = 2b

Vertices : A ( a, 0) & A (a, 0) .

2

2b 2 minor axis

Latus Rectum : =

a

major axis

2a 1 e 2

2. Auxiliary Circle : x² + y² = a²

3. Parametric Representation : x = a cos & y = b sin

4. Position of a Point w.r.t. an Ellipse:

x12y2

The point P(x1, y1) lies outside, inside or on the ellipse according as ; 1 1 > < or = 0.

a2 b2

2 y2

5. Line and an Ellipse: The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse x2 = 1 in two points real,

a b2

coincident or imaginary according as c² is < = or > a²m² + b².

x x1 yy1

6. Tangents: Slope form: y = mx ± a 2m 2 b 2 , Point form : 1,

a2 b2

xcos ysin

Parametric form: 1

a b

7.

a2 x b2 y

Normals: x y = a² b², ax. sec by. cosec = (a² b²), y = mx

a2 b2 m

.

1 1 a 2 b 2m 2

9. Director Circle: x² + y² = a² + b²

10. Chord of Contact: T = 0

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11. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1,

12. Important High Lights :

If P be any point on the ellipse with S & S as its focii then (SP) + (SP) = 2a.

If the normal at any point P on the ellipse with centre C meet the major & minor axes in G & g

respectively, & if CF be perpendicular upon this normal , then

(i) PF. PG = b²

(ii) PF. Pg = a²

(iii) PG. Pg = SP. S P

(iv) CG. CT = CS 2

(v) locus of the mid point of Gg is another ellipse having the same eccentricity as that of the

original ellipse.

[where S and S are the focii of the ellipse and T is the point where tangent at P meet the major axis]

If the tangent at the point P of a standard ellipse meets the axis in T and t and CY is the perpendicular

on it from the centre then,

(i) T t. PY = a2 b2 and

(ii) least value of T t is a + b.

HYPERBOLA

x2 y2

1. Standard Equation: Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2 2 1 , where b2 = a2 (e2 1).

a b

a a

Focii : S (ae, 0) & S ( ae, 0), Directrices : x = & x= .

e e

Vertices : A (a, 0) & A ( a, 0)

2

2 b2 C . A .

Latus Rectum ( ) : = = 2a (e2 1).

a T . A.

x2 y2 x2 y2

2. Conjugate Hyperbola : 1 & 1 are conjugate hyperbolas of each.

a2 b2 a2 b2

4. Parametric Representation : x = a sec & y = b tan

5. Position of A Point 'P' w.r.t. A Hyperbola :

2 2

x y

S1 1 1 1 >, = or < 0 according as the point (x1, y1) lies inside, on or outside the curve.

a2 b2

6. Line And A Hyperbola :

x2 y2

The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes outside the hyperbola 1

a2 b2

according as : c2 > or = or < a2 m2 b2, respectively.

7. Tangents :

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xx1 yy1

(ii) Point Form : at the point (x1, y1) is 1.

2

a b2

x sec y tan

(iii) Parametric Form : 1.

a b

8. Normals :

a 2 x b2 y

(a) at the point P (x1, y1) is = a 2 + b 2 = a 2 e 2.

x1 y1

ax by

(b) at the point P (a sec , b tan ) is = a 2 + b 2 = a 2 e 2.

sec tan

a 2

b2 m

.

a 2 b2m 2

9. Pair of Tangents: SS1 = T²

10. Director Circle : x2 + y2 = a2 b2.

11. Chord of Contact: T = 0

12. Chord with a given middle point: T = S1

2

13. Diameter : y = b2 x.

a m

x y x y x2 y2

14. Asymptotes : 0 and 0 . Pair of asymptotes : 2 0.

a b a b a2 b

2 c , 2 c & 2 c , 2 c , Directrices : x + y = 2 c

Parametric equation x = ct, y = c/t, t R – {0}

x y x

Equation of the tangent at P (x1, y1) is = 2 & at P (t) is + t y = 2 c.

x1 y1 t

Equation of the normal at P (t) is x t3 y t = c (t4 1).

Chord with a given middle point as (h, k) is kx + hy = 2hk.

Important Results :

x2 y2

Locus of the feet of the perpendicular drawn from focus of the hyperbola 1 upon any

a2 b2

tangent is its auxiliary circle i.e. x2 + y2 = a2 & the product of these perpendiculars is b2.

The portion of the tangent between the point of contact & the directrix subtends a right angle at the

corresponding focus.

The tangent & normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect the angle between the focal radii. This spells

the reflection property of the hyperbola as "An incoming light ray " aimed towards one focus is

reflected from the outer surface of the hyperbola towards the other focus. It follows that if an ellipse

and a hyperbola have the same focii, they cut at right angles at any of their common point.

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2 2

x2 y2 x y

Note that the ellipse 2 1 & the hyperbola 2 = 1 (a > k > b > 0) are confocal

a 2

b a k2 k2 b2

and therefore orthogonal.

The foci of the hyperbola and the points P and Q in which any tangent meets the tangents at the

vertices are concyclic with PQ as diameter of the circle.

If from any point on the asymptote a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the transverse axis, the

product of the segments of this line, intercepted between the point & the curve is always equal to the

square of the semi conjugate axis.

Perpendicular from the focii on either asymptote meet it in the same points as the corresponding

directrix & the common points of intersection lie on the auxiliary circle.

x2 y2

The tangent at any point P on a hyperbola 1 with centre C, meets the asymptotes in Q and

a2 b2

R and cuts off a CQR of constant area equal to ab from the asymptotes & the portion of the tangent

intercepted between the asymptote is bisected at the point of contact. This implies that locus of the

centre of the circle circumscribing the CQR in case of a rectangular hyperbola is the hyperbola

itself & for a standard hyperbola the locus would be the curve, 4 (a2x2 b2y2) = (a2 + b2)2.

x2 y2

If the angle between the asymptote of a hyperbola 2

2 1 is 2 then the eccentricity of the

a b

hyperbola is sec .

A rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle also passes through the orthocentre of this triangle.

c

If c t i , c i = 1, 2, 3 be the angular points P, Q, R then orthocentre is t t t , c t1 t 2 t 3 .

t i 1 2 3

If a circle and the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 meet in the four points t1, t2, t3 & t4, then

(a) t1 t2 t3 t4 = 1

(b) the centre of the mean position of the four points bisects the distance between the centres of

the two curves.

(c) the centre of the circle through the points t1, t2 & t3 is :

c 1 c1 1 1

2 t1 t 2 t 3 t t t , 2 t t t t1 t 2 t 3

1 2 3 1 2 3

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QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

1. Qu ad ratic Eq u atio n : a x2 + b x + c = 0, a 0

b b2 4 a c

x= , The expression b2 4 a c D is called discriminant of quadratic equation.

2a

b c

If , are the roots, then (a) + = (b) =

a a

A quadratic equation whose roots are & , is (x ) (x ) = 0 i.e. x2 ( + ) x + = 0

2. Nature of Roots:

Consider the quadratic equation, a x2 + b x + c = 0 having , as its roots; D b2 4 a c

D=0 D0

Roots are equal = = b/2a Roots are unequal

Roots are real Roots are imaginary = p + i q, = p i q

a, b, c Q & a, b, c Q &

D is a perfect square D is not a perfect square

Roots are rational Roots are irrational

i.e. = p + q , = p q

a = 1, b, c & D is a perfect square

Roots are integral.

3. Common Roots:

Consider two quadratic equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c 1 = 0 & a2 x2 + b2 x + c 2 = 0.

a1 b c

(i) If two quadratic equations have both roots common, then = 1 = 1 .

a 2 b2 c2

c a c2 a1 b c b2 c1

(ii) If only one root is common, then = 1 2 = 1 2

a1 b2 a 2 b1 c1 a 2 c2 a1

4. Factorisation of Quadratic Expressions:

If a x2 + b x + c a perfect square of a linear expression, then D b2 4 a c = 0.

If ax² +2 hxy + by² +2 gx+ 2 fy + c can be resolved into two linear factors, then

a h g

abc + 2 fgh af² bg² ch² = 0 OR h b f = 0.

g f c

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D b

5. If a > 0, then least value of a x2 + b x + c

IS

4 a and occurs at x = 2 a

D b

If a < 0, then greatest value of a x2 + b x + c IS and occurs at x =

4a 2a

b

(a) If

2a

[x1, x2] then, f (x) min f ( x1 ) , f ( x 2 ) ,

max f ( x1) , f ( x 2 )

b D D

(b) If [x1, x2] then, f(x) min f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) , 4 a , max f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) , 4 a

2a

(i) x R, y > 0 only if a > 0 & D b² 4ac < 0

(ii) x R, y < 0 only if a < 0 & D b² 4ac < 0

The values of ' x ' satisfying the inequality, ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a 0) are:

(i) If D > 0, a > 0, then ax 2 + bx + c > 0 (a 0) x ( ) ( )

If D > 0, a < 0, then ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a 0) x ( )

(ii) If D = 0, then a > 0 x (, ) ( ), a < 0 x

9. Location of Roots:

Let f (x) = ax² + bx + c, where a > 0 & a, b, c R.

(i) Conditions for both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be greater than a specified number‘x0’ are

b² 4ac 0; f (x0) > 0 & ( b/2a) > x0.

(ii) Conditions for both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be smaller than a specified number ‘x0’ are

b² 4ac 0; f (x0) > 0 & ( b/2a) < x0.

(iii) Conditions for both roots of f (x) = 0 to lie on either side of the number ‘x0’ (in other words the

number ‘x0’ lies between the roots of f (x) = 0), is f (x0) < 0.

(iv) Conditions that both roots of f (x) = 0 to be confined between the numbers x1 and

x2, (x1 < x2) are b² 4ac 0; f (x1) > 0 ; f (x2) > 0 & x1 < ( b/2a) < x2.

(v) Conditions for exactly one root of f (x) = 0 to lie in the interval (x1, x2) i.e.

x1 < x < x2 is f (x1). f (x2) < 0.

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SEQUENCE & SERIES

1. Sequence : A sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers.

A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.

2. Series

By adding or substracting the terms of a sequence, we get an expression which is called a series.

Let a be the first term and d be the common difference of an A.P., then nth term = tn = a + (n – 1) d

The sum of first n terms of are A.P.

n n

Sn = [2a + (n – 1) d] = [a + ]

2 2

rth term of an A.P. when sum of first r terms is given is tr = Sr – Sr – 1.

Properties of A.P.

(i) If a, b, c are in A.P. 2 b = a + c & if a, b, c, d are in A.P. a + d = b + c.

(ii) Three numbers in A.P. can be taken as a d, a, a + d; four numbers in A.P. can be taken as

a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d; five numbers in A.P. are a 2d, a d, a, a + d, a + 2d & six terms in A.P.

are a 5d, a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d, a + 5d etc.

(iii) Sum of the terms of an A.P. equidistant from the beginning & end = sum of first & last term.

If three terms are in A.P. then the middle term is called the A.M. between the other two, so if a, b, c

are in A.P., b is A.M. of a & c.

If a, b are any two given numbers & a, A1, A2,...., An, b are in A.P. then A1, A2,... An are the

ba 2 (b a ) n (b a )

n A.M.’s between a & b. A1 = a + , A2 = a + ,......, An = a +

n1 n1 n1

n

Ar = nA where A is the single A.M. between a & b.

r 1

5. Geometric Progression: a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,...... is a G.P. with a as the first term & r as common

ratio.

a rn 1

, r 1

(i) nth term = a rn1 (ii) Sum of the first n terms i.e. Sn = r 1

na , r 1

a

(iii) Sum of an infinite G.P. when r < 1 is given by S =

1 r

r 1 .

6. Properties of G.P.

(i) If a, b, c are in G.P. b2 = ac, if a1, a2, a3, a4,...an – 1 , an are in G.P, then a1an = a1an – 1 = a3 an – 2 ...

a

(ii) Any three consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as , a , ar..

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a a

(iii) Any four consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as , , ar, ar3

r3 r

(iv) If each term of a G.P. be multiplied or divided or raised to power by the some nonzero quantity, the

resulting sequence is also a G.P..

(v) If a1, a2, a3,........ and b1, b2, b3,......... are two G.P’s with common ratio r1 and r2 respectively then the

sequence a1b1, a2b2, a3b3, ..... is also a G.P. with common ratio r1 r2.

(vi) If a1, a2, a3,... is a G.P. of positive term, then log a1, loga2, loga3,... are in A.P. and conversely.

If a, b, c > 0 are in G.P., b is the G.M. between a & c, then b² = ac

nGeometric Means Between positive number a, b: If a, b are two given numbers & a, G1,

G2,....., Gn, b are in G.P.. Then G1, G2, G3,...., Gn are n G.M.s between a & b.

G1 = a(b/a)1/n+1, G2 = a(b/a)2/n+1,......, Gn = a(b/a)n/n+1

2ac

If a, b, c are in H.P., b is the H.M. between a & c, then b = .

ac

1 1 1 1 ....... 1

H.M. H of a1, a2 , ........ an is given by =

H n a1 a 2 an

G² = AH, A.M. G.M. H.M. and A.M. = G.M. = H.M. if a1 = a2 = a3 = ...........= an

Sn =

a

d r 1 r n 1

a (n 1) d r n , r 1. Sum To Infinity: If r < 1, then S = a d r

1 r 1 r 2

1 r 1 r 2 1 r

.

Important Results

n n n n n n

(i) (ar ± br) = ar ± br. (ii) k ar = k ar. (iii) k = nk; where k is a constant.

r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1 r 1

n n

n (n 1) n (n 1) (2n 1)

(iv) r = 1 + 2 + 3 +...........+ n =

2

(v) r² = 12 + 22 + 32 +...........+ n2 =

6

r 1 r 1

n

n 2 (n 1) 2

(vi) r3 = 13 + 23 + 33 +...........+ n3 =

4

r 1

n

(vii) 2 a

i j 1

i a j = (a1 + a2 + ........+ an )2 – (a12 + a22 + ...... + an2)

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BINOMIAL THEOREM

1. Statement of Binomial theorem : If a, b R and n N, then

n

n

(a + b)n = nC0 anb0 + nC1 an–1 b1 + nC2 an–2 b2 +...+ nCr an–r br +...+ nCn a0 bn = C r a n r b r

r0

n n n n 2 n r n n

(1 + x) = C0 + C1 x + C2 x +... + Cr x +...+ Cn x

(ii) The sum of the indices of a and b in each term is n.

(iii) The binomial coefficients (nC0, nC1 ..........nCn) of the terms equidistant from the beginning and

the end are equal, i.e. nC0 = nCn, nC1 = nCn–1 etc. { nCr = nCn–r}

(v) Middle term (s) :

n2

(a) If n is even, there is only one middle term, which is th term.

2

n 1 n 1

(b) If n is odd, there are two middle terms, which are th and 1 th terms.

2 2

n

(vi) Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (x + y) , n N

(n 1) | y | (n 1) | y |

Let r = | x | | y | . If | x | | y | is not an integer, then tr + 1 is numerically greatest.

(n 1) | y |

If | x | | y | is an integer, then tr = tr + 1 and both are numercally greatest.

n!

3. Multinomial Theorem : (x1 + x2 + x3 + ........... xk)n =

r1 r2 ...rk

r !

n 1 2

r !... rk !

x1r1 . x r22 ...x rkk

n+k–1

Here total number of terms in the expansion = Ck–1

4. Application of Binomial Theorem :

If ( A B)n = + f where and n are positive integers, n being odd and 0 < f < 1 then ( + f)

f = kn where A – B2 = k > 0 and A – B < 1.

If n is an even integer, then ( + f) (1 – f) = kn

5. Properties of Binomial Coefficients :

n

(i) C0 + nC1 + nC2 + ........+ nCn = 2n

n

(ii) C0 – nC1 + nC2 – nC3 + ............. + (–1)n nCn = 0

n

(iii) C0 + nC2 + nC4 + .... = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 + .... = 2n–1

n

Cr n r 1

n

(iv) Cr + nCr–1 = n+1

Cr (v) n =

Cr 1 r

n(n 1) 2 n(n 1)(n 2) 3 n(n 1)(n 2).......(n r 1) r

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx + x + x + .... + x + ....,| x | < 1.

2! 3! r!

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n(n 1)(n 2).........(n r 1)

Tr+1 = r! xr

(a) (1 + x)–1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + ....+ (–1)r xr + ....

