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Mechanics-II

a) Point Particle Circular Motion


̂
𝐝𝐧
1. For uniform circular motion, effective force 𝐅⃗ = 𝐅⃗𝐜 = Centripetal force = 𝐦𝐯 𝐝𝐭
̂
𝐝𝐧 𝐝𝐯
2. For non uniform circular motion, effective force 𝐅⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐅𝐜 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐅𝐭 Or 𝐅⃗ = 𝐦𝐯 𝐝𝐭 + 𝐦 𝐧
̂
𝐝𝐭
̂
𝐝𝐧
3. Acceleration for uniform circular motion 𝐚⃗⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐚𝐜 = 𝐯 𝐝𝐭
̂
𝐝𝐧 𝐝𝐯
4. Acceleration for non uniform circular motion 𝐚̅ = 𝐚̅𝐜 + 𝐚̅𝐭 = 𝐯 ̂
+𝐧
𝐝𝐭 𝐝𝐭
𝐫⃗×𝐬⃗
5. Angular displacement ⃗𝛉⃗ = 𝐫 𝟐 ; 𝛉 = |𝛉 ⃗⃗| = 𝐬. this angular displacement will be positive for rotation in anti
𝐫
clockwise sense and it will be negative for rotation in clockwise sense.
𝐫⃗×𝐯⃗⃗ 𝐯
6. Angular velocity 𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝟐 ; 𝛚 = |𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗| = .
𝐫 𝐫
𝐫⃗×𝐚
⃗⃗⃗⃗𝐭 𝐚
7. Angular acceleration 𝛂
⃗⃗ = ; ⃗⃗| = 𝐭 .
𝛂 = |𝛂
𝐫𝟐 𝐫
8. Relation between linear and angular parameters: 𝐬 = 𝐫𝛉, 𝐬⃗ = ⃗𝛉⃗ × 𝐫⃗, 𝐯 = 𝐫𝛚, 𝐯⃗⃗ = 𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗
𝐚𝐭 = Tangential acceleration = 𝛂𝐫, ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝐚𝐭 = 𝛂 ⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗
9. Moment of Inertia for point particle circular motion: 𝐈 = 𝐦𝐫 𝟐
10. Equations for uniform circular motion: 𝛂 = 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭 (𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐮𝐧𝐢𝐟𝐨𝐫𝐦 𝐚𝐧𝐠𝐮𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐚𝐜𝐜𝐞𝐥𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧),
𝟏
𝛚𝟐 = 𝛚𝟏 ± 𝛂 𝐭, 𝛉 = 𝛚𝟏 𝐭 ± 𝛂 𝐭 𝟐 , 𝛚𝟐𝟐 = 𝛚𝟐𝟏 ± 𝟐𝛂𝛉 (𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐧 𝐢𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐚𝐥 𝐚𝐧𝐠𝐮𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐝𝐢𝐬𝐩𝐥𝐞𝐜𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐳𝐞𝐫𝐨)
𝟐
11. Angular momentum: 𝐋 ⃗ = 𝐫̅ × 𝐩
̅ = 𝐫̅ × (𝐦𝐯̅) = 𝐦(𝐫̅ × 𝐯̅)
= 𝐦[𝐫̅ × (𝛚 ̅ × 𝐫̅ )] = 𝐦[(𝐫. ̅ 𝐫̅ )𝛚 ̅ )𝐫̅ ] = 𝐦𝐫 𝟐 ⃗𝛚
̅ − (𝐫̅ . 𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ (Since 𝒓
⃗⃗⃗ = 𝐈𝛚 ⃗⃗. 𝝎
⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝟎)
12. Torque: 𝛕 ⃗
⃗⃗ = 𝐫⃗ × 𝐅 = 𝐫⃗ × (𝐦𝐚⃗⃗⃗⃗)
𝐭 = 𝐦(𝐫 𝐚𝐭 = 𝐦(𝐫⃗ × (𝛂
⃗ × ⃗⃗⃗⃗) ⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗)) Finally, 𝛕 ⃗⃗ = (𝐦𝐫 )𝛂𝟐 ̅ =𝐈𝛂 ⃗⃗.

