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HEAT TREATMENT

PRINCIPLE
Outline

1. Classification of Metals
2. Importance of Heat Treatment
3. Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) Equilibrium Diagram
4. Metallography
5. Heat Treatment Processes
6. Heat Treatment Failures
CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS

MATERIALS

Non-Metals Metals

Ferrous Non Ferrous

Pure Iron Cast Iron Steel


Non-Ferrous Metals

• Pure Metals
• Cu, Pb, Al, Mg, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, W
• Alloy*
• Brass – Cu & Zn
• Bronze – Cu & Sn
• Aluminum Alloys

*Alloy - a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give
greater strength or resistance to corrosion
Ferrous Metals: Cast Iron

• Normally contains 2 to 4% carbon and 1 to 3% silicon


• Low cost, wide range of engineering properties, with
relatively low impact and ductility
• Four different kinds of C.I. can be differentiated by the
distribution of carbon in their microstructures: white
cast iron, gray cast iron, malleable cast iron, and
ductile or nodular cast iron
• Since chemical composition overlaps, they cannot be
distinguished form each other by chemical analysis
Composition of Cast Iron (%)

Element Gray Iron White Iron Malleable Iron Ductile Iron

Carbon
2.5-4.0 1.8-3.6 2.0-2.6 3.0-4.0

Silicon 1.0-3.0 0.5-1.9 1.1-1.6 1.8-2.8

Manganese
0.25-1.0 0.25-0.8 0.2-1.0 0.1-1.0

Sulfur
0.02-0.25 0.06-0.20 0.04-0.18 0.03 max

Phosphorous
0.05-1.0 0.06-0.18 0.18 max 0.10 max

Magnesium 0.04
Forms of Carbon in Cast Iron
White Iron Gray Iron
• Carbon is in combined form as • Free carbon in the form of flake
cementite (Fe3C) or carbide. and rosette graphite
• Produced by high solidification • Produced by slower solidification
rate and low silicon content rate and high silicon content
(graphitizer)
• Fracture is “white”
• Fracture is “gray”
Forms of Carbon in Cast Iron

Malleable Iron Ductile Iron


• Free carbon in the form of • Free carbon in the form of regular
irregular nodules nodules
• Produced by annealing white iron • Produced by inoculating white cast
at 850-1000oC for 40-70 hrs. iron melt with small amount of
nickel-magnesium (2%), ferro-
silicon,or calcium silicide just prior to
pouring
Ferrous Metals: Steels

A STEEL is usually defined as an alloy of iron and


carbon with the carbon content between a few
hundreds of a percent up to about 2 wt%. Other
alloying elements can amount in total to about 5
wt% in low-alloy steels and higher in more highly
alloyed steels such as tool steels and stainless
steels.
– ASM Metals Handbook Volume 4, 1991.
Ferrous Metals: Steels

Steels can exhibit a wide variety of properties


depending on composition as well as the phases
and microconstituents present, which in turn
depend on the heat treatment.
– ASM Metals Handbook Volume 4, 1991.
Ferrous Metals: Steels

Classification of Steel
AISI-SAE Alloy Steel
Plain Carbon Steel
High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA)
Tool Steel
Stainless Steel
Plain Carbon Steel

• Carbon is the principal alloying element


• Limits: Mn < 1.65%, Cu or Si < 0.6 %
• Types :
• Low Carbon Steel : 0.08% - 0.25% C
• Medium Carbon Steel : 0.26% - 0.55% C
• High Carbon Steel: > 0.55% C
Designation Systems

• U.S.
– ASTM
– AISI
– SAE
• Germany
– DIN
• UK
– BS
• Japan
– JIS
AISI/SAE Alloy Steel
• Contain modest amount of alloying elements (1-4%)
• Usual alloying elements : Cr, Mo, Ni, Mn, Si
• AISI/ SAE Designation uses 4 or 5 Numerical Index
System
• First two digits – indicates alloying elements
• Last two or three digits – approximate carbon
content
AISI/SAE System
1XXX - Plain Carbon Steel
2XXX - Nickel Steel
3XXX - Nickel-Chromium Steel
4XXX - Molybdenum Steel
5XXX - Chromium Steel
6XXX - Chromium-Vanadium Steel
7XXX - Tungsten Chromium Steel
Tool Steels