Permutations are arrangements and combinations are selections.

1. Fundamental Principle of Counting :

(i) Principle of Multiplication:

If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, following which another event can occur in ‘n’ different

ways, then total number of different ways of simultaneous occurrence of both the events in a definite

order is m n.

(ii) Principle of Addition:

If an event can occur in ‘m’ different ways, and another event can occur in ‘n’ different ways, then

exactly one of the events can happen in m + n ways.

2. Arrangement : number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time =

n

n!

Pr = n (n 1) (n 2)... (n r + 1) =

(n r )!

3. Circular Permutation :

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time is; (n 1) !.

n! n

P

4. Selection : Number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time = nCr = = r

r! (n r )! r!

5. The number of permutations of 'n' things, taken all at a time, when 'p' of them are similar & of one

type, q of them are similar & of another type, 'r' of them are similar & of a third type & the remaining

n!

n (p + q + r) are all different is .

p! q! r !

6. Formation of Groups :

Number of ways in which (m + n + p) different things can be divided into three different groups

m n p !

containing m, n & p things respectively is ,

m!n!p!

If m = n = p and the groups have identical qualitative characteristic then the number of groups

(3n)!

= .

n! n! n! 3!

(3n)!

However, if 3n things are to be divided equally among three people then the number of ways = .

n!3

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7. Selection of one or more objects

(a) Number of ways in which atleast one object be selected out of 'n' distinct objects is

n

C1 + nC2 + nC3 +...............+ nCn = 2n – 1

(b) Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected out of 'p' alike objects of one

type 'q' alike objects of second type and 'r' alike of third type is

(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) – 1

(c) Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected from 'n' objects where 'p' alike

of one type 'q' alike of second type and 'r' alike of third type and rest

n – (p + q + r) are different, is

(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) 2n – (p + q + r) – 1

8. Multinomial Theorem:

Coefficient of xr in expansion of (1 x)n = n+r1Cr (n N)

Number of ways in which it is possible to make a selection from m + n + p = N things, where p are

alike of one kind, m alike of second kind & n alike of third kind taken r at a time is given by coefficient

of xr in the expansion of

(1 + x + x2 +...... + xp) (1 + x + x2 +...... + xm) (1 + x + x2 +...... + xn).

(i) For example the number of ways in which a selection of four letters can be made from the

letters of the word PROPORTION is given by coefficient of x4 in

(1 + x + x2 + x3) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x) (1 + x) (1 + x).

(ii) Method of fictious partition :

Number of ways in which n identical things may be distributed among p persons if each

person may receive none, one or more things is; n+p1Cn.

9. Let N = pa. qb. rc...... where p, q, r...... are distinct primes & a, b, c..... are natural numbers then :

(a) The total numbers of divisors of N including 1 & N is = (a + 1) (b + 1) (c + 1)........

(b) The sum of these divisors is =

(p0 + p1 + p2 +.... + pa) (q0 + q1 + q2 +.... + qb) (r0 + r1 + r2 +.... + rc)........

1 (a 1)(b 1)(c 1).... if N is not a perfect square

= 2

1

2

(a 1)(b 1)(c 1)....1 if N is a perfect square

(d) Number of ways in which a composite number N can be resolved into two factors which are

relatively prime (or coprime) to each other is equal to 2n1 where n is the number of different prime

factors in N.

10. Let there be 'n' types of objects, with each type containing atleast r objects. Then the number of ways

of arranging r objects in a row is nr.

11. Dearrangement :

Number of ways in which 'n' letters can be put in 'n' corresponding envelopes such that no letter goes

1 1 1 1 n 1

to correct envelope is n ! 1 ............ ( 1)

1! 2! 3 ! 4 ! n!

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PROBABILITY

1. (i) Random Experiment : An experiment which on repeated performances gives different results.

(ii) Sample Space : Collection of all possible outcomes of a random experiment is the sample

(iii) Event : It is subset of sample space.

(iv) Complement of event : An event is called complement of the event A if it occurs when ever

A does not occur and vice-versa. It is denoted by A, A or AC.

(v) Compound Event : A B , A B, A – B etc. are compound events.

(vi) Equally likely Events : If events have same chance of occurrence, then they are said to be

equally likely.

(vii) Mutually Exclusive / Disjoint / Incompatible Events : A B =

(viii) Exhaustive Events : E1, E2, E3, .........En are exhaustive if E 1 E2 E3.........En = S.

2. Classical (A priori) Definition of Probability :

If an experiment results in a total of (m + n) outcomes which are equally likely and mutually exclusive

with one another and if ‘m’ outcomes are favorable to an event ‘A’ while ‘n’ are unfavorable, then the

m n( A )

probability of occurrence of the event ‘A’ = P(A) = = .

mn n(S)

We say that odds in favour of ‘A’ are m : n, while odds against ‘A’ are n : m.

n

P( A ) = = 1 – P(A)

mn

De Morgan’s Laws : (a) (A B)c = Ac Bc (b) (A B)c = Ac Bc

Distributive Laws :(a) A (B C) = (A B) (A C) (b) A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

(i) P(A or B or C) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – P(A B) – P(B C) – P(C A) + P(A B C)

(ii) P (at least two of A, B, C occur) = P(B C) + P(C A) + P(A B) – 2P(A B C)

(iii) P(exactly two of A, B, C occur) = P(B C) + P(C A) + P(A B) – 3P(A B C)

(iv) P(exactly one of A, B, C occur) =

P(A) + P(B) + P(C) – 2P(B C) – 2P(C A) – 2P(A B) + 3P(A B C)

P(A B)

4. Conditional Probability : P(A/B) = P(B)

.

5. Independent and dependent events : P(A B) = P(A) P(B), then A and B are independent.

(i) If A and B are independent, then (a) A and B are independent, (b) A and B are independent

and (c) A and B are independent.

(ii) If A and B are independent, then P(A / B) = P(A).

Independency of three or more events

Three events A, B & C are independent if & only if all the following conditions hold :

P(A B) = P(A) . P(B) ; P(B C) = P(B) . P(C)

P (C A) = P(C) . P(A) ; P(A B C) = P(A) . P(B) . P(C)

If an experiment is such that the probability of success or failure does not change with trials, then

the probability of getting exactly r success in n trials of an experiment is nCr pr qn – r, where ‘p’ is the

probability of a success and q is the probability of a failure. Note that p + q = 1.

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7. Expectation :

If a value Mi is associated with a probability of pi , then the expectation is given by piMi.

n

8. Total Probability Theorem : P(A) = P(B ) . P( A / B )

i1

i i

9. Bayes’ Theorem :

If an event A can occur with one of the n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events B1, B2 , ....., Bn

and the probabilities P(A/B1), P(A/B2) .... P(A/Bn) are known, then

P(B i ) . P( A / B i )

P(Bi / A) = n

P(Bi ) . P( A / B i )

B1, B2, B3,........,B

i 1

n

n

i 1

i

pi x i

(i) Mean of any probability distribution of a random variable is given by : µ = = pi xi

pi

(ii) Variance of a random variable is given by, 2 = (xi – µ)2 . pi = pi xi2 – µ2

COMPLEX NUMBER

1. The complex number system

A number of the form a + bi where a and b are real number and i2 = – 1 is called a complex number.

It is denoted by z i.e. z = a + ib. a is called as real part of z which is denoted by (Re z) and b is called

imaginary part of z which is denoted by (Im z).

(i) Purely real, if b = 0 (ii) Purely imaginary, if a = 0 (iii) Imaginary, if b 0.

z = a + ib, then a – ib is called congugate of z and is denoted by z .

2. Algebraic Operations:

Fundamental operations with complex numbers

1. (a + bi) + (c + di) = a + bi + c + di = (a + c) + (b + d) i

2. (a + bi) – (c + di) = a + bi – c – di = (a – c) + (b – d) i

3. (a + bi) (c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac – bd) + (ad+ bc)i

4. = . = = = 2 2 +

i

c di c di c di 2

c d i 2 2 2

c d 2 c d c 2 d2

(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation) :

Every complex number z = x + i y can be represented by the point P(x, y).

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Length OP is called modulus of z and is denoted by z Angle XOP = is called argument

or amplitude of z.

y

z = x 2 y 2 & tan =

x

(i) If is the argument of z, then 2 n + ; n I is also argument of z. Any two arguments

of a complex number differ by 2n

(ii) The unique value of such that < is called the principal value of the argument.

(iii) For the complex number 0 + 0 i the argument is not defined.

z = r (cos + i sin ) where z = r; arg z = ; z = r (cos i sin )

Also cos x = & sin x = are known as Euler's identities.

2 2

(c) Euler's Representation :

z = rei; z = r; arg z = ; z = re i

5. Properties of modulus

z1 z1

(i) |z1z2| = |z 1| |z2| (ii) = (provide z2 0)

z2 z 2

(iii) |z1 + z2| |z1| + |z2| (iv) |z1 – z2| ||z1| – |z2||

(Equality in (iii) and (iv) holds if and only if origin, z1 and z2 are collinear with z1 and z2 on the same

side of origin).

6. Properties of arguments

(i) arg(z1z2) = arg(z1) + arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.

(ii) arg(z1/z2) = arg (z1) – arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.

(iii) arg (z2) = 2arg(z) + 2m for some integer m.

(iv) arg(z) = 0 z is a positive real number

(v) arg(z) = ± /2 z is purely imaginary and z 0

7. Properties of conjugate

z1 z

(iv) z1 z 2 = z1 – z2 (v) z1z 2 = z1 z2 (vi) = 1 (z2 0)

z

2 z 2

(x) arg(z) + arg( z )

8. Rotation theorem

(i) If P(z1) and Q(zz) are two complex numbers such that |z1| = |z 2|, then z2 = z1 eiwhere = POQ

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z3 z2 z3 z2

(ii) If P(z1), Q(z2) and R(z3) are three complex numbers and PQR = , then z z = z1 z 2 e

i

1 2

z3 z 4 z3 z 4

(iii) If P(z1), Q(z2), R(z3) and S(z4) are complex numbers and STQ = , then z z = i

1 2 z1 z 2 e

9. Demoivre’s Theorem:

Case : If n is any integer then

(i) (cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n

(ii) (cos 1 + i sin 1) (cos 2 + i sin 2) (cos3 + i sin 2) (cos 3 + i sin 3) ....

.(cos n + i sin n) = cos (1 + 2 + 3 + ......... n) + i sin (1 + 2 + 3 + ....... + n)

2k p 2k p

Case If p, q Z and q 0 then (cos + i sin )p/q = cos + i sin

q q

where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ......, q – 1

2 2

(ii) If is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 + + ² = 0. In general 1 + r + 2r = 0;

where r I but is not the multiple of 3.

2 2 4

(iii) In polar form the cube roots of unity are :cos 0 + i sin 0; cos + i sin , cos + i sin

3 3 3

4

3

(iv) The three cube roots of unity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the vertices of an

equilateral triangle.

(v) The following factorisation should be remembered : (a, b, c R & is the cube root of unity)

a3 b3 = (a b) (a b) (a ²b) ; x2 + x + 1 = (x ) (x 2) ;

a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a + b) (a + 2b) ; a2 + ab + b2 = (a – bw) (a – bw2)

a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = (a + b + c) (a + b + ²c) (a + ²b + c)

11. nth Roots of Unity :

If 1, 1, 2, 3..... n 1 are the n, nth root of unity then :

(i) They are in G.P. with common ratio ei(2/n)

p p p

(ii) 1p + 1 + 2 +.... + n 1 = 0 if p is not an integral multiple of n

= n if p is an integral multiple of n

(iii) (1 1) (1 2)...... (1 n 1) = n &

(1 + 1) (1 + 2)....... (1 + n 1) = 0 if n is even and 1 if n is odd.

(iv) 1. 1. 2. 3......... n 1 = 1 or 1 according as n is odd or even.

sin n / 2 n 1

cos + cos 2 + cos 3 +..... + cos n =

(i)

sin / 2 cos 2

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sin n / 2 n 1

sin + sin 2 + sin 3 +..... + sin n =

(ii)

sin / 2 sin 2

1 1

(i) Loge (+ i ) = Loge (² + ²) + i 2 n tan where n .

2

2 n

2

(ii) ii represents a set of positive real numbers given by e , n .

14. Geometrical Properties:

Distance formula : |z1 – z2|.

mz 2 nz1 mz 2 nz1

Section formula : z = (internal division), z = (external division)

mn mn

If a, b, c are three real numbers such that az1 + bz2 + cz3 = 0 ; where a + b + c = 0 and a,b,c are not

all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z1, z2 & z3 are collinear.

(1) If the vertices A, B, C of a represent the complex nos. z1, z2, z3 respectively and

a, b, c are the length of sides then,

z1 z 2 z 3

(i) Centroid of the ABC = :

3

(ii) Orthocentre of the ABC =

asec A bsec B c secC or tanA tan B tanC

(Z1 sin 2A + Z2 sin 2B + Z3 sin 2C) (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C).

(2) amp(z) = is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle to the x axis.

(4) The equation of a line joining z1 & z2 is given by, z = z1 + t (z1 z2) where t is a real parameter.

(5) z = z1 (1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through the point z1 & perpendicular to the

line joining z 1 to the origin.

(6) The equation of a line passing through z1 & z2 can be expressed in the determinant form as

z z 1

z1 z1 1 = 0. This is also the condition for three complex numbers to be collinear.. The above

z 2 z2 1

equation on manipulating, takes the form z z r = 0 where r is real and is a non zero

complex constant.

NOTE : If we replace z by zei and z by ze – i then we get equation of a straight line which. Passes through

the foot of the perpendicular from origin to given straight line and makes an angle with the given

straight line.

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(7) The equation of circle having centre z0 & radius is :

z z z z + k = 0, k is real. Centre is & radius = k .

Circle will be real if k 0..

(8) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z1 & z2 as diameter is

z z2

arg =± or (z z 1) ( z z 2) + (z z 2) ( z z 1) = 0.

z z1 2

(9) Condition for four given points z1, z2, z3 & z4 to be concyclic is the number

z 3 z1 z 4 z 2

. should be real. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear

z 3 z 2 z 4 z1

z z 2 z 3 z1

points z1, z2 & z3 can be taken as is real

z z1 z 3 z 2

z z 2 z 3 z 1 z z 2 z 3 z1

= .

z z 1 z 3 z 2 z z1 z 3 z 2

z z1

(10) Arg z z = represent (i) a line segment if =

2

(ii) Pair of rays if = 0 (iii) a part of circle, if 0 < <

z1 z1 1

1

(11) Area of triangle formed by the points z1, z2 & z3 is z2 z2 1

4i

z 3 z3 1

(12) If |z1 – z1| + |z – z2| = K > |z1 – z2| then locus of z is an ellipse whose focii are z1 & z2

z z1

(13) If z z = k 1, 0, then locus of z is circle.

2

(14) If z – z1 – z – z2 = K < z1 – z2 then locus of z is a hyperbola, whose focii are

z 1 & z 2.

1. Basic Trigonometric Identities:

(a) sin² + cos² = 1; 1 sin 1; 1 cos 1 R

(b) sec² tan² = 1 ; sec 1 R – 2n 1 , n

2

(c) cosec² cot² = 1 ; cosec 1 R – n , n

2. Trigonometric Functions Of Allied Angles:

If is any angle, then 90 ± , 180 ± , 270 ± , 360 ± etc. are called ALLIED ANGLES.

(a) sin ( ) = sin ; cos ( ) = cos

(b) sin (90° ) = cos ; cos (90° ) = sin

(c) sin (90° + ) = cos ; cos (90° + ) = sin

(d) sin (180° ) = sin ; cos (180° ) = cos

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(e) sin (180° + ) = sin ; cos (180° + ) = cos

(f) sin (270° ) = cos ; cos (270° ) = sin

(g) sin (270° + ) = cos ; cos (270° + ) = sin

(h) tan (90° ) = cot ; cot (90° ) = tan

(a) sin (A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB

(b) cos (A ± B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB

(c) sin²A sin²B = cos²B cos²A = sin (A+B). sin (A B)

(d) cos²A sin²B = cos²B sin²A = cos (A+B). cos (A B)

(e) tan (A ± B) = 1 tan A tan B (f) cot (A ± B) = cot B cot A

(g) tan (A + B + C) = .

