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T. Symbol for (1) tritium; (2) tera-; (3) thymine. hydrocarbons with the same number of carbon
atoms by electrolytic reduction at a lead cathode in
2,4,5-T. Abbreviation for 2,4,5-trichlorophenox- alcoholic sulfuric acid.
yacetic acid.
Tag Closed Cup. See TCC.
2,4,6-T. Abbreviation for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.
tagetes meal and extract.
Ta. Symbol for tantalum. Properties: Extracted from the dried ground flower
petals of the Aztec marigold Tagetes erecta L. Mp:
tabun. (dimethylphosphoramidocyanidic acid, 53.5−55.0°. A permissible food additive used to in-
ethyl ester). crease the yellow color of the skin and eggs of
CAS: 77-81-6. (CH3)2NP(O)(C2H5O)(CN). A nerve poultry.
gas. Use: Food additive.
Properties: Liquid. Fp −50C, bp 240C, flash p 172F
(77.7C), d 1.4250 (20/4C). Readily soluble in organ- tagged atom. A radioactive isotope used in trac-
ic solvents; miscible with water but readily hydro- ing the behavior of a substance in both biochemical
lyzed; destroyed by bleaching powder, generating and engineering research, e.g., C-14 or I-131.
cyanogen chloride. Combustible. See tracer; label (2).
Hazard: Very toxic by inhalation, cholinesterase in-
hibitor, a military nerve gas, fatal dose (man) 0.01 Tagliabue Closed Cup. A standard method of
mg/kg. determining flash points.

“TAC” [Mallinckrodt]. TM for tested additive Tagliabue Open Cup A standard method of
chemical items, satisfactory for food additives and determining flash points.
medical uses.
Tag Open Cup. See Tagliabue Open Cup.
tachysterol. C28H44O.
Properties: Oil; levorotatory. Insoluble in water; sol- tailings. (1) In flour milling, the product left after
uble in most organic solvents. Protect from air. grinding and bolting middlings. (2) Impurities re-
Use: Medicine, as the dihydrotachysterol. maining after the extraction of useful minerals from
an ore. (3) In general, any residue from a mechanical
tackifiers. Refers to compounds used for making refining or separation process.
an adhesive stickier.
tailored molecule. A molecule that has been
tackiness. (tack). Property of being sticky or modified chemically to give it certain properties.
tails. Refers to high-boiling impurities that are
taconite. A low-grade iron ore consisting essen- less volatile than the solvent being distilled.
tially of a mixture of hematite and silica. It contains
25% iron. Found in the Lake Superior district and talc. (talcum; soapstone; steatite).
western states. CAS: 14807-96-6.
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 or 3MgO•4SiO2•H2O. A natural hy-
tacrolimus hydrate. drous magnesium silicate. Compact, massive vari-
CAS: 109581-93-3. mf: C44H69NO12•H2O. eties may be called steatite in distinction from the
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. foliated varieties, which are called talc. Soapstone is
an impure variety of steatite.
tacticity. The regularity or symmetry in the mo- Properties: White, apple-green, gray powder; pearly
lecular arrangement or structure of a polymer mole- or greasy luster, greasy feel. Mohs hardness 1–1.5
cule. Contrasts with random positioning of substitu- (may be harder when impure), high resistance to
ent groups along the polymer backbone, or random acids, alkalies and heat; d 2.7–2.8.
position with respect to one another of successive Grade: Crude, washed, air-floated, USP, fibrous
atoms in the backbone chain of a polymer molecule. (99.5%, 99.95%).
See polymer, stereospecific; isotactic. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 2 mg/m3, respira-
ble dust; not classifiable as a human carcinogen.
Tafel rearrangement. Rearrangement of the Use: Ceramics; cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; filler
carbon skeleton of substituted acetoacetic esters to in rubber, paints, soap, putty, plaster, oilcloth;

abherent; dusting agent; lubricant; paper; slate pen- “Tamol 850” [Mid South]. TM for carbox-
cils and crayons; electrical insulation. ylic homopolymer.
See magnesium silicate. Use: For water treatment, as a scale inhibitor, and
sludge dispersant.
tall oil. (tallol; liquid rosin). A mixture of rosin
acids, fatty acids, and other materials obtained by tamuslosin hydrochloride. See r-(−)-5-(2-
acid treatment of the alkaline liquors from the dig- ((2-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)ethyl)amino)propyl)-2.
esting (pulping) of pine wood; flash p 360F (182C).
Combustible. “Tanacol CG” [Sybron]. (isopropylbiphe-
Derivation: The spent black liquor from the pulping nyl).
process is concentrated until the sodium salts CAS: 25640-78-2. TM for solvent.
(soaps) of the various acids separate out and are Use: In carbonless-copy-paper systems, replaces
skimmed off. These are acidified by sulfuric acid. PCB in capacitors, heat transfer fluid.
Composition and properties vary widely, but aver-
age 35–40% rosin acids, 50–60% fatty acids. Tanaka, Koichi. (1959– ). Born in Japan, Tana-
Grade: Crude, refined. ka won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2002 for his
Use: Paint vehicles, source of rosin, alkyd resins, pioneering work concerning the development of
soaps, cutting oils and emulsifiers, driers, flotation methods for identification and structure analyses of
agents, oil-well drilling muds, core oils, lubricants biological macromolecules. Tanaka received a de-
and greases, asphalt derivatives, rubber reclaiming, gree in Electrical Engineering from Tohoku Univer-
synthesis of cortisone and sex hormones, chemical sity and undertakes his research at the Shimadzu
intermediates. Corporation.

tall oil imidazoline. “Tanak” MRX [Cytec]. TM for melamine-

CAS: 61791-36-4. formaldehyde resin tanning agent used to make
Hazard: A severe skin and eye irritant. pure-white leather and for bleaching and filling
chrome leather.
tallow. An animal fat containing C16 to C18.
“Tanamer” [Cytec]. TM for sodium polyacry-
Properties: The solidifying points of the different
late adhesive for use during the drying of leather.
tallows are as follows: from 20–45C for horse fat,
See acrylate.
27–38C for beef tallow, 54–56C for stearin and oleo,
32–41C for mutton tallow; d 0.86; refr index 46–49
(40C) (Zeiss); iodine value 193–202; flash p 509F
“Tandem 552” [ACH]. TM for emulsifiers.
Use: As pan release agents for frozen desserts, ice
(265C). Combustible.
cream, baked goods; antibrowning agent for fresh-
Derivation: Extracted from the solid fat or “suet” of
cut fruits, and vegetable.
cattle, sheep, or horses by dry or wet rendering.
Chief constituents: Stearin, palmitin, and olein.
Grade: Edible; inedible; beef tallow; mutton tallow; tandem repeat sequences. Multiple copies of
horse fats; acidless; edible, extra. the same base sequence on a chromosome; used as
Use: Soap stock, leather dressing, candles, greases, markers in physical mapping.
manufacture of stearic and oleic acids, animal feeds, See physical map.
abherent in tire molds.
tangerine oil. See citrus peel oil.
tallow oil. See “Peacock” [Pfau]. tankage. (animal tankage; tankage rough am-
moniate). The product obtained in abattoir by-prod-
taloximine hydrochloride. uct plants from meat scraps and bones, that are
CAS: 20230-77-7. mf: C12H16N4O2•ClH. boiled under pressure and allowed to settle. The
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. grease is removed from the top and the liquor drawn
off. The scrap is then pressed, dried, and sold for
“Tamol” [Rohm & Haas]. TM for anionic, fertilizer.
polymer-type dispersing agents. Supplied as light- Grade: Based on percentage of ammonia and bone
colored powders or aqueous solutions. Effective dis- phosphate. A medium grade has 10% ammonia and
persant for aqueous suspensions of insoluble dye- 20% bone phosphate. Concentrated tankage has had
stuffs, polymers, clays, tanning agents, and the boiled-down tank liquor and press water added
pigments. to it before drying and runs 15–17% ammonia.
Use: Manufacture of dyestuff pastes, textile printing Hazard: Flammable, may ignite spontaneously.
and dyeing, pigment dispersion in textile backings,
latex paints and paper coatings, retanning and tankage, garbage. (tankage fertilizer). Gar-
bleaching of leather, dye resist in leather dyeing, bage treated with steam under pressure, the water
dispersion of pitch in paper manufacture, prefloc and some of the grease removed by pressing, and
prevention in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. further grease removed by solvent extraction. Con-

tains 3–4% ammonia, 2–5% phosphoric acid, and In mineral or chrome tanning, the sulfates of chro-
0.50–1.00% potash. mium, aluminum, and zirconium are used (the last
Hazard: Flammable, may ignite spontaneously. two for white leather); here the reaction is of a
Use: Fertilizer. coordination nature between the carboxyl groups of
the skin collagen and the metal atom. Syntans are
tannic acid. (gallotannic acid; described as a also used; these are sulfonated phenol or naphthols
penta-(m-digalloyl)-glucose). condensed with formaldehyde. Condensation prod-
CAS: 1401-55-4. C76H52O46. Natural substance wide- ucts other than phenol having strong hydrogen-
ly found in nutgalls, tree barks, and other plant parts. bonding power have been developed. Tannage by
Tannins are known to be gallic acid derivatives. A any method is a time-consuming and exacting pro-
solution of tannic acid will precipitate albumin. Tan- cess, requiring careful control of pH, temperature,
nins are classified according to their behavior on dry humidity, and concentration factors.
distillation into two groups, (1) condensed tannins, For further information refer to Tanners’ Council,
which yield catechol, and (2) hydrolyzable tannins, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. See
which yield pyrogallol; (2) comprises two groups on leather.
the basis of its products of hydrolysis, glucose, and
(a) ellagic acid or (b) gallic acid. tantalic acid anhydride. See tantalum
Properties: Lustrous, faintly yellowish, amorphous oxide.
powder, glistening scales, or spongy mass; darkens
on exposure to air; odorless; strong, astringent taste. tantalic chloride. See tantalum chloride.
Mp decomposes at 210C. Soluble in water, alcohol,
and acetone; almost insoluble in benzene, chloro- tantalite. (Fe, Hg)(TaNb)2O6. The most impor-
form, and ether. Flash p 390F (198C), autoign temp tant ore of tantalum, found in Canada, Africa, Brazil,
980F (526C). Combustible. Malaysia. When niobium content exceeds that of
Derivation: Extraction of powdered nutgalls with tantalum, the ore is called columbite.
water and alcohol.
Grade: Technical, CP, NF, fluffy, FCC. tantalum.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. CAS: 7440-25-7. Ta. Element of atomic number 73
Use: Chemicals (tannates, gallic acid, pyrogallic in group VB of the periodic table, aw 180.9479,
acid, hydrosols of the noble metals); alcohol denatu- valences of 2, 3, 5; no stable isotopes.
rant; tanning; textiles (mordant and fixative); elec- Properties: (1) Black powder. (2) Steel-blue-colored
troplating; galvanoplastics (gelatin precipitant); metal when unpolished, nearly a platinum-white
clarification agent in wine manufacture, brewing color when polished. D (1) 14.491, (2) 16.6 (worked
and foods, writing inks; pharmaceuticals; deodori- metal), mp 2996C, bp 5425C, tensile strength of
zation of crude oil; photography; paper (sizing, mor- drawn wire may be as high as 130,000 psi, refr index
dant for colored papers); treatment of minor burns. 2.05, expansion coefficient 8 × 10−6 over range
20–1500C. Electrical resistance 13.6 microhm-cm
(0C), 32.0 (500C). Soluble in fused alkalies; insolu-
tannin. Any of a broad group of plant-derived ble in acids except hydrofluoric and fuming sulfuric
phenolic compounds characterized by their ability acids.
to precipitate proteins. Some are more toxic than Occurrence: Canada, Thailand, Malaysia, Brazil.
others, depending on their source. Those derived Derivation: From tantalum potassium fluoride by
from nutgalls are believed to be carcinogens, while heating in an electric furnace, by sodium reduction,
those found in tea and coffee may be virtually non- or by fused salt electrolysis. The powdered metal is
toxic. converted to a massive metal by sintering in a vacu-
See tannic acid. um. Foot-long crystals can be grown by arc fusion.
Corrosion resistance: 99.5% pure tantalum is resis-
tanning. The preservation of hides or skins by use tant to all concentrations of hot and cold sulfuric
of a chemical that (1) makes them immune to bacte- acid (except concentrated boiling), hydrochloric
rial attack; (2) raises the shrinkage temperature; and acid, nitric and acetic acids, hot and cold dilute
(3) prevents the collagen fibers from sticking togeth- sodium hydroxide, all dilutions of hot and cold am-
er on drying, so that the material remains porous, monium hydroxide, mine and seawaters, moist sul-
soft, and flexible. Vegetable tanning is used mostly furous atmospheres, aqueous solutions of chlorine.
for sole and heavy-duty leathers. The chief vegeta- Grade: Powder 99.5% pure, sheet, rods, wire, ultra-
ble tannins are water extracts of special types of pure, single crystals.
wood or bark, especially quebracho and wattle. The Hazard: Dust or powder may be flammable. Toxic
main active constituent is tannic acid. The tannins by inhalation. TLV: 5 mg/m3.
penetrate the skin or hides after long periods of Use: Capacitors, chemical equipment, dental and sur-
soaking, during which the molecular aggregates of gical instruments, rectifiers, vacuum tubes, furnace
the tannin form cross-links between the polypeptide components, high-speed tools, catalyst, getter al-
chains of the skin proteins; hydrogen bonding is an loys, sutures and body implants, electronic circuitry,
important factor. thin-film components.

tantalum alcoholate. (pentaethoxytantalum). tantalum pentachloride. See tantalum chlo-

(C2H5O)5Ta. ride.
Use: Catalyst, intermediate for pure tantalates, pre-
paring thin dielectric films. tantalum pentoxide. See tantalum oxide.

tantalum carbide. TaC. tantalum pentafluoride. See tantalum fluo-

Properties: Hard, heavy, refractory, crystalline sol- ride.
id. Mp 3875C, bp 5500C, d 14.5, hardness 1800 kg/
sq mm, resistivity 30 microohm-cm (room tempera- tantalum potassium fluoride. (potassium
ture). Extremely resistant to chemical action except tantalum fluoride; potassium fluotantalate).
at elevated temperature. CAS: 16924-00-8. K2TaF7.
Derivation: Tantalum oxide and carbon heated at Properties: White, silky needles. Slightly soluble in
high temperatures. cold water; quite soluble in hot water.
Use: Cutting tools and dies, cemented carbide tools. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3.
Use: Intermediate in preparation of pure tantalum.
tantalum chloride. (tantalic chloride; tanta-
lum pentachloride). tantiron. A ferrous alloy containing 84.8% iron,
CAS: 7721-01-9. TaCl5. 13.5% silicon, 1% carbon, 0.4% manganese, 0.18%
Properties: Pale-yellow, crystalline powder; highly phosphorus, 0.05% sulfur. It is resistant to acids.
reactive. Decomposed by moist air. D 3.7, bp 242C, Use: Chemical equipment.
mp 221C. Soluble in alcohol and potassium hydrox-
ide solution. Keep well stoppered. tapioca. A product rich in starch, obtained from
Grade: Technical. the tuberous roots of the cassava plant. It is used both
Use: Chlorination of organic substances, intermedi- directly as a food and as a thickening agent in emul-
ate, production of pure metal. sions for food products and industrial applications
(lithographic inks). In many uses it is a satisfactory
tantalum disulfide. TaS2. substitute for gum arabic.
Properties: Black powder or crystals. Mp above
3000C. Insoluble in water TAPPI. Abbreviation for Technical Association
Available forms: 40 micron size. of the Pulp and Paper Industry.
Use: Solid lubricant.
taq polymerase. A DNA polymerase isolated
tantalum fluoride. (tantalum pentafluoride). from the bacterium Thermophilis aquaticus which is
CAS: 7783-71-3. TaF5. very stable to high temperatures. It is used in PCR
Properties: Deliquescent crystals. Mp 97C, d 4.74. procedures and high temperature sequencing.
Soluble in water and nitric acid.
Use: Catalyst in organic reactions. tar. See coal tar; cigarette tar; pine tar; tar,
tantalum nitride. TaN.
Properties: Hexagonal, brown, bronze, or black tar acid. Any mixture of phenols present in tars
crystals. D 16.3, mp 3310–3410C. Insoluble in wa- or tar distillates and extractable by caustic soda
ter; slightly soluble in aqua regia, nitric acid, hydro- solutions. Usually refers to tar acids from coal tar
gen fluoride. and includes phenol, cresols, and xylenols. When
Grade: Technical, powder. applied to the products from other tars it should be
qualified by the appropriate prefix, e.g., wood tar
tantalum oxide. (tantalic acid anhydride; acid, lignite tar acid, etc.
tantalum pentoxide). Properties: Soluble in alcohol and coal tar hydrocar-
CAS: 1314-61-0. Ta2O5. bons. Combustible.
Properties: Rhombic, crystalline prisms. D 7.6, mp Grade: 15–18%, 25–28%, and 50–53% phenol.
1800C. Insoluble in water and acids except hydro- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin
gen fluoride. absorption; strong irritant to tissue.
Derivation: From tantalite, by removal of other Use: Wood preservative, insecticide for cattle and
metals. sheep dipping (dip oils or sheep dip), manufacture of
Grade: Technical, optical (99.995% pure), single disinfectants.
Hazard: TLV: 5 mg/m3. tar base. A basic nitrogen compound derived
Use: Production of tantalum; “rare-element” optical from coal tar, such as pyridine, picoline, lutidine,
glass; intermediate in preparation of tantalum car- and quinoline.
bide; piezoelectric, maser, and laser applications;
dielectric layers in electronic circuits. tar camphor. See naphthalene.

tar camphor, chlorinated. See chlorona- Use: Paints, waterproofing paper, rubber reclaiming,
phthalene. varnishes, stains, ore flotation, cattle dips, insecti-
“Tarcel” [Natrochem]. TM for DLC form of
“Tarene.” tar, refined. See tar, dehydrated.
See “Tarene” [Natrochem].
tar sands. See oil sands.
tar, dehydrated. (tar, refined).
Properties: Dark-brown, thick, viscid liquid. Com- tar soap. Soap containing juniper tar oil.
Derivation: Tar from which the water has been driv- tartar, cream of. See potassium bitartrate.
en off.
Grade: Technical. tartar emetic. See antimony potassium tar-
Hazard: Strong irritant, absorbed by skin. trate.
Use: Waterproofing compounds, roads, medicine.
tartaric acid. (dihydroxysuccinic acid).
tare. (1) The weight of a container, wrapper, or CAS: 87-69-4. HOOC(CH2O)2COOH.
liner that is deducted in determining the net weight Properties: Colorless, transparent crystals or white,
of a material. (2) A weight used in analytical work to crystalline powder; odorless; acidic taste; stable in
offset the weight of a container. air. Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. D 1.76, mp
170C. It has unusual optical properties. The mole-
“Tarene” [Natrochem]. TM for mixed naval cule has two asymmetric carbon atoms that result in
stores (pine tar type). four isomeric forms, three of which are the natural D-
Properties: Dark-brown, viscous liquid. D form and the corresponding L-form, which are opti-
0.99–1.02, ash 0.5%. Benzene soluble. Combus- cally active, and the inactive meso form:
Use: Plasticizer and softener.

targeted mutagenesis. Deliberate change in

the genetic structure directed at a specific site on the
chromosome. Used in research to determine the tar-
geted region’s function.
See mutation; polymorphism. The occurrence of some DL-tartaric acid along with
natural D-tartaric acid in the wine industry is explained
Tarmac. Proprietary preparation of blast furnace on the basis of partial racemization. The L-form is the
slag, refined tar, and other materials. commercial product.
Use: Road dressing. Derivation: Occurs naturally in wine lees; made syn-
thetically from maleic anhydride and hydrogen per-
tarnish. A reaction product that occurs readily at oxide and by an enzymatic reaction with a succinic
room temperature between metallic silver and sulfur acid derivative.
in any form. The well-known black film that appears Grade: Technical, CP, crystals, powder, granular,
on silverware results from reaction between atmo- NF, FCC.
spheric sulfur dioxide and metallic silver, forming Use: Chemicals (cream of tartar, tartar emetic, acetal-
silver sulfide. It is easily removable with a cleaning dehyde), sequestrant, tanning, effervescent bever-
compound and is not a true form of corrosion. Plat- ages, baking powder, fruit esters, ceramics, galva-
ing with a mixture of silver and indium will increase noplastics, photography (printing and developing,
tarnish resistance. Gold will also tarnish in the pres- light-sensitive iron salts), textile industry, silvering
ence of a high concentration of sulfur in the environ- mirrors, coloring metals, acidulant in foods.
tartrazine. (FD&C Yellow No. 5; (3-car-
tar oil. See creosote; coal tar. boxy-5-hydroxy)-1-p-sulfophenyl-4-p-sulfopheny-
lazopyrazole trisodium salt; CI 19140).
tar oil, wood. (pine tar oil). CAS: 1934-21-0. C16H9N4O9S2.
Properties: Almost colorless liquid when freshly Properties: Bright orange-yellow powder. Soluble
distilled, turns dark reddish-brown; strong odor and in water.
taste. D 0.862–0.872. Soluble in ether, chloroform, Hazard: An allergen.
alcohol, and carbon disulfide; flash p 144F (62.2) Use: Dye, especially for foods, drugs, and cosmetics.
(CC). Combustible.
Derivation: Obtained by the destructive distillation tar, wood. (tar, hardwood).
of the wood of Pinus palustris. Properties: Black, syruplike, viscous fluid.
Method of purification: Rectification. Derivation: A by-product of the destructive distilla-
Grade: Technical, rectified, refined. tion of wood.
1207 TCC

Grade: Technical. (2r,3s)-n-benzoyl-3-phenylisoserine.

Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. See paclitaxel.
Use: Hardwood pitch, wood creosote, heavy high-
boiling wood oils, wood-preserving oils, paint taxon. Any named group of organisms, not neces-
thinners. sarily a clade. A taxon may be designated by a Latin
name or by a letter, number, or any other symbol.
taste. See flavor.
taxonomy. The science of naming and classify-
TATA box. A sequence found in the promoter ing organisms.
(part of the 5′ flanking region) of many genes. Dele-
tion of this site (the binding site of transcription taxotere.
factor TFIID) causes a marked reduction in tran- CAS: 114977-28-5. mf: C43H53NO14.
scription, and gives rise to heterogeneous transcrip- Hazard: A poison. Human systemic effects.
tion initiation sites.
Tb. Symbol for terbium.
Taube, Henry. (1915–2005). A Canadian-born
chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in “TBC” [Reilly]. (tri-n-butyl citrate).
1983 for his pioneering work in inorganic chemistry CAS: 77-94-1. TM for aqueous-based pharmaceuti-
and the study of electron-transfer reactions, particu- cal coatings, direct food ingredient.
larly of metal complexes. Known as an outstanding
teacher, he was admired and respected by students TBDMS chloride. See tert-butylchlorodime-
and colleagues for his work at Stanford University. thylsilane.

taurin. See gracilin. TBH. Abbreviation for technical benzene hexa-

taurine. (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid). Use: An insecticide.
CAS: 107-35-7. NH2CH2CH2SO3H. A crystallizable See 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane.
amino acid found in combination with bile acids; its
combination with cholic acid is called taurocholic TBP. Abbreviation for tributyl phosphate.
Properties: Solid. Decomposes at 300C. Soluble in TBSM. See p-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene
water; insoluble in alcohol. monomer.
Derivation: Isolated from ox bile, organic synthesis.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. TBT. Abbreviation for tetrabutyl titanate.
Use: Biochemical research, pharmaceuticals, wetting
agents. TBTO. Abbreviation for bis(tributyltinoxide).

taurocholic acid. (cholaic acid; cholyltau- TC. Abbreviation for trichloroacetic acid or its
rine). sodium salt.
CAS: 81-24-3. C26H45NO7S. Occurs as sodium salt in
bile. It is formed by the combination of the sulfur- Tc. Symbol for technetium.
containing amino acid taurine and cholic acid as the
sodium salt. It aids in digestion and absorption of TCA cycle. (tricarboxylic acid cycle; Krebs
fats. cycle; citric acid cycle). A series of enzymatic
Properties: Crystals. Stable in air. Mp 125C (decom- reactions occurring in living cells of aerobic organ-
poses.) Freely soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, isms, the net result of which is the conversion of
almost insoluble in ether and ethyl acetate. pyruvic acid, formed by anaerobic metabolism of
Derivation: Isolation from bile. carbohydrates, into carbon dioxide and water. The
Use: Biochemical research, emulsifying agent in metabolic intermediates are degraded by a combina-
foods (not over 0.1%). tion of decarboxylation and dehydrogenation. It is
the major terminal pathway of oxidation in animal,
tautomerism. A type of isomerism in which mi- bacterial, and plant cells. Recent research indicates
gration of a hydrogen atom results in two or more that the TCA cycle may have predated life on earth
structures, called tautomers. The two tautomers are and may have provided the pathway for formation of
in equilibrium. For example, acetoacetic ester has amino acids.
the properties of both an unsaturated alcohol and a
ketone. The tautomers are called enol and keto. TCB. Abbreviation for tetracarboxybutane.
See enol; isomer (1).
TCBO. See trichlorobutylene oxide.
“Taxol.” [Bristol-Myers]. TM for 5-␤,20-ep-
oxy-1,2-␣,4,7-␤,10-␤,13-␣-hexahydroxy-tax-11- TCC. Abbreviation for Tagliabue closed cup, a
en-9-one 4,10-diacetate 2-benzoate 13-ester with standard method of determining flash points.
TCDD 1208