𝐝𝐋
13. Relation between angular momentum and torque: 𝛕 ⃗⃗ =
𝐝𝐭
14. Conservation of angular momentum: For 𝛕 ⃗ =𝐈𝛚
⃗⃗ = 𝟎, 𝐋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ = Const.
𝟏
15. Rotational Kinetic energy: 𝐅𝐤 = 𝟐 𝐈𝛚𝟐
16. Moment of Couple: 𝐆 ⃗⃗ = 𝛕
⃗⃗ + 𝛕 ⃗⃗| = 𝐆 = 𝐅. 𝒍 = Force  Normal Separation.
⃗⃗, |𝐆
̂
𝐝𝐧 𝐦𝐯 𝟐
17. Expression of Centrifugal force: 𝐅⃗𝐜′ = −𝐅⃗𝐜 = −𝐦𝐯 𝐝𝐭 and |𝐅⃗𝐜′ | = 𝐅𝐂′ = |𝐅⃗𝐜 | = 𝐅𝐜 = 𝐫
= 𝐦𝛚𝟐 𝐫.
18. Vector form of Centrifugal force: 𝐅⃗𝐜′ = 𝐦𝛚⃗⃗⃗⃗ × (𝐫⃗ × 𝛚⃗⃗⃗⃗) ,
⃗ ⃗ ′
19. Vector form of Centripetal force: 𝐅𝐜 = −𝐅𝐜 = 𝐦𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × (𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗)
𝐯𝟐 𝛚𝟐 𝐫
20. Inclination of Cyclist with vertical at the bent road: 𝛉 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝐫𝐠 ) = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝐠
)
𝟐
21. Banking angle at the bent road:𝛉 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝐯 ⁄𝐫𝐠)
𝟐 𝛚 𝐫 𝟐
22. Inclination of Conical pendulum: 𝛉 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝐯 ⁄𝐫𝐠) = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝐠 )
23. Minimum velocity required to give to a suspended body to rotate completely in vertical circle: 𝐯 = √𝟓𝐠𝐫
24. Critical velocity for rotating particle in vertical circle: 𝐯𝐜 = √𝐠𝐫
25. Difference in tension of the string for rotation of particle in vertical circle: 𝐓 = 𝟔𝐦𝐠
𝐫 𝟐𝝅 𝐠 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝛉
26. Time period of conical pendulum: 𝐓 = 𝟐𝛑√ and 𝝎 = = √
𝐠 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝛉 𝑻 𝐫
27. Tension of the string for the rotation of the particle in horizontal circle:
𝟏
𝐓 = [(𝐦𝐠)𝟐 + (𝐦𝛚𝟐 𝐫)𝟐 ] 𝝎𝟐
𝐭
28. For non uniform Circular motion: 𝛚𝟐 = 𝛚𝟏 + ∫𝟎 𝛂 (𝐭)𝐝𝐭
29. Rotational work done: 𝐖 = ∫ 𝐅⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗) = ∫ ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝐫 = ∫ 𝐅⃗ . (𝐝𝛉 𝐝𝛉. (𝐫⃗ × 𝐅⃗) = ∫(𝐫⃗ × 𝐅⃗). ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝛉 = ∫ 𝛕 𝐝𝛉
⃗⃗
30. Moment of Couple: 𝐆 = 𝛕 ⃗⃗, 𝐆 = 𝐅. 𝐥 =force ×normal separation. It is positive for anti clock wise
⃗⃗ + 𝛕
rotation and negative for clock wise rotation.