1 tan A tan B tan B tan C tan C tan A

4. Factorisation of the Sum or Difference of Two Sines or Cosines:

CD CD CD CD

(a) sinC + sinD = 2 sin cos (b) sinC sinD = 2 cos sin

2 2 2 2

(c) cosC + cosD = 2 cos cos (d) cosC cosD = 2 sin sin

2 2 2 2

(a) 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(AB) (b) 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) sin(AB)

(c) 2 cosA cosB = cos(A+B) + cos(AB) (d) 2 sinA sinB = cos(AB) cos(A+B)

(a) sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA ; sin = 2 sin cos

2 2

(b) cos 2A = cos²A sin²A = 2cos²A 1 = 1 2 sin²A; 2 cos² = 1 + cos , 2 sin² = 1 cos .

2 2

(c) tan 2A = ; tan = (d) sin 2A = , cos 2A =

1 tan 2 A 1 tan 2 2 1 tan 2 A 1 tan 2 A

3 tan A tan 3 A

(g) tan 3A =

1 3 tan 2 A

(a) sin n = 0 ; cos n = (1) ; tan n = 0, where n

3 1 5

(b) sin 15° or sin = = cos 75° or cos ;

12 2 2 12

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3 1 5

cos 15° or cos = = sin 75° or sin ;

12 2 2 12

3 1 3 1

tan 15° = = 2 3 = cot 75° ; tan 75° = = 2 3 = cot 15°

3 1 3 1

5 1 5 1

(c) sin or sin 18° = & cos 36° or cos =

10 4 5 4

8. Conditional Identities:

If A + B + C = then :

(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4 sinA sinB sinC

A B C

(ii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4 cos cos cos

2 2 2

(iii) cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C = 1 4 cos A cos B cos C

A B C

(iv) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin sin sin

2 2 2

(v) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC

A B B C C A

(vi) tan tan + tan tan + tan tan =1

2 2 2 2 2 2

A B C A B C

(vii) cot + cot + cot = cot . cot . cot

2 2 2 2 2 2

(viii) cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot C cot A = 1

(ix) A+B+C= then tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1

2

n

sin 2 n1

sin + sin (+) + sin ( + 2 ) +...... + sin n 1 =

sin

sin 2

2

n

sin 2 n 1

cos + cos (+) + cos ( + 2 ) +...... + cos n 1 =

cos

sin 2 2

TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS

1. Principal Solutions: Solutions which lie in the interval [0, 2) are called Principal solutions.

2. General Solution :

(i) sin = sin = n + (1)n where , , n .

2 2

(ii) cos = cos = 2 n ± where [0, ], n .

(iii) tan = tan = n + where , , n .

2 2

(iv) sin² = sin² , cos² = cos² , tan² = tan² = n ±

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3. Types Of Trigonometric Equations:

(i) which can be factorised. (ii) Reducible to quadratic equations.

(iii) a sin x + b cos x = a b 2 2 (iv) a sin x + b cos x = k, where |k| a2 b2

(v) Involving trigonometric identities (vi) Involving cos x ± sin x

(vii) Involving Boundary conditions (vii) Involving sum of squares = 0

SOLUTION OF TRIANGLE

a b c

1. Sine Rule: .

sin A sin B sin C

b 2 c2 a 2 c2 a 2 b 2 a 2 b 2 c2

2. Cosine Formula: (i) cos A = (ii) cos B = (iii) cos C =

2bc 2 ca 2a b

3. Projection Formula: (i) a = b cosC + c cosB (ii) b = c cosA + a cosC (iii) c = a cosB + b cosA

(i) tan = cot (ii) tan = cot (iii) tan = cot

2 bc 2 2 c a 2 2 ab 2

A (s b) (s c) B (s c) (s a ) C (s a ) (s b)

(i) sin = ; sin = ; sin =

2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A s (s a ) B s (s b) C s (s c)

(ii) cos = ; cos = ; cos =

2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

A (s b) (s c) abc

(iii) tan = = where s = is semi perimetre of triangle.

2 s (s a ) s (s a ) 2

2 2

(iv) sin A = s(s a )(s b)(s c) =

bc bc

1 1 1

6. Area of Triangle () : = ab sin C = bc sin A = ca sin B = s (s a ) (s b) (s c)

2 2 2

7. m - n Rule:

If BD : DC = m : n, then

n cot B m cot C

8. Radius of Circumcirlce :

a b c a bc

R= =

2 sinA 2 sinB 2 sinC 4

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9. Radius of The Incircle :

A B C

(i) r = (ii) r = (s a) tan = (s b) tan = (s c) tan

s 2 2 2

a sin B2 sin C2 A B C

(iii) r = & so on (iv) r = 4R sin sin sin

cos A2 2 2 2

; ; A ;

B ;

C

(i) r1 = r = r = (ii) r1 = s tan r2 = s tan r3 = s tan

sa 2 sb 3 sc 2 2 2

a cos B2 cos C2 A B C

(iii) r1 = & so on (iv) r1 = 4 R sin . cos . cos

cos A2 2 2 2

2 bc cos A

2

(i) Length of an angle bisector from the angle A = a = ;

bc

1

(ii) Length of median from the angle A = ma = 2 b2 2 c2 a 2

2

2

& (iii) Length of altitude from the angle A = Aa =

a

12. The Distances of The Special Points from Vertices and Sides of Triangle:

A

(i) Circumcentre (O) : OA = R & Oa = R cos A (ii) Incentre (I) : IA = r cosec & Ia = r

2

A

(iii) Excentre (I1) : I1 A = r1 cosec (iv) Orthocentre : HA = 2R cos A & Ha = 2R cos B cos C

2

1 2

(v) Centroid (G) : GA = 2b2 2c2 a 2 & Ga =

3 3a

The triangle KLM which is formed by joining the feet of the altitudes is called the Pedal Triangle.

(i) Its angles are 2A, 2B and 2C.

(ii) Its sides are a cosA = R sin 2A,

b cosB = R sin 2B and

c cosC = R sin 2C

(iii) Circumradii of the triangles PBC, PCA, PAB and ABC are equal.

14. Excentral Triangle:

The triangle formed by joining the three excentres 1, 2 and 3 of ABC is called

the excentral or excentric triangle.

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(i) ABC is the pedal triangle of the 1 2 3.

A B C

(ii) Its angles are , & .

2 2 2 2 2 2

A B C

(iii) Its sides are 4 R cos , 4 R cos & 4 R cos .

2 2 2

A B C

(iv) 1 = 4 R sin ; 2 = 4 R sin ; 3 = 4 R sin .

2 2 2

(v) Incentre of ABC is the orthocentre of the excentral 1 2 3.

(i) Distance between circumcentre and orthocentre OH2 = R2 (1 – 8 cosA cos B cos C)

A B C

(ii) Distance between circumcentre and incentre O2 = R2 (1 – 8 sin sin sin ) = R2 – 2Rr

2 2 2

1 2

(iii) Distance between circumcentre and centroid OG2 = R2 – (a + b2 + c2)

9

(i) y = sin1 x where 1x1 y

2 2

(iii) y = tan1 x where xR y

2 2

(iv) y = cosec 1 x where x 1 or x 1 y ,y0

2 2

(v) y = sec1 x where x 1 or x 1 0 y ; y

2

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P-2 (i) sin1 (sin x) = x, x (ii) cos1 (cos x) = x; 0 x

2 2

(iii) tan1 (tan x) = x; x (iv) cot1 (cot x) = x; 0<x<

2 2

(v) sec1 (sec x) = x; 0 x , x (vi) cosec1 (cosec x) = x; x 0, x

2 2 2

P-3 (i) sin1 (x) = sin1 x, 1 x 1 (ii) tan1 (x) = tan1 x, xR

(iii) cos1 (x) = cos1 x, 1 x 1 (iv) cot1 (x) = cot1 x, xR

1 1

P-4 (i) cosec1 x = sin1 ;x 1, x 1 (ii) sec1 x = cos1 ;x 1, x 1

x x

1 1

1 tan x ; x 0

(iii) cot x

1

tan 1 ; x 0

x

1 1

P-5 (i) sin x + cos x = , 1 x 1 (ii) tan1 x + cot1 x = , xR

2 2

(iii) cosec1 x + sec1 x = , x 1

2

2

P-6 (i) sin (cos1 x) = cos (sin1 x) = 1 x , 1 x 1

1

(ii) tan (cot1 x) = cot (tan1 x) = , x R, x 0

x

x

(iii) cosec (sec1 x) = sec (cosec1 x) = , x > 1

x2 1

3. Identities of Addition and Substraction:

2 2

I-1 (i) sin1 x + sin1 y = sin1 x 1 y y 1 x , x 0, y 0 & (x2 + y2) 1

2 2

= sin1 x 1 y y 1 x , x 0, y 0 & x2 + y2 > 1

Note that: x2 + y2 1 0 sin1 x + sin1 y

2

x2 + y2 1 sin1 x + sin1 y

2

2

1 y 2 , x 0, y 0

(ii) cos1 x + cos1 y = cos1 x y 1 x

xy

(iii) tan1 x + tan1 y = tan1 , x > 0, y > 0 & xy < 1

1 xy

xy

= + tan1 , x > 0, y > 0 & xy > 1 = , x > 0, y > 0 & xy = 1

1 xy 2

2 2

I-2 (i) sin1 x sin1 y = sin1 x 1 y y 1 x , x 0, y 0

2

1 y 2 , x 0, y 0, x y

(ii) cos1 x cos1 y = cos1 x y 1 x

xy

(iii) tan1 x tan1y = tan1 1 xy , x 0, y 0

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2 sin x

1

if | x | 1

2

I-3 (i) sin1 2 x 1 x 2

1

= 2 sin x if x 1

2

2 sin 1 x

if x 1

2

2 cos 1 x if 0 x 1

(ii) cos1 (2 x2 1) = 1

2 2 cos x if 1 x 0

2 tan 1x if | x | 1

2x 1

(iii) tan1

= 2 tan x if x 1

1 x2

2 tan 1x if x 1

2 tan 1x if | x | 1

2x

(iv) sin1 = 2 tan 1x if x 1

1 x2

2 tan 1x if x 1

1 x2 2 tan 1x if x 0

(v) cos1 = 1

1x 2 2 tan x if x 0

x y z x yz

If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z = tan1 1 xy yz zx if, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 & (xy + yz + zx) < 1

NOTE:

(i) If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z = then x + y + z = xyz

(ii) If tan1 x + tan1 y + tan1 z = then xy + yz + zx = 1

2

1 1

(iii) tan1 1 + tan1 2 + tan1 3 = (iv) tan1 1 + tan1 + tan1 =

2 3 2

FUNCTION

1. Definition :

Function is a special case of relation, from a non empty set A to a non empty set B, that associates

each member of A to a unique member of B. Symbolically, we write f: A B. We read it as "f is a

function from A to B".

Set 'A' is called domain of f and set 'B' is called co-domain of f.

2. Image of a point and Range of a Function :

Let f: A B, then the set A is known as the domain of f & the set B is known as codomain of f. If a

member 'a' of A is associated to the member 'b' of B, then 'b' is called the f-image of 'a' and we write

b = f (a). Further 'a' is called a pre-image of 'b'. The set {f(a): a A} is called the range of f and

is denoted by f(A). Clearly f(A) B.

3. Classification of Functions :

One One Function (Injective Mapping) : x1 x2 f(x1) f(x2).

Many One function : f(x1) = f(x2) for some x1 x2.

Onto function (Surjective mapping) : Range = codomain

Into function : range codomain

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4. Various Types of Functions :

(i) Polynomial Function : f (x) = a0 xn + a1 xn1 + a2 xn2 +... + an1 x + an where n is a non

negative integer and a0, a1, a2,........., an are real numbers and a0 0 is called a polynomial

function of degree n.

There are two polynomial functions, satisfying the relation; f(x).f(1/x) = f(x) + f(1/x), which are

f(x) = 1 xn

(ii) Exponential Function : A function f(x) = ax = ex In a (a > 0, a 1, x R)

(iii) Logarithmic Function : f(x) = logax where a > 0 and a 1 and x > 0.

x if x0

(iv) Absolute Value Function / Modulus Function : f (x) = x

x if x0

1 for x 0 | x |

; x0

(v) Signum Function : sgn (x) = 0 for x 0 = x

1 for x 0 0 ; x 0

(vi) Greatest Integer Function : f (x) = [x] is greatest integer x.

0 ; if x is an int eger

x 1 < [x] x, [x ± m] = [x] ± m if m . [x] + [ x] =

1 otherwise

(vii) Fractional Part Function: f(x) = {x} = x [x].

(i) If f (x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an even function.

(ii) If f (x) = f (x) for all x in the domain of ‘f’ then f is said to be an odd function.

If an odd function is defined at x = 0, then f(0) = 0

6. Periodic Function : If T 0, x – T and x + T domain of f, f(x) = f(x + T) x domain of f, then

f is called periodic and T is its period.

The least positive period is called principal or fundamental period of f or simply the period of f.

Properties of Periodic Function

1

(a) If f(x) has a period T, then and f ( x ) also have a period T.

f( x )

T

(b) If f(x) has a period T then f (ax + b) has a period | a | .

f(x)

(c) If f (x) has a period T1 & g (x) has a period T2, then period of f(x) ± g(x) or f(x) . g(x) or

g( x )

is L.C.M. of T1 & T2 provided their L.C.M. exists. However that L.C.M. (if exists) need not to be

f(x)

fundamental period. If L.C.M. does not exists f(x) ± g(x) or f(x) . g(x) or is aperiodic.

g( x )

7. Composite Function :

Let f: XY1 and g: Y2 Z be two functions and the set D = {x X: f(x) Y2}. If D , then the function h

defined on D by h(x) = g{f(x)} is called composite function of g and f and is denoted by gof. It is also called

function of a function. D X

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Properties of Composite Functions :

If f and g both are one-one, then gof if defined is also be one-one.

If f and g both are onto, then gof may or may not be onto.

The composite of two bijections is a bijection iff f & g are two bijections such that gof is defined, then

gof is also a bijection only when co-domain of f is equal to the domain of g.

If g is a function such that gof is defined on the domain of f and f is periodic with T, then gof is also

periodic with T as one of its periods. Further if g is one-one, then T is the period of gof ; if g is

also

periodic with T as the period and the range of f is a sub-set of [0, T ], then T is the period of gof

8. Inverse of a Function :

Let f : A B be a function. Then f is invertible iff there is a function g : B A such that gof is an

identity function on A and fog is an identity function on B. Then g is called inverse of f and is denoted

by f1.

For a function to be invertible it must be bijective

9. Equal or Identical Function :

Two functions f & g are said to be identical (or equal) iff :The domain of f the domain of g,

The range of f the range of g and f(x) = g(x), for every x belonging to their common domain.

LIMITS

1. Limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as x a when,

Limit f (a h) = Limit f (a + h) = some finite value M.

h 0 h 0

Note that we are not interested in knowing about what happens at x = a. Also note that if L.H.L. &

R.H.L. are both tending towards ' ' or ‘–’ then it is said to be infinite limit.

Remember, Limit

x a x a

2. Indeterminant Forms:

0

, , 0 , º, 0º,and 1.

0

3. Method of Removing Indeterminancy : Factorisation, Rationalisation or double

rationalisation, Substitution, Using standard limits, Expansions of functions.

4. Fundamental Theorems on Limits:

Let Limit Limit

x a f (x) = & x a g (x) = m. If & m exist then:

x a x a

(iii) Limit f ( x) = , provided m 0 (iv) Limit k f(x) = k Limit f(x) ; where k is a constant.

x a x a x a

g ( x) m

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(v) Limit f [g(x)] = f Limit g ( x ) = f (m); provided f is continuous at g (x) = m.

x a

x a

5. Standard Limits:

Limit sinx tanx Limit tan 1x Limit sin 1x ex 1 n(1 x )

x 0 = Limit

x 0 = x 0 = x 0 = Limit

x 0 = Limit

x 0 =1

x x x x x x

x x n n

Limit (1 + x)1/x = Limit 1 1 = e, Limit a 1 = log a, a > 0, Limit x a = nan – 1.

x 0 x x x 0 e x a

x xa

x ln a x 2 ln 2 a x 3 ln3 a x x2 x3

(i) ax 1 .........a 0 (ii) ex 1 ......