TCDD. See dioxin. technetium. Tc. Element with atomic number

43, group VIIB of the periodic table, aw 98.9062,
TCEO. See epoxy-1,1,2-trichloroethane. valences of 4, 5, 6, 7; three radioactive isotopes of
half-life more than 105 years, also several of rela-
TCHH. See cyhexatin. tively short half-life, some of which are ␤ emitters.
Technetium was first obtained by the deuteron bom-
TCHTH. See cyhexatin. bardment of molybdenum, but since has been found
in the fission products of uranium and plutonium.
TCP. Abbreviation for tricresyl phosphate. The chemistry of technetium has been studied by
tracer techniques and is similar to that of rhenium
TCP. See 2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine. and manganese. The free metal is obtained from
reactor fission products by solvent extraction fol-
TDE. (generic name for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- lowed by crystallization as ammonium pertechne-
chlorophenyl)ethane; tetrachlorodiphenylethane; tate, which is reduced with hydrogen. The metal is
DDD). silver-gray in appearance, mp 2200C (4000F), d
CAS: 72-54-8. (ClC6H4)2CHCHCl2. 11.5, slightly magnetic. Compounds of the types
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 109–110C. Solu- TcO2, Tc2O7, NH4TcO4, etc. have been prepared. The
ble in organic solvents; insoluble in water; not com- pertechnetate ion has strong anticorrosive proper-
patible with alkalies. Combustible. ties. Technetium and its alloys are superconductors
Derivation: Chlorination of ethanol and condensa- and can be used to create high-strength magnetic
tion with chlorobenzene. fields at low temperature. Tc-99 (metastable) is the
Grade: Technical. most widely used isotope in nuclear medicine.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin Use: Metallurgical tracer, cryochemistry, corrosion
absorption; use restricted in some states. resistance, nuclear medicine.
Use: Dusts, emulsions, and wettable powders for
contact control of leaf rollers and other insects. Technical Association of the Pulp and
Paper Industry. (TAPPI). A professional
TDI. Abbreviation for toluene diisocyanate. group of scientists devoted to the interests of pulp
and paper chemistry and technology. Founded in
TDP. Abbreviation for 4,4′-thiodiphenol. 1915, it has seven sections, each concerned with a
specific phase of the industry. It also has 11 local
TDQP. Abbreviation for trimethyldihydroquino- sections that hold monthly meetings. The associa-
line polymer. tion publishes its own journal, as well as industry
data sheets, bibliographies, technical monographs
Te. Symbol for tellurium. on subjects relating to the paper industry. It estab-
lishes standards of quality and testing procedures.
TEA. (1) Abbreviation for triethanolamine. (2) The address is Technical Park, P.O. Box 105113,
Abbreviation for triethylaluminum. Atlanta, GA 30348-5113.
Website: http://www.tappi.org.
TEAC. Abbreviation for tetraethylammonium
technology transfer. The process of transfer-
tea catechin. See epigallocatechin 3-gallate. ring scientific findings from research laboratories to
the commercial sector.
tear resistance. The amount of force necessary
to cause additional damage, in a cut made in a sam- “Tecto” [MSD Agvet]. TM a flowable SC
ple, by force on the sample, where the force is pri- fungicide.
marily normal to the plane of the cut.
“Tedlar” [Du Pont]. TM for polyvinylfluor-
tebufenozide. ide film.
CAS: 112410-23-8. mf: C22H28N2O2.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and
skin contact. TEDP. Abbreviation for tetraethyl dithiopyro-
Use: Agricultural chemical. phosphate.
See sulfotepp.
“TEC” [Reilly]. (triethyl citrate).
CAS: 77-93-0. TM for aqueous-based pharmaceuti- “Tedur” [Bayer]. TM for polysulfide
cal coatings. polymers.
Available forms: Glass, mineral, and mineral/glass
techneplex. grades.
CAS: 65454-61-7. mf: C14H17N3O10Tc•Na. Use: Injection molding for high-temperature and per-
Hazard: Moderately toxic. formance electronic and automotive parts.

tefestrol. tellurium.
CAS: 129407-28-9. CAS: 13494-80-9. Te. A nonmetallic element with
Hazard: A reproductive hazard. many properties similar to selenium and sulfur.
Atomic number 52, group VIA of the period table,
“Teflon” [Du Pont]. TM for tetrafluoroethyl- aw 127.60, valences of 2, 4, 6; eight stable isotopes.
ene (TFE) fluorocarbon polymers available as Properties: Silvery-white, lustrous solid with metal
molding and extrusion powders, aqueous disper- characteristics. D 6.24 g/cc (30C), Mohs hardness
sion, film, finishes, and multifilament yarn or fiber. 2.3, mp 450C, bp 990C. Soluble in sulfuric acid,
The name also applies to fluorinated ethylene-pro- nitric acid, potassium hydroxide, and potassium cy-
pylene (FEP) resins available in the same forms. The anide solutions; insoluble in water. Imparts garlic-
no-stick cookware finishes may be of either type. like odor to breath, can be depilatory. It is a p-type
Fibers are monofilaments made from copolymer of semiconductor and its conductivity is sensitive to
TFE and FEP. light exposure.
Use: Packing, bearings, filters, electrical insulation, Source: From anode slime produced in electrolytic
high-temperature industrial plastics, cooking uten- refining of copper and lead.
sils, plumbing sealants, coating glass fiber for archi- Derivation: Reduction of telluric oxide with sulfur
tectural structure composites, bonding industrial di- dioxide; by dissolving the oxide in a caustic soda
amonds to metal in the manufacture of grinding solution and plating out the metal.
wheels. Grade: Powder, sticks, slabs, and tablets, 99.5%
See fluorocarbon polymer. pure, crystals up to 99.999% pure.
Hazard: (Metal and compounds as tellurium) Toxic
“Teflon EFTE” [Thanavala]. TM for a co- by inhalation. TLV: 0.1 mg(Te)/m3.
polymer of etheylene and tetra flouro-ethylene, also Use: Alloys (tellurium lead, stainless steel, iron cast-
known as Tefzel. ings), secondary rubber vulcanizing agent, manu-
Use: Non-stick surfaces. facture of iron and stainless steel castings, coloring
agent in glass and ceramics, thermoelectric devices,
catalysts, with lithium in storage batteries for space-
“Teflon FEP” [Thanavala]. TM for non- craft.
stick melt and flow system.
Use: During backing to provide non-pourous films. tellurium bromide. See tellurium dibromide
and tellurium tetrabromide.
“Teflon PTFE” [Thanavala]. TM for a non-
stick double coating (primer, top coat). tellurium chloride. See tellurium dichloride.
Use: Coating for the highest operating temperatures.
tellurium dibromide. (tellurium bromide;
TEG. Abbreviation for tetraethylene glycol and tellurous bromide). TeBr2.
triethylene glycol. Properties: Blackish-green, crystalline mass or gray
to black needles; very hygroscopic. Mp 210C, bp
“Tego” [Rohm & Haas]. TM for thin tissue 339C. Decomposed by water; soluble in ether; violet
impregnated with heat-convertible phenol-formal- vapor.
dehyde resin, supplied in rolls. Produces waterproof Hazard: As for tellurium.
bond with plywood veneers.
Use: Hot-press bonding of furniture veneers, premi- tellurium dichloride. (tellurium chloride;
um wall paneling. tellurous chloride). TeCl2.
Properties: Amorphous, black mass, greenish-yel-
“Tekflame” [Exxon Chemical low when powdered. Decomposed by water. D 6.9,
International]. TM for a firefighting fuel. bp 327C, mp 209C.
Hazard: As for tellurium.
TEL. Abbreviation for tetraethyl lead. tellurium dioxide. (tellurous acid anhydride).
CAS: 7446-07-3. TeO2.
telluric acid. (hydrogen tellurate). Properties: Heavy, white, crystalline powder;
CAS: 7803-68-1. H2TeO4•2H2O or H6TeO6. odorless. D 5.89, mp 733C, bp 1245C. Soluble in
Properties: White, heavy crystals. D 3.07, mp 136C. concentrated acids, alkalies; slightly soluble in di-
Soluble in hot water and alkalies; slightly soluble in lute acids, water.
cold water. Hazard: As for tellurium.
Derivation: Action of sulfuric acid on barium tellu-
rate. tellurium disulfide. (tellurium sulfide). TeS2.
Hazard: As for tellurium. Properties: Red powder, turns in time to a dark-
Use: Chemical reagent. brown amorphous powder, fuses to gray lustrous
mass. Soluble in alkali sulfides; insoluble in acids,
telluric bromide. See tellurium tetrabromide. water.

Hazard: As for tellurium. halogen derivatives of cyanogen, such as cyanogen

chloride, aldehydes, alcohols, and the like.
tellurium lead. See lead; tellurium. Radical-forming catalysts, such as organic perox-
ides, hydrogen peroxide, aliphatic azo compounds
tellurium sulfide. See tellurium disulfide. of the type of azoisobutyric acid nitrile, and redox
systems are employed for telomerization reactions.
tellurium tetrabromide. (telluric bromide; Telomerization reactions are as a rule carried out at
tellurium bromide). an elevated temperature up to 250 degrees. When
CAS: 10031-27-3. TeBr4. volatile reactants are used, the reaction is carried out
Properties: Yellow crystals. D 4.3, mp 363C, bp under elevated pressures, i.e., between 20 and 1000
420C (decomposes into bromine and dibromide). atmospheres.
Soluble in a little water (decomposes in excess
water). “Telone” [Dow]. TM for fumigants containing
Hazard: As for tellurium. 1,3-dichloropropene and related C3 hydrocarbons.

tellurous acid. H2TeO3. “Tel-Tale” [Grace]. TM for silica gel that is

Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 3.053, mp impregnated with cobalt chloride and turns from
40C (decomposes). Soluble in dilute acids, alkalies; blue to pink as the relative humidity increases.
slightly soluble in water, alcohol.
Hazard: As for tellurium.
TEM. Abbreviation for triethylene melamine.
tellurous acid anhydride. See tellurium di-
oxide. temephos. (O,O,O′,O′-tetramethyl-O,O′-thio-
di-p-phenylene phosphorothionate).
tellurous bromide. See tellurium dibromide. CAS: 3383-96-8.
Properties: Mp 30–30.5C.
tellurous chloride. See tellurium dichloride. Use: Larvicide for mosquito and blackfly.

telodrin. (1,3,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-3a,4,7,7a- “Temfibre” [Borregaard]. TM for wood

tetrahydro-4,7-methanonaphthalan). based chemicals.
CAS: 297-78-9.
Properties: Vap press 3 mm Hg (20C). Soluble in tempalgin.
acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, fuel oil, tol- CAS: 39296-38-3.
uene, xylene. mf: C13H17N3O4S•C9H17NO•C7H8O3S•Na.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
telomer. Polymeric products formed from a tel-
omerization reaction. temper. To increase the hardness and strength of
a metal by quenching or heat treatment.
telomerase. The enzyme that directs the replica-
tion of telomeres.
temperate phage. A phage whose DNA may be
telomere. The end of a chromosome. This spe- incorporated into the host-cell genome without be-
cialized structure is involved in the replication and ing expressed. Contrast with a virulent phage, which
stability of linear DNA molecules. destroys the host cell.
See DNA replication.
temperature. The thermal state of a body con-
telomerization reactions. In telomerization sidered with reference to its ability to communicate
reactions, a polymerizable unsaturated compound heat to other bodies (J. C. Maxwell). There is a
(the taxogen) is reacted under polymerization condi- distinction between temperature and heat, as is evi-
tions in the presence of radical-forming catalysts or denced by Helmholtz’s definition of heat as “energy
promoters with a so-called telogen. During the reac- that is transferred from one body to another by a
tion, the telogen is split into radicals that attach to the thermal process,” whereby a thermal process is
ends of the polymerizing taxogen and in some in- meant radiation, conduction, and/or convection.
stances add on to the double bond of the taxogen and Temperature is measured by such instruments as
thereby form chains whose terminal groups are thermometers, pyrometers, thermocouples, etc., and
formed of the radicals formed from the telogen. by scales such as centigrade (Celsius), Fahrenheit,
Organic compounds containing an olefinic double Rankine, Reaumur, and absolute (Kelvin). See
bond, such as ethylene, propylene, hexene, octene, absolute temperature; thermodynamics.
or styrene, are normally employed as taxogens.
Many different types of compounds can be em- template. A macromolecular pattern for the syn-
ployed as telogens, for example, halogenated hydro- thesis of another molecule. For example, DNA is a
carbons, such as chloroform or carbon tetrachloride, template for RNA synthesis.

“Temprite CPVC” [B. F. Goodrich]. TM TEPP. (ethyl pyrophosphate; tetraethyl pyro-

for chlorinated polyvinyl chloride resins formulated phosphate).
for process piping, valves, tanks, ductwork, and CAS: 107-49-3. (C2H5)4P2O7.
protective covers. Properties: Water-white to amber liquid depending
Use: For electrical conductors, residential hot and on purity; hygroscopic. D 1.20, refr index 1.420, bp
cold water–supply piping. (pure compound) 135–138C (1 mm Hg). Miscible
with water and all organic solvents except aliphatic
tenacity. Strength per unit weight of a fiber or hydrocarbons; hydrolyzed in water with formation
filament, expressed as g/denier. It is the rupture load of mono-, di-, and triethyl orthophosphates; water
divided by the linear density of the fiber. solutions attack metals; commercial material con-
See tensile strength; denier. tains 40% TEPP.
Derivation: From phosphorus oxychloride and etha-
tenderization. (1) Treatment of meats with UV nol or phosphorus oxychloride and triethyl phos-
radiation or with certain enzyme preparations to phate.
accelerate softening of the collagen fibers and thus Grade: 40%.
reduce the time necessary to “hang” the meat. (2) Hazard: Toxic by skin contact, inhalation, or inges-
The degradation and mechanical weakening under- tion; rapidly absorbed through skin; repeated expo-
gone by textile fibers under excessive wet abrasion sure may, without symptoms, be increasingly haz-
during laundering. ardous; cholinesterase inhibitor, use may be
restricted. TLV: 0.004 ppm. Toxic by skin absorp-
“Tenox” [Eastman]. TM for food-grade anti- tion.
oxidants containing one or more of the following Use: Insecticide for aphids and mites, rodenticide.
ingredients: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated
hydroxytoluene, and/or propyl gallate with or with- tera-. Prefix meaning 1012 units (symbol T), 1 Tg =
out citric acid. Some formulas are supplied in sol- 1 teragram = 1012 grams.
vents such as propylene glycol.
teratogen. An agent that causes growth abnor-
“Tenox GT-1” [Eastman]. TM for natural malities in embryos, genetic modifications in cells,
mixed tocopherols. etc.; ionizing radiation can have this effect.
Use: Antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and ointments.
teratogenic. Substances such as chemicals or
tensile strength. The rupture strength (stress- radiation that cause abnormal development of an
strain product at break) per unit area of a material embryo.
subjected to a specified dynamic load; it is usually See mutatgen.
expressed in pounds per square inch (psi). This defi-
nition applies to elastomeric materials and to certain
metals. terbacil.
See tenacity. CAS: 5902-51-2. C9H13ClN2O2.
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 175C. Soluble in
dimethylacetamide and cyclohexanone; partially
tension cracking. See stress cracking. soluble in xylene and butyl acetate.
Use: Herbicide.
tenter. A machine used for holding a processed
fabric taut as it is fed into a wind-up or to a cutter. It
consists of a frame along the inner sides of which “Terbec” [Dow]. TM for a wet strength impr-
travel continuous chains to which gripping devices over for soils; based on 4-tert-butylcatechol.
are attached at intervals of a few inches; these may
be either hooks or clamps of various kinds. As the terbia. See terbium oxide.
fabric moves into the machine, the edges are en-
gaged by the grippers and are automatically released terbium. Tb. Atomic number 65, group IIIB of
at the end of the frame. the periodic table, a rare-earth element of the yttrium
subgroup (lanthanide series), aw 158.9254, valences
tepa. (generic name for tris(1-aziridi- of 3, 4; no stable isotopes.
nyl)phosphine oxide). Properties: Metallic luster. D 8.332, mp 1356C, bp
See triethylenephosphoramide. 2800C. Reacts slowly with water; soluble in dilute
acids. Salts are colorless, highly reactive, handled in
“Tepidone” [Du Pont]. (C4H9)2NC(S)SNa. inert atmosphere or vacuum.
TM for a water solution of sodium dibutyldithiocar- Source: See rare earths.
bamate. Derivation: Reduction of fluoride with calcium.
Properties: Amber liquid. D 1.08. Grade: Regular, 99.9+% purity (ingots, lumps), sin-
Use: To accelerate vulcanization of natural and syn- gle crystals.
thetic rubber and latex compounds. Use: Phosphor activator, dope for solid-state devices.

terbium chloride, hexahydrate. terephthalic acid. (p-phthalic acid; TPA;

TbCl3•6H2O. benzene-p-dicarboxylic acid).
Properties: Transparent, colorless, prismatic crys- CAS: 100-21-0. C6H4(COOH)2.
tals. D 4.35, mp (anhydrous) 588C, very hygroscop- Properties: White crystals or powder. D 1.51, sub-
ic. Readily soluble in water or alcohol. limes above 300C. Insoluble in water, chloroform,
Derivation: By treatment of carbonate or oxide with ether, acetic acid; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble
hydrochloric acid in an atmosphere of dry hydrogen in alkalies. Combustible.
chloride. Derivation: (1) Oxidation of p-xylene or of mixed
xylenes and other alkyl aromatics (phthalic anhy-
terbium fluoride. TbF3•2H2O. dride). (2) Reacting benzene and potassium carbon-
Properties: Solid. Mp 1172C, bp 2280C. Insoluble ate over a cadmium catalyst.
in water. Grade: Commercial, fiber.
Hazard: Strong irritant. Use: Production of linear, crystalline polyester res-
Use: Source of terbium. ins, fibers, and films by combination with glycols;
reagent for alkali in wool; additive to poultry feeds.
terbium nitrate. Tb(NO3)3•6H2O. 2-terephthaloylbenzoic acid.
Properties: Colorless, monoclinic needles or white HOOCC6H4COC6H4COOH.
powder. Mp 89.3C. Soluble in water. Properties: White to gray powder. Mp 233–237C.
Derivation: By treatment of oxide, carbonate, or Use: Chemical intermediate.
hydroxide with nitric acid.
Hazard: Strong oxidant, fire risk in contact with terephthaloyl chloride. (1,4-benzenedicarbo-
organic materials. nyl chloride). C6H4(COCl)2.
terbium oxide. (terbia). Tb2O3.
Properties: Dark-brown powder. Soluble in dilute
acids; slightly hygroscopic, absorbs carbon dioxide
from air.
Derivation: By ignition of hydroxides or salts of
Grade: 98–99%.
See rare earth.

terbium sulfate. Tb2(SO4)3•8H2O.

Properties: Colorless crystals. Lose 8H2O at 360C. Properties: Colorless needles. Mp 82–84C, bp
Soluble in water. 259C, flash p 356F (180C). Decomposes in water
and alcohol; soluble in ether. Combustible.
Hazard: Skin irritant.
terbufos. (O,O-diethyl-S-(tert-butyl)methyl Use: Dye manufacture; synthetic fibers, resins, films;
phosphorodithioate). UV absorption; pharmaceuticals; rubber chemicals;
CAS: 13071-79-9. C9H21O2PS3. An ester of phos- cross-linking agent for polyurethanes and polysul-
phoric acid. fides.
Properties: Yellowish liquid. D 1.10, bp 70C (0.01
mm Hg), fp −29C, flash p 88C (TOC). Soluble in
alcohol, acetone.
“Tergitol” [Dow]. TM for a series of nonionic
and anionic surfactants.
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Toxic by ingestion.
Use: Detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers in water
Use: Soil insecticide.
systems, leveling and spreading agents.
terbutol. terminal transferase. An enzyme that cata-
CAS: 1918-11-2. mf: C17H27NO2. lyzes the addition of nucleotide residues of a single
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact. kind to the 3′ end of DNA chains. For example,
Use: Agricultural chemical. polyA synthetase.

terebene. A mixture of terpenes, chiefly dipen- termination codons. XH See stop codons.
tene and terpinene.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.862–0.866, inac- termination factors. (release factors). Pro-
tive optical rotation, Bp 160–172C. Soluble in alco- tein factors of the cytoplasm required in releasing a
hol; insoluble in water. completed polypeptide chain from a ribosome..
Derivation: From oil of turpentine.
Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. Toxic by termination sequence. A DNA sequence that
ingestion and inhalation. appears at the end of a transcriptional unit and sig-
Use: To impart water and oil resistance to cellulosics. nals the end of transcription.

ternary. Descriptive of a solution or alloy having Properties: Polymers of ␣-pinene, ␤-pinene, and/or
three components, or of a chemical compound hav- dipentine (FCC III). Mp: 112−118°. Sol in benzene.
ing three constituent elements or groups. Use: Food additive.

ternary acid. An acid that contains three differ- terpenoid. See terpene.
ent elements. An example would be acetic acid,
CH3COOH. 1,3-terphenyl. See m-terphenyl.

ternary diagram. A constitution diagram for a m-terphenyl. (m-diphenylbenzene; isodiphe-

ternary alloy system. nylbenzene; 1,3-terphenyl).
CAS: 92-06-8. mf: C18H14.
terneplate. (roofing tin). A lead-tin alloy used Properties: Needles. Mw 230.32, mp 86−87C, bp
for coating iron or steel; its composition is 75% lead 379C.
and 25% tin. It has a dull finish. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. TLV: ceil-
Use: Roofing, deep stamping, gasoline tanks, etc. ing of 0.5 ppm. Combustible.

1,4(8)-terpadiene. See terpinolene. o-terphenyl. (1,2-diphenylbenzene).

CAS: 84-15-1. C18H14.
terpene. C10H16. An unsaturated hydrocarbon oc- Properties: Prisms from MeOH. Mp 58−59°C, bp
curring in most essential oils and oleoresins of 337°C, mw 230.32, flash p >230°F.
plants. The terpenes are based on the isoprene unit Hazard: TLV: CL 0.5 ppm. Combustible.

p-terphenyl. (1,4-diphenylbenzene).
CAS: 92-94-4. (C6H5)2C6H4.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.234 (0C), mp 213C, bp
405C, flash p 405F (207C). Combustible.
C5H8, and may be either acyclic or cyclic with one or Derivation: From p-dibromobenzene or bromoben-
more benzenoid groups. They are classified as mono- zene and sodium.
cyclic (dipentene), dicyclic (pinene), or acyclic (myr- Method of purification: Zone-melting.
cene), according to the molecular structure. Many ter- Grade: Technical, scintillation.
penes exhibit optical activity. Terpene derivatives Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. TLV:
(camphor, menthol, terpineol, borneol, geraniol, etc.) ceiling 0.5 ppm.
are called terpenoids; many are alcohols. Use: Polymerized with styrene to make a plastic
See polyterpene resin. phosphor. Single crystals used as scintillation
terpene alcohol. A generic name for an alcohol
related to or derived from a terpene hydrocarbon, terpilenol. See terpineol.
such as terpineol or borneol.
terpinene. C10H16. A mixture of three isomeric
terpene hydrochloride. See 2-bornyl chlo- cyclic terpenes, ␣-, ␤-, and ␥-terpinene. ␣-terpinene
ride. has a bp of 180–182C and d 0.8484 (14C). It is found
in cardamom, marjoram, and coriander oils. ␤-terpi-
terpeneless oil. An essential oil from which the nene has a bp of 183C and d 0.853 (15C). It is found
terpene components have been removed by extrac- in coriander, lemon, cumin, and ajawan oils.
tion and fractionation, either alone or in combina- Use: Synthetic flavors.
tion. The optical activity of the oil is thus reduced.
The terpeneless grades are much more highly con- terpineol. (␣-terpineol; ␤-terpineol; ␥-terpi-
centrated than the original oil (15–30 times). Re- neol; terpilenol).
moval of terpenes is necessary to inhibit spoilage, CAS: (␣) 8006-39-1. C10H17OH.
particularly of oils derived from citrus sources. On Properties: Colorless liquid or low-melting trans-
atmospheric oxidation the specific terpenes form parent crystals; lilac odor. D 0.930–0.936 (25C),
compounds that impair the value of the oil; for ex- solidification p 2C, optical rotation between −0 de-
ample, d-limonene oxidizes to carvone and ␥-terpi- grees 10 min and +0 degrees 10 min, boiling range
nene to p-cymene. Terpeneless grades of citrus oils 214 to 224C, 90% within 5C, refr index
are commercially available. 1.4825–1.4850 (20C). Soluble in two volumes of
70% alcohol; slightly soluble in water, glycerol.
terpene resin, natural. Combustible.
Properties: Extracted from wood. Mp: 155°. Available forms: Mixture of the three isomers
Use: Food additive. Derivation: By heating terpin hydrate with phos-
phoric acid and distilling or with dilute sulfuric acid,
terpene resin, synthetic. using an azeotropic separation; fractional distilla-
“TERPINEOL 318” 1214

tion of pine oil. Occurs naturally in several essential “Tersan” 75 [Du Pont]. TM for a turf fungi-
oils. cide containing 75% thiram. “Tersan” OM contains
Grade: Technical, perfumery, extra, prime, FCC. 45% thiram and 10% hydroxymercurichlorophenol.
Use: Solvent for hydrocarbon materials, mutual sol- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
vent for resins and cellulose esters and ethers, per-
fumes, soaps, disinfectant, antioxidant, flavoring tert-. Abbreviation for tertiary.
“Terpineol 318” [Aqualon]. TM for a highly CAS: 34784-64-0. mf: C16H25NO2S.
refined mixture of tertiary terpene alcohols, pre- Hazard: Human systemic effects.
dominantly ␣-terpineol; 97% total terpene alcohols;
colorless liquid; fp below 10C; d 0.937 (15.6/ tertiary. (1) For chemical meaning see primary.
15.6C); ASTM distillation range 5–95%, (2) In petroleum extraction technology, the term
(216–220C). refers to recovery of petroleum by pumping deter-
gents, high polymers, silicates, etc. into the rock
terpin hydrate. (dipentene glycol). structure. These techniques are generally known as
CH3(OH)C6H9C(CH3)2OH•H2O. enhanced oil recovery.
Properties: Colorless, lustrous, rhombic, crystalline See chemical flooding; hydraulic fracturing.
prisms or white powder; slight characteristic odor;
slightly bitter taste. Efflorescent, mp 115–117C, an- tertiary alcohol. An alcohol in which the car-
hydrous mp 105C, bp 258C. Soluble in alcohol and bon atom to which the hydroxyl group is attached is
ether; slightly soluble in water. Combustible. also attached to three other carbon atoms.
Derivation: From turpentine oil or d-limonene.
Grade: Technical, NF.
Use: Pharmaceuticals, source of terpineol, medicine tertiary amine. An amine in which three carbon
(expectorant). atoms are attached to the amino nitrogen.

terpinolene. (1,4(8)-terpadiene). tertiary carbon. Carbon atom that is joined to

CAS: 586-62-9. C10H16. three other carbon atoms.
Properties: Water-white to pale-amber liquid. D
0.864 (15.5/15.5C), bp 183–185C, flash p 99F tertiary structure. The three-dimensional con-
(37.2C) (CC), bulk d 7.2 lb/gal (15.5C). Insoluble in formation of a protein in its native folded state.
water; soluble in alcohol, ether, glycol.
Derivation: Fractionation of wood turpentine. testing, chemical. Identification of a substance
Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. by means of reagents, chromatography, spectrosco-
Use: Solvent for resins, essential oils; manufacture of py, melting and boiling point determination, etc.
synthetic resins, synthetic flavors. See analytical chemistry.

