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Section 1. The legislative renunciation of the filled, as provided by

power shall be vested in office for any length of law, by selection or
the Congress of the time shall not be election from the labor,
Philippines which shall considered as an peasant, urban poor,
consist of a Senate and a interruption in the indigenous cultural
House of continuity of his service communities, women,
Representatives, except for the full term of youth, and such other
to the extent reserved to which he was elected. sectors as may be
the people by the provided by law, except
provision on initiative Section 5. (1) The House the religious sector.
and referendum. of Representatives shall
be composed of not (3) Each legislative
Section 2. The Senate more than two hundred district shall comprise,
shall be composed of and fifty members, as far as practicable,
twenty-four Senators unless otherwise fixed contiguous, compact,
who shall be elected at by law, who shall be and adjacent territory.
large by the qualified elected from legislative Each city with a
voters of the districts apportioned population of at least
Philippines, as may be among the provinces, two hundred fifty
provided by law. cities, and the thousand, or each
Metropolitan Manila province, shall have at
Section 3. No person area in accordance with least one representative.
shall be a Senator unless the number of their
he is a natural-born respective inhabitants, (4) Within three years
citizen of the Philippines and on the basis of a following the return of
and, on the day of the uniform and progressive every census, the
election, is at least ratio, and those who, as Congress shall make a
thirty-five years of age, provided by law, shall be reapportionment of
able to read and write, a elected through a party- legislative districts
registered voter, and a list system of registered based on the standards
resident of the national, regional, and provided in this section.
Philippines for not less sectoral parties or
than two years organizations. Section 6. No person
immediately preceding shall be a Member of the
the day of the election. (2) The party-list House of
representatives shall Representatives unless
Section 4. The term of constitute twenty per he is a natural-born
office of the Senators centum of the total citizen of the Philippines
shall be six years and number of and, on the day of the
shall commence, unless representatives election, is at least
otherwise provided by including those under twenty-five years of age,
law, at noon on the the party list. For three able to read and write,
thirtieth day of June consecutive terms after and, except the party-
next following their the ratification of this list representatives, a
election. No Senator Constitution, one-half of registered voter in the
shall serve for more the seats allocated to district in which he shall
than two consecutive party-list be elected, and a
terms. Voluntary representatives shall be resident thereof for a
period of not less than Section 10. The salaries of Representatives may
one year immediately of Senators and hold any other office or
preceding the day of the Members of the House employment in the
election. of Representatives shall Government, or any
be determined by law. subdivision, agency, or
Section 7. The Members No increase in said instrumentality thereof,
of the House of compensation shall take including government-
Representatives shall be effect until after the owned or controlled
elected for a term of expiration of the full corporations or their
three years which shall term of all the Members subsidiaries, during his
begin, unless otherwise of the Senate and the term without forfeiting
provided by law, at noon House of his seat. Neither shall he
on the thirtieth day of Representatives be appointed to any
June next following approving such office which may have
their election. No increase. been created or the
Member of the House of emoluments thereof
Representatives shall Section 11. A Senator or increased during the
serve for more than Member of the House of term for which he was
three consecutive terms. Representatives shall, in elected.
Voluntary renunciation all offenses punishable
of the office for any by not more than six Section 14. No Senator
length of time shall not years imprisonment, be or Member of the House
be considered as an privileged from arrest of Representatives may
interruption in the while the Congress is in personally appear as
continuity of his service session. No Member counsel before any court
for the full term for shall be questioned nor of justice or before the
which he was elected. be held liable in any Electoral Tribunals, or
other place for any quasi-judicial and other
Section 8. Unless speech or debate in the administrative bodies.
otherwise provided by Congress or in any Neither shall he, directly
law, the regular election committee thereof. or indirectly, be
of the Senators and the interested financially in
Members of the House Section 12. All Members any contract with, or in
of Representatives shall of the Senate and the any franchise or special
be held on the second House of privilege granted by the
Monday of May. Representatives shall, Government, or any
upon assumption of subdivision, agency, or
Section 9. In case of office, make a full instrumentality thereof,
vacancy in the Senate or disclosure of their including any
in the House of financial and business government-owned or
Representatives, a interests. They shall controlled corporation,
special election may be notify the House or its subsidiary, during
called to fill such concerned of a potential his term of office. He
vacancy in the manner conflict of interest that shall not intervene in
prescribed by law, but may arise from the filing any matter before any
the Senator or Member of a proposed legislation office of the
of the House of of which they are Government for his
Representatives thus authors. pecuniary benefit or
elected shall serve only where he may be called
for the unexpired term. Section 13. No Senator upon to act on account
or Member of the House of his office.