• Important to the processing of all other steel


and engineering materials
• Represent a small, but extremely important
percentage of total steel production
• Selected when tool shape becomes complex
and requirements for hardenability,
toughness, wear resistance, hotworking, and
other requirements becomes severe
Classification of Tool Steels
• Water Hardening Tool Steel
– W1-W7
• Shock Resisting Tool Steel
– S1-S7
• Cold-work Tool Steel
– O1-O7 Oil Hardening type
– A2-A7 Air Hardening type
– D1-D7 High C, High Cr type
Classification of Tool Steels

• Hot-work tool steel


– H11-H43
• High Speed Steel
– T1- T15Tungsten type
– M1-M36 Molybdenum types
Classification of Tool Steels

• Mold Steels
– P1-P20
• Special Purpose Tool Steels
– L1-L7 Low Alloy types
– F1-F3 Carbon-Tungsten types
Chemical Composition

Grade C Cr Mo Ni V W Co
W1 0.85
S1 0.6 1.1 0.2 2
O1 0.93 0.6 0.1 0.6
A2 0.63 5.3 1.2 0.3
D2 1.6 12 0.6 0.2 0.5
D3 2 12
Chemical Composition

Grade C Cr Mo Ni V W Co
P20 0.4 2 0.20 0.1
H10 0.31 2.9 2.8 0.3
H13 0.4 5.2 1.3 1
H21 0.31 2.7 0.4 8.5
M2 0.9 4.1 5 1.9 6.4
T42 1.23 4.1 3.5 3.3 9.5 10
Stainless Steels

• Used for corrosion and heat resisting application


• Contains more than 12% Chromium
• Three types:
• Austenitic stainless steel
• Ferritic stainless steel
• Martensitic stainless steel
Austenitic Stainless Steel

• Non-magnetic
• Non-hardenable
• Ni + Cr :at least 23%
• Type 304 and 316
Ferritic Stainless Steel

• Cr : 14-27%
• Lower in carbon and higher in chromium
content compared to martensitic types
• Non-hardenable
• Magnetic
• Type 405, 430, 446
Martensitic Stainless Steel

• Cr: 11.5-18%
• Magnetic
• Hardenable
• Types 410, 420, 440
HEAT TREATMENT

is the
controlled heating and
cooling of metals
in order to
deliberately alter
their mechanical properties.
Importance of heat treatment

A simple hand tool like cold chisel must exhibit


certain properties:

– Strong to resist deformation

– Hard to resist wear

– Tough to resist fracture


Importance of heat treatment

To achieve these properties cold chisels are heat


treated. They are:

– Heated at 850o C

– Quenched or cooled in water

– Reheated or tempered at 400o C


Case 1: AISI 1050 Cold Chisel

• Heated at 850oC
• Slow cooled inside the furnace
• Property will be much too soft
Case 2: AISI 1050 Cold Chisel

• Heated at 850oC
• Quenched in water
• Not tempered
• Property will be glass-hard but very
brittle
Case 3: AISI 1050 Cold Chisel

• Heated at 850oC
• Quenched in water
• Reheated or tempered between 175oC
- 600oC
• Properties will range between hard-
and-brittle to soft-and-ductile
depending on tempering temperature
employed
AISI 1050 Cold Chisel

Case 1 2 3

Heating temp. 850oC 850oC 850oC

Cooling Slow Quenched in Quenched in


water water
Tempering - None 175oC -600oC
temp
Property Much too soft Glass-hard Hard-and-brittle
and very to soft-and-ductile
brittle
Video
Why is it possible to change the properties of
metal through heat treatment?

• The type, amount, and distribution of


microstructures in the metal affects its
properties.