terpinyl acetate. testing, physical. Application of any procedure

CAS: 80-26-2. C10H17OOCCH3. whose object is to determine the physical properties
Properties: Colorless liquid; odor suggestive of ber- of a material. There are four major categories of
gamot and lavender. D 0.958–0.968 (15C), refr in- tests: (1) Those that are direct measurements of a
dex 1.4640–1.4660 (20C), optical rotation varies property, e.g., tensile strength. (2) Those that subject
around 0 degrees, fp −50C, bp 220C. Soluble in five the material to actual service conditions; these often
or more volumes of 70% alcohol; slightly soluble in require a long period of time, e.g., shelf life of foods
water and glycerol. Combustible. and corrosion of metals. (3) Accelerated tests, which
Derivation: By heating terpineol with acetic acid or require specially designed equipment that simulates
anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid and subse- service conditions on an exaggerated scale; in these,
quent distillation. only a few hours are necessary to duplicate years of
Grade: Technical, prime, extra, FCC. service life, e.g., oxygen bomb aging of elastomers.
Use: Perfumes, flavoring agent. (4) Nondestructive testing by X ray or radiography.
Elaborate standard testing procedures are estab-
terpolymer. A polymer made from three mono- lished by the American Society for Testing and
mers, e.g., ABS polymers. Materials. The more common types of tests are as
“Terramycin” [Pfizer]. Proprietary prepara- abrasion (elastomers, textiles)
tion containing oxytetracycline and oxytetracycline adhesion (glues, resins)
hydrochloride. aging (elastomers, plastics, leather, food products)
Use: Antibiotic. color stability (pigments, organic dyes) (exposure)
corrosion (metals, alloys) (exposure)
“Terra XPS” [DSM China]. TM for fiber dielectric (electrical tapes, plastics, glass)
optic coatings. flammability (textiles, fibers, paper, plastics)

flash point of combustible liquids (Tag closed cup Use: Mordant in textile printing, fungicide.
TCC, Cleveland open cup COC, open cup OC
hardness (metals, elastomers, plastics) (Brinell, 1,5,8,12-tetraazadodecane.
Rockwell, Shore penetration) CAS: 10563-26-5. mf: C8H22N4.
high temperature (elastomers, adhesives) Hazard: A poison by skin contact. Moderately toxic
impact strength (composites, glass cement) by ingestion.
sun-cracking (paints, varnishes, elastomers) (expo-
sure) tetrabromobisphenol A. See 4,4′-(1-methy-
tear (paper, rubber, textiles) lethylidene)bis(2,6-dibromophenol).
tensile strength (fibers, elastomers, paper, textiles,
metals) viscosity (lubricants) (Saybolt, Engler) tetrabromo-m-cresolphthalein sulfone.
See exposure testing; nondestructive testing; CAS: 76-60-8. mf: C21H14Br4O5S.
aging. Hazard: Moderately toxic.

testing, physiological. Determination of the tetrabromo-o-cresol.

toxicity of a substance or product by administering it CAS: 576-55-6. C7H4Br4O.
to laboratory animals in controlled dosages, by Properties: Fine, white crystals. Mp 205C (decom-
mouth, skin application, or injection. Materials poses). Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and
commonly subjected to such evaluation are pharma- ether.
ceuticals, pesticides, and foods. Extensive testing Derivation: Bromination of o-cresol.
programs are required before such products are ap- Hazard: Irritant to skin and mucous membranes.
proved for human use. Use: Fungicide.
See LD50.
tetrabromo-m-cresolphthalein sulfone.
testosterone. See bromocresol green.
CAS: 58-22-0. C19H28O2.
CAS: 630-16-0. mf: C2H2Br4.
Hazard: Low toxicity by inhalation.

sym-tetrabromoethane. See acetylene tetra-


An androgenic steroid; the male sex hormone pro- 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
duced by the testis. It has six times the androgenic (s)-␣-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl ester.
activity of its metabolic product, androsterone. Use: Food additive; insecticide.
Properties: White or slightly cream-white crystals or
crystalline powder; odorless; stable in air. Mp tetrabromoethylene. C2Br4.
153–157C. Dextrorotatory in dioxane solution; very Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 55–56C, bp
soluble in chloroform; soluble in alcohol, dioxane, 227C.
and vegetable oils; slightly soluble in ether; insolu- Derivation: Bromination of dibromoacetylene.
ble in water. Use: Organic synthesis.
Derivation: Isolation from extract of testis, synthesis
from cholesterol or from the plant steroid diosgenin. tetrabromofluorescein. See eosin.
Grade: NF.
Hazard: A carcinogen (OSHA). tetrabromomethane. See carbon tetrabro-
Use: Medicine, biochemical research. mide.
See methyltestosterone.
tetrabromophthalic anhydride. C6Br4C2O3.
testosterone-17-␤-estradiol mixt. Properties: Pale-yellow, crystalline solid. Mp 280C.
CAS: 8055-33-2. mf: C19H28O2•C18H24O2. Use: Flame-retardant for plastics, paper, and textiles.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. A reproductive
hazard. 3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalic anhydride.
Use: Hormone. CAS: 632-79-1. mf: C8Br4O3.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and
TETD. Abbreviation for tetraethylthiuram disul- skin contact. A mild eye irritant.
tetrabromosilane. See silicon tetrabromide.
tetraamminecopper sulfate. N4H12CuSO4.
Derivation: Dissolving copper sulfate in ammonia tetra-n-butylammonium chloride.
water, with precipitation by alcohol. (C4H9)4NCl.

Properties: Deliquescent, light-tan powder. Mp 1.486, flash p 170F (76.6C). Decomposes in water;
50C. soluble in most organic solvents except ketones.
Use: Substitute in solution for glass-calomel elec- Combustible.
trode systems, coagulant for silver iodide solutions, Derivation: Reaction of titanium tetrachloride with
stereospecific catalyst. butanol.
Use: Ester exchange reactions; heat-resistant paints
tetrabutyl dichlorostannoxane. (up to 500C); improving adhesion of paints, rubber,
CAS: 10428-19-0. mf: C16H36Cl2OSn2. and plastics to metal surfaces; cross-linking agent;
Properties: White crystals from Me2CO. Mp: 112.5°. condensation catalyst.
Sol in org solvs.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tetrabutyl urea. (C4H9)2NCON(C4H9)2.
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). Properties: Liquid. D 0.880, refr index 1.4535, vap
press below 0.01 mm Hg, bp 305C, fp below −60C,
tetra(2-butylisopropyl) orthosilicate. flash p 200F (93.3C). Insoluble in water. Combus-
CAS: 63449-47-8. mf: C28H60O4Si. tible.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact. Use: Plasticizer.
A moderate skin and eye irritant.
tetrabutyl zirconate. (C4H9O)4Zr.
tetrabutylphosphonium phenylphosphinate. Properties: White solid from reaction of zirconium
See tetra-n-butylphosphonium phenylphosphi- tetrachloride with butanol.
nate. Use: Condensation catalyst and cross-linking agent.
tetra-n-butylphosphonium “Tetracaine” [Cetylite]. (2-dimethylamino-
phenylphosphinate. ethyl-p-butylaminobenzoate).
CAS: 60767-85-3. mf: C16H36P•C6H6O2P. CAS: 94-24-6.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. A severe skin irri- CH3(CH2)3NHC6H4COOCH2CH2N(CH3)2.
tant. Properties: White or light-yellow, waxy solid. Mp
41–46C. Very slightly soluble in water; soluble in
tetrabutylthiuram disulfide. alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform.
[(C4H9)2NCH]2S2. Grade: USP.
Properties: Amber-colored liquid; slightly sweet Use: Medicine (anesthetic).
odor. D 1.03–1.06 (20/20C), solidifies at −30C. Sol-
uble in carbon disulfide, benzene, chloroform, and tetracalcium aluminoferrate. An ingredient
gasoline; insoluble in water and 10% caustic. Com- of Portland cement.
Use: Vulcanizing and accelerating agent.
tetracarbonylhydrocobalt). See cobalt hy-
tetrabutylthiuram monosulfide.
Properties: Brown, free-flowing liquid. D 0.99. Sol- 1,2,3,4-tetracarboxybutane. (TCB; 1,2,3,4-
uble in acetone, benzene, gasoline, and ethylene butanetetracarboxylic acid).
dichloride; insoluble in water. Combustible. HOOCCH2CH(COOH)CH(COOH)CH2COOH.
Use: Rubber accelerator. Use: Alkyd resins, epoxy curing agent, sequestrant.

tetrabutyltin. tetracene. See naphthacene.

CAS: 1461-25-2. (C4H9)4Sn.
Properties: Colorless or slightly yellow, oily liquid. 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene.
D 1.0572 (20/4C), fp −97C, bp 145C (10 mm Hg), CAS: 634-66-2. C6H2Cl4.
decomposes at 265C. Insoluble in water; soluble in Properties: White crystals. Mp 46.6, bp 254C. Insol-
most common organic solvents. Combustible. uble in water. Combustible.
Derivation: Reaction of tin tetrachloride with butyl Use: Component of dielectric fluids, synthesis.
magnesium chloride.
Hazard: Irritant. TLV: 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3. 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene.
Use: Stabilizing and rust-inhibiting agent for sili- CAS: 95-94-3. C6H2Cl4.
cones, lubricant and fuel additive, polymerization Properties: White flakes. Mp 137.5–140C, flash p
catalyst, hydrogen chloride scavenger. 311F (155C), distillation range 240–246C. Com-
tetrabutyl titanate. (TBT; butyl titanate; ti- Use: Intermediate for herbicides and defoliants, in-
tanium butylate). secticide, impregnant for moisture resistance, elec-
CAS: 5593-70-4. Ti(OC4H9)4. trical insulation.
Properties: Colorless to light-yellow liquid. Bp
310–314C, forms a glass −55C, d 0.996, refr index tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone. See chloranil.

tetrachlorobisphenol. (C6H2Cl2OH)2C(CH3)2. removers, varnishes, lacquers, photographic film,

A monomer for flame-retardant epoxy, polyester, resins and waxes, extraction of oils and fats, alcohol
and polycarbonate resins. denaturant, organic synthesis, insecticides, weed
killer, fumigant, intermediate in manufacture of oth-
tetrachlorocyclopentane. er chlorinated hydrocarbons.
CAS: 59808-78-5. mf: C5H6Cl4.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion, skin contact, tetrachloroethylene. See perchloroethylene.
and inhalation. A moderate eye irritant.
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. See cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide. (“Difola-
dioxin. tan”;“captafol”).
CAS: 2425-06-1. C10H9Cl4NO2S.
1,1,2-tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane. (halo- Properties: White solid. Mp 160C. Slightly soluble
carbon 112a; refrigerant 112a). in most organic solvents; insoluble in water.
CAS: 76-11-9. CCl2CF2Cl. Hazard: Absorbed by skin. TLV: 0.1 mg/m3; not
Properties: Colorless, liquid or solid; slight ether classifiable as a human carcinogen.
odor. Mw 202.83, mp 40.56C, bp 91.67C, vap press Use: Fungicide.
40 torr (20C). Insoluble in water; soluble in ether,
chloroform, and alcohol. Noncombustible. n-((tetrachloro-2-fluoroethyl)thio)methane-
Hazard: TLV: 500 ppm. sulfoanilide. See n-(2-fluoro-1,1,2,2-tetra-
Use: Refrigerant. chloroethylthio).

sym-tetrachlorodifluoroethane. (1,2-difluo- tetrachloroisophthalonitrile. (1,3-dicyano-

ro-1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; freon 112). 2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene). C8Cl4N2.
CAS: 76-12-0. CCl2FCCl2F. Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 245C, bp 350C, d
Properties: White solid or colorless liquid; slightly 1.70, insoluble in water, almost insoluble in organic
camphorlike odor when concentrated. Bp 92.8C, mp solvents.
26C, critical temp 278C, d 1.6447 (25C), refr index Use: Bactericide, nematocide.
1.413 (25C), bulk d 13.8 lb/gal. Insoluble in water;
soluble in alcohol. Nonflammable. tetrachloromethane. See carbon tetrachlo-
Grade: Purified, solvent. ride.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 500 ppm.
Use: Degreasing solvent. tetrachloronaphthalene. (Halowax).
CAS: 1335-88-2. C10H4Cl4.
tetrachlorodinitroethane. O2NCCl2CCl2NO2. Properties: Colorless to pale-yellow solid; aromatic
Properties: White crystals. Decomposes at 130C to odor. Mw 265.96, sp g 1.59–1.65, mp 115C, bp
nitrogen peroxide. 311.5–360C, flash p 410F. Insoluble in water.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong Hazard: Combustible. Toxic by inhalation and skin
irritant. contact. TLV: 2 mg/m3.
Use: Electrical insulating materials; in resins and
tetrachlorodiphenylethane. See TDE. polymers for coating textiles, wood, and paper; ad-
ditive in cutting oils.
2′,3,4,6′-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether. See See chlorinated naphthalene.
tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfone. See tetradifon. CAS: 58-90-2. C6HCl4OH.
Properties: Brown flakes or sublimed mass; strong
sym-tetrachloroethane. (acetylene tetrachlo- odor. Mp 69–70C, bp 164C (23 mm Hg), d 1.839
ride). (25/4C). Soluble in acetone, benzene, ether, and
CAS: 79-34-5. CHCl2CHCl2. alcohol. Nonflammable.
Properties: Heavy, colorless, corrosive liquid; chlo- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
roform-like odor. D 1.593 (25/25C), bp 146.5C, fp irritant.
−43C, bulk d 13.25 lb/gal (25C), refr index 1.4918 Use: Fungicide.
(25C), flash p none. Soluble in alcohol and ether;
slightly soluble in water. Nonflammable. 2,4,5,6-tetrachlorophenol.
Derivation: Reaction of acetylene and chlorine and CAS: 58-90-2. C6HCl4OH.
subsequent distillation. Properties: Brown solid; phenol odor. D 1.65 (60/
Grade: Technical. 4C), mp above 50C. Soluble in sodium hydroxide
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorp- solutions and most organic solvents; insoluble in
tion. TLV: 1 ppm; not classifiable as a human car- water.
cinogen. Toxic by skin absorption. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
Use: Solvent, cleansing and degreasing metals, paint irritant.

Use: Fungicide, wood preservative. benzene and low molecular weight hydrocarbons;
viscosity unaffected by temperature. Combustible.
tetrachlorophthalic acid. C6Cl4(CO2H)2. Use: Silicone oils, foam inhibitor in lubricating oils.
Properties: Colorless, crystalline plates. Soluble in
hot water; sparingly soluble in cold water. tetracosane. C24H50 or CH3(CH2)22CH3.
Derivation: By passing a stream of chlorine through Properties: Crystals. D 0.779 (51/4C), bp 324.1C,
a mixture of phthalic anhydride and antimony penta- mp 51.5C. Soluble in alcohol; insoluble in water.
chloride. Combustible.
Use: Dyes, intermediates. Use: Organic synthesis.

tetrachlorophthalic anhydride. n-tetracosanoic acid. See lignoceric acid.

CAS: 117-08-8. C6Cl4(CO)2O.
Properties: White, odorless, free-flowing, nonhyg- tetracyanoethylene.
roscopic powder. Mp 254–255C, bp 371C. Slightly CAS: 670-54-2. (CN)2C:C(CN)2. The first member
soluble in water. of a class of compounds called cyanocarbons.
Use: Intermediate in dyes, pharmaceuticals, plasti- Properties: Colorless crystals. Sublimes above
cizers, and other organic materials; flame-retardant 120C, mp 198–200C, bp 223C, high thermal stabili-
in epoxy resins. ty. Burns in oxygen with a hotter flame than acety-
tetrachloroquinone. See chloranil. Hazard: Hydrolyzes in moist air to hydrogen cya-
tetrachlorosalicylanilide. C13H7Cl4NO2. Use: Organic synthesis, dyes, to make colored solu-
Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp 160C. Insoluble in tions with aromatics.
water; soluble in common organic solvents and alka-
line solutions. tetradecamethylhexasiloxane. C14H42O5Si6.
Use: Bacteriostat; preservative (textile finishes, cut- Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 140C (20 mm Hg),
ting oils, plastics); use in foods, drugs, and cosmet- fp below −100C, d 0.89, refr index 1.4, flash p 118C.
ics may be restricted. Viscosity unaffected by temperature. Soluble in
benzene and low molecular weight hydrocarbons;
tetrachlorosilane. See silicon tetrachloride. slightly soluble in alcohol. Combustible.
Use: Silicone oil base, foam inhibitor in lubricating
3,3,4,4-tetrachlorotetrahydrothiophene-1,1- oils.
CAS: 3737-41-5. mf: C4H4Cl4O2S. n-tetradecane.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact. CAS: 629-59-4. C14H30 or CH3(CH2)12CH3.
Moderately toxic by inhalation. A severe skin irri- Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.7653 (20/4C), mp
tant. 5.5C, bp 253.5C, refr index 1.4302 (20C), flash p
212F (100C), autoign temp 396F (202C). Soluble in
tetrachlorothiophene. alcohol; insoluble in water. Combustible.
CAS: 6012-97-1. Grade: 95%, 99%.
Hazard: A fire hazard. Lower flammable limit in air
❘ ❘
CClCClCClCClS. 0.5%.
Properties: Liquid. Mp 29–30, bp 104C (10 mm Use: Organic synthesis, solvent standardized hydro-
Hg). Soluble in benzene, hexane, alcohols, chloro- carbon, distillation chaser.
Use: Agricultural chemicals, lubricants. tetradecanoic acid. See myristic acid.

tetrachlorvinphos. tetradecanol. See myristyl alcohol; 7-ethyl-2-

CAS: 961-11-5. C10H9Cl4O4P. methyl-4-undecanol.
Properties: Powder. Mp 97C. Partially soluble in
chloroform; slightly soluble in water. 9-tetradecenal, (z)-.
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. CAS: 53939-27-8. mf: C14H26O.
Use: Insecticide. Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion.
Source: Natural product.
tetracine. See tetrazene.
11-tetradecenal, (e)-.
tetracosamethylhendecasiloxane. CAS: 35746-21-5. mf: C14H26O.
C24H72O10Si11. Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and
Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 200C (5 mm Hg), d skin contact.
0.924, refr index 1.399, flash p 188C. Soluble in Source: Natural product.

1-tetradecene. (␣-tetradecylene). Soluble in chloroform and aromatic hydrocarbons;

CH2:CH(CH2)11CH3. insoluble in water.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.775 (20/4C), fp Use: Insecticide, acaricide, ovicide.
−12C, bp 256C, flash p 230F (110C). Insoluble in
water; very slightly soluble in alcohol and ether. tetra(diphenylphosphito)pentaerythritol.
Combustible. See pentaerythritol tetrakis(diphenyl phos-
Use: Solvent in perfumes, flavors, medicines, dyes, phite).
oils, resins.
tetradotoxin. A highly toxic venom found in
cis-tetradec-9-enoic acid. See myristoleic pufferlike fish.
tetraethanolammonium hydroxide.
(z)-9-tetradecenol acetate. CAS: 77-98-5. (HOCH2CH2)4NOH.
CAS: 16725-53-4. mf: C16H30O2. Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 123C, vap
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. press below 0.01 mm Hg (20C). Completely soluble
Source: Natural product. in water. A strong base, approaching sodium hy-
droxide in alkalinity. Aqueous solutions are stable at
tetradecylamine. C14H29NH2. room temperature but decomposes on heating to
Properties: White solid; odor of ammonia. Mp 37C, weakly basic polyethanolamines.
bp 291.2C. Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and Grade: Commercial grade is a 40% water solution.
ether. Combustible. Hazard: Strong irritant to skin and tissue.
Grade: 90% purity. Use: Alkaline catalyst, solvent for certain types of
Use: Intermediate for manufacture of cationic sur- dyes, metal-plating solutions.
face-active agents, germicides.
tetradecylbenzyldimethylammonium methylcyclotetrasiloxane.
chloride monohydrate. CAS: 2554-06-5. mf: C12H24O4Si4.
[C14H29N(CH3)2CH2C6H5]Cl•H2O. A quaternary Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and inhalation.
ammonium salt.
Properties: (50% solution in aqueous isopropanol) tetraethylammonium perfluoro-1-
Viscous liquid that may gelatinize on standing. D octanesulfonate.
0.978 (16C). Miscible with water, alcohol, glycerol CAS: 56773-42-3. mf: C8H20N•C8F17O3S.
and acetone; pH of a 10% solution in distilled water Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
Grade: 50% solution in aqueous isopropanol. 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane.
Use: Production of bacteriostatic and fungistatic CAS: 122-31-6. [(C2H5O)2CH]2CH2.
paper. Properties: Liquid. Bp 105C, refr index 1.410 (20C),
d 0.920 (20/20C), flash p 190F (87.7C). Slightly
tetradecyl chloride. (myristyl chloride). soluble in water; soluble in ether and alcohol. Com-
CH3(CH2)13Cl. bustible.
Properties: Water-white distilled liquid; mild odor. Use: Organic synthesis.
D 0.8590, fp −0.2C, bp 154–155C (15 mm Hg),
15.2% chloride, subject to mild hydrolysis on tetraethylammonium chloride. (TEAC;
standing. TEA chloride). (C2H5)4NCl.
Grade: 97% min. Properties: (Anhydrous) Colorless, crystals;
odorless. D 1.080. Hygroscopic; freely soluble in
␣-tetradecylene. See 1-tetradecene. water, alcohol, chloroform, acetone; slightly soluble
in benzene and ether. (Tetrahydrate)
tetradecyl thiol. (myristyl mercaptan). (C2H5)4NCl•4H2O. Crystals. Mp 37.5C, d 1.084.
CH3(CH2)13SH. Use: Medicine (nerve-blocking agent).
Properties: Liquid; strong odor. Mp 6.5C, bp
176–180C (22 mm Hg), d 0.8398 (25/4C), refr index tetraethylammonium hexafluorophosphate.
1.4612 (20C). Combustible. (C2H5)4NPF6.
Grade: 95% (min) purity. Properties: Solid. Mp 255C. Nonhygroscopic but
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant. soluble in water; stable to heat, can be stored in
Use: Organic intermediate, synthetic rubber pro- solution without decomposition of the PF6 ion.
cessing. Hazard: Irritant to skin.
Use: Maintenance of fluoride atmospheres; prepara-
tetradifon. (chlorophenyl-2,4,5-trichlorophenyl tion of bactericides and fungicides.
sulfone; 2,4,4′,5-tetrachlorodiphenylsulfone).
CAS: 116-29-0. Cl3C6H2SO2C6H4Cl. tetra-(2-ethylbutyl) silicate.
Properties: White, crystalline powder. Mp 147C. [(C2H5)C4H8O]4Si.

Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.8920–0.9018 (20/ tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) silicate.

20C), fp −100C, bp 238C (50 mm Hg). Insoluble in [C4H9CH(C2H5)CH2O]4Si.
water; slightly soluble in methanol; miscible with Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.8838, bp
most organic solvents. 350–370C, fp −90C, flash p 390F (198C). Solubility
Use: Heat-transfer medium, hydraulic fluid, wide- in water below 0.01, 7.4 lb/gal. Combustible.
temperature-range lubricant. Use: Synthetic lubricants and functional fluids.

tetraethyl dithiopyrophosphate. (TEDP). tetra-(2-ethylhexyl) titanate. (tetrakis(2-eth-

See sulfotepp. ylhexyl)titanate). [C4H9CH(C2H5)CH2O]4Ti.
Properties: Light-yellow, viscous liquid from the
tetraethylene glycol. (TEG). transesterification of isopropyl titanate with 2-ethyl-
HO(C2H4O)3C2H4OH. hexanol. Combustible.
Properties: Colorless liquid; hygroscopic. D 1.1248 Use: Cross-linking agent, condensation catalyst, ad-
(20/20C), fp −4C, bp 327.3C, vap press above 0.001 hesion promoter, water repellents.
mm Hg (20C), refr index 1.4577 (20C), flash p 345F
(174C), bulk d 9.4 lb/gal (20C). Soluble in water; tetraethyl lead. (TEL).
insoluble in benzene, toluene, or gasoline. Combus- CAS: 78-00-2. Pb(C2H5)4.
tible. Properties: Colorless, oily liquid; pleasant odor. D
Use: Solvent for nitrocellulose, plasticizer, lacquers, 1.65, bp 198–202C, 75–85C (13–14 mm Hg), fp
coating compositions. −136C, decomposes slowly at room temperature,
rapidly at 125–150C. Soluble in all organic solvents;
tetraethylene glycol dibutyl ether. See insoluble in water and dilute acids or alkalies. Com-
dibutoxytetraglycol. bustible.
Derivation: (1) Alkylation of lead-sodium alloy with
ethyl chloride; (2) electrolysis of an ethyl Grignard
tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate. reagent with an anode of lead pellets.
Properties: Water-white to pale-straw liquid. Bp
Grade: One grade only, about 98% pure.
200C (1 mm Hg), d 1.075 (20/20C), refr index
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin
1.4620 (20C), viscosity 12 cP. Insoluble in water;
absorption. TLV: 0.1 mg(Pb)/m3.
soluble in styrene, many esters, and aromatics; limit-
Use: Antiknock agent. Leaded gasoline contains 1.10
ed solubility in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Combus-
g lead per gallon. TEL has been largely replaced by
Hazard: Irritant to skin and eyes.
Use: Plasticizer.
tetraethyl orthosilicate. See ethyl silicate.
tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether. See tetraethyl pyrophosphate. Legal label name
dimethoxytetraglycol. for tepp.
tetraethylene glycol distearate. tetraethylthiuram disulfide. (disulfiram;
(C17H35COOCH2CH2OCH2CH2)2O. TTD; TETD; bis[diethylthiocarbamyl] disulfide).
Properties: Liquid. Mp 32–33C. Insoluble in water. CAS: 97-77-8. [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2.
Combustible. Properties: Light-gray powder; slight odor. D 1.27,
Use: Plasticizer. melting range 65–70C. Soluble in carbon disulfide,
benzene, and chloroform; insoluble in water.
tetraethylene glycol monostearate. Hazard: Toxic symptoms when ingested with alco-
C17H35COO(CH2CH2O)4H. hol; animal teratogen. TLV: 2 mg/m3; not classifia-
Properties: Liquid. D 0.971, mp 30–31C. Insoluble ble as a human carcinogen.
in water. Combustible. Use: Fungicide, ultraaccelerator for rubber.
Use: Plasticizer.
tetraethylthiuram sulfide. [bis-(diethylthio-
tetraethylenepentamine. carbamyl)sulfide]. [(C2H5)2NCS]2S.
CAS: 112-57-2. NH2(CH2CH2NH)3CH2CH2NH2. Properties: Dark-brown powder; slight odor. D 1.12
Properties: Viscous, hygroscopic liquid. D 0.9980 (20/20C), boiling range 225–240C (3 mm Hg).
(20/20C), fp −30C, bp 333C, vap press above 0.01 Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
mm Hg (20C), bulk d 8.3 lb/gal (20C), flash p 325F Use: Pharmaceutical ointments, fungicide, insecti-
(162.7C). Soluble in most organic solvents and wa- cide.
ter. Combustible.
Hazard: Strong irritant to eyes and skin. tetraethyltin.
Use: Solvent for sulfur, acid gases, and various resins CAS: 597-64-8. Sn(C2H5)4.
and dyes; saponifying agent for acidic materials; Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.187 (23C), bp
manufacture of synthetic rubber; dispersant in mo- 181C, fp −112C. Insoluble in water; soluble in alco-
tor oils; intermediate for oil additives. hol and ether.

Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3. tetraglycol dichloride.

tetrafluorodichloroethane. See dichlorotet- Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.186, bp 114 (2 mm
rafluoroethane. Hg). Slightly soluble in water. Combustible.
Use: High-boiling solvent and extractant for oils,
tetrafluoroethylene. (perfluoroethylene; fats, waxes, and greases; chemical intermediate.
CAS: 116-14-3. F2C:CF2. tetraglyme. See dimethoxytetraglycol.
Properties: Colorless gas. Fp −142C, bp −78.4C.
Insoluble in water; much heavier than air. 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrobenzaldehyde. Legal label
Derivation: By passing chlorodifluoromethane name for 3-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde.
through a hot tube.
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzene. See cyclo-
Use: Monomer for polytetrafluoroethylene hexene.
tetrahydrobiopterin. The fully reduced coen-
tetrafluoroethylene epoxide. (TFEO). zyme form of biopterin.

tetrahydrocannibol. C21H30O2. The active prin-

ciple of marijuana, a hallucinatory drug. It has been
synthesized and is available in laboratory quantities,
Derivation: Oxidation of tetrafluoroethylene at subject to legal restrictions. Animal tests have indi-
120C with UV light; reaction proceeds by free-radi- cated that it can retard cancer growth and also may
cal mechanism. promote the acceptance of organ transplants in the
Use: Monomer for products ranging from dimers to human body.
polymers of dp 35.
See “FreonE”; “Krytox.” 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-(10,11-dihydro-
tetrafluorohydrazine. triazine hydrobromide.
CAS: 13847-65-9. F2NNF2. CAS: 22187-44-6. mf: C19H21N3•BrH.
Properties: Colorless, mobile liquid or colorless gas. Hazard: A poison.
Bp (calc) −73C, heat of vaporization 3170 cal/mole,
critical temp 36C. ␣-(tetrahydro-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxo-
Hazard: Explodes on contact with reducing agents 5(2h)pyrimidinylidene)-o-toluic acid.
and at high pressures. Irritant. CAS: 73909-20-3. mf: C12H8N2O4S.
Use: Organic synthesis; oxidizer in fuels for rockets, Hazard: A poison.
missiles, etc.
tetrafluoromethane. (fluorocarbon 14; car- ethyl-5-methylpyrimidine.
bon tetrafluoride). CAS: 33236-07-6. mf: C16H24N2O.
CAS: 75-73-0. CF4. Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
Properties: Colorless gas. D (liquid) 1.96 (−184C),
sp vol 4.4 cu ft/lb (70F), fp −184C, bp −128C. tetrahydrofolate. The reduced, active coen-
Slightly soluble in water. Nonflammable. zyme form of the vitamin folate which functions as
Grade: 95% min purity. an antioxidant.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation.
Use: Refrigerant, gaseous insulator. tetrahydrofuran. (THF).
CAS: 109-99-9.
3-(4,6-(tetrafluoromethoxy)pyrimidin-2-yl)- ❘ ❘
1-((2-methoxycarbonyl)phenyl- CH2CH2CH2CH2O.
sulfonyl)urea. Properties: Water-white liquid; ethereal odor. D
CAS: 86209-51-0. mf: C15H12F4N4O7S. 0.888 (20C), refr index 1.4070 (20C), fp −65C, bp
Hazard: Moderately toxic by skin contact. Low tox- 66C, flash p 5F (−15C) (OC), autoign temp 610F
icity by ingestion. (321C). Soluble in water and organic solvents.
Derivation: (1) Catalytic hydrogenation of furan
tetrafluorosilane. See silicon tetrafluoride. with nickel catalyst. (2) Acid-catalyzed dehydration
of 1,4-butanediol.
tetraformaltrisazine. See octahydro- Grade: Technical, spectrophotometric.
(1,2,4,5)tetrazino(1,2-a)(1,2,4,5)tetrazine. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Flammable
limits in air 2–11.8%. Toxic by ingestion and inhala-
tetragastrin. See gastrin tetrapeptide amide. tion. TLV: 200 ppm; STEL 250 ppm.

Use: Solvent for natural and synthetic resins (particu- Use: Chemical intermediate, fine-grain photographic
larly vinyls), in top-coating solutions, polymer coat- development, vulcanization accelerator.
ing, cellophane, protective coatings, adhesives,
magnetic tapes, printing inks, etc. Grignard reac- tetrahydrofurfuryl benzoate.
tions, lithium aluminum hydride reductions, and C4H7OCH2OOCC6H5.
polymerizations; chemical intermediate and mo- Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.137 (20/0C), bp
nomer. 300–302C, 138–140C (2 mm Hg). Insoluble in wa-
ter; soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Com-
tetrahydro-3-furancarboxaldehyde. See 3- bustible.
formyltetrahydrofuran. Derivation: Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and benzoic
acid by esterification.
2,5-tetrahydrofurandimethanol. (2,5- Use: Chemical intermediate.
bis[hydroxymethyl]tetrahydrofuran). C6H12O3.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.154, mp below tetrahydrofurfuryl laurate.
−50C, bp 265C, refr index 1.47. Soluble in water, C4H7OCH2OOCCC11H23.
alcohol, acetone, benzene; hygroscopic. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.930 (25C). Insolu-
Hazard: Strong irritant to tissue. ble in water. Combustible.
Use: Organic synthesis, humectant, solvent. Use: Plasticizer.

(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl 2-propenoate. tetrahydrofurfuryl levulinate.

See tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate. CH3CO(CH2)2COOCH2C4H7O.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Mp 59–62C. Soluble in
tetrahydrofurfuryl acetate. water. Combustible.
C4H7OCH2OOCCH3. Use: Plasticizer.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.061 (20/0C), bp
194–195C (753 mm Hg). Soluble in water, alcohol, tetrahydrofurfuryl oleate.
ether, and chloroform. Combustible. C17H33COOCH2C4H7O.
Derivation: By treatment of tetrahydrofurfuryl alco- Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.923 (25C), bp
hol with acetic anhydride. 240C (5 mm Hg), fp −30C, flash p 329F (165C).
Use: Flavoring. Insoluble in water. Combustible.
Use: Plasticizer.
tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate.
CAS: 2399-48-6. mf: C8H12O3. tetrahydrofurfuryl phthalate.
Hazard: A moderate skin irritant. C6H4(COOCH2C4H7O)2.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.194 (25C), mp be-
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. (tetrahydrofuryl low 15C. Insoluble in water. Combustible.
carbinol). Use: Plasticizer.
CAS: 97-99-4. C4H7OCH2OH.
tetrahydrofuryl carbinol. See tetrahydrofur-
furyl alcohol.

3-(2-tetrahydrofuryl)-5-fluorouracil. See

Properties: Colorless liquid; mild odor; hygroscop- tetrahydrogeraniol. See 3,7-dimethyl-1-oc-

ic. D 1.0543 (20/20C), bp 178C, refr index 1.4520 tanol.
(20C), flash p 167F (75C) (OC), viscosity 5.49 cP
(25C), autoign temp 540F (282C). Miscible with 4-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2h-
water. Combustible. 1-benzopyran-3-yl)-2-
Derivation: Catalytic hydrogenation of furfural. naphthalenyl)benzonitrile.
Grade: Commercial, industrial (80%). CAS: 90035-01-1. mf: C26H19NO3.
Use: Solvent for vinyl resins; dyes for leather; chlori- Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
nated rubber; cellulose esters; solvent softener for Use: Agricultural chemical.
nylon; vegetable oils; coupling agent; organic syn-
thesis. 4′-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-
tetrahydrofurfurylamine. naphthalenyl)(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-
CAS: 4795-29-3. C4H7OCH2NH2. carbonitrile, cis-.
Properties: Colorless to light-yellow liquid. Refr CAS: 90034-98-3. mf: C32H23NO3.
index 1.4520–1.4535 (25C), distilling range Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
150–156C, d 0.977 (20C/20C). Combustible. Use: Agricultural chemical.
1223 1,2,5,6-TETRAHYDRO

4′-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo- odor. Mp 33C. Soluble in 2 parts of 80% alcohol.

2h-1-benzopyran-3-yl)-2- Combustible.
naphthalenyl)(1,1′-biphenyl)-4- Use: Perfumery.
carbonitrile, trans-.
CAS: 90034-97-2. mf: C32H23NO3. tetrahydronaphthalene.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. CAS: 119-64-2. C10H12.
Use: Agricultural chemical.

CAS: 90035-05-5. mf: C32H23NO4.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Properties: Colorless liquid; pungent odor. D 0.981
Use: Agricultural chemical. (13C), bp 206C, refr index 1.540–1.547, flash p
160F (71.1C), fp −25C, moisture content none, resi-
due on evaporation none, acidity neutral, bulk d 8 lb/
4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(4,5-c)pyridin-3- gal, autoign temp 723F (384C). Miscible with most
ol. solvents; compatible with natural and synthetic ve-
CAS: 64603-91-4. mf: C6H8N2O2.
hicles; insoluble in water. Combustible.
Hazard: A poison.
Derivation: Hydrogenation of naphthalene in the
presence of a catalyst at 150C.
tetrahydrolinalool. (3,7-dimethyl-3-octanol). Grade: Technical.
CAS: 78-69-3. C10H21OH. Hazard: Irritant to eyes and skin; narcotic in high
Properties: Colorless liquid; floral odor. D concentration.
0.832–0.837, optically inactive. Combustible. Use: Chemical intermediate; solvent for greases, fats,
Use: Perfumery, flavoring. oils, waxes; substitute for turpentine.
1-((1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-(4-(4-(2- tetrahydrophthalic anhydride.
methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butyl)-7-me CAS: 85-43-8. C6H8(CO)2O.
thyl-2,4-dioxo-3-phenylpyrido(2,3- Properties: White, crystalline powder. Solidifica-
d)pyrimidin-5-yl)carbonyl)pyrrolidine. tion p 99–101C, d 1.20 (105C), flash p 315F (157C)
CAS: 272774-82-0. mf: C34H40N6O4. (OC). Slightly soluble in petroleum ether and ethyl
Hazard: A poison. ether; soluble in benzene. Combustible.
Derivation: Diels-Alder reaction of butadiene and
1-((1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3- maleic anhydride.
phenyl-1-(4-(4-phenyl-1-pipera zinyl) Use: Chemical intermediate for light-colored alkyds,
butyl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-5- polyesters, plasticizers, and adhesives; intermediate
yl)carbonyl)yrrolidine. for pesticides; hardener for resins.
CAS: 272774-79-5. mf: C33H38N6O3.
Hazard: A poison. (+)-(4ar,10br)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-
1-((1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-7-methyl-1-(4-(4- oxazin-9-ol.
methyl-1-piperazinyl)butyl)-2,4-di oxo-3- CAS: 123671-92-1. mf: C14H19NO3.
phenylpyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-5- Hazard: A poison.
CAS: 272774-83-1. mf: C28H36N6O3. tetrahydropyran-2-methanol.
Hazard: A poison. CAS: 100-72-1.
❘ ❘
1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-(␣- OCH2CH2CH2CH2CHCH2OH.
methylphenethyl)-as-triazine Properties: Liquid. D 1.0272 (20C), bp 187.2C, fp
hydrochloride. sets to glass below −70C, flash p 200F (93.3C) (OC).
CAS: 21038-21-1. mf: C12H17N3•ClH. Miscible with water. Combustible.
Hazard: A poison. Use: Chemical intermediate.
1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1-methyl-4- 1,2,3,3-tetrahydro-3h-pyrano-(3,2-f)
phenylpyridine. quinoline-8(7h)-one.
CAS: 28289-54-5. mf: C12H15N. CAS: 128202-32-4. mf: C12H11NO2.
Hazard: A poison. A reproductive hazard. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-methylquinoline. 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine. C5H9N.

C10H13N. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.912–0.914 (20/
Properties: Yellowish crystals; strong, civetlike 4C), fp −44C, bp 115.5–120.0C. Combustible.

Grade: 96% min. tetraisopropylstannane. See tetraisopro-

Use: Organic intermediate. pyltin.

tetrahydrothiophene. (thiophane). tetraisopropylthiuram disulfide.

CAS: 110-01-0. [(CH3CH3CH)2NCS]S2.
Properties: Tan powder; amine odor. D 1.12 (20/
❘ ❘ 20C), melting range 95–99C. Soluble in benzene,
chloroform, gasoline; insoluble in water, 10% caus-
Properties: Water-white liquid. D 1.00 (15.6/
tic, carbon disulfide.
15.6C), boiling range 115–124.4C. Combustible. Use: Rubber accelerator.
Use: Solvent, intermediate, fuel gas odorant.
tetrahydrothiophene-1,1-dioxide. See sul- CAS: 2949-42-0. mf: C12H28Sn.
folane. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
(hydroxyacetyl)-1-methoxy-10-((2,3,6- tetraisopropyl titanate. (TPT; titanium iso-
trideoxy-3-(2,3-dihydro-1h-pyrrol-1-yl)- propylate; isopropyl titanate). Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4.
␣lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy)-, (8s,10s)-5,12- Properties: Light-yellow liquid that fumes in moist
naphthacenedione. air. Bp 102–104C (10 mm Hg), mp 14.8C, d 0.954,
CAS: 175795-76-3. mf: C31H33NO11. refr index 1.46, apparent viscosity 2.11 cP (25C).
Hazard: A poison. Decomposes rapidly in water; soluble in most or-
ganic solvents.
tetrahydroxybutane. See erythritol. Derivation: Reaction of titanium tetrachloride with
tetrahydroxydiphenyl. See diresorcinol. Use: Ester exchange reactions; adhesion of paints,
rubber, and plastics to metals; condensation cata-
tetrahydroxyethylethylenediamine. lyst.
yl)ethylenediamine]. tetraisopropyl zirconate. Zr[OCH(CH3)2]4.
(HOCH2CH2)2NCH2CH2N(CH2CH2OH)2. Properties: White solid. Decomposes before
Properties: Clear, viscous liquid. Good heat stabili- melting.
ty. Combustible. Derivation: By reaction of zirconium tetrachloride
Use: Organic intermediate, cross-linking of rigid with isopropanol.
polyurethane foams, chelating agent, humectant, Use: Condensation catalyst, cross-linking agent.
gas absorbent, resin formation, detergent pro-
cessing. tetrakis(2-chloroethyl) ethylene
3′,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone. CAS: 33125-86-9. mf: C10H20Cl4O8P2.
CAS: 491-70-3. mf: C15H10O6. Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
Hazard: A poison.
tetrakis(dimethylamino)silane. See octame-
2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid. See thylsilanetetramine.
saccharic acid.
tetrakis(1,1-dimethylpentyl) silicate. See
tetra(2-butylisopropyl) orthosilicate.
CAS: 162854-37-7. mf: C17H14NO4. tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. chloride. (THPC). (HOCH2)4PCl. A crystal-
line compound made by the reaction of phosphine,
tetrahydroxysilane. See silicic acid (ortho). formaldehyde, and hydrochloric acid.
Use: Flame-retarding agent for cotton fabrics. May
tetraiodoethylene. (iodoethylene). I2C:CI2. be used in combination with triethylolamine and
Properties: Light-yellow, crystals; odorless; turns urea (Roxel process) or with triethanolamine and
brown on exposure to light. Mp 187C, d 2.98. Insol- tris(1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide.
uble in water; soluble in most organic solvents.
Derivation: Iodine on diiodoacetylene obtained N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)
from calcium carbide and iodine. ethylenediamine. (ethylenedinitrilotetra-2-
Use: Surgical dusting powder, antiseptic ointment, propanol). [−CH2N(CH2CH2OCH3)2]2.
fungicide. Properties: Viscous, water-white liquid. Miscible
with water; soluble in ethanol, toluene, ethylene
tetraiodofluorescein. See iodeosin. glycol, and perchloroethylene. Combustible.

Use: Cross-linking agent and catalyst in urethane tetramethylammonium chlorodibromide.

foams, epoxy resin curing, metal complexes, inter- (CH3)4NClBr2.
mediate. Properties: Powder. Mp 118–126C. Soluble in water
and other polar solvents.
tetrakis(p-phenoxyphenyl)tin. Hazard: Evolves bromine on contact with water.
CAS: 6452-62-6. mf: C48H36O4Sn. Use: Dry brominating agent, ingredient in formula-
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tion of sanitizers.
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
tetramethylammonium hydroxide.
“Tetralin” [Du Pont]. TM for tetrahydrona- CAS: 75-59-2. (CH3)4NOH.
phthalene. Properties: A strong base available in 10% solution.
Hazard: Strong irritant to skin and tissue.
tetralite. See tetryl.
1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene. See isodurene.
“Tetralol” [Millenium]. TM for an additive.
Use: In floral fragrances and soap perfumes to import sym-tetramethylbenzene. See durene.
fresh floral and citrus aroma.
1-tetralone. CH3CHN(CH3)2CH2CH2N(CH3)2.
Properties: Colorless, stable liquid. Fp −100C, bp
❘ ❘ 165.0C, d 0.8020 (20/20C), vap press 1.64 mm Hg
CHCHCHCHCCCH2CH2CH2CO. (20C), miscible with water, viscosity 1.0 cP (20C),
❘ ❘
flash p 114F (45.5C) (TOC). Combustible.
A ketone of tetrahydronaphthalene. Use: Catalyst for polyurethane foams and epoxy res-
Properties: Liquid. D 1.090–1.095 (20/20C), bp ins; high-energy fuels.
120–125C (10 mm Hg), vap press 0.02 mm Hg
(20C), mp 5.3–6.0C, flash p 265F (129.5C). Insolu- n,n′,o,o′-tetramethylcurinium diiodide.
ble in water. Combustible. CAS: 16240-52-1. mf: C40H48N2O6•2I.
Grade: Solvent and intermediate. Hazard: A poison.
tetram. (O,O-diethyl-S-(␤-diethylamino)-ethyl 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
phosphorothioate hydrogen oxalate). (CH3)4C4H2(OH)2.
CAS: 78-53-5. (C2H5O)2POSCH3CH2N(C2H5)2. Properties: White solid. Mp 124–135C, bp
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. Use may be re- 220–225C, isomer composition 50% cis, 50% trans,
stricted. flash p 125F (51.6C).
Use: Insecticide. Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Irritant.
Use: Chemical intermediate, lubricants.
tetramer. An oligomer whose molecule is com-
posed of four molecules of the same chemical com- tetramethyldiamidophosphoric fluoride.
position. See dimefox.
See polymer.
1,1,3,3-tetramethoxypropane. (tetramethyldiaminodiphenylcarbinol; Mi-
[(CH3O)2CH]2CH2. chler’s hydrol; hydrol).
Properties: Liquid. Bp 183C, refr index 1.408 (20C), (CH3)2NC6H4CH(OH)C6H4N(CH3)2.
d 0.995 (20/20C). Soluble in water, hexane, ether, Properties: Colorless prisms. Forms a colorless so-
and alcohol. Combustible. lution in ether or benzene and a blue solution in
Use: Organic synthesis. alcohol or acetic acid.. Mp 96C. Soluble in alcohol,
ether, benzene, and acetic acid Combustible.
tetramethoxy silane. See methyl silicate. Derivation: Reaction of tetramethyldiamino-
diphenylmethane, hydrochloric acid, and glacial
3,3′,4,4′-tetramethoxystilbene. acetic acid; oxidized with lead peroxide.
CAS: 18513-98-9. mf: C18H20O4. Grade: Technical.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Use: Dye intermediate, organic synthesis.

tetramethylammonium chloride. tetramethyldiaminobenzophenone. (Mi-

(CH3)4NCl. A quaternary ammonium compound. chler’s ketone; 4,4’-
Properties: White, crystalline solid. D 1.1690 (20/ bis[dimethylamino]benzophenone).
4C), mp (decomposes). Soluble in water and alco- CAS: 90-94-8. CO[C6H4N(CH3)2]2.
hol; insoluble in ether, also available as a 50% solu- Properties: Crystalline leaflets. Mp 172C, bp de-
tion. composes at 360C. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and
Use: Chemical intermediate, catalyst, inhibitor. water. Combustible.

Derivation: From dimethylaniline by reaction with tetramethylethylenediamine. (TMEDA;

phosgene. N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine).
Use: Synthesis of dyestuffs, especially auramine de- CAS: 110-18-9. (CH3)2NCH2CH2N(CH3)2.
rivatives. Properties: Colorless liquid; slight ammoniacal
odor. Bp 121–122C, d 0.7765 (20/4C), refr index
4,4′-tetramethyldiaminodiphenylmethane. 1.4170 (25C), fp −55.1C. Soluble in water and most
(tetra base). organic solvents. Combustible.
CAS: 101-61-1. H2C[C6H4N(CH3)2]2. Grade: Anhydrous (100%), aqueous (65%).
Properties: Yellowish leaflets or glistening plates. Use: Preparation of epoxy curing agents, polyure-
Mp 90–91C, sublimes with decomposition, bp thane formation, corrosion inhibitor, textile finish-
390C. Insoluble in water; soluble in benzene, ether, ing agents, intermediate for quaternary ammonium
carbon disulfide, and acids. compounds.
Derivation: By heating dimethylaniline with hydro-
chloric acid and formaldehyde. tetramethylguanidine.
Use: Dye intermediate. (CH3)2NC(NH)N(CH3)2.
Properties: Liquid; slight ammoniacal odor. Bp
tetramethyldiaminodiphenylsulfone. (4,4′- 159–160C. Soluble in both water and organic sol-
bis(dimethylamino)diphenylsulfone). vents. A strong base. Combustible.
Properties: Solid. Mp 259–260C. Combustible. 2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane. See phy-
Grade: Technical, reagent. tane.
Use: Intermediate in making dyestuffs and medicinal
chemicals; analytical reagent for lead. tetramethyl lead. (TML).
CAS: 75-74-1. (CH3)4Pb.
1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-divinyldisilazane. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.995, fp −27.5C, bp
CAS: 7691-02-3. mf: C8H19NSi2. 110C (10 mm Hg), flash p 100F (37.7C). Insoluble
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. in water; slightly soluble in benzene, petroleum
ether, alcohol.
sym-tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane. Derivation: As for tetraethyl lead. Methyl reagents
CAS: 2627-95-4. mf: C8H18OSi2. used instead of ethyl.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and inhalation. Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. Toxic by
ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption. Lower
explosion level 1.8%. TLV: 0.15 mg(Pb)/m3. Toxic
tetramethylene. See cyclobutane. by skin absorption.
tetramethylenediamine. tetramethylmethane. See neopentane.
CAS: 110-60-1. H2N(CH2)4NH2.
Properties: Colorless crystals; strong odor. Mp 27C,
bp 158–159C. Soluble in water with strongly basic 3,3′-tetramethylnonyl thiodipropionate.
reaction. Combustible. See ditridecyl thiodipropionate.
Use: Chemical intermediate, complexing agent, cata-
lyst in resin technology, synthesis of quaternary tetramethyl phosphonosuccinate. See
ammonium compounds. phosphonosuccinic acid tetramethyl ester.

tetramethylene dichloride. See 1,4-dichlo- tetramethylsilane.

robutane. CAS: 75-76-3. (CH3)4Si.
Properties: Colorless, volatile liquid. Bp 26.5C, d
0.646 (20/4C), flash p 0F (−17.7C). Insoluble in
3,3′-(tetramethylenedioxy)bis(propylamine). water and cold concentrated sulfuric acid; soluble in
See 1,4-bis(3-aminopropoxy)butane. most organic solvents.
Derivation: By Grignard reaction of silicon tetra-
tetramethylene glycol. See 1,4-butylene chloride and methylmagnesium chloride.
glycol. Grade: Technical, purified.
Hazard: Flammable, high fire risk.
tetramethylene sulfone. See sulfolane. Use: Aviation fuel, internal standard for NMR ana-
lytical instruments.
tetrahydronaphthalene. C18H26O. A poly- tetramethyl succinonitrile. (TMSM).
cyclic musk. CAS: 3333-52-6. C8H12N2.
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 45C, bp 130C (2 Properties: Colorless, solid; odorless. Mw 136.19,
mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol. sp g 1.070, mp 170.5C, bp (sublimes). Insoluble in
Use: Perfumes, cosmetics, soaps. water.

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and skin contact. TLV: tetraphene. See benz(a)anthracene.
0.5 ppm.
Use: Blowing agent for vinyl foam production. 1,1,4,4-tetraphenylbutadiene. (TPB).
tetramethylthiourea. Properties: White crystals. Two forms, mp
CAS: 2782-91-4. mf: C5H12N2S. 194–196C and mp 202–204C. Insoluble in water;
Properties: Crystals from H2O. Mp: 79−80°, bp: soluble in most organic solvents. Combustible.
245°. Grade: Purified.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Use: Primary fluor or wavelength shifter in soluble
Use: As a drug. scintillators.

1,1,3,3-tetramethylthiourea. See tetrame- tetraphenylresorcinol diphosphate. See

thylthiourea. resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate).

tetramethylthiuram disulfide. See thiram. tetraphenylsilane. (C6H5)4Si.