1! 2! 3! 1 ! 2! 3!

x2 x3 x4 x3 x5 x7

(iii) ln (1+x) = x .........for 1 x 1 (iv) sin x x .....

2 3 4 3! 5! 7!

x2 x4 x6 x 3 2x 5

(v) cosx 1 ..... (vi) tan x = x ......

2! 4! 6! 3 15

(vii) tan-1x = x .... (viii) sin-1x = x x x x .....

3 5 7 3! 5! 7!

x 2 5 x 4 61x 6

(ix) sec-1x = 1 ......

2! 4! 6!

(x) for |x| < 1, n R (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + 1. 2 x +

2

1. 2 . 3 x3 + ............

0

All these forms can be convered into form in the following ways

0

nx 0

(i) If x 1, y , then z = (x)y n z = y n x n z = ; form

(1/ y ) 0

1

Since y hence 0 and x 1 hence nx 0

y

y 0

(ii) If x 0, y 0, then z = xy n z = y n x n z = 1/ ny ; form

0

y 0

(iii) If x , y 0, then z = xy n z = y n x n z = ; form

1/ nx 0

also for (1) type of problems we can use following rules.

a

[ f ( x )1] g( x )

x 0 x a a

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8. Sandwich Theorem or Squeeze Play Theorem:

x a f(x) = = x a h(x) then x a g(x) = .

lim nx = 0

x

(i) (ii) lim =0

x x x ex

As x , n x increnes much slower than any (+ve) power of x where e x increases much faster than

(+ve) power of x

n n

x a f(x) = A > 0 & x a (x) = B (a finite quantity) then;

x a x a

CONTINUITY

x c f(x) = f(c).

2. Types of Discontinuity :

x c f(x) exists but is not equal to f(c)

x a f(x) exists finitely but f(a) is not defined.

x a f(x) exists but x a f(x) f(a).

x c f(x) does not exist. However if both the limits (i.e. L.H. L.

& R.H.L.) are finite, then discontinuity is said to be of first kind otherwise it is nonremovable

discontinuity of second kind.

Irremovable type of discontinuity can be further classified as:

(i) Finite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = x [x] at all integral x.

1 1

(ii) Infinite discontinuity e.g. f(x) = or g(x) = at x = 4.

x4 ( x 4)2

1

(iii) Oscillatory discontinuity e.g. f(x) = sin at x = 0.

x

In all these cases the value of f (a) of the function at x = a (point of discontinuity) may or may not exist

but Limit

x a does not exist.

If L.H.L. and R.H.L both exist finitely then discontinuity is said to be of st kind

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(d) Discontinuity of nd kind

If either L.H.L. or R.H.L does not exist then discontinuity is said to be of nd kind

(e) Point functions defined at single point only are to be treated as discontinuous.

eg. f(x) = 1 x x 1 is not continuous at x = 1.

x a

f(x) – Limit

x a –

f(x)|

4. Continuity on an Interval :

(a) A function f is said to be continuous on (a, b) if f is continuous at each & every point (a, b).

(i) f is continuous in the open interval (a, b) &

(ii) f is right continuous at a and left continuous at b

(c) All Polynomials, Trigonometrical functions, Exponential and Logarithmic functions are

continuous at every point in their domains.

(d) {f(x)} and [f(x)] may not be continuous where f(x) becomes integer.

5. If f & g are two functions which are continuous at x = c then the functions defined by:

F1(x) = f(x) g(x) ; F 2(x) = K f(x), K any real number ; F 3(x) = f(x).g(x) are also continuous at x = c.

f ( x)

Further, if g (c) is not zero, then F4(x) = g( x ) is also continuous at x = c.

f(c) then the composite g[f(x)] is continuous at x = c.

7. Intermediate Value Theorem :

A function f which is continuous in a , b possesses the following properties:

(i) If f(a) & f(b) possess opposite signs, then there exists at least one solution of the equation

f(x) = 0 in the open interval (a, b).

(ii) If K is any real number between f(a) & f(b), then there exists at least one solution of the

equation f(x) = K in the open inetrval (a, b).

DERIVABILITY

f(a h)f(a)

f (a+) = Limit

h0 is the right hand derivative at x = a, provided the limit exists.

h

f(a h)f(a)

f (a– ) = Limit

h0 is the left hand derivative at x = a, provided the limit exists.

h

A function f(x) is said to be differentiable(finitely) at x = a if f (a+) = f (a–) = finite

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2. Concept of Tangent and its Association with Derivability:

Tangent :- The tangent is defined as the limiting case of a chord or a secant

f (b ) f ( a )

slope of chord joining (a, f(a)) and (b, (f(b)) =

ba

f ( a h) f ( a )

slope of the line joining a and (a,f(a)) and (a + h, f(a + h)) =

h

f ( a h) f ( a ) f ( a h) f (a )

R.H.D. = f(a+) = h lim

0 , L.H.D. = f(a–) = h lim

0

h h

A function will have a tangent at point x = a if f(a+) = f(a–) (may or may be finite)

and equation of tangent at (a, f(a)) is given by y – f(a) = f(a) (x – a)

domain, then it is continuous at that point but the converse is not true.

4. Differentiability Over an Interval:

f (x) is said to be differentiable over an open interval if it is differentiable at every point of the interval

and f(x) is said to be differentiable over a closed interval [a, b] if f is differentiable on (a, b) and

f (a+) = a finite number and f (b–) = a finite number

Important : -

All polynomial, exponantial, logrithimic and trigonometric (inverse trigonomettric not included) are

differentiable at every point of their domain.

At x = a, if f(x) & g(x) are diffrerentiable, then f(x) g(x), f(x). g(x) are also differentiable.

further if g (a) 0 then the function f(x)/g(x) is also be differentiable.

f(x). g(x) may or may not be differentiable at x = a

If f(x) & g(x) both are not differentiable at x = a then each of f(x).g(x) and f + g may or may not be

differentiable.

f (a g(h)) f (a p(h))

If f is differentiable at x = a, then hlim

0 g(h) p(h) = f(a), where , hlim

0

P(h) = hlim

0

g(x) = 0

METHOD OF DIFFERENTIATION

A. First Principle Of Differentiation

Limit f (a h)f (a) or Limit f ( x )f (a) provided the limit exists & is denoted by f (a).

h0 x a xa

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2. If x and x + h belong to the domain of a function f defined by y = f(x), then

Limit f ( x h)f ( x ) if it exists, is called the Derivative of f at x & is denoted by f (x) or dy . i.e.,

h0 dx

h

f ( x h)f ( x )

f (x) = Limit

h0

h

This method of differentiation is also called ab-initio method or first principle.

d d d 1 d 1

1. (xn) = nxn – 1 2. (ax) = ax n a 3. (n |x|) = 4. (logax) =

dx dx dx x dx x n a

d d d

5. (sin x) = cos x 6. (cos x) = – sin x 7. (sec x) = sec x tan x

dx dx dx

d d d

8. (cosec x) = – cosec x cot x 9. (tan x) = sec2 x 10. (cot x) = – cosec2 x

dx dx dx

4. Basic Theorems

d d d d

1. (f ± g) = f(x) ± g(x) 2. (k f(x)) = k f(x) 3. (f(x) . g(x)) = f(x) g(x) + g(x) f(x)

dx dx dx dx

d f (x) g( x ) f ( x ) f ( x ) g( x ) d

4. = 5. (f(g(x))) = f(g(x)) g(x)

dx g( x ) g2 ( x ) dx

dy dy dz dy 1

6. = . 7. =

dx dz dx dx dx / dy

another way of expressing the same concept is by considering y = f(x) and x = g(y) as inverse

functions of each other.

dy dx 1

= f(x) and dy = g(y) g(y) =

dx f ( x )

d sin –1 x 1 d cos –1 x 1

= 2

, =– , for – 1 < x < 1.

dx 1 x dx 1 x2

d tan –1 x 1 d cot –1 x 1

= 2 , =– (x R)

dx 1 x dx 1 x2

= , =– , for x (– , – 1) (1, )

dx 2

| x | x 1 dx | x | x2 1

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1. Implicit differentiation

If f(x, y) = 0, is an implicit function then in order to find dy/dx, we differentiate each term w.r.t.

x regarding y as a functions of x & then collect terms in dy/dx.

(i) x 2 a2 by substituting x = a tan , where – <

2 2

(ii) a2 x 2 by substituting x = a sin , where –

2 2

(iii) x 2 a2 by substituting x = a sec , where [0, ],

2

xa

(iv) by substituting x = a cos , where (0, ].

ax

3. Parametric Differentiation

dy dy / d

If y = f() & x = g() where is a parameter, then dx dx / d .

dy dy / dx f ' (x)

Let y = f(x); z = g(x) then .

dz dz / dx g' (x)

f ( x) g( x ) h( x )

5. If F(x) = l( x ) m( x ) n( x ) , where f, g, h, l, m, n, u, v, w are differentiable functions of x then

u( x ) v( x ) w( x )

f ( x ) g( x ) h( x ) f ( x) g( x ) h( x )

F (x) = l( x ) m( x ) n( x ) + l' ( x ) m' ( x ) n' ( x ) + l( x ) m( x ) n( x )

u( x ) v( x ) w( x ) u( x ) v( x ) w( x ) u' ( x ) v ' ( x ) w ' ( x )

APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVES

1. Equation of tangent and normal

Tangent at (x1, y1) is given by (y – y1) = f(x1) (x – x1) ; when, f(x1) is real.

1

And normal at (x1 , y1) is (y – y1) = – (x – x1), when f(x1) is nonzero real.

f ( x1 )

Given a point P(a, b) which does not lie on the curve y = f(x), then the equation of possible tangents

to the curve y = f(x), passing through (a, b) can be found by solving for the point of contact Q.

f (h) b

f(h) =

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f (h ) b

And equation of tangent is y – b = (x – a)

ha

1

(i) PT = | k | 1 = Length of Tangent

m2

2

(ii) PN = | k | 1 m = Length of Normal

k

(iii) TM = = Length of subtangent

m

4. Angle between the curves

Angle between two intersecting curves is defined as the acute angle between their tangents (or normals) at

the point of intersection of two curves (as shown in figure).

m1 m 2

tan =

1 m1m 2

where m1 & m2 are the slopes of tangents at the intersection point (x1, y1).

Notes : (i) The angle is defined between two curves if the curves are intersecting. This can be ensured by

finding their point of intersection or graphically.

(ii) If the curves intersect at more than one point then angle between curves is found out with respect

to the point of intersection.

(iii) Two curves are said to be orthogonal if angle between them at each point of intersection is right

angle. i.e. m1 m2 = – 1.

5. Shortest distance between two curves

Shortest distance between two non-intersecting differentiable curves is always along their common normal.

(Wherever defined)

6. Rolle’s Theorem :

If a function f defined on [a, b] is

(i) continuous on [a, b] (ii) derivable on (a, b) and

(iii) f(a) = f(b),

then there exists at least one real number c between a and b (a < c < b) such that f(c) = 0

7. Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorem (LMVT) :

If a function f defined on [a, b] is

(i) continuous on [a, b] and (ii) derivable on (a, b)

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f (b ) f ( a )

then there exists at least one real numbers between a and b (a < c < b) such that = f(c)

ba

B. Monotonicity of a function :

Let f be a real valued function having domain D(D R) and S be a subset of D. f is said to be

monotonically increasing (non decreasing) (increasing) in S if for every x1, x2 S, x1 < x2 f(x1)

f(x2). f is said to be monotonically decreasing (non increasing) (decreasing) in S if for every x 1, x2 S,

x1 < x2 f(x1) f(x2)

f is said to be strictly increasing in S if for x1, x2 S, x1 < x2 f(x1) < f(x2). Similarly, f is said to be

strictly decreasing in S if for x1, x2 S, x1 < x2 f(x1) > f(x2) .

1. Application of differentiation for detecting monotonicity :

Let be an interval (open or closed or semi open and semi closed)

(i) If f(x) > 0 x , then f is strictly increasing in

(ii) If f(x) < 0 x , then f is strictly decreasing in

Note : Let I be an interval (or ray) which is a subset of domain of f. If f (x) > 0, x except for countably

many points where f (x) = 0, then f(x) is strictly increasing in .

{f (x) = 0 at countably many points f (x) = 0 does not occur on an interval which is a subset of }

2. Monotonicity of function about a point :

(i) A function f(x) is called as a strictly increasing function about a point (or at a point) a Df if it is

strictly increasing in an open interval containing a (as shown in figure).

(ii) A function f(x) is called a strictly decreasing function about a point x = a, if it is strictly decreasing in

an open interval containing a (as shown in figure).

Note : If x = a is a boundary point then use the appropriate one sided inequality to test monotonicity of f(x).

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3. Test for increasing and decreasing functions about a point

Let f(x) be differentiable.

(i) If f(a) > 0 then f(x) is increasing at x = a.

(ii) If f(a) < 0 then f(x) is decreasing at x = a.

(iii) If f(a) = 0 then examine the sign of f(x) on the left neighbourhood and the right neighbourhood of a.

(a) If f(x) is positive on both the neighbourhoods, then f is increasing at x = a.

(b) If f(x) is negative on both the neighbourhoods, then f is decreasing at x = a.

(c) If f(x) have opposite signs on these neighbourhoods, then f is non-monotonic at x = a.

Results : 1. If f(x) > 0 x (a, b), then the curve y = f(x) is concave in (a, b)

3. If f is continuous at x = c and f(x) has opposite signs on either sides of c, then the

point (c, f(c)) is a point of inflection of the curve

4. If f(c) = 0 and f(c) 0, then the point (c, f(c)) is a point of inflection

Generally these inequalities involve comparison between values of two functions at some particular

points.

C. Maxima and Minima

1. (i) Global Maximum :

A function f(x) is said to have global maximum on a set E if there exists at least one c E such that f(x)

f(c) for all x E.

We say global maximum occurs at x = c and global maximum (or global maximum value) is f(c).

A function f(x) is said to have a local maximum at x = c if f(c) is the greatest value of the function in a small

neighbourhood (c – h, c + h), h > 0 of c.

i.e. for all x (c – h, c + h), x c, we have f(x) f(c).

i.e. f(c – ) f(c) f(c + ), 0 < h

Note : If x = c is a boundary point then consider (c – h, c) or (c, c + h) (h > 0) appropriately.

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1. (iii) Global Minimum :

A function f(x) is said to have a global minimum on a set E if there exists at least one c E such that

f(x) f(c) for all x E.

A function f(x) is said to have a local minimum at x = c if f(c) is the least value of the function in a small

neighbourhood (c – h, c + h), h > 0 of c.

i.e. for all x (c –h, c + h), x c, we have f(x) f(c).

i.e. f(c – ) f(c) f(c + ), 0 < h

2. Extrema :

A maxima or a minima is called an extrema.

3. Maxima, Minima for differentiable functions :

A sufficient condition for f(c) to be an extremum of f(x) is that f(x) changes sign as x passes through c.

i.e. f(c) is an extrema (see figure) f(x) changes sign as x passes through c.

x = c is a point of local minima (see figure), f(x) changes sign from negative to positive.

5. Stationary points :

The points on graph of function f(x) where f(x) = 0 are called stationary points.

Rate of change of f(x) is zero at a stationary point.

Let f(x) be continuous and differentiable function.

Step - Find f(x)

Step - . Solve f(x) = 0, let x = c be a solution. (i.e. Find stationary points)

Step - . Observe change of sign

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(i) If f(x) changes sign from negative to positive as x crosses c from left to right then x = c is a point

of local minima

(ii) If f(x) changes sign from positive to negative as x crosses c from left to right then x = c is a point

of local maxima.

(iii) If f(x) does not changes sign as x crosses c then x = c is neither a point of maxima nor minima.

Note : In case of continuous functions points of maxima and minima are alternate.

7. Critical points :

The points where f(x) = 0 or f(x) is not differentiable are called critical points.

Stationary points Critical points.

Important Note :

For f(x) defined on a subset of R, points of extrema (if exists) occur at critical points

(i) Function defined on closed interval

Step - I : Find critical points. Let it be c1, c2 ......., cn

Step - II: Find f(a), f(c1).........., f(cn), f(b)

Let M = max· { f(a), f(c1),..........., f(cn), f(b)}

m = min · {f(a), f(c1), ........f(cn), f(b)}

Step - M is global maximum.

m is global minimum.

(ii) Function defined on open interval.