31. Rotational work done by the moment of couple can similarly be written as 𝐖 = ∫ 𝐆 ⃗⃗ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝛉
𝐠𝐫𝐚
32. Condition for not turning the car at the bent road: 𝐯 < √
𝐡
33. For not slipping of a car at the bent horizontal road: 𝐯 ≤ √𝛍𝐠𝐫
34. For spin of earth, the effective weight of mass m at latitude angle 𝛌 on earth surface:
𝐖 = 𝐦𝐠 − 𝐦𝛚𝟐 𝐑 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝟐 𝛌
35. For circular motion of the particle, the unit vectors in radial and transverse sense:
𝐫̂ = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝛉 𝐢̂ + 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉 𝐣̂ 𝛉̂ = − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝛉 𝐢̂ + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝛉 𝐣̂ ; |𝐫̂| = |𝛉
̂| = 𝟏, 𝐫̂. 𝛉
̂=𝟎 ,
36. For the motion of a ball over a smooth solid sphere: (a) Maximum velocity achieved 𝐯𝐦𝐚𝐱 = √𝐑𝐠
𝟐
(b) Angle of loosing contact 𝛉 = 𝐂𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟑) = 𝟒𝟖. 𝟐°
⃗⃗.𝐯⃗⃗
𝐚
37. For circular motion the magnitude of tangential acceleration 𝐚𝐭 = |𝐯⃗⃗|

b) Rigid Body Rotation

1. The moment of inertia for rigid body rotation is I = mr2 = Mk2 = r2dm;
𝐈 ∫ 𝐫 𝟐 𝐝𝐦
Where radius of gyration: 𝐤 = √ = √
𝐌 ∫ 𝐝𝐦
2. From parallel axis theorem, I = ICM + Ma2 ;
3. Moment of inertia of a solid sphere about any tangent of it is I = (7/5)Mr2. Similarly moment of inertia of a
spherical shell about any tangent of it is I = (5/3)Mr2.
4. From perpendicular axis theorem, Iz = Ix + Iy when the laminated body is placed in xy plane.
5. For 3 dimensional body, by this perpendicular axis theorem,𝐈𝐱 + 𝐈𝐲 + 𝐈𝐳 = 𝟐 ∑ 𝐦 (𝐎𝐏)𝟐 = 𝟐 ∑ 𝐦 𝐫 𝟐
6. For rigid body rotation, the moment of inertia is a tensor of rank -2 having 9 components and it is then
𝐈𝐱𝐱 𝐈𝐱𝐲 𝐈𝐱𝐳
expressed by a 3x3 square matrix as ⃡ 𝐈 = (𝐈𝐲𝐱 𝐈𝐲𝐲 𝐈𝐲𝐳 )
𝐈𝐳𝐱 𝐈𝐳𝐲 𝐈𝐳𝐳
7. The basic moment of inertia about X, Y and Z direction are respectively given by
Ixx = m (r2 – x2), Iyy = m (r2 – y2), Izz = m (r2 – z2)
8. The product of inertias are respectively defined as Ixy = −m xy = Iyx, Iyz = − m yz = Izy, Izx = −m zx = Ixz
9. The moment of inertia for a rigid body rotation about any axis of rotation is given by
I = Ixx Cos2 + Iyy Cos2 + Izz Cos2 + 2 Ixy Cos Cos+ 2 Iyz Cos Cos+ 2 Izx Cos Cos
where Cos, Cos and Cos are the direction cosines of that axis of rotation.
10. The moment of inertias for the following symmetric bodies for rotation about axis passing through their
center of mass are
i) Circular Ring: mr2, ii) Circular Disc: (1/2)mr2, iii) Spherical Shell: (2/3) mr2, iv) Solid Sphere: (2/5) mr2 v)
Right Circular Cylinder: (1/2)mr2, vi) Right Circular Cone: (3/10) mr2, vii) Uniform Rod: (1/12) ml2, viii)
𝐑𝟐𝟏 +𝐑𝟐𝟐
Rectangular Foil:(1/12)m[a2 +b2], ix) Ellipsoidal Foil: (1/4)m [a2 + b2] x) Uniform Circular Loop: 𝐦 ( 𝟐
)
𝟏
xi) Uniform rod about the end : 𝐦𝐥𝟐 (where notations have their usual meaning)
𝟑
11. For a rectangular foil of length a and breadth b, the moment of inertia for rotation about its diagonal is
given by I = (2/3)m[a2b2/{a2 + b2}]
12. For two spheres, one hollow sphere of negligible width and another solid sphere, both having the same
mass and radius, the radius of gyration of that hollow sphere having negligible width will be greater than that
of solid sphere.