Properties: White solid. Mp 237C, bp 428C. Very
tetramethylthiuram monosulfide. (bisdi- stable and inert. Combustible.
methylthiocarbamyl sulfide). Derivation: By Grignard reaction of silicon tetra-
CAS: 97-74-5. [(CH3)2NCH]2S. chloride and phenylmagnesium chloride.
Properties: Yellow powder. D 1.40, mp 104–107C. Grade: Technical.
Soluble in acetone, benzene, and ethylene dichlo- Use: Heat-transfer medium, polymers.
ride; insoluble in water and gasoline. Combustible.
Use: Ultraaccelerator for rubber, fungicide, insecti- tetraphenyltin. (C6H5)4Sn.
cide. Properties: White powder. D 1.490, mp 225–228C,
bp above 420C. Insoluble in water; soluble in hot
tetramethylurea. benzene, toluene, xylene.
CAS: 632-22-4. C5H12N2O. Derivation: Reaction of tin tetrachloride with phe-
Properties: Liquid. Bp 176C, flash p 75C (167F), d nylmagnesium bromide.
1.45. Soluble in water and organic solvents. Hazard: Skin irritant.
Use: Solvent, analytical reagent. Use: Stabilizer in chlorinated transformer oils, moth-
proofing agent, scavenger in dielectric fluids, inter-
tetranitroaniline. (TNA). mediate.
CAS: 3698-54-2. C6H(NO2)4NH2. A nitration prod-
uct of aniline. tetraphosphoric acid. See polyphosphoric
Properties: Mp 170C; explodes at 237C. acid.
Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk.
Use: Manufacture of detonators and primers. tetraphosphorus heptasulfide. See phos-
phorus heptasulfide.
CAS: 509-14-8. C(NO2)4. tetraphosphorus hexasulfide. See phospho-
rus trisulfide.

tetraphosphorus trisulfide. See phosphorus


tetrapotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetate.
Properties: Colorless liquid; pungent odor. Bp See ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (note).
125.7C, mp 12.5C, d 1.650 (13C). Miscible with
alcohol and ether; insoluble in water; decomposed tetrapotassium pyrophosphate. (TKPP).
by alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. Pow- See potassium pyrophosphate.
erful oxidizing agent.
Derivation: By action of fuming nitric acid on ben- tetrapropenylsuccinic anhydride. See do-
zene, acetic anhydride, or acetylene. decenylsuccinic anhydride. Many isomers are
Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk. Toxic by possible.
ingestion, inhalation, skin absorption. TLV: 0.005
ppm; animal carcinogen. tetra-n-propyl dithionopyrophosphate.
Use: Rocket fuel, as an oxidant or monopropellant; CAS: 3244-90-4. (C3H7O)2P(S)OP(S)(OC3H7)2.
qualitative test for unsaturated compounds; diesel Properties: Amber liquid. Bp 148C (2 mm Hg).
fuel booster; organic reagent. Miscible with most organic solvents; insoluble in
tetra(octylene glycol) titanate. See octyl- Hazard: Highly toxic.
ene glycol titanate. Use: Insecticide, acaricide.

tetrapropylene. (dodecene; propylene tetra- tetrasodium pyrophosphate. See sodium

mer). pyrophosphate; sodium polyphosphate.
CAS: 6842-15-5. C12H24. A mixture of C12 monoo-
lefins. tetrastearyl titanate. Organic intermediate,
Properties: Liquid. D 0.770 (20/20C), boiling range adhesion promoter, pigment dispersant.
183–218C, bulk d 6.44 lb/gal (15.5). Combustible.
Derivation: Olefin fraction obtained from catalytic tetrathiin. See oxidimethiin.
polymerization of propylene.
Use: Detergents (dodecylbenzene), lubricant addi- tetrazene. (4-amidino-1-[nitrosamino-amidino]-
tives, plasticizers. 1-tetrazene).
CAS: 109-27-3.
tetrapropylenepentamine. H2NC(:NH)NHNHN:NC(:NH)NHNHNO.
CAS: 13274-42-5. mf: C12H31N5. Properties: Colorless or pale-yellow, fluffy solid.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact. A Apparent d 0.45 but yields a pellet of d 1.05 under
moderate skin and severe eye irritant. pressure of 3000 psi. Practically insoluble in water,
alcohol, ether, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride;
tetrapropylthiuram disulfide. slightly hygroscopic.
[(C3H7)2NCS]2S2. Derivation: Interaction of an aminoguanidine salt
Properties: Light-cream color; musty odor. D 1.13 with sodium nitrite in the absence of free mineral
(20/20C), melting range 49–51.5C. Soluble in car- acid.
bon disulfide, benzene, chloroform, and gasoline; Use: Initiating explosive.
insoluble in water and 10% caustic soda. Combus-
tible. 1h-tetrazol-5-amine. See aminotetrazole.

tetrasilane. Si4H10. tetrazolium chloride. (tetrazolium salt;

Properties: Colorless liquid. Fp −93.5C, bp 109C, d TTC; 2,4,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride).
0.825 (0C). CN4Cl(C6H5)3.
Hazard: Severe fire and explosion risk, can ignite or Properties: White to pale-yellow crystalline powder
explode in air. that darkens on exposure to light. Mp (with decom-
position) 245C. Readily soluble in water.
Use: In germination and viability tests. Viable parts
tetrasodium diphosphate. See sodium py- of seed are stained red by deposition of red insoluble
rophosphate; sodium polyphosphate. triphenyl formazan.
tetrasodium EDTA. (ethylenediaminetetraa- tetrazolium nitro blue. See p-nitro blue
cetic acid; tetrasodium salt; EDTA Na4; sodium tetrazolium chloride.
CAS: 64-02-8. C10H12N2Na4O8 anhydrous or 2H2O. tet resistance. See: Antibiotic resistance.
Properties: White powder. Freely soluble in water.
Use: General-purpose chelating agent.
tetrol. See furan.

“Tetrone” A [Du Pont]. TM for dipentame-

thylenethiuram tetrasulfide rubber accelerator.

“Tetronic” [BASF]. TM for a nonionic tetra-

functional series of polyether block polymers rang-
ing in physical form from liquids through pastes to
flakable solids. They are polyoxyalkylene deriva-
See ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (note). tives of ethylenediamine. Physical state varies with
molecular weight and oxyethylene content, 100%
tetrasodium hydrogen 2-phosphonato- active.
butane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate. Use: Low-foaming detergent formulations; defoam-
CAS: 66669-53-2. mf: C7H7O9P•4Na. ing agents; flexible and rigid polyurethane foams;
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con- emulsifying and demulsifying agents; textile pro-
tact. cessing.

tetrasodium monopotassium tetryl. (tetralite and nitramine are common

tripolyphosphate. Na4KP3O10. commercial names for trinitrophenylmethylnitra-
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 580–600C, mine).
d 2.55. Solubility in water 30 g/100 mL (26C). CAS: 479-45-8. (NO2)3C6H2N(NO2)CH3.
Use: Sequestrant. Properties: Yellow crystals. Mp 130–132C, d 1.57

(19C), explodes at 187C. Insoluble in water; soluble Hazard: Forms toxic compounds on contact with
in alcohol, ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid. moisture; keep from skin contact. TLV: (soluble
Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk. Skin salts) 0.1 mg(Tl)/m3.
irritant, absorbed by skin. TLV: 1.5 mg/m3. Use: Thallium salts, mercury alloys, low-melting
Use: Detonating agent for less-sensitive high explo- glasses, rodenticides, photoelectric applications,
sives, indicator (colorless at pH 10.8, dull red at pH electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers.
thallium acetate. (thallous acetate).
textile oil. Any of various specially compounded CAS: 563-68-8. TlOCOCH3.
oils used to condition raw fibers, yarns, or fabric for Properties: White, deliquescent crystals. Mp 131, d
manufacturing, bleaching, dyeing, and finishing op- 3.68. Soluble in water and alcohol.
erations. Derivation: Interaction of acetic acid and thallium
“Textone” [Vulcan]. TM for sodium chlorite. Hazard: As for thallium.
Available forms: Liquid solutions and powder. Use: High specific gravity solutions used to separate
Use: Used for water disinfection, as a bleaching agent ore constituents by flotation.
for textiles, and for algae control.

textryl. Generic name for nonwoven structures thallium amalgam.

that may be manufactured by wet-processing from Properties: Reported to have fp −60C (30C below
staple fibers and fibrid binder. that of mercury).
Hazard: As for thallium.
texture. The physical structure of a solid or semi- Use: Substitute for mercury in electrical switches,
solid material that results from the shape, arrange- thermometers, etc. for extremely low-temperature
ment, and proportions of its components. The term is service.
used in the textile industry to characterize fabrics of
various types and in the food industry to describe thallium bromide. (thallous bromide).
quality characteristics of bakery products, marga- CAS: 7789-40-4. TlBr.
rines, meats, spun proteins, etc. It is also regarded by Properties: Yellowish-white, crystalline powder. D
geologists as a property of rocks and soils. 7.557, bp 815C, mp 460C. Soluble in alcohol.
See protein, textured. Slightly soluble in water. Insoluble in acetone.
Hazard: As for thallium.
textured protein. See protein, textured. Use: Mixed crystals with thallium iodide for infrared
radiation transmitters used in military detection de-
TFE. Abbreviation for tetrafluoroethylene. vices.
See polytetrafluorethylene.
thallium carbonate. (thallous carbonate).
TFEO. Abbreviation for tetrafluoroethylene ep- CAS: 6533-73-9. Tl2CO3.
oxide. Properties: Heavy, shiny, colorless or white crystals.
D 7, mp 272C. Highly refractive, melts to dark gray
TGA. Abbreviation for (1) triglycollamic acid; mass, slightly alkaline taste. Soluble in water; insol-
(2) thermogravimetric analysis. uble in alcohol.
See thermogravimetric analysis; nitrilotriacetic acid. Hazard: As for thallium.
Use: Analysis (testing for carbon disulfide), artificial
TGDR. See thioguanine deoxyriboside. diamonds.
Th. Symbol for thorium.
thallium chloride. (thallous chloride).
thallium. CAS: 7791-12-0. TlCl.
CAS: 7440-28-0. Tl. Metallic element of atomic Properties: White, crystalline powder; becomes vio-
number 81, group IIIA of the periodic table, aw let on exposure to light. D 7.004 (30/4C), mp 430C,
204.37, valences = 1, 3; two stable isotopes. bp 720C. Slightly soluble in water; insoluble in
Properties: Bluish-white, leadlike metal. D 11.85, alcohol, ammonium hydroxide.
mp 302C, bp 1457C, oxidizes in air at room temper- Hazard: As for thallium.
ature. Soluble in nitric and sulfuric acids; insoluble Use: Catalyst (chlorination), suntan lamp monitors.
in water but readily forms soluble compounds when
exposed to air or water. thallium hydroxide. (thallous hydroxide).
Derivation: Flue dusts from lead and zinc smelting. TlOH•H2O.
The thallium compounds recovered are treated to Properties: Yellow needles. Bp (dehydrated) 139C,
obtain the metal by electrolysis, precipitation, or (decomposes). Soluble in alcohol, water.
reduction. Hazard: As for thallium.
Grade: Technical, high purity. Use: Analysis, indicator.

thallium iodide. (thallous iodide). ble in mineral acids; insoluble in water, alcohol, or
CAS: 7790-30-9. TlI. ether.
Properties: Yellow powder. D 7.09, bp 824C, mp Hazard: As for thallium.
440C, becomes red at 170C. Insoluble in alcohol; Use: Infrared-sensitive photocells.
slightly soluble in water; soluble in aqua regia.
Hazard: As for thallium. thallous compound. See corresponding thal-
Use: Mixed crystals with thallium bromide for inf- lium compound.
rared radiation transmitters.
thalrugosamine. See homoaromoline.
thallium monoxide. (thallium oxide; thallous
oxide). THAM. See
CAS: 1314-32-5. Tl2O. tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.
Properties: Black powder. Mp 300C, bp 1080C, d
9.52 (16C). Soluble in alcohol, water (decomposes). thebaine. (p-morphine).
Oxidizes when exposed to air, keep well stoppered. CAS: 115-37-7. C19H21NO3.
Hazard: As for thallium. Properties: White, crystalline alkaloid. Mp 193C, d
Use: Analysis (testing for ozone), artificial gem, opti- 1.30. Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol
cal glass of high refractive index. and ether. It is extracted from poppies of a different
species from morphine-producing opium poppies.
thallium nitrate. (thallous nitrate). Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, may induce addiction.
CAS: 10102-45-1. TlNO3.
Properties: Colorless crystals. D 5.5, mp 206C (soli- theca. General term for any stiff outer covering of
difies to a glasslike solid), decomposes at 450C. a unicellular protist, and usually made up of inter-
Soluble in hot water; insoluble in alcohol. locking plates. Dinoflagellates and diatoms are ex-
Grade: Technical. amples of protists with thecae.
Hazard: A poison. Strong oxidizing agent, fire and
explosion risk. TLV: 0.1 mg(Tl)/m3. Toxic by skin theine. See caffeine.
Use: Analysis, pyrotechnics (green fire). Thenard’s blue. See cobalt blue.

thallium(III) nitrate. The National Dendrimer and

CAS: 13746-98-0. mf: N3O9Tl. Nanotechnology Center. (NDNC). Serves
Properties: IDLH 15 mg/m3 (as Tl). as a catalyst for new dendrimer-based research
Hazard: A poison by skin contact. yielding a growing body of valuable intellectual
property. Working cooperatively on a broad range
of research projects. Located at 625 Denison Drive,
thallium oxide. (thallous oxide). Mount Pleasant, MI 48858.
CAS: 1314-12-1. Tl2O. Website: http://www.dendrimercenter.org/research
Properties: Finely divided black solid. Mp about .html.
300C. Soluble in water and alcohol. Oxidizes when
exposed to air.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
thenyl alcohol. (2-thienylmethanol; 2-hydrox-
ymethylthiophene; 2-thiophenecarbinol).
Use: Optical glass, synthetic gemstones.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 207C. Insoluble in
thallium sesquichloride. (thallo-thallic chlo- water; soluble in alcohol and ether.
ride). TlCl3•3TlCl or Tl2Cl3. Derivation: A heterocyclic alcohol made by reaction
Properties: Yellow, crystalline powder. D 5.9, mp of 2-thienylmagnesium iodide and formaldehyde.
400–500C. Slightly soluble in water. Use: No commercially developed applications. d’s
Hazard: As for thallium.
thenyldiamine. (coined name for 2-[2-di-
thallium sulfate. (thallous sulfate). methylaminoethyl]-3-thenylaminopyridine).
CAS: 7446-18-6. Tl2SO4. CAS: 91-79-2.
Properties: Colorless crystals. D 6.77, mp 632C. (C4H3SCH2)N(C5H4N)CH2CH2N(CH3)2.
Soluble in water. Properties: Liquid. Bp 169–172C (1.0 mm Hg).
Grade: Technical, 99%. Derivation: Condensing N,N-dimethylaminoethyl-
Hazard: As for thallium. ␣-aminopyridine with 3-thenyl bromide.
Use: Analysis (testing for iodine in the presence of Use: Medicine (as base for various salts, especially
chlorine), ozonometry, rodenticides, pesticide. the hydrochloride).

thallium sulfide. (thallous sulfide). Tl2S. theobroma oil. (cacao butter; cocoa butter).
Properties: Blue-black, lustrous, microscopic crys- Properties: Yellowish-white solid; chocolate-like
tals or amorphous powder. D 8.46, mp 448C. Solu- taste and odor. D 0.858–0.864 (100/25C), mp

30–35C, refr index 1.4537–1.4585 (40C), saponifi- “Therabloat” [Pfizer]. (poloxalene).

cation number 188–195, iodine number 35–43. In- CAS: 9003-11-6.
soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble mf: HO(CH2CH2O)n[CH(CH3)
in boiling dehydrated alcohol; freely soluble in ether CH2O]n(CH2CH2O)nH
and chloroform. Combustible. Properties: Liquid nonionic surfactant polymer. TM
Derivation: From the cacao bean, by expression, for a veterinary drug used to treat bloat.
decoction, or extraction by solvent. Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive.
Chief constituents: Glycerides of stearic, palmitic,
and lauric acids. therm. A unit of heat equal to 100,000 Btu. It has
Grade: Crude, refined, USP. also been used to mean one Btu or one small calorie,
Use: Confectionery, suppositories and pharmaceuti- but these uses have been abandoned in the U.S.
cals, soaps, cosmetics.
thermal black. Carbon black made from natu-
ral gas by the thermatomic process or by pyrolysis of
theobromine. (3,7-dimethylxanthine). bituminous coal. It is no longer widely used.
CAS: 83-67-0. C7H8N4O2. The alkaloid found in
cocoa and chocolate products. A purine base closely thermal cracking. See cracking.
related to caffeine. Also occurs in tea and cola nuts.
thermal decomposition. See decomposition
(6); pyrolysis.

thermal expansion coefficient. The change

in volume per unit volume per degree change in
temperature (cubical coefficient). For isotropic sol-
ids the expansion is equal in all directions, and the
cubical coefficient is about three times the linear
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. coefficient of expansion. These coefficients vary
with temperature, but for gases at constant pressure
theophylline. (1,3-dimethylxanthine). the coefficient of volume expansion is nearly con-
CAS: 58-55-9. C7H8N4O2. stant and equals 0.00367 for each degree Celsius at
any temperature.

thermal neutron. A slow neutron.

See neutron.

thermal pollution. Heat introduced into rivers

or estuaries by power plants or other industrial cool-
ing waters or chemical wastes, which has adverse
Properties: White, crystalline alkaloid; odorless; bit- effects on estuarine ecology.
ter taste. Mp 270–274C. Slightly soluble in water See water pollution.
and alcohol; more soluble in hot water; soluble in
alkaline solutions. thermatomic process. Methane or natural gas
Derivation: (1) By extraction from tea leaves, (2) is cracked over hot bricks at 870C to form amor-
synthetically from ethyl cyanoacetate. phous carbon (carbon black) and hydrogen.
Grade: Technical, NF. See thermal black; carbon black.
Use: Medicine (diuretic, muscle relaxant).
“Therm-Chek” [Ferro]. TM for heat stabi-
theoretical plate. Any contacting device in a
fractionating column, such as packing, grids, or “Therminol” FR [Solutia]. TM for a family
screens, that effects the same degree of separation of of heat-transfer fluids thermally stable to 400C.
vapor from liquid as one simple distillation. A col-
umn that gives the same separation as 10 successive thermite. A mixture of ferric oxide and powdered
simple distillations is considered to have 10 theoreti- aluminum, usually enclosed in a metal cylinder and
cal plates. The effectiveness of a fractionating col- used as an incendiary bomb, invented by the Ger-
umn is measured in terms of theoretical plates. As man chemist Hans Goldschmidt around 1900. On
many as 100 theoretical plates are used in laboratory ignition by a ribbon of magnesium, the reaction
and industrial operations. The total column height produces a temperature of 2200C, that is sufficient
divided by the number of theoretical plates is known to soften steel. This is typical of some oxide/metal
as HETP (height equivalent to a theoretical plate). reactions which provide their own oxygen supply
This concept is also used in chromatographic tech- and thus are very difficult to stop.
niques. Hazard: Dangerous fire risk.

thermochemistry. That branch of chemistry by assigning fixed numerical values to the measur-
comprising the measurement and interpretation of able attributes of the system. These attributes may
heat changes that accompany changes of state and be wholly reproduced as soon as a fraction of them
chemical reactions. It is closely related to chemical has been reproduced. In this case the fractional num-
thermodynamics. The heat of formation of a com- ber of attributes determines the state, and is referred
pound is the heat absorbed when it is formed from its to as the number of variables of state or the number
elements in their standard states. An exothermic of degrees of freedom of the system.
reaction evolves heat, an endothermic reaction re- The concept of temperature can be evolved as soon
quires heat for initiation. as a means is available for determining when a body
Application of thermochemical principles to gener- is “hotter” or “colder.” Such means might involve
ation of hydrogen by water splitting is being exten- the measurement of a physical parameter such as the
sively researched. The advantage of this method volume of a given mass of the body. When a “hotter”
over electrolysis is its greater net efficiency. Many body, A, is placed in contact with a “colder” body, B,
techniques have been explored, but only a few have it is observed that A becomes “colder” and B “hot-
practical potential. One of the more promising is the ter.” When no further changes occur, and the joint
S-I cycle under study at Lawrence Livermore Labo- system involving the two bodies has come to equi-
ratory. The heat for this would be obtained from librium, the two bodies are said to have the same
either solar receivers or nuclear reactors. The reac- temperature. Thus temperature can only be mea-
tions involved are sured at equilibrium. Therefore thermodynamics is a
2H2O + SO2 + I2 → H2SO4 + 2HI science of equilibrium, and a thermodynamic state is
H2SO4 → H2O + SO2 + 1/2O2 necessarily an equilibrium state. Thermodynamics
2HI → H2 + I2 See hydrogen (note 2). is a macroscopic discipline, dealing only with the
properties of matter and energy in bulk, and does not
thermocouple. (thermoelectric thermometer). recognize atomic and molecular structure. Although
An instrument composed of two wires made of dis- severely limited in this respect, it has the advantage
similar metals or semiconducting materials that are of being completely insensitive to any change in our
joined at one end (the measuring junction), the other ideas concerning molecular phenomena, so that its
end being the reference junction, which is main- laws have broad and permanent generality. Its chief
tained at a known temperature (usually 0C). The service is to provide mathematical relations among
difference in temperature between the measuring the measurable parameters of a system in equilibri-
junction and the reference junction generates an um so that, for example, a variable like pressure may
electromotive force that is proportional to the tem- be computed when the temperature is known, and
perature difference. Thermocouples are applicable vice versa.
over a range of −200C to 1800C. The most suitable
conducting materials are iron-constantan, platinum- thermodynamics, chemical. See chemical
platinum-rhodium, copper-constantan, and Chro- thermodynamics.
mel-Alumel; graphite-silicon carbide is used in the
metallurgical field. Thermocouples are essential for thermoelectricity. Electricity produced directly
determinations of extreme temperatures that are be- by applying a temperature difference to various
yond the range of liquid-in-glass thermometers. parts of electrically conducting or semiconducting
Their industrial applications include molten metals, materials. Usually two dissimilar materials are used,
fuel beds, ceramic kilns, furnaces, etc.; in laborato- and the points of contact are kept at different temper-
ries they are used for both high-temperature and atures (Peltier effect). Many temperature-measuring
cryogenic research. They are also applicable to in- devices (thermocouples, thermopiles) work on this
termediate temperatures in cases where convention- principle, since the voltage is proportional to the
al thermometers are impracticable. temperature difference. Metallic conductors are
See thermoelectricity. usually used for these “thermometers,” which pro-
duce a rather small current. A newer use for the
thermodynamic potential. See Nernst po- effect is as a source of electrical energy, i.e., a means
tential. of direct conversion of heat into electricity (or vice
versa) without the use of a generator (or motor). The
thermodynamics. A rigorously mathematical materials used for these thermoelectric couples are
analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, tem- semiconductors (e.g., tellurium; zinc antimonide;
perature, and equilibrium), the principles of which lead, bismuth, and germanium tellurides; samarium
were first elaborated by J. Willard Gibbs in the mid- sulfide) or thermoelectric alloys, all of which pro-
19th century. It describes systems whose states are duce relatively large currents. Several of these
determined by thermal parameters, such as tempera- “cells” are then hooked in series much like the cells
ture, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic of a battery.
parameters. A system is a geometric section of the
universe, whose boundaries may be fixed or varied, “Thermoflex” A [Du Pont]. TM for a rub-
and that may contain matter or energy or both. The ber antioxidant containing 25% di-p-methoxydiphe-
state of a system is a reproducible condition, defined nylamine (CH3OC6H4)2NH; 25% diphenyl-p-phe-

nylenediamine C6H4(NHC6H5)2; and 50% phenyl-␤- or the volume at constant pressure measure the tem-
naphthylamine C10H7NHC6H5. perature; these are used for extremely accurate ther-
Properties: Dark-gray pellets. D 1.21, fp above 67C. modynamic determinations. The gases used are heli-
Use: Tire carcasses, transmission belts, etc., to pro- um, nitrogen, and hydrogen. (2) Bimetallic, in which
mote resistance to flexing at operating temperatures. the sensing element consists of two strips of metals
See antioxidant. having different expansion coefficients; its range is
from −185 to 425C. (3) Thermoelectric (thermocou-
thermofor. A heat-transfer medium. ple), in which measurement is made by the electro-
See coolant. motive force generated by two dissimilar metals; its
range is from −200 to 1800C. (4) Resistance, in
thermoforming. (1) See reforming. (2) Forming which temperature is measured by change in the
or shaping a thermoplastic sheet by heating the sheet electrical resistance of a metal, usually platinum; its
above its melting point, fitting it along the contours range is from −163 to 660C. (5) An optical fiber
of a mold with pressure supplied by vacuum or other thermometer developed by NBS Center for Chemi-
force, and removing it from the mold after cooling cal Engineering has a range of up to 2000C. It is
below its softening point. The method is applied to made from a single crystalline sapphire and is much
polystyrenes, acrylics, vinyls, polyolefins, cellulo- more accurate than the existing standard. Based on
sics, etc. fundamental radiation principles, it measures ther-
modynamic temperatures directly. See thermo-
thermofor process. A moving-bed catalytic couple; bimetal.
cracking process in which petroleum vapor is passed
up through a reactor countercurrent to a flow of thermonuclear reaction. See fusion.
small beads or catalyst. The deactivated catalyst
then passes through a regenerator and is recircu- thermoplastic. A high polymer that softens
lated. when exposed to heat and returns to its original
condition when cooled to room temperature. Natural
thermogravimetric analysis. (TGA). The substances that exhibit this behavior are crude rub-
weight of a substance heated or cooled at a con- ber and a number of waxes; however, the term is
trolled rate, in thermogravimetry, which is recorded usually applied to synthetics such as polyvinyl chlo-
as a function of time or temperature. Frequently the ride, nylons, fluorocarbons, linear polyethylene,
rate of weight change also is measured electronical- polyurethane prepolymer, polystyrene, polypropyl-
ly by taking the first derivative of the weight change ene, and cellulosic and acrylic resins.
with time. See thermoset.
“Thermoguard” [ATOTECH]. TM for anti- thermoset. A high polymer that solidifies or
mony-based materials for incorporation in PVC and “sets” irreversibly when heated. This property is
other chlorine-containing plastics for flameproofing usually associated with a cross-linking reaction of
properties. the molecular constituents induced by heat or radia-
tion, as with proteins, and in the baking of doughs. In
thermometer. An instrument for measuring many cases, it is necessary to add “curing” agents
temperature. The liquid-in-glass thermometer con- such as organic peroxides or (in the case of rubber)
sists of a graduated glass tube and a bulb containing sulfur. For example, linear polyethylene can be
a suitable liquid whose expansion and contraction cross-linked to a thermosetting material by either
indicate the temperature. Its range is from −130 to radiation or chemical reaction. Phenolics, alkyds,
600C. For scientific purposes the most widely used amino resins, polyesters, epoxides, and silicones are
liquid is mercury down to its freezing point at −40C; usually considered to be thermosetting, but the term
below this, alcohol gives readings to −100C and also applies to materials in which additive-induced
pentane to −130C. Colored alcohol is generally used cross-linking is possible, e.g., natural rubber.
in household thermometers. Mercury thermometers
ranging up to 600C are available; the mercury is
prevented from vaporizing by a pressurized inert gas THF. Abbreviation for tetrahydrofuran.
inserted above the mercury column. Metal protec-
tion tubes for stem and bulb are necessary. The thia-. Prefix indicating the presence of sulfur in a
softening point of the glass is of primary impor- heterocyclic ring.
tance; borosilicate glasses are satisfactory up to
500C, but Jena glass is required for higher tempera- thiabendazole. (4-[2-benzimidazolyl]thiazole).
tures. Minimum and maximum thermometers are so CAS: 148-79-8. C10H7N3S.
made as to retain their lowest and highest readings Properties: White to tan crystals. Mp 304C. Slightly
indefinitely; the latter are used for oil-well and other soluble in water, alcohols, and chlorinated hydro-
geothermal measurements. carbons; soluble in dimethylformamide.
There are several other types of thermometers: (1) Use: Fungicide effective on citrus fruits, anthel-
Gas in which either the pressure at constant volume mintic.