Let f(x), x (a, b) be continuous function.

Step - I Find critical points . Let it be c1, c2, .......cn

Step - II Find f(c1), f(c2), ........., f(cn)

Let M = max · {f(c1), .......f(cn)}

m = min· {f(c1),............,f(cn)}

x a 1 x b– 2

Step - IV

(i) If m then m is global minimum

(ii) If m > then f(x) has no global minimum

(iii) If M L then M is global maximum

(iv) If M < L , then f(x) has no global maximum

Second derivative test :

Let f(x) have derivatives up to second order

Step - I. Find f(x)

Step - II. Solve f(x) = 0. Let x = c be a solution

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Step - III. Find f(c)

Step - IV.

(i) If f(c) = 0 then further investigation is required

(ii) If f(c) > 0 then x = c is a point of minima.

(iii) If f(c) < 0 then x = c is a point of maxima.

For maxima f(x) changes from positive to negative (as shown in figure).

f(x) is decreasing hence f(c) < 0

Let f(x) have derivatives up to nth order

If f(c) = f(c) = ..........= fn–1(c) = 0 and

fn(c) 0 then we have following possibilities

(i) n is even, f(n)(c) < 0 x = c is point of maxima

(ii) n is even, f(n)(c) > 0 x = c is point of minima.

(iii) n is odd, f(n)(c) < 0 f(x) is decreasing about x = c

(iv) n is odd, f(n) > 0 f(x) is increasing about x = c.

11. Application of Maxima, Minima :

Useful Formulae of Mensuration to Remember :

3. Volume of cube = a3

1 2

5. Volume of a cone = r h.

3

4 3

9. Volume of a sphere = r .

3

10. Surface area of a sphere = 4r2.

1 2

11. Area of a circular sector = r , when is in radians.

2

12. Volume of a prism = (area of the base) × (height).

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14. Total surface area of a prism = (lateral surface area) + 2 (area of the base)

(Note that lateral surfaces of a prism are all rectangle).

1

15. Volume of a pyramid = (area of the base) × (height).

3

1

16. Curved surface area of a pyramid = (perimeter of the base) × (slant height).

2

(Note that slant surfaces of a pyramid are triangles).

INDEFINITE INTEGRATION

1. If f & g are functions of x such that g(x) = f(x) then,

d

f(x) dx = g(x) + c

dx

{g(x)+c} = f(x), where c is called the constant of integration.

2. Standard Formula:

ax b n 1 dx 1

(i) (ax + b) n

dx =

a n 1

+ c, n 1 (ii) = n (ax + b) + c

ax b a

1 ax+b 1 a px q

(iii) eax+b dx =

a

e +c (iv) apx+q dx =

p n a

+ c; a > 0

1 1

(v) sin (ax + b) dx =

a

cos (ax + b) + c (vi) cos (ax + b) dx =

a

sin (ax + b) + c

1 1

(vii) tan(ax + b) dx =

a

n sec (ax + b) + c (viii) cot(ax + b) dx =

a

n sin(ax + b)+ c

1 1 cot(ax + b)+ c

(ix) sec² (ax + b) dx =

a

tan(ax + b) + c (x) cosec²(ax + b) dx =

a

1

(xi) sec (ax + b). tan (ax + b) dx =

a

sec (ax + b) + c

1 cosec (ax + b) + c

(xii) cosec (ax + b). cot (ax + b) dx =

a

x + c

(xiii) secx dx = n (secx + tanx) + c OR n tan

4 2

x

(xiv) cosec x dx = n (cosecx cotx) + c OR n tan

2

+ c OR n (cosecx + cotx) + c

dx x dx 1 x

(xv) 2

a x 2

= sin1

a

+c (xvi) 2

a x 2

= tan1

a a

+c

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dx 1 x

(xvii) 2

| x | x a 2

=

a

sec1

a

+c (xviii)

dx

2

x a 2

= n x x2 a2 +c

dx dx 1 ax

(xix) x2 a 2

= n x x2 a 2 +c (xx) a x 2 =

2

2a

n ax + c

dx 1 xa x a2 x

(xxi) 2

x a 2 =

2a

n xa + c (xxii) 2

a x 2

dx =

2

2

a x 2

+

2

sin1 + c

a

x x 2 a2

x a2

(xxiii) 2

x a dx = 2

2

2

x a 2

+

2

n

a + c

x x 2 a2

x a2

(xxiv) 2

x a dx = 2

2

2

x a 2

2

n

a +c

e ax

(xxv) eax. sin bx dx =

a 2 b2

(a sin bx b cos bx) + c

e ax

(xxvi) eax. cos bx dx =

a 2 b2

(a cos bx + b sin bx) + c

3. Theorems on integration

g(ax b)

(iii) f (x)dx g( x) c f (ax b)dx = a

+c

4. Integration by Subsitutions

5. Integration by Part :

d

f (x) g(x) dx g(x) dx – dx f ( x) g( x) dx dx

= f(x)

(i) when you find integral g( x ) dx then it will not contain arbitarary constant.

(iii) the choice of f(x) and g(x) is decided by ILATE rule.

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dx dx

6. Integration of type ax 2

bx c

, 2

ax bx c

,

ax 2 bx c dx

b

Make the substitution x + =t

2a

7. Integration of type

px q px q

ax 2

bx c

dx, 2

ax bx c

dx, (px q) ax 2 bx c dx

b

Make the substitution x + = t , then split the integral as some of two integrals one containing the

2a

linear term and the other containing constant term.

dx dx dx

(i) a b sin x 2

OR a b cos 2 x

OR a sin 2

x b sinx cos x c cos 2 x

put tan x = t.

dx dx dx x

(ii) a b sinx OR a b cosx

OR a b sin x c cos x

put tan = t

2

a.cos x b.sinx c d

(iii) .cos x m.sinx n

dx. Express Nr A(Dr) + B

dx

(Dr) + c & proceed.

m

9. Integration of type sin x. cos n x dx

Case -

If m and n are even natural number then converts higher power into higher angles.

Case -

If at least m or n is odd natural number then if m is odd put cosx = t and vice-versa.

Case -

When m + n is a negative even integer then put tan x = t.

10. Integration of type

x2 1

x 4 Kx 2 1

dx where K is any constant.

1

Divide Nr & Dr by x² & put x = t.

x

11. Integration of type

dx dx

(ax b) px q

OR ax 2

bx c px q

; put px + q = t2.

dx 1 dx 1

(ax , put ax + b =

t

; (ax 2

b) px q2

, put x =

t

b) px 2 qx r

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13. Integration of type

xα

β dx or x α

β

x ; put x = cos2 + sin2

x

xα

dx or x α

x β

; put x = sec2 tan2

xβ

dx

put x = t2 or x = t2.

xα xβ

;

n n

n

x dx , cot x dx , sec x dx , cos ecn x dx

14. Reduction formula of

tan

tann1 x cot n1 x

tann x dx , then n = If n = cot n x dx , then n = –

(i) If n =

n 1

– n – 2 2. n 1

– n – 2

(ii)

If n = sec x dx , then n =

n 1

+

n 1 n–2

(iii) If n = cos ec x dx , then n =

+

n 1 n 1 n–2

(iv) If m,n = (sin x) m

(cos x)n dx then m,n =

mn

+ .

m n m,n–2

DEFINITE INTEGRATION

Properties of definite integral

b b b a b c b

1. f ( x ) dx = f ( t ) dt 2. f ( x ) dx = –

b

f ( x ) dx 3.

a

f ( x ) dx =

f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx

a a a a c

a a a

2 f ( x ) dx , f (– x ) f ( x )

4. f ( x ) dx = ( f ( x ) f ( x )) dx =

a 0 0

0 , f (– x ) – f ( x )

b b a a

5. f ( x ) dx =

a

f (a b x ) dx 6.

0

f ( x ) dx = f (a x) dx

0

a

a

2a 2 f ( x ) dx , f ( 2a – x ) f ( x )

a

f ( x ) dx = ( f ( x ) f (2a x )) dx = 0

7.

0 , f (2a – x ) – f ( x )

0 0

8. If f(x) is a periodic function with period T, then

nT T a nT T

f ( x ) dx = n

0

f ( x ) dx, n z,

a

f ( x ) dx = n f ( x ) dx, n z, a R

0

0

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nT T a nT a

f ( x) dx = (n – m) f ( x ) dx, m, n z, f ( x) dx = f ( x ) dx, n z, a R

0 nT 0

mT

b nT a

f ( x) dx = f ( x ) dx, n z, a, b R

a nT a

b b b

a

a a

b

10. If m f(x) M for a x b, then m (b – a) f ( x ) dx M (b – a)

a

b b b

11. a

f ( x ) dx

a

f ( x ) dx 12. If f(x) 0 on [a, b] then f ( x) dx 0

a

h( x )

dF( x )

Leibnitz Theorem : If F(x) =

f (t) dt , then

g( x )

dx

= h(x) f(h(x)) – g(x) f(g(x))

PART -

b n 1 n 1

ba (b a ) r

a

f ( x ) dx = Lt

n

r0

h f (a rh) = Lt

n r 0

n f n

a

2

m

m,n = sin x cos n x dx , m, n N then,

0

(m 1) (m 3) (m 5) .........(n 1) (n 3) (n 5).......

when both m, n are even

(m n) (m n 2) (m n 4)........ 2

m,n =

(m 1) (m 3) (m 5) .........(n 1) (n 3) (n 5).......

otherwise

(m n) (m n 2) (m n 4)........

1. Curve Tracing :

To find the approximate shape of a curve, the following procedure is adopted in order:

(iii) Symmetry about the line y = x, (v) Symmetry in opposite quadrants:

(v) Find the points where the curve crosses the xaxis and also the yaxis.

dy

(vi) Find and equate it to zero to find the points on the curve where you have horizontal tangents.

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(viii) Examine what happens to ‘y’ when x or x .

(ix) Asymptotes :

(a) If x Lt Lt

a f(x) = or x a f(x) = – , then x = a is asymptote of y = f(x)

x x

f ( x)

(c) If x Lt

= m1, x Lt

(f(x) – m1x) = c, then y = m1x + c1 is an asymptote.

x

2. Quadrature :

b

(i) If f(x) 0 for x [a, b], then area bounded by curve y = f(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b is f (x) dx

a

(ii) If f(x) 0 for x [a, b], then area bounded by curve y = f(x), x-axis, x = a and x = b is – f ( x) dx

a

(iii) If f(x) > 0 for x [a,c] and f(x) < 0 for x [c,b] (a < c < b) then area bounded by curve y = f(x) and x–axis

c b

between x = a and x = b is a

f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx .

c

(iv) If f(x) > g(x) for x[a,b] then area bounded by curves y = f(x) and y = g(x) between ordinates x = a and

b

x = b is f ( x) g( x )dx .

a

(v) If g (y) 0 for y [c,d] then area bounded by curve x = g(y) and y–axis between abscissa y = c and

d

y = d is

g( y)dy

y c

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

1. Order and Degree of a Differential Equation:

3. Degree :

It is determined by the degree of the highest order derivative present in it after the differential

equation is cleared of radicals and fractions so far as the derivatives are concerned.

n1 n2 nk

dm y dm1y dy

f1 (x, y) m + f2 (x, y) m1 + ........ fk(x, y) =0

dx dx dx

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dy

4. Differential Equation of First Order and First Degree : + f(x, y) = 0

dx

dy f ( x, y )

A differential equation of the from = where f and g are homogeneous function of

dx g( x, y )

x and y, and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential equaiton and can be solved

easily by putting y = vx.

dy

The differential equation M + N =0 ...........(1)

dx

Where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct differentiation

(without any subsequent multiplication, elimination etc.) of an equation of the form f(x, y) = c

xdy + y dx = d(xy), 2 = d , 2(x dx + y dy) = d (x 2 + y2), xy = d ln

x x x

2 2 = d tan , = d(ln xy), = d

x y x xy x2 y2 xy

Linear differential equations of first order :

dy

The differential equation + Py = Q , is linear in y, where P and Q are functions of x.

dx

Pdx

I.F for linear differential equation = e

Pdx

The solution is given by y. e Pdx = Q. e C .

dy

Bernoulli’s equation : Equations of the form + Py = Q.yn, n 0 and n 1

dx

where P and Q are functions of x, is called Bernoulli’s equation and can be made linear in v

by dividing by yn and putting y –n+1 = v. Now its solution can be obtained as in (v).

dy

7. Clairaut’s Equation : y = px + f(p), where p = is known as Clairout’s Equation.

dx

To solve , differentiate it w.r.t. x, which gives

dp

either =0p=c or x + f(p) = 0 p is eliminated

dx

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8 Orthogonal Trajectory :

An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts every member of

a given family of curve at right angle.

Steps to find orthogonal trajectory :

(i) Let f (x, y, c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.

(ii) Differentate the given equation w.r.t. x and then eliminate c.

dy dx

(iii) Replace by – in the equation obtained in (ii).

dx dy

Hence solution obtained in (iv) is the required orthogonal trajectory.

MATRICES : Any rectangular arrangement of numbers in m rows and n columns is called a matrix of

order

m × n.

a1n

a 21 a 22 a 23 ...... a 2 j .....

a 2n

..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....

A = ai1 ai2 a i3 ...... aij ...... a in

..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....

a m1 am2 a m3 ..... a mj ..... a mn

where aij denote the element of ith row & jth column. The above matrix is usually denoted as [aij]m × n .

The elements a11, a22, a33,........ are called as diagonal elements. Their sum is called as trace of

A denoted as Tr(A)

1. Basic Definitions

(i) Row matrix : A matrix having only one row is called as row matrix

(ii) Column matrix : A matrix having only one column is called as column matrix.

(iii) Square matrix : A matrix of order m × n is called square matrix if m = n.

(iv) Zero matrix : A = [aij]m × n is called a zero matrix, if aij = 0 i & j.

(v) Upper triangular matrix : A = [aij]m × n is said to be upper triangular, if aij = 0 for i > j

(vi) Lower triangular matrix : A = [aij]m×n is said to be a lower triangular, if aij = 0 for i < j.

(vii) Diagonal matrix : A square matrix [aij]n is said to be a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for i j.

Diagonal matrix of order n is denoted as Diag (a11, a22, ......ann).

(ix) Unit matrix (Identity matrix) : A diagonal matrix A = [aij]n is a unit matrix, if aij = 1 for i = j.

(x) Comparable matrices : Two matrices A & B are said to be comparable, if they have

the same order.

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(xi) Equality of matrices : Two matrices A = [aij] m×n and B= [bij]p × q are said to be equal if

m = p, n = q and aij = bij i & j.

Let be a scalar, then A = [bij]m × n where bij = aij i & j.

then A + B = [aij]m × n + [bij]m × n. = [cij]m × n where c ij = aij + bij i & j.

(i) (A + B) = A + B (ii) A = A (iii) (1 + 2) A = 1A + 2A

p

AB = [c ij]m × n where cij = a

k 1

ik b kj ,

(xvii) Properties of matrix multiplication : We have the following when ever defined

(i) In general AB BA (ii) (AB) C = A(BC) (iii) An = A = n A

(iv) For every non singular square matrix A (i.e., |A| 0) there exist a unique matrix B so

that AB = n = BA. In this case we say that A & B are multiplicative inverses of one

another. In notations, we write B = A–1 or A = B–1.

2. Transpose of a Matrix

Let A =[aij]m × n. Then A( or AT ) the transpose of A is defined as A = [bji]n × m where bji = aij i & j.

(iv) (AB) = BA

(v) Symmetric & skew symmetric matrix : A square matrix A is said to be symmetric if A = A

A square matrix A is said to be skew symmetric if A = – A

3. Submatrix of a Matrix

Submatrix : Let A be a given matrix. The matrix obtained by deleting some rows or columns of

A is called as submatrix of A.

(a) |A| = |A| for any square matrix A.

(b) If two rows are identical (or two columns are identical) then |A| = 0.

(d) If A and B are two square matrices of same order, then |AB| = |A| |B|.

(ii) Singular & non singular matrix : A square matrix A is said to be singular or non singular

according as |A| is zero or non zero respectively.

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(iii) Cofactor & adjoint matrix :Let A = [aij]n be a square matrix. The matrix obtained

by replacing each element of A by corresponding cofactor is called as matrix of cofactor of A.

The transpose of matrix of cofactor of A is called as adjoint of A, denoted as adj A.