Section 15. The expel a Member. A Members of the Senate
Congress shall convene penalty of suspension, or the House of
once every year on the when imposed, shall not Representatives, as the
fourth Monday of July exceed sixty days. case may be, who shall
for its regular session, be chosen on the basis
unless a different date is (4) Each House shall of proportional
fixed by law, and shall keep a Journal of its representation from the
continue to be in session proceedings, and from political parties and the
for such number of days time to time publish the parties or organizations
as it may determine same, excepting such registered under the
until thirty days before parts as may, in its party-list system
the opening of its next judgment, affect represented therein. The
regular session, national security; and senior Justice in the
exclusive of Saturdays, the yeas and nays on Electoral Tribunal shall
Sundays, and legal any question shall, at be its Chairman.
holidays. The President the request of one-fifth
may call a special of the Members present, Section 18. There shall
session at any time. be entered in the be a Commission on
Journal. Each House Appointments
Section 16. (1). The shall also keep a Record consisting of the
Senate shall elect its of its proceedings. President of the Senate,
President and the House as ex officio Chairman,
of Representatives, its (5) Neither House twelve Senators, and
Speaker, by a majority during the sessions of twelve Members of the
vote of all its respective the Congress shall, House of
Members. Each House without the consent of Representatives, elected
shall choose such other the other, adjourn for by each House on the
officers as it may deem more than three days, basis of proportional
necessary. nor to any other place representation from the
than that in which the political parties and
(2) A majority of each two Houses shall be parties or organizations
House shall constitute a sitting. registered under the
quorum to do business, party-list system
but a smaller number Section 17. The Senate represented therein. The
may adjourn from day and the House of chairman of the
to day and may compel Representatives shall Commission shall not
the attendance of absent each have an Electoral vote, except in case of a
Members in such Tribunal which shall be tie. The Commission
manner, and under such the sole judge of all shall act on all
penalties, as such House contests relating to the appointments submitted
may provide. election, returns, and to it within thirty
qualifications of their session days of the
(3) Each House may respective Members. Congress from their
determine the rules of Each Electoral Tribunal submission. The
its proceedings, punish shall be composed of Commission shall rule
its Members for nine Members, three of by a majority vote of all
disorderly behavior, whom shall be Justices the Members.
and, with the of the Supreme Court to
concurrence of two- be designated by the Section 19. The Electoral
thirds of all its Chief Justice, and the Tribunals and the
Members, suspend or remaining six shall be Commission on
Appointments shall be Section 22. The heads of prescribe, to exercise
constituted within thirty departments may, upon powers necessary and
days after the Senate their own initiative, with proper to carry out a
and the House of the consent of the declared national policy.
Representatives shall President, or upon the Unless sooner
have been organized request of either House, withdrawn by resolution
with the election of the as the rules of each of the Congress, such
President and the House shall provide, powers shall cease upon
Speaker. The appear before and be the next adjournment
Commission on heard by such House on thereof.
Appointments shall any matter pertaining to
meet only while the their departments. Section 24. All
Congress is in session, Written questions shall appropriation, revenue
at the call of its be submitted to the or tariff bills, bills
Chairman or a majority President of the Senate authorizing increase of
of all its Members, to or the Speaker of the the public debt, bills of
discharge such powers House of local application, and
and functions as are Representatives at least private bills, shall
herein conferred upon three days before their originate exclusively in
it. scheduled appearance. the House of
Interpellations shall not Representatives, but the
Section 20. The records be limited to written Senate may propose or
and books of accounts of questions, but may concur with
the Congress shall be cover matters related amendments.
preserved and be open thereto. When the
to the public in security of the State or Section 25. (1) The
accordance with law, the public interest so Congress may not
and such books shall be requires and the increase the
audited by the President so states in appropriations
Commission on Audit writing, the appearance recommended by the
which shall publish shall be conducted in President for the
annually an itemized list executive session. operation of the
of amounts paid to and Government as specified
expenses incurred for Section 23. (1) The in the budget. The form,
each Member. Congress, by a vote of content, and manner of
two-thirds of both preparation of the
Section 21. The Senate Houses in joint session budget shall be
or the House of assembled, voting prescribed by law.
Representatives or any separately, shall have
of its respective the sole power to (2) No provision or
committees may declare the existence of enactment shall be
conduct inquiries in aid a state of war. embraced in the general
of legislation in appropriations bill
accordance with its duly (2) In times of war or unless it relates
published rules of other national specifically to some
procedure. The rights of emergency, the particular appropriation
persons appearing in, or Congress may, by law, therein. Any such
affected by, such authorize the President, provision or enactment
inquiries shall be for a limited period and shall be limited in its
respected. subject to such operation to the
restrictions as it may
appropriation to which public purposes to be thereafter, and the yeas
it relates. supported by and nays entered in the
appropriate vouchers Journal.