thiacloprid. See (3-((6-chloro-3-pyridi- example is primuline, CI 49000.

nyl)methyl)-2. See thiazole.

thiamine. (3-(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidyl-5- 3-(n-2-thiazolylformimidoyl)indole.

methyl)-4-methyl-5, ␤-hydroxy-ethylthiazolium CAS: 22394-38-3. mf: C12H9N3S.
chloride; vitamin B1). C12H17ClN4OS. The antineu- Hazard: A poison.
ritic vitamin, essential for growth and the prevention
of beriberi. It functions in intermediate carbohydrate thiazophyr.
metabolism in coenzyme form in the decarboxyla- CAS: 117718-60-2. mf: C16H17F5N2O2S.
tion of ␣-keto acids. Deficiency symptoms: emo- Hazard: Questionable carcinogen.
tional hypersensitivity, loss of appetite, susceptibili- Use: Agricultural chemical.
ty to fatigue, muscular weakness, and polyneuritis.
2-thiazylamine. See 2-aminothiazole.

thickened oil. See blown oil.

thickener. A circular or cylindrical tank

equipped with revolving rakes or plows so designed
as to increase the concentration of solids in a suspen-
sion. The slurry enters through a feed trough or well,
which distributes it uniformly around the circumfer-
Source: Enriched and whole-grain cereals, milk, le- ence of the tank; the rakes move the thickened sedi-
gumes, meats, yeast. Most of the thiamine commer- ment toward the center where it is discharged
cially available is synthetic. through a collecting cone. Thickeners are applicable
Use: Medicine, nutrition, enriched flours. Isolated to the metallurgical and food industries, ore flota-
usually as the chloride (see formula above). Avail- tion, and municipal water treatment.
able as thiamine hydrochloride and thiamine mono- See clarification.
thickening agent. Any of a variety of hydro-
thiamine pyrophosphate. The active coen- philic substances used to increase the viscosity of
zyme form of vitamin B1 which functions in alde- liquid mixtures and solutions and to aid in maintain-
hyde transfer reactions. ing stability by their emulsifying properties. Four
classifications are recognized: (1) starches, gums,
1,4-thiazane. casein, gelatin, and phycocolloids; (2) semisynthet-
ic cellulose derivatives (carboxymethyl-cellulose,
❘ ❘ etc.); (3) polyvinyl alcohol and carboxy-vinylates
(synthetic); and (4) bentonite, silicates, and colloi-
Properties: Colorless liquid; pyridine-like odor. Bp
dal silica. The first group is widely used in the food
169C (758 mm Hg). Fumes in air. Absorbs carbon
industries, especially in ice creams, confectionery,
dioxide from the air. Soluble in alcohol, benzene,
gravies, etc.; other major consumers are the paper,
ether, water. Combustible.
adhesives, textiles, and detergent fields.
Derivation: Interaction of alcoholic ammonia and
See emulsion; colloid, protective; gel.
dichlorodiethyl sulfide.
Grade: Technical.
Use: Organic synthesis. Thiele reaction. Formation of triacetoxy aro-
matic compounds by the reaction of quinones with
acetic anhydride catalyzed by sulfuric acid or boron
thiazole. trifluoride.
CAS: 288-47-1.
❘ ❘ (thienyl)hydrazine.
SCH:NCH:CH. CAS: 64059-33-2. mf: C4H6N2S.
Properties: Colorless or pale-yellow liquid; odor Hazard: A poison.
resembles that of pyridine. D 1.18, bp 116.8C. Solu-
ble in alcohol and ether; slightly soluble in water. thimerosal. (sodium ethylmercurithiosalicy-
Use: Organic synthesis of fungicides, dyes, and rub- late; ethylmercurithiosalicylic acid, sodium salt).
ber accelerators. CAS: 54-64-8. NaOOCC6H4SHgC2H5.
Properties: Light-cream-colored, crystalline pow-
thiazole dye. A dye whose molecular structure der; slight characteristic odor. Affected by light.
contains the thiazole ring. The chromophore groups Soluble in water and alcohol; almost insoluble in
are ==C==N−, −S−C==, but the conjugated double ether and benzene; pH (1% solution) 6.7,.
bonds are also of importance. The members of the Derivation: Reaction between ethylmercuric chlo-
class are mainly used as direct or developed dyes for ride and thiosalicylic acid in alcoholic sodium hy-
cotton, though some find use as union dyes. One droxide.

Grade: NF. thioacetamide.

Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation. CAS: 62-55-5. CH3CSNH2.
Use: Medicine, bacteriostat, fungistat. Properties: Colorless leaflets. Mp 115C. Stable in
solution. Soluble in water, alcohol, ether, benzene.
thin. A nontechnical word used by scientists with Combustible.
a variety of meanings. (1) In electronic metallurgy, a Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, a carcin-
thin film is a vapor-deposited coating having a ogen (OSHA).
thickness of only a single atom; such monatomic Use: To replace gaseous hydrogen sulfide in qualita-
films, e.g., thorium on tungsten, are used in electron- tive analysis.
ic devices such as cathodes. (2) A coating or film of a
fatty acid on water that is one molecule thick (about thioacetic acid. (thiacetic acid; ethanethiolic
200 Å) is called a monomolecular film. (3) In thin- acid).
layer chromatography the term applies to a specially CAS: 507-09-5. CH3COSH.
prepared mixture of adsorbents spread on a glass Properties: Clear, yellow liquid; strong unpleasant
slide to a thickness of 1/100 inch. (4) The word is odor. D 1.05 (25C), fp −17C, bp 81.8C (630 mm
also used in the sense of a liquid of low viscosity, as Hg). Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Combus-
in paint thinner and thin-boiling starch. tible.
Derivation: By heating glacial acetic acid and phos-
thin-boiling starch. See starch, modified; phorus pentasulfide, with subsequent distillation.
thin. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
Use: Chemical reagent, lachrymator.
thin film. In electronic engineering a film having
a “thickness” of a single atom and consisting of a thioallyl ether. See allyl sulfide.
metal deposited on a metallic substrate either exter-
nally by vapor deposition or internally by diffusion. thioanisole. C6H5CH3.
The base metal is usually tungsten (for a cathode), Properties: Colorless liquid; strong unpleasant odor.
the film being any of a number of other metals D 1.053 (25C), fp −15.5C, bp 188C, refr index
(thorium, cesium, zirconium, barium, or cerium). 1.5842 (25C). Insoluble in water; soluble in most
“The greatest benefit is obtained when the films are organic solvents. Combustible.
of a monatomic nature; in the case of thorium on Use: Intermediate, solvent for polymeric systems.
tungsten, the optimum coverage is 0.67 monatomic
layer, i.e., the thorium atoms do not completely
cover the tungsten surface. Such films are very tight- thiobenzoic acid. C6H5COSH.
ly bound to the base metal by atomic forces” (W. H. Properties: Yellow oil or crystals. D 1.1825–1.1835
Kohl). (20/4C), mp 24C, bp 77.5C (5 mm Hg), 122C (30
See thin; film. mm Hg), refr index 1.602–1.604 (20C). Insoluble in
water; miscible with organic solvents. Combustible.
Grade: 95% min.
thin-layer chromatography. (TLC). A mi- Use: Organic intermediate.
cro type of chromatography. The thin layer (0.01
inch) is the adsorbent, usually a special silica gel
spread on glass or incorporated in a plastic film. 2-thio-2h-1,3-benzoxazine-2,4(3h)-dione.
Single drops of the solutions to be investigated are CAS: 10021-35-9. mf: C8H5NO2S.
placed along one edge of the glass plate, and this Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
edge then dipped into a solvent. The solvent carries Use: Agricultural chemical.
the constituents of the original test drops up the thin
layer in a selective separation, so that a comparison 4,4′-thiobis(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol).
with known standards and various identifying tests CAS: 96-69-5.
may be made on the spots formed. Properties: Light-gray to tan powder. Mp 150C min,
See thin. d 1.10 (25C).
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 10 mg/m3; not
thinner. A hydrocarbon (naphtha) or oleoresi- classifiable as a human carcinogen.
nous solvent (turpentine) used to reduce the viscosi- Use: Protection of light-colored rubber from oxida-
ty of paints to appropriate working consistency, usu- tion and of nonstaining neoprene compounds
ally just before application. In this sense a thinner is against deterioration.
a liquid diluent, except that it has active solvent
power on the dissolved resin. 2,2′-thiobis(chlorophenol).
CAS: 97-18-7. [ClC6H3(OH)]2S.
thio-. A prefix used in chemical nomenclature to Properties: White, crystalline solid; odorless. Mp
indicate the presence of sulfur in a compound, usual- 175.8–186.8C. Insoluble in water.
ly as a substitute for oxygen. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
See thiol. Use: Bacteriostat for cosmetics, fungicide.
2,2′-THIOBIS(4,6-DI-sec 1236

2,2′-thiobis(4,6-di-sec-amylphenol). (2,2′- Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 128C. Soluble in

thiobis[4,6-bis-(1-methylbutyl)phenol]). water and alcohol. Combustible.
[(CH3[CH2]2CH[CH3])2OHC6:H2]2S. Use: Analytical reagent.
Properties: A dark, viscous liquid. Softening p 0C, d
0.99 (50C). 4,4′-thiodiphenol. (TDP). (C6H5OH)2S.
Use: Rubber antioxidant. Properties: White, crystalline powder. Mp above
151C, 99.5% pure.
thiocarbamide. See thiourea. Use: Intermediate, flame-retardant, antioxidant, en-
gineering plastics.
thiocarbanil. See phenyl mustard oil.
thiodiphenylamine. See phenothiazine.
thiocarbanilide. (N,N′-diphenylthiourea; sul-
CAS: 102-08-9. CS(NHC6H5)2. thiodipropionic acid.
Properties: Gray powder. Mp 148C, d 1.32. Soluble CAS: 111-17-1. HOOCCH2CH2•S•CH2CH2COOH.
in alcohol and ether; insoluble in water. Combus- A dicarboxylic acid.
tible. Properties: Leaflets. Mp 135. Soluble in water and
Derivation: Interaction of aniline and carbon disul- alcohol.
fide and alcohol in the presence of sulfur. Hazard: Use in foods restricted to 0.02% of fat and
Use: Intermediates, dyes (sulfur colors, indigo, meth- oil content, including essential oils.
yl indigo), vulcanization accelerator, synthetic or- Use: Antioxidant in food packaging, soaps, plasticiz-
ganic pharmaceuticals, flotation agent, acid inhib- ers, lubricants, fats, and oils.
thiocarbonyl chloride. See thiophosgene. CAS: 111-97-7. S(CH2CH2CN)2.
Properties: White crystals or light-yellow liquid. D
4-thiochromanyl-o,o-dimethyl 1.1095 (30C), mp 28.65C. Slightly soluble in water
dithiophosphate. and alcohol; soluble in acetone, chloroform, and
CAS: 41219-25-4. mf: C11H15O2PS3. benzene.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Use: Preservative, selective solvent, chromatog-
Use: Agricultural chemical. raphy.

thioctic acid. See dl-␣-lipoic acid. thio-1,3-dithio[4,5-b]quinoxaline. See thio-

thiocyanic acid, phenyl ester.
CAS: 5285-87-0. mf: C7H5NS. thioester. An ester of a carboxylic acid with a
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. thiol instead of an alcohol.
thiocyanic acid, trimethylstannyl ester. thioethanolamine. See 2-aminoethanethiol.
See trimethyltin thiocyanate.

thiodiethylene glycol. See thiodigylcol. thioflavine T. (CI 49005).

thiodiglycol. (thiodiethylene glycol; ␤-bis-hy- Properties: A yellow basic dye of the thiazole class,,
droxyethyl sulfide; dihydroxyethyl sulfide). fluoresces yellow to yellowish-green when excited
(CH2CH2OH)2S. by UV.
Properties: Syrupy, colorless liquid; characteristic Derivation: By heating p-toluidine with sulfur in the
odor. D 1.1852 (20C), bp 283C, fp −10C, viscosity presence of lead oxide.
0.652 cP (20C), flash p 320F (160C), bulk d 9.85 lb/ Use: Textile dyeing, fluorescent sign paints, in com-
gal, refr index 1.5217 (20C). Soluble in acetone, bination with green or blue pigments to produce
alcohol, chloroform, water; slightly soluble in ben- brilliant greens, phosphotungstic pigments.
zene, carbon tetrachloride, and ether. Combustible.
Derivation: Hydrolysis of dichloroethyl sulfide, in- thiofuran. See thiophene.
teraction of ethylene chlorohydrin and sodium sul-
fide. 1-thioglycerol.
Hazard: Do not use with hydrochloric acid. CAS: 96-27-5. CH2(OH)CH(OH)CH2SH.
Use: Intermediate for elastomers and antioxidants; Properties: Water-white liquid. Bp 118C (5 mm
solvent for dyes in textile printing. Hg), d 1.295 (14.4C). Soluble in water, alcohol, and
ether. Combustible.
thiodiglycolic acid. Use: Reducing agent for cystine molecule in human
CAS: 123-93-3. HOOCCH2SCH2COOH. A dicar- hair and wool, for stabilization of acrylonitrile poly-
boxylic acid. mers, medicine.

thioglycolic acid. (mercaptoacetic acid). Mp 149–150C. Soluble in water, alcohol, acetone,

CAS: 68-11-1. HSCH2COOH. and ether; slightly soluble in benzene. Combustible.
Properties: Colorless liquid; strong unpleasant odor. Use: Biochemical research, intermediate, rust inhibi-
D 1.325, fp −16.5C, bp 123C (29 mm Hg). Miscible tor, antidarkening agent for crepe rubber, tackifier
with water, alcohol, or ether. Combustible. for synthetic rubber.
Derivation: Heating chloracetic acid with potassium
hydrogen sulfide. thiomerin.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong CAS: 20223-84-1. mf: C16H25HgNO6S•2H.
irritant to tissue. TLV: 1 ppm. Properties: IDLH 10 mg/m3 (as Hg).
Use: Reagent for iron, manufacture of thioglycolates, Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.01. STEL 0.03 mg/m3
permanent-wave solutions and depilatories, vinyl (skin).
stabilizer, manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
thionazin. (generic name for O,O-diethyl-O-2-
thioguanine deoxyriboside. pyrazinyl phosphorothioate).
CAS: 789-61-7. mf: C10H13N5O3S. CAS: 297-97-2.
Hazard: Questionable carcinogen.
❘ ❘
2-thiohydantoin. (glycolylthiourea). NCHCHNCHCOPS(C2H5O)2.
NHC(S)NHC(O)CH2. Properties: Amber liquid. Mp −1.7C, bp 80C (.001
Properties: Crystals or tan powder. Mp 230C. mm Hg). Slightly soluble in water; miscible with
Slightly soluble in water; insoluble in alcohols and most organic solvents.
ethers. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin
Grade: 99% min. absorption; cholinesterase inhibitor.
Use: Intermediate for pharmaceuticals, rubber accel- Use: Insecticide, fungicide, nematocide.
erators, copper-plating brighteners, and dyestuffs.
“Thionex” [Du Pont]. TM for tetramethylthi-
2-thio-4-keto-thiazolidine. See rhodanine. uram monosulfide.

-thiol. (mercaptan). Suffix indicating that a sub- thionyl chloride. (sulfurous oxychloride; sul-
stance belongs to the group of organic compounds fur oxychloride).
resembling alcohols but having the oxygen of the CAS: 7719-09-7. SOCl2.
hydroxyl group replaced by sulfur, as in ethanethiol Properties: Pale-yellow to red liquid; suffocating
(C2H5SH). Many thiols are characterized by strong odor. D 1.638, fp −105C, bp 79C, decomposes at
and repulsive odors. 140C, decomposes (fumes) in water. Soluble in ben-
Hazard: Aliphatic thiols are flammable. Toxic by zene, carbon tetrachloride.
inhalation. Grade: 93%, 97.5%.
Use: Warning agents in fuel gas lines, chemical inter- Hazard: Strong irritant to skin and tissue. TLV: ceil-
mediates. Note: Adoption of the name thiol to re- ing 1 ppm.
place mercaptan has been officially approved as Use: Pesticides, engineering plastics, chlorinating
more consistent with the molecular constitution of agent, catalyst.
these compounds. The older term, which literally
means “mercury seizing,” is inappropriate. thiopental sodium. (“Pentothal”; “Sodium
Pentothal”; sodium-5-ethyl-5(1-methylbutyl)-2-
thiolactic acid. (2-mercaptopropionic acid). thiobarbiturate). (C11H17N2O2SNa). A rapidly acting
CAS: 79-42-5. CH3CH(SH)COOH. barbiturate administered intravenously for general
Properties: Oily liquid; unpleasant odor. Becomes anesthesia and hypnosis. Commonly known as
crystalline at 10C, d 1.22, bp 116C (16 mm Hg), refr “truth serum.”
index 1.482. Soluble in water, alcohol, and acetone. Hazard: May cause respiratory failure; use only with
Readily forms salts with numerous metals that have physician in attendance.
quite different properties.
Derivation: Reaction of sodium sulfide, sulfur, and thiophane. See tetrahydrothiophene.
bromopropionic acid.
Use: Depilatory, hair-waving preparations. thiophene. (thiofuran).
CAS: 110-02-1.
thiol protease inhibitor.
CAS: 66701-25-5. mf: C15H27N5O5.
Hazard: A reproductive hazard.

thiomalic acid. (mercaptosuccinic acid).

CAS: 70-49-5. HOOCCH(SH)CH2COOH. Properties: Colorless liquid. Refr index 1.5285
Properties: White crystals or powder; sulfuric odor. (20C), d 1.0644 (20/4C), fp −38.5C, bp 84C, flash p

30F (−1.1C). Soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
in water. Use: Fungicide, acaricide.
Derivation: From coal tar (benzene fraction) and
petroleum, synthetically from heating sodium succi- thioridazine. (USAN for 2-methylthio-10-[2-
nate with phosphorus trisulfide. (N-methyl-2-piperidyl)-ethyl]phenothiazine).
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. CAS: 50-52-2. C21H26N2S2.
Use: Organic synthesis (condenses with phenol and Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 158C. Soluble in
formaldehyde, copolymerizes with maleic anhy- water and alcohol.
dride), solvent, dye, and pharmaceutical manufac- Grade: ND (as the hydrochloride).
ture. Use: Medicine (tranquilizer).
␣-thiophenealdehyde. (2-thiophenecarboxal-
dehyde). C4H3SCHO. thiosalicylic acid. (2-mercaptobenzoic acid).
Properties: Oily liquid; almondlike odor. Bp 198C, CAS: 147-93-3. HOOCC6H4SH.
90C (20 mm Hg), d 1.210–1.220. Very soluble in Properties: Yellow solid. Mp 164–165C, sublimes.
alcohol, benzene, ether; slightly soluble in water. Slightly soluble in hot water; soluble in alcohol,
Combustible. ether, and acetic acid. Combustible.
Grade: 95%. Grade: Reagent, technical 80%, pharmaceutical.
Use: Thiophene derivatives, introducing thenyl Use: Dyes, reagent for iron determination, interme-
group into organic compounds. diate.

thiophenol. (phenyl mercaptan). thiosemicarbazide. (aminothiourea).

CAS: 108-98-5. C6H5SH. CAS: 79-19-6. NH2CSNHNH2.
Properties: Water-white liquid; repulsive odor. Bp Properties: White, crystalline powder; no odor. Mp
168.3C, bp 71C (15 mm Hg), refr index 1.5891, d 180–184C. Soluble in water and alcohol.
1.075 (25/25C). Insoluble in water; soluble in alco- Derivation: From potassium thiocyanate and hydra-
hol and ether. Combustible. zine salts.
Derivation: Reduction of benzenesulfonyl chloride Grade: Technical and pure.
with zinc dust in sulfuric acid. Use: Reagent for ketones and certain metals, photog-
Grade: 99%. raphy, rodenticide.
Hazard: Skin irritant.
Use: Pharmaceutical synthesis. thiosinamine. See allyl thiourea.
thiophosgene. (thiocarbonyl chloride).
CAS: 463-71-8. CSCl2. thiosorbitol. CH2OH(CH2O)4CH2SH.
Properties: Reddish liquid. D 1.5085 (15C), bp Properties: Colorless, nonhygroscopic crystals. Mp
73.5C. Decomposes in water and alcohol; soluble in 92C, strong reducing agent. Soluble in water, ethyl-
ether. ene glycol, and formamide; insoluble in benzene,
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide.
Use: Organic synthesis. Use: Corrosion protection in pickling and plating
thiophosphoryl chloride.
CAS: 3982-91-0. PSCl3. “Thiostat-B” [Uniroyal]. TM for 40% aque-
Properties: Colorless liquid; penetrating odor. D ous solution of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate.
1.635, bp 126C, fp −35C, decomposed by water, Use: Bactericide in oil-well water flooding, paper
flash p none. Soluble in carbon disulfide, carbon slimicide, specialty bactericide.
tetrachloride. Nonflammable.
Hazard: Strong irritant to skin and tissue. “Thiostop” [Uniroyal]. TM for aqueous solu-
tions of the sodium and potassium salts of dimethyl
thiophosphoryl chlorodifluoride. See thio- dithiocarbamate.
phosphoryl difluoride monochloride. Properties: Clear, yellow to amber liquid. D
1.18–1.23, good storage stability, potassium salt
thiophosphoryl difluoride monochloride. will crystallize out at −6.6C and the sodium salt at
CAS: 2524-02-9. mf: ClF2PS. 0C. Avoid long storage in partially filled containers.
Hazard: Low toxicity by inhalation. Use: Short stop in SBR polymerization.
thioquinox. (generic name for 2,3-quinoxali-
nedithiol cyclic trithiocarbonate). C6H4N2C2S2CS thiotepa. USP name for triethylenethiophospho-
(tricyclic). ramide.
Properties: Yellow solid. Mp 180C. Insoluble in
water; slightly soluble in acetone, kerosene, and thiourea. (thiocarbamide).
alcohol. CAS: 62-56-6. (NH2)2CS.

thixotropy. The ability of certain colloidal gels

to liquefy when agitated (as by shaking or ultrasonic
vibration) and to return to the gel form when at rest.
This is observed in some clays, paints, and printing
Properties: White, lustrous crystals; bitter taste. D inks that flow freely on application of slight pres-
1.406, mp 180–182C, bp sublimes in vacuo at sure, as by brushing or rolling. Suspensions of ben-
150–160C. Soluble in cold water, ammonium thioc- tonite clay in water display this property, which is
yanate solution, and alcohol, nearly insoluble in desirable in oil-well drilling fluids.
ether. See rheology; dilatancy.
Derivation: (1) By heating dry ammonium thiocya-
nate, extraction with a concentrated solution of am- “Thompson’s Concrete Care Cleaner and
monium thiocyanate, with subsequent crystalliza- Degreaser” [Thompson]. TM for a liquid
tion; (2) action of hydrogen sulfide on cyanamide. concrete cleaner.
Grade: Technical, reagent. Use: To remove oil, dirt, algae, and mildew.
Hazard: A carcinogen (OSHA). May not be used in
food products (FDA); skin irritant (allergenic). “Thompson’s Water Seal Maximum Deck
Use: Photography and photocopying papers, organic Stripper” [Thompson]. TM for a liquid
synthesis (intermediate, dyes, drugs, hair prepara- deck stripper.
tions), rubber accelerator, analytical reagent, amino Use: To remove oil and latex-based solid and semi-
resins, mold inhibitor. transparent stains and waterproofers from decks and
other surfaces.
“Thioxin” [Morton]. TM for a series of rubber-
to-metal bonding adhesives. Available in water- and “Thompson’s Water Seal No Drip Gel
solvent-based formulations for bonding a wide vari- Stain” [Thompson]. TM for a gel wood
ety of elastomers and rubbers to metal and engi- stain.
neered plastics. Use: A gel stain for outdoor furniture and shutters
Use: Antivibration components, transmission seals, without the mess of ordinary stain.
hoses, bushings, automotive weatherstrip, solid
tires, storage tanks, and bridge bearing pads.
Thomson, J. J., Sr. (1856–1940). A native of
England, Thomson entered Cambridge University
thioxylenol. (mixed isomers). C6H3(CH3)2SH.
in 1876 and remained there permanently as a profes-
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.03 (15.6/15.6C), bp
sor of physics, especially in the field of electrical
122–133C (50 mm Hg). Oxidizes on exposure to air,
phenomena. His observations and calculations of
supplied under nitrogen atmosphere. Combustible.
cathode ray experiments led to proof of the existence
Use: Chemical intermediate, peptizer for natural and
of the electron as the lightest particle of matter
SBR rubbers.
(1896). This proof was announced at the Royal Insti-
tution in the following year. This was the keystone
thiram. (tetramethylthiuram disulfide; bis-(di- of the theory of atomic structure and one of the most
methylthiocarbamyl)disulfide; thiuram; TMTD). notable discoveries in the history of science.
CAS: 137-26-8. [(CH3)2NCH]2S2.
See Rutherford, Sir Ernest.
Properties: White, crystalline powder; characteristic
odor. D 1.29 (20C), melting range 155–156C. Solu-
ble in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, carbon disul- thomsonite. (NaCa2Al5(SiO4)5•6H2O). A miner-
fide; insoluble in water, dilute alkali, gasoline. al, one of the zeolites.
Grade: 75% wettable powder, 95% technical pow-
der, ND. thonzylamine hydrochloride. (2-[(2-di-me-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, irritant to thylaminoethyl)(p-methoxybenzyl)amino]-pyrimi-
skin and eyes. TLV: 1 mg/m3; not classifiable as a dinehydrochloride).
human carcinogen. CAS: 63-56-9. C16H22N4O•HCl.
Use: Vulcanizing agent for rubber, especially for Properties: White, crystalline powder; faint odor.
steam hose and other heat-resistant uses; fungicide; Mp 173–176. Very soluble in water; freely soluble
insecticide; seed disinfectant; lubricating oil addi- in alcohol and chloroform; practically insoluble in
tive; bacteriostat; animal repellent. ether and benzene; pH 5.0–6.0 (2% solution).
Grade: NF.
“Thiramad” [Mallinckrodt]. TM for a 75% Use: Medicine (antihistamine).
thiram formulation. A turf fungicide.
Hazard: See thiram. thoria. See thorium dioxide.