(iv) Properties of adj A:

(a) A . adj A = |A| n = (adj A) A where A = [aij]n.

(b) |adj A| = |A|n – 1, where n is order of A.

(c) If A is a symmetric matrix, then adj A is also symmetric matrix.

(d) If A is singular, then adj A is also singular.

(v) Inverse of a matrix (reciprocal matrix) : Let A be a non singular matrix. Then the matrix

1

adj A is the multiplicative inverse of A and is denoted by A–1.

|A|

Remarks :

1. A–1 is always non singular.

2. If A = dia (a11, a12, ....., ann) where aii 0 i, then A–1 = diag (a11– 1, a22–1, ...., ann–1).

3. (A–1) = (A)–1 for any non singular matrix A. Also adj (A) = (adj A).

1 –1

5. Let k be a non zero scalar & A be a non singular matrix. Then (kA)–1 = A .

k

1

6. |A–1| = | A | for |A| 0.

Similarly B is non singular and AB = 0 A = 0. Therefore, AB = 0 either both are singular or one

of them is 0.

4. System of Linear Equations & Matrices

System of linear equations AX = B is said to be consistent if it has atleast one solution.

(i) System of linear equations and matrix inverse:

If A is nonsingular, solution is given by X = A–1B.

If A is singular, (adj A) B = 0 and no two columns of A are proportional, then the system has

infinite many solution.

If A is singular and (adj A) B 0, then the system has no solution

If the above system is homogeneous, n equations in n unknowns, then in the matrix form it is

AX = O. ( in this case b1 = b2 = ....... bn = 0), where A is a square matrix.

If A is nonsingular, the system has only the trivial solution (zero solution) X = 0

If A is singular, then the system has infinitely many solutions (including the trivial solution)

and hence it has non trivial solutions.

The following operations on a matrix are called as elementary row transformations.

(a) Interchanging two rows.

(b) Multiplications of all the elements of row by a nonzero scalar.

(c) Addition of constant multiple of a row to another row.

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Remark :

Two matrices A & B are said to be equivalent if one is obtained from other using elementary

transformations. We write A B.

5. More on Matrices

(i) Characteristic polynomial & Characteristic equation :

Let A be a square matrix. Then the polynomial | A – x| is called as characteristic polynomial

of A & the equation | A – x| = 0 is called as characteristic equation of A.

Remark :

Every square matrix A satisfy its characteristic equation (Cayley - Hamilton Theorem).

i.e. a0 xn + a, xn – 1 + ........ + an – 1x + an = 0 is the characteristic equation of A, then

a0An + a1An – 1 + ......... + an – 1 A + an = 0

(ii) More Definitions on Matrices :

(a) Nilpotent matrix: A square matrix A is called nilpotent if Ap = O for some positive

integer

p. If p is smallest such positive integer then p is called its nilpotency

(b) Idempotent matrix: A square matrix A is said to be idempotent if, A2 = A.

(c) Involutory matrix: A square matrix A is said to be involutory if A2 = .

(d) Orthogonal matrix: A square matrix A is said to be orthogonal, if A A = = AA.

(e) Unitary matrix: A square matrix A is said to be unitary if A( A ) = , where A is the

complex conjugate of A.

DETERMINANTS

1. Definition:

a 1 b1 a 1 b1

We write the expression a1b2 – a2b1 as and is called a determinant of order 2.

a2 b2 a2 b2

2. Expansion of Determinant:

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c 2 is called the determinant of order three.

a3 b3 c3

b2 c 2 b1 c1 b1 c1 b2 c 2 a2 c2 a2 b2

D = a1 a2 + a3 = a1 b1 + c1 ... & so on.

b3 c 3 b3 c3 b2 c2 b3 c 3 a3 c3 a3 b3

In this manner we can expand a determinant in 6 ways using elements of ; R1, R2, R3 or C1, C2, C3.

3. Minors:

The minor of aij is obtained deleting ith row & jth column from the determinant. It is denoted by Mij.

4. Cofactor:

Cofactor of the element aij is Cij = (1)i+j. Mij;

D = a11M11 a12M12 + a13M13 = a11C11 + a12C12 + a13C13

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5. Transpose of a Determinant:

The transpose of a determinant is a determinant obtained after interchanging the rows & columns.

a1 b1 c1 a1 a 2 a3

T

D = a2 b2 c2 D b1 b 2 b3

a3 b3 c3 c1 c 2 c3

(i) A determinant is symmetric if it is identical to its transpose. Its ith row is identical to its ith

column i.e. aij = aji for all values of ' i ' and ' j '

(ii) A determinant is skew-symmetric if it is identical to its transpose having sign of each element

inverted i.e. aij = – aji for all values of ' i ' and ' j '. A skew-symmetric determinant has all

elements zero in its principal diagonal.

(iii) A determinant is asymmetric if it is neither symmetric nor skew-symmetric.

7. Properties of Determinants:

(i) D = D

(ii) If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant be interchanged, then D = D.

(iii) If a determinant has all the elements zero in any row or column then D = 0.

(iv) If a determinant has any two rows (or columns) identical, then D = 0.

(v) If all the elements of any row (or column) be multiplied by the same number k, then D= kD

(vi) If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms then the

determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants,

a2 b2 c2 a2 b2 c 2 a2 b2 c2

i.e.

a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3 a3 b3 c3

(vii) The value of a determinant is not altered by adding to the elements of any row (or column) a

constant multiple of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column),

a1 b1 c1 a1 ma 2 b1 mb 2 c 1 mc 2

i.e. D = a2 b2 c2 and D = a2 b2 c2 . Then D= D.

a3 b3 c3 a 3 na1 b 3 nb1 c 3 nc 1

a1 b1 m1 a b a1m1b1m 2

1 1 1 1 2

a2 b2 2 m2 a 2 1b 2 2 a 2 m1b 2 m 2

9. Summation of Determinants

n n n

r 1

f (r )

r 1

g(r ) h(r )

r 1

Let (r) = a1 a 2 a 3 , then (r ) =

r 1

a1 a2 a3

b1 b 2 b 3 b1 b2 b3

where a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3 are constants indepedent of r

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10. Integration of a determinant

b b b

f ( x ) g( x ) h( x )

b

a

f ( x ) dx

a

g( x ) dx h( x) dx

a

a1 b1 c1

Let (x) =

a2 b2 c2

, then ( x ) dx = a1 b1 c1

a a2 b2 c2

f1( x ) f2 ( x ) f3 ( x )

Let (x) = g1( x ) g2 ( x ) g3 ( x )

h1( x ) h 2 ( x ) h3 ( x )

g

then (x) = 1 ( x ) g 2 ( x ) g 3 ( x ) g

+ 1 ( x ) g2 ( x ) g3 ( x ) + 1( x ) g 2 ( x ) g 3 ( x )

g

h1( x ) h 2 ( x ) h3 ( x ) h1( x ) h2 ( x ) h3 ( x ) h1 ( x ) h2 ( x ) h3 ( x )

(i) Two Variables

(a) Consistent Equations: Definite & unique solution. [ intersecting lines ]

(b) Inconsistent Equation: No solution. [ Parallel line ]

(c) Dependent equation: Infinite solutions. [ Identical lines ]

a1 b c

1 1 Given equations are inconsistent &

a2 b2 c2

a1 b c

1 1 Given equations are dependent

a2 b2 c2

(ii) Three Variables

a2x + b2y + c2z = d2............ (II)

a3x + b3y + c3z = d3............ (III)

D1 D2 D3

Then, x= ,Y= ,Z= .

D D D

a1 b1 c1 d1 b1 c1 a1 d1 c1 a1 b1 d1

a2 b2 c2 d b2 c2 a d2 c2 a b2 d2

Where D = ; D1 = 2 ; D2 = 2 & D3 = 2

a3 b3 c3 d3 b 3 c3 a3 d3 c3 a3 b3 d3

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(iii) Consistency of a system of Equations

(a) If D 0 and alteast one of D1, D2, D3 0, then the given system of equations are consistent

and have unique non trivial solution.

(b) If D 0 & D1 = D2 = D3 = 0, then the given system of equations are consistent and have trivial

solution only.

(c) If D = D1 = D2 = D3 = 0, then the given system of equations have either infinite solutions or no

solution.

(d) If D = 0 but atleast one of D1, D2, D3 is not zero then the equations are inconsistent and have

no solution.

(e) If a given system of linear equations have Only Zero Solution for all its variables then the given

equations are said to have TRIVIAL SOLUTION.

If x and y are not zero, then condition for a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 ; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 &

a1 b1 c1

a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 to be consistent in x and y is a 2 b 2 c 2 = 0.

a3 b3 c3

13. Application of Determinants:

Following examples of short hand writing large expressions are:

(i) Area of a triangle whose vertices are (xr, yr); r = 1, 2, 3 is:

x1 y1 1

1

D= x2 y2 1 If D = 0 then the three points are collinear.

2

x3 y3 1

VECTORS

1. Vectors & Their Representation:

Vector quantities are specified by definite magnitude and definite directions. A vector is generally

represented by a directed line segment, say AB . A is called the initial point & B is called the

terminal point. The magnitude of vector AB is expressed by AB .

Unit Vector : A vector of unit magnitude in the direction of a vector a is called unit vector along a

a

and is denoted by â symbolically, aˆ .

|a |

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Equal Vectors: Two vectors are said to be equal if they have the same magnitude, direction &

represent the same physical quantity.

Collinear Vectors: Two vectors are said to be collinear if their directed line segments are parallel

irrespective of their directions. If a and b are collinear, then a kb , where k R, k 0

a1 a2 a3

Vectors a = a1 î + a 2 ĵ + a 3k̂ and b = b1 î + b 2 ĵ + b 3k̂ are collinear if b = b = b

1 2 3

Coplanar Vectors:

A given number of vectors are called coplanar if their line segments are all parallel to the same plane.

Note that “TWO VECTORS ARE ALWAYS COPLANAR”.

It is the smaller angle formed when the initial points or the terminal points of the two vectors are

brought together. It should be noted that 0º 180º .

3. Addition Of Vectors:

If two vectors a & b are represented by OA & OB , then their sum a b is a vector represented

by OC , where OC is the diagonal of the parallelogram OACB.

a b b a (commutative) (a b) c a ( b c) (associativity)

a 0 a 0a a ( a ) 0 ( a ) a

|ab||a||b| | a b | || a | |b||

a b = | a |2 | b |2 2 | a || b | cos where is the angle between the vectors

a b

A vector in the direction of the bisector of the angle between the two vectors a & b is . Hence

a b

bisector of the angle between the two vectors a and b is a b , where R+. Bisector of the

exterior angle between a & b is a b , R+.

4. Multiplication Of A Vector By A Scalar:

If a is a vector & m is a scalar, then m a is a vector parallel to a whose modulus is m times that

of a . This multiplication is called SCALAR MULTIPLICATION. If a and b are vectors & m, n are scalars,

then:

m ( a ) (a ) m m a m (na ) n(m a ) (mn )a

(m n) a m a na m (a b ) m a m b

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5. Position Vector Of A Point:

let O be a fixed origin, then the position vector of a point P is the vector OP . If a and b are position

vectors of two points A and B, then, AB = b a = pv of B pv of A.

DISTANCE FORMULA : Distance between the two points A (a) and B (b) is AB = a b

na m b ab

SECTION FORMULA : r . Mid point of AB = .

mn 2

6. Scalar Product Of Two Vectors: a . b = | a | | b | cos , where | a |, | b | are magnitude of a

and b respectively and is angle between a and b .

a . b

(i) i.i = j.j = k.k = 1; i.j = j.k = k.i = 0 projection of a on b

|b|

(ii) if a = a1i + a2j + a3k & b = b1i + b2j + b3k then a . b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

a a12 a 2 2 a 3 2 , b b1 2 b2 2 b3 2

a.b

, 0

(iii) the angle between a & b is given by cos

|a| |b|

(iv) a . b a b cos (0 ) , note that if is acute, then a . b > 0 & if is obtuse, then a . b < 0

2

(v) a . a a a2, a . b b . a (commutative) a . (b c ) a . b a . c (distributive)

(vi) a.b 0 a b (a 0 b 0 )

(vii) (m a ) . b = a . (m b) = m (a . b) (associative) where m is scalar..

Note:

(a) Maximum value of a . b is a b

(b) Minimum value of a . b is – a b

(c)

Any vector a can be written as, a = a . iˆ iˆ a . ˆj ˆj a . kˆ kˆ .

7. Vector Product Of Two Vectors:

(i) If a & b are two vectors & is the angle between them then a b a b sin n , where n is the unit

vector perpendicular to both a & b such that a , b & n forms a right handed screw system.

(ii) Geometrically a b = area of the parallelogram whose two adjacent sides are represented by a & b .

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(iii) î î ĵ ĵ k̂ k̂ 0 ; î ĵ k̂, ĵ k̂ î, k̂ î ĵ

iˆ ˆj kˆ

(iv) If a = a1 î +a2 ĵ + a3 k̂ & b = b1 î + b2 ĵ + b3 k̂ then a b a1 a 2 a3

b1 b2 b3

(v) a x b b x a (not commutative)

(vi) (m a ) b

=a m b ( ) = m (a b) (associative) where m is a scalar..

(vii) a (b c ) (a b) (a c ) (distributive)

(viii) a b o a and b are parallel (collinear) ( a 0 , b 0) i.e. a K b , where K is a scalar..

a b

(ix) Unit vector perpendicular to the plane of a & b is nˆ

a b

a xb

If is the angle between a & b then sin

ab

If a , b & c are the pv’s of 3 points A, B & C then the vector area of triangle ABC =

1

a b b c c a . The points A, B & C are collinear if a b b c c a 0

2

1

Area of any quadrilateral whose diagonal vectors are d 1 & d 2 is given by d1 x d 2

2

2 2 2 2 a . a

a .b

Lagrange's Identity: for any two vectors a & b ;( a b ) a b ( a . b )

a .b b .b

8. Scalar Triple Product:

The scalar triple product of three vectors a , b & c is defined as: a b . c a b c sin cos where

is the angle between a & b & is the angle between a x b & c . It is also written as [ a b c ] and

spelled as box product.

of the parallelopiped whose three coterminous edges are

represented by a , b & c i.e. V [ a b c ]

In a scalar triple product the position of dot & cross can be interchanged i.e.

a . (b c ) (a b ). c OR [ a b c ] [ b c a ] [ c a b ]

a . ( b x c) a .( cx b) i. e. [ a b c ] [ a c b ]

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a a a

1 2 3

c1 c2 c3

In general, if a a1l a2 m a3n ; b b1l b2 m b3n & c c1l c2 m c3n

a1 a2 a3

then a b c b1 b2 b3 l mn ; where , m & n are non coplanar vectors.

c1 c2 c3

If a , b , c are coplanar [ a b c ] 0 .

[i j k] = 1 [ K a b c ] K[ a b c ] [(a b ) c d ] [ a c d ] [ b c d ]

1

Volume of tetrahedron OABC with O as origin & A( a ), B( b ) and C( c ) be the vertices = [a b c ]

6

The positon vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron if the pv’s of its vertices are a , b , c & d are given

1

by [a b c d ].

4

9. Vector Triple Product: a x ( b x c ) = (a . c) b (a . b) c , (a x b) x c = (a . c ) b (b . c) a

(a b ) c a (b c ) , in general

If a, b , c & a' , b' , c' are two sets of non coplanar vectors such that a.a' = b.b' = c.c' = 1 then the

a xb

b x c

two systems are called Reciprocal System of vectors, where a = , b= c x a , c=

[a b c ] [a b c]

[a b c]

Given a finite set of vectors a , b , c ,...... then the vector r xa yb zc ........ is called a linear

combination of a , b , c ,...... for any x, y, z..... R. We have the following results:

(i) If a , b are non zero, noncollinear vectors then xa yb x' a y' b x x' ; y y'

(ii) FundamentalTheorem: Let a , b be non zero, non collinear vectors. Then any vector r coplanar

with a , b can be expressed uniquely as a linear combination of a , b

i.e. There exist some uniquely x, y R such that xa yb r .

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(iii) If a , b , c are nonzero, noncoplanar vectors then:

xa yb zc x ' a y ' b z ' c x x ' , y y ' , z z '

(iv) Fundamental Theorem In Space: Let a , b , c be nonzero, noncoplanar vectors in space. Then

any vector r , can be uniquly expressed as a linear combination of a , b , c i.e. There exist some

unique x,y R such that xa yb zc r .