13. For rotation of the rigid body about an axis passing through its center of mass, the total moment of mass
will be zero (when origin is taken on that center of mass)
14. For rigid body rotation, torque is given by 𝛕 ⃗⃗ = 𝐫⃗ × 𝐅⃗, whereas for more than one forces, the net torque
effective on the body will be ∑ 𝛕 ⃗⃗ = 𝐫⃗ × (𝐅⃗𝟏 + 𝐅 ⃡𝟐 + ⋯ . . ) and magnitude of torque for a single effective
force is given by 𝛕 = 𝐅 × 𝐫⊥
𝐭
15. Angular impulse of a torque in rigid body rotation will be ∫𝐭 𝟐 𝛕 ⃗𝟐 −𝐋
⃗⃗ . 𝐝𝐭 = 𝐋 ⃗ 𝟏 = change of angular
𝟏
momentum.
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
16. Kinetic energy of a rigid body rotation about a fixed axis is 𝐄𝐤 = ∑𝐢 𝟐 𝐦𝐢 𝐯𝐢𝟐 = ∑𝐢 𝟐 𝐦𝐢 (𝛚𝐫𝐢 )𝟐 = 𝟐 𝐈𝛚𝟐
17. For rigid body rotation, the angular momentum is given by 𝐋 ⃗ =⃡ 𝐈𝛚⃗⃗⃗⃗ where ⃡
𝐈 is the moment of inertia

tensor of rank 2. Here the vector relation 𝐋 = 𝐈𝛚 ⃗ and 𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ is not correct for a rigid body rotation since 𝐋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ do not
point in the same direction, but we could write 𝐋 = 𝐈𝛚. If however the body is symmetric about the axis of
⃗ and 𝛚
rotation 𝐋 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ are parallel and then we have 𝐋 ⃗ = 𝐈𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
18. For rigid body rotation, the angular momentum vector is given by
⃗ = ∑𝐢 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐋 𝐋𝐢 = ∑𝐢[ ⃗𝐫⃗𝐢 × (𝐦𝐢 ⃗⃗⃗
𝐯𝐢 )] = ∑𝐢[ ⃗𝐫⃗𝐢 × {𝐦𝐢 (𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ⃗𝐫⃗)}]
𝐢 = ∑𝐢[𝐦𝐢 { ⃗𝐫⃗𝐢 × (𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ⃗𝐫⃗)}
𝐢 = ∑𝐢[𝐦𝐢 {( ⃗𝐫⃗.𝐢 ⃗𝐫⃗𝐢 )𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ − ( ⃗𝐫⃗.𝐢 𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗)𝐫⃗⃗}
𝐢
(when ⃗𝐫⃗.𝐢 𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ≠ 𝟎)
19. Angular momentum of a rigid body in combined rotation and translation, 𝐋 ⃗ =𝐋 ⃗ 𝐂𝐌 + 𝐌(𝐫⃗𝐨 × 𝐯⃗⃗𝐨 ) where
⃗ 𝐂𝐌 is the angular momentum of the body with respect to the center of mass and 𝐌(𝐫⃗𝐨 × 𝐯⃗⃗𝐨 ) is the angular
𝐋
momentum of the center of mass about any arbitrarily chosen origin O. (𝐫⃗𝐨 is the position vector of that
center of mass of that rigid body with respect to that arbitrarily chosen origin O and 𝐯⃗⃗𝐨 is the linear velocity
of that center of mass in that combined motion)
20. As an example of the previous rule, if a circular disc of mass m and radius r is set into motion on a
𝐯
horizontal floor with a linear speed v in the forward direction and an angular speed 𝛚 = 𝐫 in clockwise
direction then we have for the angular momentum of combined motion of this circular disc 𝐋 ⃗ =𝐋 ⃗ 𝐂𝐌 +
𝟏 𝐯 𝟏
𝐌(𝐫⃗𝐨 × 𝐯⃗⃗𝐨 ) , we should have 𝐋𝐂𝐌 = 𝐈𝛚 = (𝟐 𝐦𝐫 𝟐 ) (𝐫) = 𝟐 𝐦𝐯𝐫 and |𝐌(𝐫⃗𝐨 × 𝐯⃗⃗𝐨 )| = 𝐦𝐫𝐯 and then
finally the magnitude of total angular momentum of that rolling circular disc about its contact point on the
surface will be |𝐋⃗ | = 𝟏 𝐦𝐯𝐫 + 𝐦𝐯𝐫 = 𝟑 𝐦𝐯𝐫.