thiuram. A compound containing the group thorin. HOC10H4(SO3H)2NNC6H4AsO3H2. A re-

R2NCS. Most are disulfides. The most common mo- agent for the colorimetric determination of micro-
nosulfide is tetramethylthiuram monosulfide. gram quantities of thorium.
See thiram. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.

thorite. ThSiO4. A natural thorium silicate, usual- thorium decay series. The series of radioac-
ly impure, found in pegmatites. tive elements produced as successive intermediate
Properties: Black to orange color, vitreous to resin- products when thorium undergoes spontaneous nat-
ous luster. Mohs hardness 4.5–5, d 4.4–5.2. Ra- ural radioactive disintegration into lead. Many of
dioactive. these are severe radioactive poisons when ingested
Occurrence: Norway, Ceylon. or inhaled as thorium dust particles.
Use: Source of thorium.
thorium dioxide. (thorium anhydride; thori-
thorium. um oxide; thoria). ThO2.
CAS: 7440-29-1. Th. Metallic element of atomic Properties: Heavy white powder. D 9.7, mp 3300C
number 90, a member of the actinide series (group (highest of all oxides), bp 4400C, Mohs hardness
IIIB of periodic table), aw 232.0381, valence of 4; 6.5, very refractory. Soluble in sulfuric acid; insolu-
radioactive, no stable isotopes. ble in water.
Properties: Soft metal with bright silvery luster Derivation: Reduction of thorium nitrate.
when freshly cut, similar to lead in hardness when Grade: Technical and purities to 99.8% ThO2; granu-
pure. Can be cold-rolled, extruded, drawn, and lar particles; crystals.
welded. D about 11.7, mp 1700C, bp 4500C. Solu- Use: Ceramics (high temperature), gas mantles, nu-
ble in acids; insoluble in alkalies and water. Some clear fuel, flame spraying, crucibles, medicine, non-
alloys may ignite spontaneously, the metal in mas- silica optical glass, catalyst, thoriated tungsten fila-
sive form is not flammable. ments.
Source: Monazite, thorite. It is about as abundant as
Derivation: (1) Reduction of thorium dioxide with
thorium disulfide. ThS2.
Properties: Dark-brown crystals. D 7.30 (25/4C),
calcium; (2) fused salt electrolysis of the double
mp 1875–1975C (in vacuo). Insoluble in water.
fluoride ThF4•KF. The product of both processes is
Use: Solid lubricant.
thorium powder, fabricated into the metal by pow-
der metallurgy techniques. Hot surface decomposi-
tion of the iodide produces crystal bar thorium. thorium fluoride. ThF4.
Available forms: Powder, unsintered bars, sintered Properties: White powder. Dehydrated between 200
bars, sheets. and 300C. D (anhydrous) 6.32 (24C), mp 1111C,
Hazard: Flammable and explosive in powder form. above 500C reacts with atmospheric moisture to
Dusts of thorium have very low ignition points and form thorium oxyfluoride, ThOF2, and finally the
may ignite at room temperature. Radioactive decay oxide, ThO2. Forms a series of compounds with
isotopes are dangerous when ingested. other metallic fluorides such as NaF and KF.
Use: Nuclear fuel (thorium-232 is converted to urani- Grade: 79–80% ThO2.
um-233 on neutron bombardment after several de- Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3.
cay steps), sun lamps, photoelectric cells, target in Use: Production of thorium metal and magnesium-
X-ray tubes, alloys. thorium alloys, high temperature ceramics. ThOF2 is
used as a protective coating on reflective surfaces.
thorium acetylacetonate.
Th[OC(CH3):CHCOCH3]4. thorium nitrate.
Properties: Crystalline powder. Slightly soluble in CAS: 13823-29-5. Th(NO3)4•4H2O.
water; resistant to hydrolysis. A chelating, nonioniz- Properties: White, crystalline mass. Mp 500C (de-
ing compound. composes). Soluble in water and alcohol.
Grade: Technical, CP.
thorium anhydride. See thorium dioxide. Hazard: Dangerous fire and explosion risk in contact
with organic materials, strong oxidizing agent. Ra-
thorium carbide. ThC2.
Use: Reagent for determination of fluorine, thoriated
Properties: Yellow solid. D 8.96 (18C), mp
tungsten filaments.
2630–2680C, bp 5000C. Decomposes in water.
Use: Nuclear fuel.
thorium oxalate. Th(C2O4)2•2H2O.
thorium chloride. (thorium tetrachloride). Properties: White powder. D (anhydrous) 4.637
CAS: 10026-08-1. ThCl4. (16C). Insoluble in water and most acids. Soluble in
Properties: Colorless or white, lustrous needles solutions of alkali and of ammonium oxalates.
(light-yellow color caused by iron trace); hygro- Above 300–400C decomposes to thorium oxide,
scopic; partially volatile; crystallizes with variable ThO2.
water of crystallization. D 4.59, bp 928C (decom- Grade: Purities to 99.9%; as 59% ThO2.
poses), mp 820C. Soluble in alcohol, water. Use: Ceramics.
Grade: Technical; as 50% ThO2.
Use: Incandescent lighting. thorium oxide. See thorium dioxide.

thorium sulfate. (thorium sulfate, normal). See air pollution; American Conference of Govern-
Th(SO4)2•8H2O. mental Industrial Hygienists.
Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 2.8, mp
loses 4H2O at 42C, remainder at 400C. Slightly thrombin. A proteolytic enzyme that catalyzes
soluble in water; soluble in ice water. the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and thus is
Grade: As 43% ThO2. essential in the clotting mechanism of blood. It is
present in the blood in the form of prothrombin
thorium tetrachloride. See thorium chlo- under normal conditions; when bleeding begins, the
ride. prothrombin is converted to thrombin, which in turn
activates the formation of fibrin.
Thorpe reaction. Base-catalyzed condensation
of two molecules of nitrile to yield imines that tau- thrombocyte. See platelet.
tomerize to enamines.
thromboxane. See prostaglandin.
thortveitite. An ore containing 37–42% scandi-
um oxide. A basic material in the production of throwing oil. An oil applied to prepare raw silk
scandium. and filament rayon for “throwing,” the operation by
which the filaments are twisted into threads. Ap-
THPC. See tetrak- plied by a bath, the oils condition the filaments and
is(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride. yarns for subsequent weaving or knitting. Usually
compounded to be self-emulsifying and may con-
tain a sizing agent such as dextrin, gelatin, etc.
Thr. Abbreviation of threonine.
See slashing compound.
3′ end. The end of a nucleic acid that lacks a throwing power. A term denoting the effec-
nucleotide bound at the 3′ position of the terminal tiveness of an electrolytic cell for depositing metal
residue. uniformly over a surface being electroplated, partic-
ularly in irregular and recessed areas. The throwing
three-phase equilibrium. The state of equi- power is the weight of deposition per unit distance
librium of vapor, liquid, and solid phases of a pure between the electrodes.
substance at a definite pressure and temperature.
thuja oil. (arbor vitae oil).
threonine. (␣-amino-␤-hydroxybutyric acid). CAS: 8007-20-3.
CAS: 72-19-5. CH3CH(OH)CH(NH2)COOH. An Properties: Pale-yellow essential oil; camphorlike
essential amino acid. odor. D 0.910–0.920, refr index 1.459 (20C), optical
Properties: Colorless crystals. (dl-threonine) Mp rotation −10 to −13 degrees in 100 mm tube. Soluble
228–229C with decomposition; (l(−)-threonine) in alcohol, ether, chloroform, carbon disulfide, fixed
(naturally occurring) mp 255–257C with decompo- oils, and mineral oil. Combustible. Chief known
sition; (dl-allo-threonine), mp 250–252C. Soluble in constituents: Dextro-pinene, levofenchone, thujone,
water. Optically active. should contain more than 60% ketones calculated as
Derivation: Hydrolysis of protein (casein), organic thujone.
synthesis. Derivation: Distilled from the leaves of the white
Use: Nutrition and biochemical research, dietary sup- cedar, Thuja occidentalis.
plement. Grade: Technical, FCC (as cedarleaf oil).
Use: Perfumery, flavoring.
threshold energy. The energy limit for an inci-
dent particle or photon below which a particular ␣-thujaplicin.
endothermic reaction will not occur. CAS: 1946-74-3.
Properties: A minor component of Thujopsis dola-
Threshold Limit Value. (TLV). A set of brata. SIEB. et ZUCC. var. hondai MAKINO mf:
standards established by the American Conference C10H12O2.
of Governmental Industrial Hygienists for concen- Hazard: A poison.
trations of airborne substances in workroom air.
They are time-weighted averages based on condi- thujone.
tions that it is believed that workers may be repeat- CAS: 546-80-5. C10H16O. A terpene-type ketone
edly exposed to day after day without adverse ef- contained in thuja oil and the oils of sage, tansy, and
fects. The TLV values are revised annually and wormwood.
provide the basis for the safety regulations of Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.915–0.919 (20/
OSHA. They are intended to serve as guides in 20C), bp 203C. Insoluble in water; soluble in alco-
control of health hazards rather than definitive hol. Combustible.
marks between safe and dangerous concentration. In Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
this book, these are indicated by TLV. Use: Solvent.

thulia. See thulium oxide. rotatory in solution; soluble in water, methanol, hot
ethanol, hot acetone, and hot ethyl acetate; sparingly
thulium. Tm. Atomic number 69, group IIIB of soluble in hot chloroform; soluble in pyridine and
the periodic table, a rare-earth element of the lan- glacial acetic acid.
thanide groups, aw 168.9342, valence of 3; no stable Use: Biochemical research. Also available as trityl
isotopes. thymidine and as tritiated thymidine in a radioactive
Properties: Metallic luster. D 9.318, mp 1550C, bp form.
1727C. Reacts slowly with water; soluble in dilute
acids. Salts colored green. thymidylic acid. The nucleotide of thymine,
Derivation: Isolated by reduction of the fluoride with i.e., the phosphate ester of thymidine.
Grade: Regular high purity (ingots, lumps). thymine. (5-methyluracil; 5-methyl-2,4-dioxy-
Hazard: Fire risk in form of dust. pyrimidine; T).
Use: Ferrites, X-ray source. CAS: 65-71-4.
See rare earth.
❘ ❘
thulium-170. Radioactive thulium of mass num- CH3CC(O)NHC(O)NHCH. One of the pyrimidine
ber 170. bases of living matter.
Use: X-ray source in portable units. Properties: White, crystalline powder. Decomposes
at 335–337C. Slightly soluble in hot water; insolu-
thulium chloride. TmCl3•7H2O. ble in cold water, alcohol; sparingly soluble in ether;
Properties: Green, deliquescent crystals. Mp 824C, readily soluble in alkalies.
bp 1440C. Very soluble in water and alcohol. Derivation: Hydrolysis of deoxyribonucleic acid,
from methylcyanoacetylurea by catalytic reduction.
thulium nitrate. Use: Biochemical research.
CAS: 14985-19-4. mf: N3O9•Tm. See base pair; nucleotide.
Hazard: A poison.
thymine-2-deoxyriboside. See thymidine.
thulium oxalate. Tm2(C2O4)3•6H2O.
Properties: Greenish-white precipitate, loses H2O at thymine dimer. See pyrimidine dimer.
50C. Soluble in aqueous alkali oxalates.
Derivation: Precipitation of a solution containing a thymol. (isopropyl-m-cresol; thyme camphor;
thulium salt and a mineral acid by addition of oxalic thymic acid).
acid. CAS: 89-83-8. (CH3)2CHC6H3(CH3)OH.
Use: Analytical separation of thulium (and other rare-
earth metals) from the common metals.

thulium oxide. (thulia). Tm2O3.

Properties: Dense white powder with greenish tinge,
slightly hygroscopic. Absorbs water and carbon di-
oxide from the air. D 8.6. Exhibits a reddish in-
candescence on heating, changing to yellow and
then white on prolonged heating. Slowly soluble in
strong acids.
Properties: White crystals; aromatic odor and taste.
Derivation: By ignition of thulium oxalate, salt of
D 0.979, mp 48–51, bp 233C. Soluble in alcohol,
other oxyacids, or hydroxide.
carbon disulfide, chloroform, glacial acetic acid,
Grade: 99–99.9%.
ether, and fixed or volatile oils; slightly soluble in
Use: Source of thulium metal.
water and glycerol. Combustible.
Derivation: From thyme oil or other oils, syntheti-
thylakoid. Closed cisterna, or disc, formed by the
cally from m-cresol and isopropyl chloride by the
pigment-bearing internal membranes of chloro-
Friedel-Crafts method at −10C.
Grade: Technical, NF, reagent.
Use: Perfumery, mold and mildew preventive, mi-
“Thylate” [Du Pont]. TM for a wettable off- croscopy, preservative, antioxidant, flavoring, labo-
white powder containing 65% thiram. ratory reagent, synthetic menthol.
thymic acid. See thymol.
thymol blue. (thymolsulfonphthalein).
thymidine. (thymine-2-deoxyriboside). CAS: 76-61-9.
CAS: 50-89-5. C10H14N2O5. The nucleoside (deoxy- ❘ ❘
riboside) of thymine. Occurs in DNA. C 6H4SO2OC[C6H2(CH3)(OH)CH(CH3)2]2.
Properties: Crystalline needles. Mp 185C. Dextro- Properties: Brown-green powder or crystals. Mp

223C (decomposes). Insoluble in water; soluble in thyroxine. (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine).

alcohol or dilute alkali. CAS: 51-48-9.
Use: Acid-base indicator in pH range 1.5 (pink) to HOC6H2I2OC6H2I2CH2CH(NH2)COOH.
2.8–8 (yellow) to 9.6 (blue).
See indicator.

thymol iodide. [C6H2(CH3)(OI)(C3H7)]2. Princi-

pally dithymol diiodide.
Properties: Red-brown powder or crystals; slight
aromatic odor; affected by light. Soluble in ether,
The hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is an
chloroform, and fixed or volatile oils; slightly solu-
amino acid and a derivative of tyrosine. It increases the
ble in alcohol; insoluble in water. Combustible.
metabolic rate and oxygen consumption of animal
Derivation: Interaction of thymol and potassium in
alkaline solution.
Properties: Optically active, the l-isomer is the natu-
Grade: Technical.
ral and physiologically active form. (dl-thyroxine)
Use: Feed additive, antifungal agent.
Needles. Decomposes at 231–233C. Insoluble in
water, alcohol, and the common organic solvents;
thymolphthalein. soluble in alcohol in the presence of mineral acids or
❘ ❘ alkalies. (l-thyroxine) Crystals. Decomposes at
C 6H4COOC[C6H2(CH3)(OH)CH(CH3)2]2. 235–236C. (d-thyroxine) Crystals. Decomposes at
Properties: White powder. Mp 245C. Insoluble in 237C.
water; soluble in alcohol and acetone, and dilute Derivation: Obtained from the thyroid glands of
alkali and acids. animals; also made synthetically.
Use: Acid-base indicator in pH range 9.3 (colorless) Use: Medicine (hormone), biochemical research.
to 10.5 (blue). See triiodothyronine.
See indicator.
Ti. Symbol of titanium.
thymolsulfonphthalein. See thymol blue.
TIBAL. Abbreviation for triisobutylaluminum.
p-thymoquinone. (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-
quinone). “TIC Pretested Guarcel 302” [TIC]. TM
CAS: 490-91-5. C6H2O2(CH3)CH(CH3)2. for a powder developed with bland guar gum.
Properties: Bright-yellow crystals; penetrating Use: For dairy-based dry mix beverages.
odor. Mp 45.5C, bp 232C. Slightly soluble in water;
soluble in alcohol and ether. Combustible. “TIC Pretested Nutriloid Arabic” [TIC].
Derivation: From diazonium salt of aminothymol TM for a sprayable dry powder food additive.
and nitrous acid. Use: As a mouthfeel aid providing a creamy texture
Use: Fungicide. without viscosity.

thyrocalcitonin. A thyroid hormone having sig- Tiemann rearrangement. Rearrangement of

nificant effect on the calcium content of bone and amide oximes (available from nitriles and hydroxyl-
blood. It can retard bone damage and may be in- amine) to monosubstituted ureas by treatment with
volved in the incidence of dental caries and the form benzenesulfonyl chloride and water.
of dental calculus known as tartar.
Tiffeneau-Demjanov ring expansion. Re-
thyroid. See thyroxine. arrangement of ␤-amino alcohols on diazotization
with nitrous acid to give ring-expanded carbonyl
thyronine. (desiodothyroxine). compounds.
HOC6H4OC6H4CH2CH(NH2)COOH. The p-hy-
droxyphenyl ether of tyrosine. Thyronine and its tiglic acid. (methylcrotonic acid; crotonolic
iodinated derivatives are used in biochemical re- acid; trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid).
search on the thyroid gland and its activity. CAS: 80-59-1. CH3CH:C(CH3)COOH. The trans
isomer of angelic acid.
thyrotropic hormone. (TSH; thyrotropin). A Properties: Thick, syrupy liquid or colorless crys-
hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pitu- tals; spicy odor. D 0.9641, mp 65C, bp 198.5C.
itary gland. It increases the rate of removal of iodine Soluble in alcohol, ether, hot water. Combustible.
from the blood by the thyroid gland, synthesis of the Derivation: From croton oil. Also occurs in English
thyroid hormone, and its release into the blood- chamomile oil.
stream. The thyrotropic hormone is a protein with a Use: Perfumes, flavors, emulsion breakers.
low molecular weight (about 10,000) that contains
some carbohydrate. tiglium oil. See croton oil.

time-weighted average. (TWA). tin anhydride. See stannic oxide.

The average concentration of an air contaminant for
a conventional 8-hour workday and a 40-hour work- tin ash. See stannic oxide.
See Threshold Limit Value. tin bis(diethyldithiocarbamate).
CAS: 16248-90-1. mf: C10H20N2S4•Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 2 mg(Sn)/m3.
timolol. C13H24N4O3S. Use: Agricultural chemical.

tin bisulfide. See stannic sulfide.

tin bronze. See stannic sulfide.

tincal. See borax.

Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 72C. tincture. An alcoholic or aqueous alcoholic solu-

Use: Adrenergic blocker used in treatment of hyper- tion of an animal or vegetable drug or a chemical
tension, glaucoma, and for reducing risk of second substance. The tincture of potent drugs is essentially
heart attack. FDA approved. a 10% solution. Tinctures are more dilute than fluid
extracts and less volatile than spirits.

tin. (stannum). tin dibutylditrifluoroacetate. See

CAS: 7440-31-5. Sn. Metallic element of atomic bis(trifluoroacetoxy)dibutyltin.
number 50, group IVA of the periodic system, aw
118.69, valences of 2, 4; 10 isotopes. tin, dichlorodidodecyl-. See didodecyltin di-
Properties: Silver-white, ductile solid (␤ form). D chloride.
7.29 (20C), mp 232C, bp 2260C. Changes to brittle,
gray (␣) tin at temperature of 18C, but the transition tin, dioctyldiphenyl-. See dioctyldiphenyltin.
is normally very slow. Soluble in acids and hot
potassium hydroxide solution; insoluble in water. “Tinopal” [Novartis]. TM for a group of fluor-
Elemental tin has low toxicity, but most of its com- escent whitening agents, which absorb UV light in
pounds are toxic. the near visible range and reemit the energy as visi-
Derivation: By roasting the ore (cassiterite) to oxi- ble light.
dize sulfates and to remove arsine, then reducing Use: Heavy-duty detergents to whiten fabrics, paper,
with coal in a reverberatory furnace or by smelting plastics, fibers, coatings, waxes, etc.
in an electric furnace; secondary recovery from tin
plate. tin oxide. See stannous oxide.
Occurrence: Malaysia (called Straits tin), Indonesia,
Thailand, Bolivia. tin perchloride. See stannic chloride.
Grade: By percentage purity; spectrographic grade
is 99.9999%; block tin is a common designation for tin plating. The process of covering steel, iron,
pure tin. or other metal with a layer of tin by dipping it in the
Available forms: Sheet, wire, tape, pipe, bar, ingot, molten metal, by electroplating, or by immersion in
powder, single crystals. solutions that deposit tin by chemical action of their
Hazard: All organic tin compounds are toxic. TLV: components. Ingredients for the chemical process
(inorganic compounds except SnH4 and SnO2 as Sn) are cream of tartar and stannous chloride. The metal
2 mg/m3; (organic compounds as Sn) 0.1 mg/m3. being plated also takes part in the process. The ob-
Use: Tin plate, terneplate, Babbitt metal, pewter, jective is to utilize the superior corrosion resistance
bronze, corrosion-resistant coatings, collapsible of tin and in some cases to improve appearance.
tubes, anodes for electrotin plating, hot-dipped coat- See terneplate.
ings, cladding, solders, low-melting alloys for fire
control, organ pipes, dental amalgams, diecasting. tin protochloride. See stannous chloride.
White, type, and casting metal. Manufacture of
chemicals, tinned wire (all copper wire that is to be tin protosulfide. See stannous sulfide.
rubber covered). Block tin is used to coat copper
cooking utensils and lead sheet, or to line lead pipe tin protoxide. See stannous oxide.
for distilled water, beer, carbonated beverages, and
some chemicals. Note: In speaking of fabricated tin resinate. See soap (2).
articles, “tin” is often used when tinplate (thin sheets
of steel coated with tin) is meant, e.g., “a tin can.” To tin salt. See stannous chloride.
distinguish, articles (such as condenser coils) made
of solid tin are said to be made of “block tin.” tin spirits. Solutions of tin salts used in dyeing.

tin stearate. See stannous stearate. titanellow. See titanium trioxide (not to be con-
fused with titan yellow, an organic dye containing
tin tetrabromide. See stannic bromide. no titanium).

tin tetrachloride. Legal label name (Rail) for titania. See titanium dioxide.
stannic chloride.
titanic acid. (titanic hydroxide; metatitanic
tintometer. A device for comparison of colors of acid). H2TiO3 or Ti(OH)4. Water content variable.
solutions. Properties: White powder. Insoluble in mineral
acids and alkalies except when freshly precipitated;
“Tinuvin” [Novartis]. TM for a group of UV insoluble in water.
absorbers, substituted hydroxyphenyl benzotria- Derivation: From hydrochloric acid solution of tita-
zoles, e.g., 2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphe- nates by treating with ammonia and then drying over
nyl)benzotriazole. concentrated sulfuric acid or by boiling titanium
sulfate solution.
tiocarbazil. Grade: Technical.
CAS: 36756-79-3. mf: C16H25NOS. Use: Mordant.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by skin contact. Low tox-
icity by ingestion. titanium.
Use: Agricultural chemical. CAS: 7440-32-6. Ti. Metallic element of atomic
number 22, group IVB of the periodic table, aw
“Tipersul” [Du Pont]. TM for fibrous potas- 47.90, valences of 2, 3, 4; five isotopes.
sium titanate, crystalline fibers 1 micron in diameter Properties: Silvery solid or dark-gray, amorphous
melting at 1371C, useful to 1204C. powder. D 4.6 (20C), mp 1675C, bp 3260C, sp heat
Available forms: Lumps, blocks, and loose fibers. 0.13 Btu/lb/F, thermal conductivity 105 Btu/ft2/F/
Use: High-temperature thermal, acoustical, and elec- hour, as strong as steel but 45% lighter, Vickers
trical insulation; filter media. hardness 80–100, excellent resistance to atmospher-
ic and seawater corrosion and to corrosion by chlo-
rine, chlorinated solvents, and sulfur compounds;
“Tiron” [LaMotte]. TM for disodium-1,2-dih-
reactive when hot or molten. Insoluble in water,
inert to nitric acid but attacked by concentrated sul-
Use: Colorimetric determination of ferric iron, titani-
furic acid and hydrochloric acid. Unaffected by
um, or molybdenum.
strong alkalies.
Source: Ilmenite, rutile, titanite, titanium slag from
Tiselius, Arne W. K. (1902–1971). A Swed- certain iron ores.
ish biochemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemis- Derivation: (1) Reduction of titanium tetrachloride
try in 1948. Renowned for research in separation with magnesium (Kroll process) or sodium (Hunter
methods of biochemical matter, in particular elec- process) in an inert atmosphere of helium or argon.
trophoresis and chromatography. Work also in- The titanium sponge is consolidated by melting. (2)
volved virus isolation and synthesis of blood plas- Electrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in a bath of
ma. He earned degrees from the University of fused salts (alkali or alkaline-earth chlorides).
Upsala and Princeton University, as well as a multi- Grade: Technical (powder), commercially pure
tude of honorary degrees. (sheets, bars, tubes, rods, wire, and sponge), single
Tishchenko reaction. Formation of esters Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire and explosion
from aldehydes by an oxidation-reduction process risk. (Metal) Ignites in air at 1200C, will burn in
in the presence of aluminum or sodium alkoxides. atmosphere of nitrogen. Do not use water or carbon
dioxide to extinguish.
tissue culture. Method by which cells derived Use: Alloys (especially ferrotitanium); as structural
from multicellular organisms are grown in liquid material in aircraft, jet engines, missiles, marine
media. equipment, textile machinery, chemical equipment
(especially as anode in chloride production), desal-
tissue-specific expression. Gene function ination equipment, surgical instruments, orthopedic
which is restricted to a particular tissue or cell type. appliances, food-handling equipment; X-ray tube
For example, the glycoprotein hormone alpha sub- targets; abrasives; cermets; metal-ceramic brazing,
unit is produced only in certain cell types of the especially in nickel-cadmium batteries for space
anterior pituitary and placenta, not in lungs or skin; vehicles; electrodeposited and dipped coatings on
thus, expression of the glycoprotein hormone alpha- metals and ceramics; electrodes in chlorine battery.
chain gene is said to be tissue-specific. Tissue spe-
cific expression is usually the result of an enhancer titanium acetylacetonate. See titanylacety-
which is activated only in the proper cell type. lacetonate.

titanium ammonium oxalate. See ammo- Grade: Technical, of many variations, pure, USP,
nium titanium oxalate. single crystals, whiskers.
Hazard: TLV: (nuisance particulate) 10 mg/m3 of
titanium boride. (titanium diboride). TiB2. total dust (when toxic impurities are not present,
Properties: Extremely hard solid with oxidation re- e.g., quartz <1%); Not Classifiable as a Human Car-
sistance up to 1400C. Mp 2980C, d 4.50, Mohs cinogen.
hardness 9+, low electrical resistivity. Use: White pigment (in paints, paper, rubber, plas-
Use: Metallurgical additive, high-temperature elec- tics, etc.), opacifying agent, cosmetics, radioactive
trical conductor, refractory, cermet component, decontamination of skin, floor coverings, glassware
coatings resistant to attack by molten metals, alumi- and ceramics, enamel frits, delustering synthetic
num manufacture, super alloys. fibers, printing inks, welding rods. Single crystals
are high-temperature transducers.
titanium butylate. See tetrabutyl titanate.
titanium disilicide. TiSi2.
titanium carbide. TiC. Use: In special alloy applications, as a flame or blast
Properties: Extremely hard, crystalline solid with impingement–resistant coating material.
gray metallic color. Mp 3140C, bp 4300C, d 4.93,
resistivity 60 micro-ohm-cm (room temperature). titanium disulfide. TiS2.
Insoluble in water; soluble in nitric acid and aqua Properties: Yellow solid. D 3.22 (20C). Decom-
regia. posed by steam.
Use: Additive (with tungsten carbide) in making cut- Use: Solid lubricant.
ting tools and other parts subjected to thermal shock,
arc-melting electrodes, cermets, coating dies for titanium ester. A series of titanium compounds
metal extrusion (0.2 mil film by vapor deposition). whose general formula is Ti(OR)4 where R is a hy-
drocarbon group, e.g., tetraisopropyl titanate.
titanium chelate. (HOYO)2Ti(OR)2 or Use: Adhesion promoters, ester-exchange catalysts,
(H2NYO)2Ti(OR)2. A series of titanium compounds cross-linking agents, heat-resistant paints.
where Y and R are hydrocarbon groups, e.g., octyl- See tetrabutyl titanate; tetra(2-ethylhexyl) titanate.
ene glycol titanate, triethanolamine titanate.
Use: Surface-active agents, corrosive inhibitors, titanium ferrocene. See titanocene dichlo-
cross-linking agents. ride.

titanium diboride. See titanium boride. titanium hydride. TiH2.