(v) If x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are n non zero vectors, & k 1 , k 2 ,.....k n are n scalars & if the linear

combination k 1 x 1 k 2 x 2 ........ k n x n 0 k 1 0 , k 2 0 ..... k n 0 then we say that

vectors x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are LINEARLY INDEPENDENT VECTORS.

(vi) If x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are not LINEARLY INDEPENDENT then they are said to be LINEARLY DEPENDENT vectors.

i.e. if k 1 x 1 k 2 x 2 ........ k n x n 0 & if there exists at least one k r 0 then x 1 , x 2 , ...... x n are

said to be LINEARLY DEPENDENT.

Note 1: If k1 x1 k 2 x 2 k 3 x 3 .... k n x n o , for some kr 0, then

x1 , x 2 , x 3 , ...., x n form a linearly dependent set of vectors.

Two vectors a & b are linearly dependent a is parallel to b i.e. a b 0 linear dependence

of a & b . Conversely if a b o , then a and b are linearly independent.

If three vectors a, b , c are linearly dependent, then they are coplanar i.e. [ a , b, c ] 0 , conversely,,

if [ a, b, c ] 0 , then the vectors are linearly independent.

Three points A,B,C with position vectors a, b , c respectively are collinear, if & only if there exist

scalars x, y, z not all zero simultaneously such that; xa yb zc 0 , where x + y + z = 0.

Note: Test Of Coplanarity:

Four points A, B, C, D with position vectors a , b , c , d respectively are coplanar if and only if there

exist scalars x, y, z, w not all zero simultaneously such that xa +yb + zc + wd = 0

where, x + y + z + w = 0.

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THREE DIMENSION GEOMETRY

2. Distance formula : ( x1 x2 ) 2 ( y1 y 2 ) 2 ( z1 z2 ) 2 , AB = | OB – OA |

4. Section Formula : x = ,y= ,z=

mn mn mn

x1 x 2 y y2 z z2

Mid point : x , y 1 ,z 1

2 2 2

x1 x2 x3 y1 y 2 y3 z1 z2 z3

5. Centroid of a triangle : G , ,

3 3 3

6. Incentre of triangle ABC : , ,

abc abc abc

xi yi zi

7. Centroid of a tetrahedron : 4 , 4 , 4

8. Direction Cosines And Direction Ratios

(i) Direction cosines: Let be the angles which a directed

line makes with the positive directions of the axes of x, y and z

respectively, then cos , cos cos are called the direction cosines

of the line. The direction cosines are usually denoted by (, m, n).

Thus = cos , m = cos , n = cos .

(ii) If , m, n be the direction cosines of a line, then 2 + m2 + n2 = 1

(iii) Direction ratios: Let a, b, c be proportional to the direction cosines , m, n then a, b, c are

called the direction ratios.

If a, b, c, are the direction ratios of any line L then a î b ĵ ck̂ will be a vector parallel to the line L.

If , m, n are direction cosines of line L then î + m ĵ + n k̂ is a unit vector parallel to the line L.

(iv) If , m, n be the direction cosines and a, b, c be the direction ratios of a vector, then

a b c

,m ,n

2 2 2 2 2 2

a b c a b c a b2 c 2

2

a b c

or = 2 2 2 ,m= 2 2 2 ,n=

a b c a b c a b2 c 2

2

(v) If OP = r, the direction cosines of OP are , m, n then the coordinates of P are (r, mr, nr).

If direction cosines of the line AB are , m,n, |AB| = r, and the coordinates of A is (x1, y1, z1)

then the coordinates of B is given as (x1 + r, y1 + rm, z 1 + rn)

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(vi) If the coordinates P and Q are (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) then the direction ratios of line PQ

x 2 x1

are, a = x2 x1, b = y2 y1 & c = z 2 z1 and the direction cosines of line PQ are = ,

| PQ |

y 2 y1 z 2 z1

m= and n =

| PQ | | PQ |

Direction cosines of xaxis, y -axis and z-axis are (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) and (0, 0, 1) respectively

a1a 2 b1b 2 c 1c 2

cos = .

a12 b12 c 12 a 22 b 22 c 22

a1 b c1

The line will be perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0, parallel if = 1 =

a2 b2 c2

If P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2, z2) then the projection of PQ on a line having direction cosines , m, n is

A PLANE

If line joining any two points on a surface lies completely on it then the surface is called a plane.

11. Equation Of A Plane : General form: ax + by + cz + d = 0, where a, b, c are not all zero,

a, b, c, d R.

(ii) Plane through the point (x1, y1, z1) : a (x x1) + b( y y1) + c (z z1) = 0

x y z

(iii) Intercept Form: 1

a b c

(iv) Vector form: ( r a ). n = 0 or r . n = a . n

(a) plane parallel to the xaxis is by + cz + d = 0.

(b) planes parallel to yand zaxis are ax + cz +d = 0 and ax + by + d = 0 respectively.

ax by cz d

in normal form is + + =

2 2 2

a b c 2

a b c 2 2 2

a b c 2 2

a b 2 c2

2

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(viii) Any plane parallel to the given plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is ax + by + cz + = 0.

| d1 d2 |

Distance between ax + by + cz + d1 = 0 and ax + by + cz + d2 = 0 is =

a2 b2 c 2

(ix) Equation of a plane passing through a given point & parallel to the given vectors:

r = a + b + c (parametric form) where & are scalars.

or r . ( b c) = a . ( b c) (non parametric form)

(x) A plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 divides the line segment joining (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2). in the

ratio

ax2 by2 cz2 d

(xi) Coplanarity of four points : The points A(x1 y1 z1), B(x2 y2 z2) C(x3 y3 z3) and D(x4 y4 z4) are

x 2 x1 y 2 y 1 z 2 z1

x 3 x 1 y 3 y 1 z 3 z1

coplaner then =0

x 4 x 1 y 4 y 1 z 4 z1

(i) Distance of the point (x, y, z) from the plane ax + by + cz+ d = 0 is given by .

a 2 b 2 c2

| a .n d |

(ii) Length of the perpendicular from a point ( a ) to plane r . n = d is given by p = .

|n|

(iii) Foot (x , y , z ) of perpendicular drawn from the point (x 1 , y 1 , z 1 ) to the plane

ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by =–

a b c a2 b2 c 2

(iv) To find image of a point w.r.t. a plane:

Let P (x1, y1, z1) is a given point and ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given plane Let (x, y, z) is the

image point. then =–2

a b c a2 b2 c 2

(v) The distance between two parallel planes ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ax + by + cz + d’ = 0 is

| d d' |

given by

a b2 c 2

2

aa'bb'cc'

cos =

a b c2

2 2

a '2 b '2 c '2

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a b c

Planes are perpendicular if aa + bb + cc = 0 and planes are parallel if = =

a' b' c'

n1 . n 2

The angle between the planes r . n1 = d1 and r . n 2 = d2 is given by, cos =

| n1 | . | n 2 |

Planes are perpendicular if n1 . n 2 = 0 & planes are parallel if n1 = n 2 , is a scalar

(i) The equations of the planes bisecting the angle between two given planes

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are

=±

a12 b12 c12 a 22 b22 c22

(ii) Equation of bisector of the angle containing origin: First make both the constant terms

p o s i t i v e .

Then the positive sign in = ± a 2 x b2 y c2 z d 2 gives the bisector of the

a12 b12 c12 a 22 b22 c22

angle which contains the origin.

(iii) Bisector of acute/obtuse angle: First make both the constant terms positive. Then

a 1a 2 + b 1b 2 + c 1c 2 > 0 origin lies on obtuse angle

a 1a 2 + b 1b 2 + c 1c 2 < 0 origin lies in acute angle

(i) Any plane through the intersection of a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 &a2x + b2y + c 2z + d2 = 0 is

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 + (a2x + b2y + c2z + d2) = 0

(ii) The equation of plane passing through the intersection of the planes r . n1 = d 1 &

r . n 2 = d2 is r . (n1 + n 2 ) = d1 d2 where is arbitrary scalar

16. Area of a triangle:

Let A (x1, y1, z1), B (x2, y2, z2), C (x3, y3, z3) be the vertices of a triangle, then = (2x 2y 2z )

y1 z1 1 z1 x1 1 x1 y1 1

1 1

where x = y2 z2 1 , y = z2 x 2 1 and z = x 2 y2 1

2 2

y3 z3 1 z3 x3 1 x3 y3 1

1

Vector Method From two vector AB and AC . Then area is given by | AB x AC |

2

17. Volume Of A Tetrahedron: Volume of a tetrahedron with vertices A (x1, y1, z1), B( x2, y2, z2), C

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x1 y1 z1 1

x y2 z2 1

1 2

(x3, y3, z3) and D (x4, y4, z4) is given by V =

6 x3 y3 z3 1

x4 y4 z4 1

A LINE

18. Equation Of A Line

(i) A straight line is intersection of two planes.

it is reprsented by two planes a1x + b1y + c 1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + +c 2z + d2 =0.

x x1 y y1 z z1

(ii) Symmetric form : = = = r..

a b c

(iii) Vector equation: r = a + b

(vi) Reduction of cartesion form of equation of a line to vector form & vice versa

x x1 y y1 z z1 = (x + y + z ) + (a + b + c ).

= = r 1 î 1 ĵ 1 k̂ î ĵ k̂

a b c

x x2 y y2 z z2

Let L = = is a given line

a b c

Let (x, y, z) is the image of the point P (x1, y1, z1) with respect to the line L. Then

x1 x y1 y z1 z

x2 y2 z2

(i) a (x1 – x) + b (y1 – y) + c (z1 – z) = 0, (ii) 2 = 2 = 2 =

a b c

x = 2a + 2x2 – x1, y = 2b – 2y2 – y1, z = 2c + 2z2 – z1

now put the values of x, y, zin (i) get and resubtitute the value of to to get (x y z).

x x1 y y1 z z1

(i) If is the angle between line = = and the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0,

m n

a bm c n

then sin = .

(a2 b2 c 2 ) 2 m2 n2

b.n

(ii) Vector form: If is the angle between a line r = ( a + b ) and r . n = d then sin = .

| b | | n |

m n

(iii) Condition for perpendicularity = = , b xn = 0

a b c

(iv) Condition for parallel a + bm + cn = 0 b.n = 0

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21. Condition For A Line To Lie In A Plane

x x1 y y1 z z1

(i) Cartesian form: Line = = would lie in a plane

m n

ax + by + cz + d = 0, if ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 & a + bm + cn = 0.

(ii) Vector form: Line r = a + b would lie in the plane r . n = d if b.n = 0 &a.n = d

22. Skew Lines:

(i) The straight lines which are not parallel and noncoplanar i.e. nonintersecting are called

skew lines. If = m n 0, then lines are skew..

' m' n'

= = and

m n ' m' n'

S.D. =

2

(mn'm' n)

' ' '

=

m n (mn mn) 2

(iii) Vector Form: For lines r = a 1 + b1 and r = a 2 + b 2 to be skew ( b1 x b 2 ). ( a 2 a1 ) 0

(a 2 a1 ) b

(iv) Shortest distance between lines r = a 1 + b & r = a 2 + b is d= .

|b|

23. Sphere

General equation of a sphere is x2 + y2 + z2 + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz + d = 0. (u, – v, w) is the centre

1. SET

A set is a collection of well defined objects which are distinct from each other. Set are generally denoted

by capital letters A, B, C, ........ etc. and the elements of the set by a, b, c ....... etc.

2. Methods to write a set :

(i) Roster Method : In this method a set is described by listing elements, separated by commas and

enclose then by curly brackets.

(ii) Set builder from : In this we write down a property or rule which gives us all the element of the set.

A = {x " P(x)} where P(x) is the property by which x A.

3. Types of sets:

(i) Null set or empty set : A set having no element in it is called an empty set or a null set or void set, it

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is denoted by or { }

(ii) Singleton : A set consisting of a single element is called a singleton set.

(iii) Finite set : A set which has only finite number of elements is called a finite set.

(iv) Infinite set : A set which has an infinite number of elements is called an infinite set.

(v) Equal sets : Two sets A and B are said to be equal if every element of A is member of B, and every

element of B is a member of A.

(vi) Equivalent sets : Two finite sets A and B are equivalent if their number of elements are same

i.e. n(A) = n(B)

(vii) Subset : Let A and B be two sets if every element of A is an element B, then A is called a subset of

B if A is a subset of B. We write A B

(viii) Proper subset : If A is a subset of B s.t. A B then A is a proper subset of B. and we write A B

(ix) Universal set : A set consisting of all possible elements which occur in the discussion is called a

universal set and is denoted by U

(x) Power set : Let A be any set. The set of all subsets of A is called power set of A and is denoted by

P(A)

4. Some Operation on sets :

(i) Union of two sets : A B = {x : x A or x B}

(ii) Intersection of two sets : A B = {x : x A and x B}

(iii) Difference of two sets : A – B = {x : x A and x B}

(iv) Complement of a set : A' = {x : x A but x U} = U – A

(v) De-morgan laws : (A B)' = A' B' ; (A B)' = A' B'

(vi) Distributive laws : A (B C) = (A B) (A C) ; A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

(vii) Commutative laws : (A B) = B A ; A B = B A

(viii) Associative laws : (A B) C = A (B C) ; (A B) C = A (B C)

(ix) A = ; A U = A A =A;AU=U

(x) A B A ; A B B (xi) A A B ; B A B (xii) A B A B = A

(xiii) A B A B = B

5. Disjoint sets :

If A B = , then A, B are disjoint

6. Symmetric difference of sets :

A B = (A – B) (B – A) (A')' = A A B B' A'

7. Venn diagrame

Clearly (A – B) (B – A) (A B) = A B

8. Some important results on number of elements in sets :

If A, B and C are finite sets, and U be the finite universal set, then

(i) n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A B)

(ii) n(A B) = n(A) + n(B) A, B are disjoint non-void sets.

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(iii) n(A – B) = n(A) – n(A B) i.e. n(A – B) + n(A B) = n(A)

(iv) n(A B C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A B) – n(B C) – n(A C) + n(A B C)

(v) Number of elements in exactly two of the sets A, B, C

= n(A B) + n(B C) + n(C A) – 3n(A B C)

(vi) Number of elements in exactly one of the sets A, B, C

= n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – 2n(A B) – 2n(A B) – 2n(B C) – 2n(A C) + 3n(A B

C)

RELATION

Introduction :

1. Cartesian Product : The set of all possible ordered pairs (a, b), where a A and b B i.e. {(a, b) ;

a A and b B} is called the cartesian product of A to B and is denoted by A × B,

usually A × B B × A.

Relation : Let A and B be two sets. Then a relation R from A to B is a subset of A × B. Thus, R is a relation

from A to B R A × B.

Total number of relations : Let A and B be two non-empty finite sets consisting of m and n elements

respectively. Then A × B consists of mn ordered pairs. So, total number of subsets of A × B is 2mn.

Domain and Range of a relation : Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B. Then the set of all first

components of coordinates of the ordered pairs belonging to R is called to domain of R, while the set of all

second components of coordinates of the ordered pairs in R is called the range of R.

Thus, Dom (R) = {a : (a, b) R} and, Range (R) = {b : (a, b) R

It is evident from the definition that the domain of a relation from A to B is a subset of A and its range is a

subset of B.

Inverse relation : Let A, B be two sets and let R be a relation from a set A to a set B. Then the inverse

of R, denoted by R–1, is a relation from B to A and is defined by R–1 = {(b, a) : (a, b) R}

2. Types of relations :

Void relation : Let A be a set. Then A × A and so it is a relation on A. This relation is called the void or

empty relation on A.

Universal relation : Let A be a set. Then A × A A × A and so it is a relation on A. This relation is called

the universal relation on A.

Identity relation : Let A be a set. Then the relation IA = {(a, a) : a A on A is called the identity relation

on A.

Reflexive relation : A relation R on a set A is said to be reflexive if every element of A is related to itself.

Thus, R on a set A is not reflexive if there exists an element a A such that (a, a) R.