• The microstructure of metal can be altered


through heat treatment.
Metallurgical Phenomena

• Iron is an allotropic element; it can exist in


more than one crystalline form:

Body Centered Cubic


(BCC) - Ferrite

Face Centered Cubic


(FCC) - Austenite
Metallurgical Phenomena

• Carbon atom is only 1/30th the size of iron atom.


It can fit on the interstices between iron atom.
Carbon solubility differs:

0.008%C at room
temperature in BCC

2% at 1130o C in
FCC
Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) Equilibrium Diagram
• A map showing the ranges of composition
and temperatures at which various
microstructures are present and the
boundaries at which changes in the
microstructure occurs

• Basis for the understanding of the heat


treatment of steels
Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

MIRDC-ITSDS
Steel Section of the Iron Carbon
Equilibrium Diagram

MIRDC-ITSDS
Metallography

• The scientific study of the constitution


and structure of metals and alloys as
revealed by microscopic examination
Microstructures

• Ferrite
– Basically pure
iron
– Soft and ductile
solid solution of
iron containing
0.008% C @ room
temp.
– BCC iron
Microstructures

• Cementite
– The hard, brittle,
interstitial
compound
formed between
iron and carbon
– Contains 6.67% C
– Represented by
the formula Fe3C.
Microstructures

• Pearlite
– Formed by
simultaneous
precipitation of
ferrite and cementite
from austenite
– Has lamellar
structure and
contains 0.8% C
Microstructures

• Austenite
– The important high
temperature
microstructure the
decomposition of which
on cooling forms the
room temperature
microstructure.
– Can dissolve up to 2%
C at 1130oC
– FCC iron
Transformation Temperature

 A1
 Lower Critical Temperature (LCT)
 Completion of austenite to pearlite
transformation during slow cooling

 A3
 Upper Critical Temperature (UCT)
for hypoeutectoid steel
 Austenite begins to transform to
ferrite during slow cooling

 Acm
 Upper Critical Temperature (UCT)
for hypereutectoid steel
 Austenite begins to transform to
cementite during slow cooling
Microstructures

0.008% C 0.4% C 0.83% C 1.20% C


If alloying elements are added to the iron-carbon
alloy (steel), the position of the A1, A3, and Acm
boundaries and the eutectoid composition are
changed.

(1) all important alloying elements decrease the


eutectoid carbon content,
(2) the austenite-stabilizing elements manganese
and nickel decrease A1, and
(3) the ferrite-stabilizing elements chromium, silicon,
molybdenum, and tungsten increase A1.
Microstructures

• Martensite
– Saturated solution of
carbon in Body
Centered Tetragonal
(BCT) iron formed by
quenching austenite
from the austenitizing
temperature
– Very hard and very
brittle microstructure
Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT)
Diagram
Critical Cooling Rate (Rapid Quenching)

 Cooling rates A and B indicate two


rapid cooling processes.
 Curve A will cause a higher
distortion and a higher internal
stresses than the cooling rate B.
The end product of both cooling
rates will be martensite.
 Cooling rate B is the Critical Cooling
Rate, which is represented by a
cooling curve that is tangent to the
nose of the TTT diagram. Critical
Cooling Rate is defined as the
lowest cooling rate which produces
100% Martensite.
Interrupted Quenching

• Rapid quenching process may


be interrupted (horizontal line
represents the interruption) by
immersing the material in a
molten salt bath and soaking at
a constant temperature followed
by another cooling process that
passes through Bainite region of
TTT diagram.
• The end product is Bainite,
which is not as hard as
Martensite. As a result of cooling
rate D; more dimensional
stability, less distortion and less
internal stresses are created.
Slow cooling

• Cooling curve C represents a


slow cooling process, such as
furnace cooling.
• An example for this type of
cooling is annealing process
where all the Austenite is
allowed to transform to Pearlite
as a result of slow cooling.
Slower Quenching Rate

• Cooling curve E indicates a


cooling rate which is not high
enough to produce 100%
martensite.
• 50% Austenite is transformed first
to Pearlite (curve E is tangent to
50% curve).
• Curve E leaves the transformation
diagram at the Martensite zone;
the remaining 50 % of the
Austenite will be transformed to
Martensite.
TTT Curve and Microstructures
HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES
HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES
1. Softening Heat treatment