(3) The procedure in and subject to such
approving guidelines as may be Section 27. (1) Every bill
appropriations for the prescribed by law. passed by the Congress
Congress shall strictly shall, before it becomes
follow the procedure for (7) If, by the end of any a law, be presented to
approving fiscal year, the Congress the President. If he
appropriations for other shall have failed to pass approves the same he
departments and the general shall sign it; otherwise,
agencies. appropriations bill for he shall veto it and
the ensuing fiscal year, return the same with his
(4) A special the general objections to the House
appropriations bill shall appropriations law for where it originated,
specify the purpose for the preceding fiscal year which shall enter the
which it is intended, and shall be deemed re- objections at large in its
shall be supported by enacted and shall Journal and proceed to
funds actually available remain in force and reconsider it. If, after
as certified by the effect until the general such reconsideration,
National Treasurer, or appropriations bill is two-thirds of all the
to be raised by a passed by the Congress. Members of such House
corresponding revenue shall agree to pass the
proposal therein. Section 26. (1) Every bill bill, it shall be sent,
passed by the Congress together with the
(5) No law shall be shall embrace only one objections, to the other
passed authorizing any subject which shall be House by which it shall
transfer of expressed in the title likewise be
appropriations; thereof. reconsidered, and if
however, the President, approved by two-thirds
the President of the (2) No bill passed by of all the Members of
Senate, the Speaker of either House shall that House, it shall
the House of become a law unless it become a law. In all
Representatives, the has passed three such cases, the votes of
Chief Justice of the readings on separate each House shall be
Supreme Court, and the days, and printed copies determined by yeas or
heads of Constitutional thereof in its final form nays, and the names of
Commissions may, by have been distributed to the Members voting for
law, be authorized to its Members three days or against shall be
augment any item in the before its passage, entered in its Journal.
general appropriations except when the The President shall
law for their respective President certifies to the communicate his veto of
offices from savings in necessity of its any bill to the House
other items of their immediate enactment to where it originated
respective meet a public calamity within thirty days after
appropriations. or emergency. Upon the the date of receipt
last reading of a bill, no thereof, otherwise, it
(6) Discretionary funds amendment thereto shall become a law as if
appropriated for shall be allowed, and the he had signed it.
particular officials shall vote thereon shall be
be disbursed only for taken immediately
(2) The President shall passed without the Section 30. No law shall
have the power to veto concurrence of a be passed increasing the
any particular item or majority of all the appellate jurisdiction of
items in an Members of the the Supreme Court as
appropriation, revenue, Congress. provided in this
or tariff bill, but the veto Constitution without its
shall not affect the item Section 29. (1) No advice and concurrence.
or items to which he money shall be paid out
does not object. of the Treasury except in Section 31. No law
pursuance of an granting a title of royalty
Section 28. (1) The rule appropriation made by or nobility shall be
of taxation shall be law. enacted.
uniform and equitable.
The Congress shall (2) No public money or Section 32. The
evolve a progressive property shall be Congress shall, as early
system of taxation. appropriated, applied, as possible, provide for
paid, or employed, a system of initiative
(2) The Congress may, directly or indirectly, for and referendum, and
by law, authorize the the use, benefit, or the exceptions
President to fix within support of any sect, therefrom, whereby the
specified limits, and church, denomination, people can directly
subject to such sectarian institution, or propose and enact laws
limitations and system of religion, or of or approve or reject any
restrictions as it may any priest, preacher, act or law or part
impose, tariff rates, minister, other religious thereof passed by the
import and export teacher, or dignitary as Congress or local
quotas, tonnage and such, except when such legislative body after the
wharfage dues, and priest, preacher, registration of a petition
other duties or imposts minister, or dignitary is therefor signed by at
within the framework of assigned to the armed least ten per centum of
the national forces, or to any penal the total number of
development program of institution, or registered voters, of
the Government. government orphanage which every legislative
or leprosarium. district must be
(3) Charitable represented by at least
institutions, churches (3) All money collected three per centum of the
and personages or on any tax levied for a registered voters
convents appurtenant special purpose shall be thereof.
thereto, mosques, non- treated as a special fund
profit cemeteries, and and paid out for such
all lands, buildings, and purpose only. If the
improvements, actually, purpose for which a
directly, and exclusively special fund was created
used for religious, has been fulfilled or
charitable, or abandoned, the balance,
educational purposes if any, shall be
shall be exempt from transferred to the
taxation. general funds of the
(4) No law granting any
tax exemption shall be