𝟐 𝟐
21. For combined translational and rotational motion of a rigid body, the total kinetic energy will be
𝟏 𝟐 𝟏
𝐄𝐤 = 𝟐 𝐦𝐯𝐂𝐌 + 𝟐 𝐈𝐂𝐌 𝛚𝟐
22. Since for combined translational and rotational motion of a rigid body, the total kinetic energy is given by
𝟏 𝟐 𝟏
𝐄𝐤 = 𝟐 𝐦𝐯𝐂𝐌 + 𝟐 𝐈𝐂𝐌 𝛚𝟐 , this energy expression for combined motion can also be written as
𝟏 𝟐 𝟏 𝟏
𝐄𝐤 = 𝟐 𝐦𝐯𝐂𝐌 + 𝟐 𝐈𝐂𝐌 𝛚𝟐 = 𝟐 𝐈𝐈𝐀𝐎𝐑 𝛚𝟐 where 𝐈𝐈𝐀𝐎𝐑 is the moment of inertia of the same rigid body with
respect to the instantaneous axis of rotation. Her the consideration is that the combined rotation and
translation can be replaced by a pure rolling with same angular speed about that instantaneous axis of
rotation when that axis is taken through the point of contact or the point of zero velocity of that rolling
symmetric circular or spherical body with the surface of contact.
23. For instantaneous axis of rotation, Rotation + Translation ≡ Pure rotation about instantaneous axis of
rotation and then we must have 𝐈𝐈𝐀𝐎𝐑 = 𝐈𝐂𝐌 + 𝐦𝐫 𝟐 (by parallel axis theorem) where 𝐫 is the radius of that
rolling spherical body having mass m.
24. The condition of a uniform pure rolling of a rolling body over the surface without slipping is 𝐯 = 𝐫𝛚
where for > 𝐫𝛚 , motion is said to be forward slipping and also for 𝐯 < 𝐫𝛚 , motion is said to be backward
slipping.
25. For combined translational and rotational motion of a circular disc over the ground surface with angular
speed of rotation 𝛚 and center of mass velocity v, the speed of a point P on the circumference of that
circular disc at an angular position with respect to the radius vector through the instantaneous contact point
𝛉 𝛉
will be |𝐯⃗⃗𝐏 | = 𝐯𝐏 = 𝟐𝐯𝐒𝐢𝐧 (𝟐) = 𝟐𝛚𝐫. 𝐒𝐢𝐧 (𝟐) . Thus in that case of that rolling disc over the ground, the
𝟎
velocity at the contact point 𝐯𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐭𝐚𝐜𝐭 = 𝟐𝛚𝐫. 𝐒𝐢𝐧 (𝟐) = 𝟎 and similarly the velocity at the topmost point
𝛑
𝐯𝐭𝐨𝐩 = 𝟐𝛚𝐫. 𝐒𝐢𝐧 (𝟐) = 𝟐𝐯 = 𝟐𝛚𝐫 . Here we should note that at any circumference point of that rolling
disc over the ground, this velocity 𝐯⃗⃗𝐏 will be in tangential sense and thus the net velocity of that
circumference point will be 𝐯⃗⃗𝐧𝐞𝐭 = 𝐯⃗⃗𝐏 + 𝐯⃗⃗𝐂𝐌
26. The locus of a circumference point on a circular disc rolling over the ground will be a cycloid and the
distance moved by this circumference point for the full rotation of the disc will be 8r. The equation of path of
that circumference point at any instant t will be 𝐱 = (𝐯𝐭 − 𝐫𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛚𝐭) and 𝐲 = 𝐫(𝟏 − 𝐂𝐨𝐬𝛚𝐭).