2. Hardening Heat treatment


Softening Heat Treatment

Annealing

Normalizing

Spheroidizing

Stress Relieving

Tempering
Hardening Heat Treatment

1. Direct/Through Hardening
 Conventional
 Vacuum Furnace
2. Surface Hardening
 Carburizing
 Flame Hardening
 Induction Hardening
3 main steps

• the heating of the metal to the predetermined


heat treating temperature

• the soaking of the metal at that temperature

• the cooling of the metal at some


predetermined rate
ANNEALING

Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature


range followed by cooling at a suitable rate. It is
employed to:
– soften steel for machining,cutting, etc.
– improve ductility, toughness, and other
characteristics
– refine crystal structure
– produce grain orientation
– relieve stresses
Annealing Process

1. Pack the workpieces in stainless box with


charcoal
2. Cover the box and put it inside the chamber
furnace at room temperature
3. Heat to the required annealing temperature
4. Soak for at least 2 hours or 1 hour per inch cross-
section
5. Cooling:
a. for plain carbon and alloy steel, cool slowly inside the
furnace
b. for austenitic stainless steel and Hadfield
manganese steel, quench in water
Annealing Cycle
for Non-Austenitic Steels

T Annealing Temperature
e
m 2 hrs
p
Furnace
e
Cooling
r
a
t
u
r
e
Time
Annealing Cycle
for Austenitic Steels

T Annealing Temperature
e
m 2 hrs
p
e Water
r Quenching
a
t
u
r
e
Time
NORMALIZING

• Heating the steel to some temperature,


usually 50oC above the upper critical
temperature, and then cooling it in air to
room temperature.
• Main purpose is to refine the grain structure
to enhance response to hardening heat
treatment
Normalizing Process

1. Tie the workpieces with stress-relieved wire.


2. Pack the workpieces in stainless box with
charcoal
3. Cover the box and put it inside the chamber
furnace at room temperature
4. Heat to the required austenitizing
temperature
5. Soak for at least 2 hours or 1 hour per inch
cross-section
6. Cool the workpieces in still air
Normalizing Cycle

T Austenitizing Temperature
e
m
2 hrs
p
e Cooling in
r Still Air
a
t
u
r
e
Time
SPHEROIDIZING

• The process of heating and cooling of metal to


produce rounded or globular form of carbide.
• High carbon steels and tool steels are
spheroidized for the purpose of improving their
machinability.
• Low carbon steel are spheroidized to meet
certain strength requirements
Spheroidizing Methods

• Prolonged holding at a temperature just below


the LCT line (723 oC)
• Heating and cooling alternately between
temperatures that are just above and just
below the LCT line
• Heating to a temperature above the LCT line
and then either cooling very slowly in the
furnace or holding at a temperature just below
the LCT line
Spheroidizing Method 1

T Lower Critical Temperature Line (LCT)


e
m
4-8 hrs
p Furnace
e Cooling
r
a
t
u
r
e
Time
Spheroidizing Method 2

1 hr
T LCT
e
m
p Alternate heating and cooling Furnace
e Cooling
r
a
t
u
r
e
Time
Spheroidizing Method 3

2 hrs
T LCT
e
m
p 4 hrs
e Furnace
r Cooling
a
t
u
r
e
Time
Spheroidizing Process

1. Pack the workpieces in stainless box with


charcoal.
2. Cover the box and put inside the furnace at
room temperature
3. Heat to the selected spheroidizing
temperature and cycle
4. Cool slowly inside the furnace
STRESS RELIEVING

• Used to relieve stresses that remain


locked in a structure as a consequence of
a manufacturing sequence
Stress Relieving Process

1. Put the workpiece inside the furnace at room


temperature
2. Heat uniformly to the suitable temperature
below A1 transformation range (usually 600 to
650oC)
3. Hold at this temperature for a predetermined
length of time (usually 2 hours)
4. Cool uniformly to room temperature.
Stress Relieving Cycle