Transitive relation : Let A be any set. A relation R on A is said to be a transitive relation iff (a, b) R

and (b, c) R (a, c) R for all a, b, c, A i.e. a R b and b R c a R c for all a, b, c A

Antisymmetric relation : Let A be any set. A relation R on set A is said to be an antisymmetric relation

iff (a, b) R and (b, a) R a = b all a, b A

Equivalence relation : A relation R on a set A is said to be an equivalence relation of A iff

(i) it is reflexive i.e. (a, a) R for all a A

(ii) it is symmetric i.e. (a, b) R (b, a) R for all a, b, A

(iii) it is transitive i.e. (a, b) R and (b, c) R (a, c) R for all a, b, A

Partial order relation :

A relation R on set A is said to be an partial order relation on A if

(i) R is reflexive i.e. (a, a) R, a A

(ii) R is antisymmetric i.e. (a, b) R and (b, a) R only possible when a = b a, b A

(iii) R is transitive i.e. (a, b) R and (b, c) R (a, c) R a, b, c R

STATISTICS

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MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY :

It is that single value which may be taken as the most suitable representative of the data. This single

value is known as the average. Averages are generally, the central part of the distribution and therefore,

they are also called the measures of Central Tendency.

It can be divided into two groups :

(a) MATHEMATICAL AVERAGE :

I. Arithmetic mean or mean

II. Geometric mean

III. Harmonic mean

(b) POSITIONAL AVERAGE :

I. Median

II. Mode or positional average

ARITHMETIC MEAN :

Individual observation or unclassified data :

If x1, x2 , ......, xn be n observations, then their arithmetic mean is given by

n

x x 2 .... x n

x i

x 1 or x i 1

n n

Arithmetic mean of discrete frequency distribution :

Let x1 , x2 , ...., xn be n observation and let f1, f2 , ......, fn be their corresponding frequencies, then their

n

f1x1 f2 x 2 .... fn x n

fx

i 1

i i

mean x or x

f1 f2 .... fn n

f

i1

i

If the values of x or (and) f are large, the calculation of arithmetic mean by the previous formula used,

is quite tedious and time consuming. In such case we take the deviation from an arbitrary point A.

fi di

xA

fi

where A = Assumed mean

di = xi – A = deviation for each term

Sometimes during the application of shortcut method of finding the mean, the deviation di are divisible

by a common number h(say). In such case the arithmetic is reduced to a great extent taken by

xi A

ui = , i = 1, 2, ..., n

h

f u

mean x A h i i

fi

Weighted arithmetic mean : If w1 , w2 , w3 , ....., wn are the weight assigned to the value

x1, x2, x3, ..., xn respectively, then the weighted average is defined as -

w 1x1 w 2 w 2 .... w n x n

Weighted A.M. = w 1 w 2 ... w n

w

i1

i xi

x n

w

i 1

i

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Combined mean : If x1, x 2 , ....., x k are the mean of k series of sizes n1, n2, ...., nk respectively then

n1x1 n 2 x 2 ..... nk x k

the mean x of the composite series is given by x

n1 n 2 ...... nk

Properties of Arithmetic Mean :

(i) If x is the mean of x1, x2, ....., xn . The mean of ax1 + b, ax2 + b, .... axn + b is ax + b

where a, b are any real numbers (a 0).

Merits of Arithmetic Mean :

(i) It is rigidly defined.

(ii) It is based on all the observation taken.

(iii) It is calculated with reasonable ease and repidity.

(iv) It is least affected by fluctations in sampling.

(v) It is based on each observation and so it is a better representative of the data.

(vi) It is relatively reliable

(vii) Mathematical analysis of mean is possible.

Demerits of Arithmetic Mean :

(i) It is severely affected by the extreme values.

(ii) It cannot be represented in the actual data since the mean does not coincide with any of the

observed value.

(iii) It cannot be computed unless all the items are known.

(iv) It cannot be calculated for qualitative data incapable of numerical measurements.

(v) It cannot be used in the study of ratios, rates etc.

MEDIAN :

Median is the middle most or the central values of the variate in a set of observations, when the

observations are arranged either in ascending or in descending order of their magnitudes. It divides

the arranged series in two equal parts.

Median of an individual series : Let n be the number of observations-

(i) arrange the data in ascending or descending order.

(ii) (a) If n is odd then -

th

n 1

Median (M) = Value of observation

2

(b) If n is even then

th th

n n

Median (M) = mean of and 1 observation

2 2

th th

n n

observation 1 observation

2 2

i.e. M=

2

Median of the discrete frequency distribution : Algorithm to find the median :

Step - I : Find the cumulative frequency (C.F.)

n

N

Step - II : Find

2

, where N = f

i 1

i

N

Step - III : See the cumulative frequency (C.F.) just greater than and determine the

2

corresponding value of the variable.

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(i) Prepare the cumulative frequency table

th

N

(ii) Find the median class i.e. the class in which the observation lies

2

(iii) The median value is given by the formulae

N

F

2

Median (M) = + ×h

f

N = total frequency = fi

I = lower limit of median class

f = frequency of the median class

F = cumulative frequency of the class preceding the median class

h = class interval (width) of the median class

MODE :

Mode is that value in a series which occurs most frequently. In a frequency distrinuction, mode is that

variate which has the maximum frequency.

Computation of Mode :

Mode for individual series :

In the case of individual series, the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of

the series.

Mode for grouped data (discreate frequency distribution series) :

In the case of discrete frequency distribution, mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the

maximum frequency.

Mode for continuous frequency distribution :

(i) First find the model class i.e. the class which has maximum frequency. The model class can

be determined either by inspecting or with the help of grouping data.

(ii) The mode is given by the formula

fm fm1

Mode = + 2f f h

m m 1 fm 1

where lower limit of the model class

h width of the model class

fm frequency of the model class

fm–1 frequency of the class preceding model class

fm+1 frequency of the class succeeding model class

Relationship between mean, mode and median

(i) In symmetrical distribution

Mean = Mode = Median

(ii) In skew (moderately symmetrical) distribution, mode = 3 median – 2 mean

MEASURES OF DISPERSION :

Dispersion is the measure of the variations. The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about

an average value is classed the dispersion of the data. The measures of dispersion commonly used

are:

(i) Range

(ii) Mean deviation

(iii) Standard Deviation

RANGE :

It is the difference between maximum and minimum values of variate i.e. range is = L – S where L is

the largest value and S is the smallest value.

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MEAN DEVIATION :

Mean deviation is defined as the arithmetic mean of the absolute deviations of all the values taken

about any central value.

then the mean deviation from an average A (median or AM) is given by

n

1 1

M.D. =

4 |x A| =

i1

i

4

|di|, where di = xi – A

II. Mean deviation of a discrete frequency distribution : If x1, x2 , ...., xn are n observation

with frequencies f1, f2, ...., fn , then mean deviation from an average A is given by -

1

Mean Deviation = fi |xi – A|

N

n

where N = f i

i 1

mean deviation of a continuous frequency distribution the procedure is same as for a discrete

frequency distribution. The only difference is that the here we have to obtain the midpoint of

the various classes and take the deviations of these mid point from the given central value

(median or mean).

The variance of a variate x is the arithmetic mean of the squares of all deviations of x from the

arithmetic mean of the observations and is denoted by var(x) or 2 .

The positive square root of the variance of a variate x is known as standard deviation

(i) Variance of Individual observations : If x1 , x2 , ......, xn are n values of a variable x, then by

definition

1

n

var (x) = ( x i x )2 = 2

.........(i)

4 i 1

n

1 2

or var (x) = x i x2 .........(ii)

4 i 1

If the value of variable x are large, the calculation of variance from the above formulae is quite tedious

and time consuming. In that case, we take deviation from an arbitrary point A (say) then

2

1

n 1 n

di di

2

var (x) =

n

n .........(iii)

i 1 i 1

1 n

frequencies f1, f2, ...., fn , then var(x) = fi ( x i x )2 .....(i)

N i 1

n

1 2

or var(x) = fx i i x2 .....(ii)

N

i 1

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If the value of x or f are large, we take the deviations of the values of variable x from an

arbitrary point A. (say)

di = xi – A ; i = 1, 2, ...., n

1 n 1 n

fi di – fi di

2 2

Var (x) =

N i 1 N

.....(iii)

i 1

n

where N = f

i 1

i

xi A di

then ui = = , i = 1, 2, ....., n

h h

n 2

n

1 2 1

fiui

then var (x) = h 2

N i 1

fiui

N .....(iv)

i 1

frequency distribution any of the formulae discussed in discrete frequency distribution can be

used.

COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION :

The mean deviation and standard deviation have the same units in which the data is given. Whenever

we want to compare the variability of two series with data expressed in different units, we require

measure of dispersion which is independent of the units. This measure is coefficient of variation

(C.V.)

S.D

C.V. = ×100 = × 100, x 0

Mean x

The series having greater C.V. is said to be more variable and less consistent than the other.

MATHEMATICAL REASONING

STATEMENTS :

In reasoning we communicate our ideas or thoughts with the help of sentences in a particular language. “A

sentence is called a mathematically acceptable statement if it either true or false but not both”. A state-

ment is assumed to be either true or false. A true statement is known as a valid statement and a false

statement is known as an invalid statement.

Note : A statement can not be both true and false at the same time.

llustration 1 :

consider the following sentences :

(i) Three plus two equals five.

(ii) The sum of two negative number is negative

(iii) Every square is a rectangle.

Each of these sentences is a true sentence,

therefore they are statements.

(i) Three plus four equals six.

(ii) All prime numbers are odd.

(iii) Every relation is a function.

Each of these sentences is a false sentence,

therefore they are statements.

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llustration 3:

Consider the following sentences :

(i) The sum of x and y is greater than 0.

(ii) The square of a number is even.

Here, we are not in a position to determine whether it is true of false unless we know what the numbers are.

Therefore these sentences are not a statement.

Note : (i) Imperative (expresses a request or command), exclamatory sentences (expresses some strong

feeling), Interrogative sentences (asks some questions) do not considered as a statement in math

emetical language.

(ii) Sentences involving variable time such as “today”, “tomorrow” or “yesterday” are not statements.

(i) Give me a glass of water.

(ii) Is very set finite ?

(iii) How beautiful ?

(iv) Tomorrow is Monday.

These all the sentences are not a statement.

TRUTH TABLE :

Truth table is that which gives truth values of compound statements.

It has a number of rows and columns. The number of rows depend upon the number of simple statements.

Note truth table for simple statement :

Note that for n statements, there are 2n rows,

(i) Truth table for single statement p:

Number of rows = 21 = 2

p

T

F

(ii) Truth table for two statements p and q :

Number of rows = 22 = 4

p q

T T

T F

F T

F F

Number of rows = 23 = 8

p q r

T T T

T T F

T F T

T F F

F T T

F T F

F F T

F F F

NEGATION OF A STATEMENT :

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The denial of a statement p is called its negation and is written as ~ p, and read as ‘not p’. Negation of any

statement p is formed by writting “It is not the case that ..........”

or “It is false that ............”

or inserting the word “not” in p.

For example consider the statement:

COMPOUND STATEMENTS :

If a statement is combination of two or more statements, then it is said to be a compound statement.

And each statement which form a compound statement are known as its sub-statements or component

statements.

BASIC CONNECTIVES :

In the compound statement, we have learnt that the words ‘or’ and ‘and’ connect two or more statements.

These are called connectives. When we use these compound statements, it is necessary to understand

the role of these words.

THE WORD “AND” :

Any two statements can be connected by the word “and” to form a compound statement.

The compound statement with word “and” is true if all its component statements are true. The compound

statement with word “and” is false if any or all of its component statements are false. The compound

statement “p and q” is denoted by “p ^ q”.

Truth table

p q p ^q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

Any two statements can be connected by the word “OR” to form a compound statement. For example,

consider the statement. The compound statement with word “or” is true if any or all of its component

statements are true. The compound statement with word “or” is false if all its component statement are

false.

The compound statement “p or q” is denoted by “p v q.”

Truth table

p q pvq

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

NEGATION OF “AND, OR” :

~(p or q) is ~ p and ~ q ~ (pvq) ~ p ^ ~ q

ALGEBRA OF STATEMENTS :

Statements satisfy many laws some of which are given below -

(1) Idempotent Laws : If p is any statement then

(i) p v p p (ii) p ^ p p

(i) p v (q v r) = (p v q) v r

(ii) p ^ (q ^ r) = (p ^ q) ^ r

(i) p v q = q v p (ii) p ^ q = q ^ p

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(4) Distributive Laws : If p,q,r are any three statements, then

(i) p v (q v r) = (p ^ r) v (p ^ r) (ii) p v (q ^ r) = (p v q) ^ (p v r)

(5) Identity Laws : If p is any statement-1, t is tautalogy and c is a couthdiction, then

(i) p v t = t (ii) p ^ t = p (iii) p v c = p (iv) p ^ c = c

(i) p v (~ p) = t (ii) p ^ (~ p) = c (iii) ~ t = c (iv) ~ c = t

(i) ~ (p v q) (~p) ^ (~ q) (ii) ~ (p ^ q) (~p) v (~ q)

If p and q are any two statement then the compound statement in the form “If p then q” is called a

conditional statement or an implication. The statement “If p then q” is denoted by p q or p q

(to be read as p implies q) In the implication “p q”, p is called the antecedent (or the hypothesis) and q

the consequent (or the conclusion)

For examples : Consider the statements -

(i) If x = 4, then x2 = 16

(ii) If ABCD is a parallelogram, then AB = CD

(iii) If Mumbai is in England, then 2 + 2 = 5

(iv) If Shikha works hard, then it will rain today.

Remark :

In the first two statements given above we observe that the hypothesis and conclusion have related subject

matters where as in the last two statements do not have related subject matters. In mathematical logic such

type of statements are also accepted as a conditional statements.

p q pq qp

T T T T

T F F T

F T T F

F F T T

(1) Negation : If p and q are two statements then negation of p q is ~ (p q) which is equivalent

to p^~q

(2) Contrapositive : If p and q are two statements, then the contrapositive of p q is (~q) (~p)

BICONDITIONAL STATEMENTS :

If p and q are any two statements then the compound statement in the form of “p if and only if q” is called

a biconditional statements and is written in symbolic form p q or p q

Ex. The following statements are biconditional statements

(i) A number is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of the digits forming the number is divisible by 3.

(ii) One is less than seven if and only if two is less than eight.

(iii) A triangle is equilateral if and only if it is equiangular.

Truth table for a biconditional statement :

p q pq qp

Rule : p q is true only when both p and q have the same value.

T T T T

T F F F

Negation of biconditional statement : F T F F

~ (p q) = (p ^ ~ q) v (~ p ^ q) F F T T

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TAUTOLOGY AND FALLACY (CONTRADICTIONS) :

(a) Tautology : This is a statement which is true for all truth values of its components.

Ex. Consider p v ~ p

Truth table

p ~ p p v ~p

T F T

F T T

we observe that last columns is always true Hence p v ~ p is a tautology.

(b) Fallacy (contradiction) : This is statement which is false for all truth values of its components.

Ex. Consider p ^ ~ p

p ~ p p ^ ~p

T F F

F T F

We observe that last columns is always false. Hence p ^ ~ p is a fallacy (contradiction).

DUALITY :

The compound statements s1 and s2 are said to be dauls of each other if one can be obtained from the other

by replacing ^ by v and by v by ^.The connectives ^ and v are also called duals of each other. Let

s(p, q) = p ^ q be a compound statement then s * (p, q) = p v q where s * (p, q) is the dual statement of

s(p,q).

An argument is an assertion that a given set of statements s1, s2, .... sn implies other statement. In other

word, an argument is an assertion that the statement s follows from statements S1, S2, ...., Sn are called

hypotheses (or premises) and the statement s is called the conclusion.

We denote the argument containing hypotheses

s1, s2,.... sn and conclusion s by

or

s1, s2 ..... sn /- s

or

(s1 ^ s2 ^ ..... ^ sn) s

or

s1

s2

s3

...

...

sn

____

so s

The symbol “/-” is read as turnstile.

VALID ARGUMENT :

An argument is said to be a valid argument if the conclusion s is true whenever all the hypotheses s1, s2,

.... sn are true or equivalently argument is valid when it is a tautology, otherwise the argument is called an

invalid argument.

Method of testing the validity of arguments :

Step I - Construct the truth table for conditional

statements s1 ^ s2 ^ s3 ^ .... ^ sn s.

Step II - Check the last column of truth table. If the last column contains T only, then the given argument

is valid. otherwise, it is an invalid argument.

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