27. For accelerated pure rolling, the conditions are 𝐯 = 𝐫𝛚 and 𝐚 = 𝐫𝛂. Her for such accelerated pure
𝐅𝐧𝐞𝐭 𝐅−𝐅
rolling of the rolling disc, the acceleration of that disc is 𝐚 = 𝐦 = 𝐦𝐟𝐋 and similarly the angular
(𝐅−𝐅 )𝐫
acceleration will be 𝛂 = 𝐈
𝐟𝐋
where 𝐅 is the applied force tangentially at the topmost point of that rolling
disc in forward sense and 𝐅𝐟𝐋 is limiting reaction friction on that disc also in the forward sense and also I is
the moment of inertia about the center of that rolling disc.
𝐠𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛉
28. For a circular disc rolling down a rough inclined plane, the acceleration is given by 𝒂 = [(𝐤 𝟐/𝐫𝟐) +𝟏]
where k is the radius of gyration of that rolling disc. This is a generalized formula and equally applicable for
any spherical body rolling downs that rough inclined surface.
29. In context to the previous case the condition for frictional coefficient at the rough contact surface will be
𝒕𝒂𝒏𝜽
𝝁 ≥ [(𝐫 𝟐/𝐤𝟐) +𝟏]
30. For a single Atwood machine with pulley as a cylinder of mass M and radius R, if the thread is supposed
to be slipping over that pulley in absent of the friction then the angular acceleration of that cylinder and the
ratio of the tensions of that two threads when attached with two end masses m1 and m2 will be respectively
𝟐(𝐦𝟐 −𝐦𝟏 )𝐠 𝐓 𝐦 (𝐌+𝟒𝐦 )
𝛂 = (𝟐𝐦 +𝟐𝐦 +𝐌)𝐑
and 𝐓𝟏 = 𝐦𝟏(𝐌+𝟒𝐦𝟐)
𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏
31. For the motion of a car on the bent road, if v be the velocity of the car and Fs be the static frictional force
𝐦𝐯 𝟐
then for safe motion of the car along rough horizontal circular road we have = 𝐅𝐬
𝐫
𝐦𝐯 𝟐 𝐯𝟐
But since 𝐅𝐬 ≤ 𝛍𝐬 𝐦𝐠 we can write 𝐫
≤ 𝛍𝐬 𝐦𝐠 ⇒ 𝛍𝐬 ≥ 𝐫𝐠
32. Effect of Rotation on the Reference Frame and Development of Pseudo Force: Consider a rotating frame.
So it is accelerated and then non inertial. If this frame be denoted by S’ and another inertial frame be denoted
by S then for respective accelerations 𝒂⃗⃗ and 𝒂 ⃗⃗′ of a moving particle with respect to that two frames, we have
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝛚 𝐝𝐫⃗
𝐚⃗⃗′ = 𝐚⃗⃗ − ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 × 𝐫⃗ − 𝟐𝛚
𝐝𝐭
⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 − 𝛚
𝐝𝐭
⃗⃗⃗⃗ × (𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗) . Thus Pseudo forces appeared on that moving
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝛚 𝐝𝐫⃗
particle in rotating frame will be 𝐅⃗𝐏𝐬𝐞𝐮𝐝𝐨 = {−𝐦 ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 × 𝐫⃗} + {−𝟐𝐦𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 } + {−𝐦𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ×
𝐝𝐭 𝐝𝐭
⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝐝𝛚 𝐝𝐫⃗
(𝛚⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗)} where, {−𝐦 ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 × 𝐫⃗} = Euler force, {−𝟐𝐦𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ( )𝐑𝐨𝐭 } = Coriolis force {−𝐦𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × (𝛚
⃗⃗⃗⃗ ×
𝐝𝐭 𝐝𝐭
𝐫⃗)} Centrifugal force and
33. Effective Gravitational Acceleration for Earth’s Rotation: 𝐠
⃗⃗ 𝐞𝐟𝐟𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 = 𝐠 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × (𝛚
⃗⃗ + 𝛚 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝐫⃗)
34. If a man feels weightlessness at the equator of earth then the length of a day should be 1.41 hrs.
35. Due to conservation of angular momentum for earth’s rotation about its own axis, if the radius of earth be
made half of its previous value through compression of earth with its mass remaining the same then the
length of the day will be 6 hrs.