T
e 600 - 650 o C
m
p 2 hrs
e Furnace
r Cooling
a
t
u
r
e

Time
HARDENING

Four fundamental steps:

Preheating

Austenitizing

Quenching

Tempering
Heat treatment data guide

Material Annealing Austenitizing Quenching Obtainable


Temp.,oC Temp., oC Media Hardness,
HRC
1045 850 850 W,B 60-63

1050 850 850 W,B 60-63

4140 845 820-860 O, M 60-63


4340 830 820-860 O,M 60-63

O1 740-770 780-820 O, M 61-65

D2 830-860 1000-1050 O, M, A 60-64

H13 750-800 1020-1050 O, M, A 52-56


Preheating

• Reduces thermal stresses that could cause


cracking during heating
• Improves temperature uniformity during
subsequent heating to hardening temperature
• Reduces the time that the steel surface is
exposed to the higher hardening temperature
Preheating

• Preheat at 650oC for 1 hour per inch thickness of


workpiece if the metal will be austenitized at
900o C and below

• If the austenitizing temperature is above 900oC,


second stage preheating is required at 850oC for
0.5 hour per inch thickness of workpiece
Austenitizing

• Austenitize at the median of the recommended


hardening temperature for 1 hour per inch cross
section
• Example:
 AISI 4140 – recommended is 820oC to 860oC;
use 840oC
 AISI D2 - recommended is 1000oC to 1050oC;
use 1025oC
Quenching

• The most critical step in hardening

• Materials should be handled with care as the


strength of steel is very low at the austenitizing
temperature
Quenching Media
• Tap water
– Used for quenching plain carbon steel
– Gas bubbles are produced resulting to uneven
cooling
– Agitation is required
– Water temperature should not exceed 40oC
• Brine
– Used for quenching plain carbon steel
– 10% table salt by weight is dissolved in tap water
– Makes better contact with heated steel during
quenching than tap water
Quenching Media

• Mineral Oil
– Used for quenching low alloy steel and high alloy steel
– Has high flash point and fire point (177oC minimum)
– Efficient quenching temperature range: 32oC – 60oC
– Amount required without agitation:

Steel at oC 850 900 950 1000


Liters of oil/kg steel 12.5 15.0 17.5 20
Quenching Media
• Martempering Salt
– Used for quenching thin materials, low alloy steel, and
high alloy steel to prevent warping or cracking
– Uses proprietary salt melted in martempering salt bath
furnace between 160oC – 650oC
– 40-50% sodium nitrate and 50-60% sodium nitrite salt
mixture melts at 145oC and maybe used as quenching
media between 150oC – 500oC
• Air
– Used for quenching high alloy steel (D2, H13, 440)
– Compressed air or air blast from industrial fan
Hardening Cycle:
Austenitizing Temp <900 o C

T Austenitizing Temperature
e
m
p 1 hr/in.
650 oC
e thickness
r
a 1 hr/in.
t thickness
Quenching
u
r
e
Time
Hardening Cycle:
Austenitizing Temp > 900 o C

Austenitizing Temperature
T
1 hr/in.
e
850 o C thickness
m
p
650 oC 0.5 hr/in Quenching
e
r thickness
a 1 hr/in.
t thickness
u
r
e
Time
Tempering

• Purpose:
– Reduce stresses
– Increase toughness
– Reduce hardness
• Temper at the required tempering temperature
for 1 hour and then cool the material in still air.
• Use tempering diagram or table to determine
the appropriate temperature
Tempering Table (Temp. vs. HRC)

Material 200o 300o 400oC 500oC 525oC 550oC 600oC


C C

1050 52 47 41 35 22

4140 57 51 46 40 33

O1 62 57 50 43 36

D2 61 58 58 58 60 56 50

H13 52 52 54 56 54 50
Rules in Tempering

• Use a temperature that is as high as can be


tolerated in terms of loss in hardness
• Temper the steel at a temperature that is at
least as high as the maximum temperature to
which it will be subjected in service
• Never allow the quenched part to reach room
temperature before beginning the tempering
operation
• For tool steel, temper at least twice
Tempering Cycle:
Plain Carbon & Low Alloy Steel

T
e
m
p
e Tempering Temperature
r
a 1 hr.
t Cooling in
u still air
r
e

Time
Tempering Cycle:
Tool Steel & Martensitic Stainless Steel

T
e
m
p
e Tempering Temperature Tempering Temperature
r
a 1 hr Cooling in still 1 hr Cooling in
t air
still air
u
r
e

Time
Vacuum Heat Treatment
Case Hardening

• Carburizing

• Carbonitriding

• Nitriding

• Induction Hardening

• Flame Hardening
Pack Carburizing

• Applied for steel components with low carbon


content (usually betwee 0.10 – 0.20% C)
• Steels are packed in stainless steel box with
carburizing granules
• Carburizing granules serves as a source of
carbon.
• They contain 10-20% energizer which can
either be barium carbonate or sodium
carbonate
Pack Carburizing

• Treating temperature: 900 – 950 oC


• Carbon content of the surface is raised to 1.0 - 1.3%
• Soaking time : usually 2 hrs
• Case Depth (mm) = 0.635 (t)1/2 ; where t is in hours
• Pack carburizing is followed by quenching and
tempering
Pack Carburizing Reaction

BaCO3 BaO + CO2


CO2 + C 2CO
3Fe + 2CO Fe3C +CO2
CO2 + C 2CO
Pack Carburizing Cycle

T 900 – 950 o C
e
m
p 2 hrs
650 oC
e
r
a 1 hr
t
Quenching
u
r
e
Time
Induction Hardening

• Relies on induced electrical


currents within the material to
produce heat
• Basic components of an induction
heating system are: AC power
supply, induction coil, and
workpiece
• The power supply sends alternating
current through the coil, generating
a magnetic field
• The magnetic field induces eddy
currents in the workpiece,
generating precise amounts of
localized heat without any physical
contact between the coil and the
workpiece.
Induction Hardening

• Depth of hardening is dictated by heating times and operating


frequency

Frequency, kHz 3 10 450


Hardness depth, mm. 1.52 1.02 0.51

• Low frequencies are effective for thicker materials requiring deep heat
penetration
• High frequencies are effective for smaller parts or shallow penetration
• Shallower depths requires higher frequencies which increases the
original equipment and operating cost
Flame Hardening

• Flame hardening is an oxy-acetylene


heating process used to produce a
hard case on the surface of a wide
range of mechanical components
• The flame supplies concentrated heat
on the surface of the workpiece
• When the surface reaches the
austenizing temperature, the part is
immediately quenched to produce a
locally hardened surface.
• Hardened layer may range from a very
thin skin to 6 mm.
Flame Types

• The carburizing flame or reducing


flame has excess acetylene, the inner
cone has a feathery edge extending
beyond it.
• The neutral flame has a one-to-one
ratio of acetylene and oxygen. It is
generally preferred for flame
hardening. The neutral flame has a
clear, well-defined, or luminous cone
indicating that combustion is complete.
• The oxidizing flame, which has an
excess of oxygen, has a shorter
envelope and a small pointed white
cone. This flame tends to oxidize the
metal.
Heat Treatment Failures

• Low Hardness

• Cracks and Distortion


Low Hardness

• Wrong Identification of materials


• Uneven furnace temperature
• Low hardening temperature
• Insufficient holding/soaking time
• Improper quenching technique
• Decarburized layer due to rolling or improper
packing
• Too much fines or dust in packing medium
Cracks and Distortion

• Improper design (e.g. sharp corners, radical


changes in section, clustered openings and
holes, etc.)
• Wrong identification of materials
• Excessive soaking time
• Excessive temperature
• Contaminated quenchants
• Improper preparation for hardening (e.g.
stress relieving, preheating, etc.)
Cracks and Distortion

• Materials defects (e.g. blow holes, sand


inclusion, existing micro cracks, lamination,
etc.)
• No tempering after quenching
• Insufficient tempering with respect to high
alloy steel
• Machining marks or rough surfaces
• Stamp marks on section of parts subject to
stress
Thank you.