Properties: Black, metallic powder that dissociates
titanium dichloride. above 288C. The evolution of hydrogen is gradual
CAS: 10049-06-6. TiCl2. and practically complete at 650C. D 3.8, attacked by
Properties: Black powder. D 3.13. Decomposed by strong oxidizing agents.
water; decomposes at 475C in vacuo; hygroscopic. Derivation: Direct combination of titanium with hy-
Soluble in alcohol; insoluble in chloroform, ether, drogen, reduction of titanium oxide with calcium
carbon disulfide. hydride in the presence of hydrogen above 600C.
Derivation: Reduction of titanium tetrachloride with Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, dust may
sodium amalgam, dissolving titanium metal in hy- explode in presence of oxidizing agents.
drochloric acid. Use: Powder metallurgy, production of pure hydro-
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, ignites in gen (can contain 1800 cc (STP) H/cc of hydride),
air, store under water or inert gas. production of foamed metals, solder for metal-glass
composites, electronic getter, reducing atmosphere
titanium dioxide. (titanic anhydride; titanic for furnaces, hydrogenation agent, refractories.
acid anhydride; titanic oxide; titanium white;
titania). titanium isopropylate. See tetraisopropyl ti-
CAS: 13463-67-7. TiO2. tanate.
Properties: White powder in two crystalline forms,
anatase and rutile. It has the greatest hiding power of titanium monoxide. TiO. A weakly basic ox-
all white pigments. Noncombustible. ide of titanium, prepared by reduction of the dioxide
Derivation: From ilmenite or rutile. (1) Ilmenite is at 1500C; it has no important industrial uses.
treated with sulfuric acid and the titanium sulfate
further processed. The product is primarily the ana- titanium nitride. TiN.
tase form. (2) Rutile is chlorinated and the titanium Properties: Golden-brown, hard, brittle plates. Mp
tetrachloride converted to the rutile form by vapor- 2927C, d 5.24, sp heat 8.86 cal/mole at 25C, electri-
phase oxidation. Papermakers are using this form to cal resistivity 21.7 micro-ohm-cm.
an increasing extent in preference to the anatase Use: High-temperature bodies, cermets, alloys, recti-
form. fiers, semiconductor devices.
1247 “TITANOX”

titanium ore. See rutile; ilmenite. Grade: Technical, CP.

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to skin
titanium oxalate. (titanous oxalate). and tissue.
Ti2(C2O4)3•10H2O. Use: Pure titanium and titanium salts, iridescent ef-
Properties: Yellow prisms. Soluble in water; insolu- fects in glass, smoke screens, titanium pigments,
ble in alcohol and ether. polymerization catalyst.
Derivation: Action of oxalic acid on titanous chlo-
ride. titanium trichloride. (titanous chloride).
CAS: 7705-07-9. TiCl3.
titanium peroxide. See titanium trioxide. Properties: Dark-violet, anhydrous, deliquescent
crystals. D 2.6, decomposes above 440C, decom-
titanium potassium fluoride. (potassium ti- poses in air and water with heat evolution. Soluble in
tanium fluoride). TiK2F6. alcohol, acetonitrile, certain amines; slightly soluble
Properties: White leaflets. Soluble in hot water. in chloroform; insoluble in ether and hydrocarbons.
Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 2.5 mg(F)/m3. Hazard: Fire risk in the presence of oxidizing materi-
Use: Titanic acid, titanium metal. als. Irritant to skin and tissue; open container only in
oxygen-free or inert atmosphere.
titanium potassium oxalate. (potassium ti- Use: Reducing agent, organic synthesis, cocatalyst
tanium oxalate). TiO(C2O4K)2•2H2O. for polyolefin polymerization, organometallic syn-
Properties: Colorless, lustrous crystals. Soluble in thesis involving titanium, laundry stripping agent.
Derivation: By treating titanium hydroxide with po- titanium trioxide. (titanium peroxide; tita-
tassium oxalate and oxalic acid. nello; pertitanic acid). TiO3.
Grade: Technical, pure, 22% TiO2 (min). Properties: Yellow powder. Soluble in acids.
Use: Mordant in cotton and leather dyeing, sensitiza- Use: Dental porcelain and cements, yellow tile.
tion of aluminum for photography.
titanocene dichloride. (dicyclopentadienylti-
titanium sesquisulfate. See titanous sulfate. tanium dichloride; titanium ferrocene).
titanium sponge. The metal in crude form as Properties: Red crystals. Mp 287–289C. Moderately
reduced from the tetrachloride; ingots are made soluble in toluene, chloroform; sparingly soluble in
from it by consumable-electrode refining (arc-melt- ether and water. Stable in dry air, slowly hydrolyzed
ing). in moist air.
See titanium. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, irritant to skin and
mucous membranes.
titanium sulfate. (titanic sulfate; basic titani- Use: Ziegler polymerization catalyst (with aluminum
um sulfate; titanyl sulfate). alkyls).
CAS: 13825-74-6. Ti(SO4)2•9H2O, also TiO- See metallocene.
SO4•H2SO4•8H2O. A commercial material, possibly
a mixture.
Properties: White, cakelike solid. Highly acidic,
titanous chloride. See titanium trichloride.
similar to 50% sulfuric acid, typical composition
20% TiO2, 50% sulfuric acid, 30% water, hygro- titanous oxalate. See titanium oxalate.
scopic. D 1.47. Soluble in water; solutions hydro-
lyze readily unless protected from heat and dilution. titanous sulfate. (titanium sesquisulfate).
Derivation: Action of sulfuric acid on ilmenite ore. Ti2(SO4)3.
Hazard: Irritant to skin and tissue. Properties: Green, crystalline powder. Insoluble in
Use: Treatment of chrome yellow and other colors, water, alcohol, concentrated sulfuric acid; soluble in
production of titanous sulfate used as reducing agent dilute hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, giving vio-
or stripper for dyes, laundry chemical. let solutions.
Grade: Commercial grade made and supplied as a
titanium tetrachloride. (titanic chloride). dark-purple solution containing 15% Ti2(SO4)3.
CAS: 7550-45-0. TiCl4. Use: Textile industry as reducing agent for stripping
Properties: Colorless liquid. Fumes strongly when or discharging colors.
exposed to moist air, forming a dense and persistent
white cloud. (Pure) d 1.7609 (0C), bp 136.4C, fp “Titanox” [Velsicol]. TM of a series of white
−30C. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid; soluble in pigments comprising titanium dioxide in both ana-
water with evolution of heat; concentrated aqueous tase and rutile crystalline forms and also extended
solutions are stable and corrosive; dilute solutions with calcium sulfate (titanium dioxide–calcium pig-
precipitate insoluble basic chlorides. ment). Noncombustible.
Derivation: By heating titanium dioxide or the ores Use: Paints, paper, rubber, plastics, leather and leath-
and carbon to redness in a current of chlorine. er finishes, inks, coated textiles, textile delustering,

ceramics, roofing granules, welding rod coatings, TMA. Abbreviation for trimethylamine and tri-
and floor coverings. mellitic anhydride.

titanyl acetylacetonate. (titanium acetylace- TMEDA. Abbreviation for tetramethylethylene-

tonate). TiO[OC(CH3):CHCOCH3]2. diamine.
Properties: Crystalline powder. Slightly soluble in
water; resistant to hydrolysis. A chelating, nonioniz- TML. Abbreviation for tetramethyllead.
ing compound.
Derivation: Reaction of titanium oxychloride with TMSM. See tetramethyl succinonitrile.
acetylacetone and sodium carbonate.
Use: Cross-linking agent for cellulosic lacquers.
TMTD. Abbreviation for tetramethylthiuram di-
titanyl sulfate. See titanium sulfate. See thiram.
titer. In solutions (1) the concentration of a dis- TMTU. See tetramethylthiourea.
solved substance as determined by titration; (2) the
minimum amount or volume needed to bring about a
given result in titration; or (3) the solidification point TNA. Abbreviation for tetranitroaniline.
of fatty acids that have been liberated from the fat by
hydrolysis. TNB. Abbreviation for trinitrobenzene.

titration. Any of a number of methods for deter- TNBS. See 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid.
mining volumetrically the concentration of a desired
substance in solution by adding a standard solution TNT. Abbreviation for trinitrotoluene.
of known volume and strength until the reaction is
completed, usually as indicated by a change in color tobacco. Cured leaves of plants of the family
due to an indicator. Organic solvents are used in Solanaceae, genus Nicotiiana; the species N. taba-
titrating water-insoluble substances (nonaqueous ti- cum is the most important domestic source. Curing
tration). Several types of electrical measurement consists of drying and long aging. The leaves are
techniques are used, among which are amperomet- dehydrated by hanging in warm air to terminal mois-
ric, conductometric, and coulometric titration meth- ture content of 20–30%, during which time starches
ods, and spectrophotometry is another possible pro- reduce to sugars, the chlorophyll is discharged, and
cedure. Titration has been successfully automated, the color darkens. The product is then aged from one
the extent depending on the type of measurement to five years to remove unpleasant odor; cigar tobac-
used. co is “fermented” with water, with resulting hydrol-
ysis, deamination, and decarboxylation. Aging fer-
titration curve. A plot of the pH versus the mentation and oxidizers improve taste, aroma, and
equivalents of acid or base, added during titration of smoking qualities. Humectants and flavoring agents
a base or an acid. are added to some cigarette blends.
Scores of chemical compounds have been identified
TKP. Abbreviation for tripotassium phosphate. in unburned tobacco. Basically it is cellulose. The
See potassium phosphate, tribasic. cured product contains acids (citric, oxalic, formic),
alkaloids (nicotine, anabasine, myosmine), and car-
TKPP. Abbreviation for tetrapotassium pyro- bohydrates (lignin, pentosans, starch, sucrose), as
phosphate. well as tannin, ammonia, glutamine, and micro
See potassium pyrophosphate. amounts of zinc, iodine, copper, manganese, and
polonium-210. See cigarette tar; smoke (4).
A nicotine-free tobacco substitute, TM “Cytrel,” has
Tl. Symbol for thallium. been developed. See “Cytrel” [Celanese].
Hazard: A carcinogen. Many other deleterious ef-
TLV. See Threshold Limit Value. fects from chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke.

Tm. Symbol for thulium. tobacco mosaic virus. The first virus to be
obtained in crystalline form (from diseased tobacco
Tm. The melting point for a double-stranded nu- plants). The protein portion of this virus (95% of
cleic acid. Technically, this is defined as the temper- each particle) contains about 2300 peptide chains,
ature at which 50% of the strands are in double- each having 150 amino acids and ending with threo-
stranded form and 50% are single-stranded, i.e., nine. Molecular weight of each chain is about
midway in the melting curve. A primer has a specific 17,000, total molecular weight 40 million. The com-
Tm because it is assumed that it will find an opposite plete sequence of the amino acids has been deter-
strand of appropriate character. mined.

tobermorite gel. 3CaO•2SiO2•3H2O. A calci- Properties: Clear yellow, viscous oil. D 0.947–0.958
um silicate hydrate; a main cementing ingredient of (25/25C), refr index 1.5030–1.5070 (20C).
concrete because of its great surface area. Derivation: Synthetic.
Grade: NF, FCC.
Tobias acid. (2-naphthylamine-1-sulfonic Use: Biological antioxidant, meat curing (nitrosa-
acid; 2-amino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid). mine blocker), nutrient, medicine. Also available as
the acetate.
See tocopherol.

tocophersolan. (USAN for d-␣-tocopheryl

polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate).
C29H49O•OOC(CH2)2COO(CH2CH2O)nH. n = 22. A
water-miscible vitamin E.
Properties: White needles. Soluble in hot water. Use: Dietary food supplement, medicine.
Derivation: Sulfonation of ␤-naphthol with chloro-
sulfonic acid in nitrobenzene at 0C followed by
heating the resulting 1-sulfonic acid with ammo- d-␣-tocopheryl acetate.
nium hydrogen sulfite and ammonia at 145–150C. CAS: 58-95-7. mf: C31H52O3.
Purification is by precipitation from dilute solution Properties: From vacuum steam distillation and
of the sodium salt. acetylation of edible vegetable oil products. (FCC
Use: Azo dye intermediate, optical brighteners. III) Colorless to yellow oil; odorless. Mp:
26.5−27.5°, bp: 205° @ 0.02 mm (bath). Insol in
TOC. Abbreviation for Tagliabue open cup, a water, sol in alc; misc with acetone, chloroform,
standard method for determining flash points. ether, vegetable oil.
Use: Food additive; drug.
tocamphyl. See hepasynthyl.
dl-␣-tocopheryl acetate.
tocopherol. (vitamin E). Any of a group of CAS: 7695-91-2. mf: C31H52O3.
related substances (␣-, ␤-, ␥-, and ⌬-tocopherol) Properties: From vacuum steam distillation and
that constitute vitamin E. The ␣-form (which occurs acetylation of edible vegetable oil products. (FCC
naturally as the d-isomer) is the most potent. Occurs III) Colorless to yellow oil; odorless. Insol in water;
naturally in plants, especially wheat germ. All are sol in alc; misc with acetone, chloroform, ether,
derivatives of dihydrobenzo-␥-pyran and differ vegetable oil.
from each other only in the number and position of Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
methyl groups. Vitamin E is required by certain Use: Food additive.
rodents for normal reproduction. Muscular and cen-
tral nervous system depletion along with general- dl-␣-tocopheryl acid succinate.
ized edema are deficiency symptoms in all animals. CAS: 4345-03-3. mf: C33H54O5.
It is not required as a dietary supplement for humans. Properties: From vacuum steam distillation and suc-
Properties: Viscous oils. Soluble in fats; insoluble in cinylation of edible vegetable oil products. (FCC
water. Stable to heat in the absence of oxygen, to III) Colorless to white crystalline powder or needles
strong acids, and to visible light; unstable to UV from pet ether; odorless and tasteless. Mp: 76−77°.
light, alkalies, and oxidation. Insol in water; very sol in chloroform, sol in acetone,
Use: Medicine, nutrition, antioxidants for fats, ani- alc, ether, vegetable oil.
mal feed additive. Use: Food additive.

dl-␣-tocopherol. (dl-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2- Todd, Sir Alexander R. (1907–1997). A

(4′,8′,12′-trimethyltridecyl)-6-chromanol). British chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chem-
CAS: 59-02-9. C29H49OOH. The most important of istry in 1957. His diverse research and accomplish-
the vitamin E group. ments involved phosphorylation and mechanisms of

biological reactions concerning phosphates. Many Derivation: Reduction of o-nitrotoluene with zinc
of his studies concerned the structure of nucleic dust and caustic soda and conversion of the hydrazo-
acids, nucleotides, nucleotidic coenzymes, as well toluene by boiling with hydrochloric acid.
as vitamins B1, B12, and E. Work in biological organ- Grade: Technical, dry, or paste.
ic chemistry indicated that hemp plant could be used Hazard: TLV: Animal Carcinogen.
for production of narcotics. Todd had degrees Use: Dyes, sensitive reagent for gold (1:10 million
awarded from Oxford, Frankfurt, and Glasgow, detectable) and for free chlorine in water, curing
among others. agent for urethane resins (also available as the dihy-
“Tofranil” [Novartis]. Proprietary preparation
of imipramine hydrochloride. Tollens’ reagent. Solution of ammoniacal sil-
Use: Antidepressant. ver nitrate containing free sodium bicarbonate.
Hazard: May explode on standing from the forma-
toiletries. Liquid cosmetic preparations usually tion of silver nitride.
consisting of an essential oil-alcohol mixture used Use: To test for aldehydes.
chiefly for application to hair and scalp, as after-
shave lotions, etc. tolnaftate. (USAN for o-2-naphthyl-meta-N-
“Tok” [Rohm & Haas]. TM for 2,4-dichlo- CAS: 2398-96-1. C10H7OC(S)N(CH3)C6H4CH3.
rophenyl-4-nitrophenyl ether product. Use: Antifungal treatment (medicine).
Use: Herbicide.

tokamak. A transliterated Russian word for an tolualdehdye. See tolyl aldehydes.

assembly for producing nuclear fusion. It consists
essentially of a doughnut-shaped evacuated cham- toluazotoluidine. See o-aminoazotoluene.
ber called a torus, of 18-inch cross section, through
which the plasma moves. Surrounding the torus is an tolu balsam. See balsam.
electromagnetic field powerful enough to confine
the energized plasma sufficiently to achieve the re- toluene. (methylbenzene; phenylmethane).
quired density of 1014 particles/cc/sec and a tempera- CAS: 108-88-3. C6H5CH3.
ture well above 44 million centigrade. Up to 74
million centigrade has been obtained experimental-
ly, but 100 million centigrade will be necessary for
power production. The vacuum chamber and the
magnetic field simulate conditions on the sun, i.e.,
absence of air and immense gravitational forces.
Several experimental tokamaks are in operation in
the U.S., the largest being at Princeton, NJ. It is Properties: Colorless liquid; benzenelike odor. D
utilizing hydrogen and deuturium as a test plasma 0.866 (20/4C), fp −94.5C, bp 110.7C, refr index
and thus can attain temperatures of only 100,000C. 1.497 (20C), aniline equivalent 15, flash p 40F
After further experimentation and modification, it (4.4C) (CC), autoign temp 997F (536C). Soluble in
should be capable of reaching the 100 million centi- alcohol, benzene, and ether; insoluble in water.
grade necessary for power production when tritium Derivation: (1) By catalytic reforming of petroleum.
is used. (2) By fractional distillation of coal tar light oil.
See fusion. Method of purification: Rectification.
Grade: (Usually defined in terms of boiling ranges)
tokuthion oxon. See ethaphos. Pure, commercial, straw-colored, nitration, scintil-
lation, industrial.
tolan. (diphenylacetylene). C6H5C:CC6H5. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Explosive
Properties: Monoclinic crystals. Mp 59–61C, bp limits in air 1.27–7%. Toxic by ingestion, inhala-
300C, 170C (19 mm Hg), d 0.966 (100/4C). Insolu- tion, and skin absorption. TLV: 50 ppm; not classifi-
ble in water; soluble in ether or hot alcohol. able as a human carcinogen.
Grade: Technical, purified. Use: Aviation gasoline and high-octane blending
Use: Organic synthesis, purified grade, primary fluor stock; benzene, phenol, and caprolactam; solvent
or wavelength shifter in soluble scintillators. for paints and coatings, gums, resins, most oils,
rubber, vinyl organosols; diluent and thinner in ni-
o-tolidine. (3,3′-dimethylbenzidine; diaminodi- trocellulose lacquers; adhesive solvent in plastic
tolyl). toys and model airplanes; chemicals (benzoic acid,
CAS: 119-93-7. [C6H3(CH3)NH2]2. benzyl and benzoyl derivatives, saccharin, medi-
Properties: Glistening plates, white to reddish. Mp cines, dyes, perfumes); source of toluenediisocya-
129–131C. Soluble in alcohol and ether; sparingly nates (polyurethane resins); explosives (TNT); tolu-
soluble in water. Affected by light. Combustible. ene sulfonates (detergents); scintillation counters.

toluene-2,4-diamine. (m-tolylenediamine; o-toluenesulfonamide.

MTD; m-toluylenediamine; diaminotoluene). CAS: 88-19-7. CH3C6H4SO2NH2.
CAS: 95-80-7. CH3C6H3(NH2)2. Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 156.3C. Soluble
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 99C, bp 280C. in alcohol; slightly soluble in water and ether. Com-
Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. bustible.
Derivation: Reduction of m-dinitrotoluene with iron Use: Plasticizer.
and hydrochloric acid.
Hazard: A carcinogen. p-toluenesulfonamide. (p-toluenesulfamine;
Use: Chain extender and cross-linker, intermediate in PTSA).
organic synthesis of dyes, polymers, especially CAS: 70-55-3. CH3C6H4SO2NH2.
polyurethanes. Properties: White leaflets. Mp 137C. Soluble in al-
cohol; very slightly soluble in water. Combustible.
toluene-2,4-diisocyanate. (2,4-tolylene dii- Derivation: By amination of p-toluene sulfonchlo-
socyanate; m-tolylene diisocyanate; TDI). ride.
CAS: 584-84-9. CH3C6H3(NCO)2. Use: Organic synthesis, plasticizers and resins, fun-
gicide and mildewicide in paints and coatings.

p-toluenesulfondichloroamide. See dichlo-


o-toluenesulfonic acid. (o-toluenesulfonate).

CAS: 104-15-4. C6H4(SO3H)(CH3).
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 67.5C, bp 129C.
Soluble in alcohol, water, and ether. Combustible.
Properties: Water-white to pale-yellow liquid; sharp Derivation: By sulfonating toluene with concentra-
pungent odor. Bp 251C, 120C (10 mm Hg), flash p ted sulfuric acid at 100C.
270F (132C), mp 19.4–21.5C (pure isomer), d 1.22 Grade: Anhydrous, monohydrate, 40% aqueous so-
(25/15.5C), vap press 0.01 mm Hg (20C). Reacts lution.
with water, producing carbon dioxide; reacts with Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
compounds containing active hydrogen (may be vi- irritant to tissue.
olent). Soluble in ether, acetone, and other organic Use: Dyes, organic synthesis, acid catalyst.
solvents. Combustible.
Derivation: Reaction of 2,4-diaminotoluene with p-toluenesulfonic acid. (p-toluenesulfonate).
phosgene. CAS: 104-15-4. C6H4(SO3H)(CH3).
Method of purification: Distillation to remove hy- Properties: Colorless leaflets. Mp 107C, bp 140C
drogen chloride. (20 mm Hg). Soluble in alcohol, ether, and water.
Grade: 100% 2,4-isomer; 80% and 65% 2,4-isomer Combustible.
both mixed with 2,6-isomer. Derivation: By action of chlorosulfonic acid on tolu-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation; strong ene at a low temperature.
irritant to skin and tissue, especially to eyes. TLV: Grade: Anhydrous, monohydrate; 40% aqueous so-
0.005 ppm; STEL 0.02 ppm; not classifiable as a lution.
human carcinogen. Hazard: Skin irritant.
Use: Polyurethane foams, elastomers and coatings, Use: Dyes, organic synthesis, organic catalyst.
cross-linking agent for nylon 6.
o-toluenesulfonyl chloride. (o-toluenesulfo-
toluene-2,6-diisocyanate. See toluene-2,4-di- chloride; o-toluenesulfonchloride).
isocyanate. CAS: 98-59-9. H3CC6H4SO2Cl.
Properties: Oily liquid. D 1.3383 (20/4C), mp
10.2C, bp 154C (36 mm Hg). Insoluble in water;
p-toluenesulfamine. See p-toluenesulfon- soluble in hot alcohol and in ether and benzene.
amide. Combustible.
Derivation: Action of chlorosulfonic acid on tol-
p-toluenesulfanilide. CH3C6H4SO2C6H4NH2. uene.
Properties: White to pink crystalline solid. Mp Use: Intermediate in the synthesis of saccharin and
103C. Soluble in most lacquer solvents. Combus- dyestuffs.
Derivation: p-Toluene sulfonchloride treated with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride. (tosyl chloride;
aniline in the presence of lime or carefully regulated p-toluenesulfochloride; p-toluenesulfonchloride).
amounts of alkalies. H3CC6H4SO2Cl.
Grade: Technical. Properties: Solid. Mp 71C, bp 145–146C (15 mm
Use: Softener for acetylcellulose in proportions up to Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol, ether,
50%, dyestuff intermediate. and benzene. Combustible.

Use: Organic synthesis.

4-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate. See 4-methyl-

benzenesulfonyl isocyanate.
Properties: Transparent crystals. Mp 180C, bp
p-toluenesulfonyl semicarbazide. 275C, ionization constant 4.3 × 10−5. Slightly soluble
C8H11N3O3S. in water; soluble in alcohol and ether. Combustible.
Properties: Fine, white powder. D 1.428, decom- Derivation: By treating cymene or turpentine with
poses at 440F (226C dry), 415–430F (212–221C nitric acid.
compounded). Use: Agricultural chemicals, animal feed supple-
Use: Blowing agent for polyolefins, impact polysty- ment.
rene, polypropylene, ABS, etc.
␣-toluic aldehyde. See phenylacetaldehyde.
toluenethiol. (thiocresol; tolyl mercaptan).
CAS: 100-53-8. CH3C6H4SH. m-toluidine. (m-aminotoluene).
Properties: Cream to white, moist crystals; musty CAS: 108-44-1. CH3C6H4NH2.
odor. Bp 195C. Insoluble in water; soluble in alco- Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.980, fp −31.5C, bp
hol or ether. There are three isomers with different 203.3C, flash p 187F (86.1C). Slightly soluble in
boiling points. water; soluble in alcohol or ether. Combustible.
Hazard: Skin irritant. Derivation: Reduction of m-nitrotoluene.
Use: Intermediate, bacteriostat. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and ingestion, absorbed
by skin. TLV: 2 ppm; not classifiable as a human
␣-toluenethiol. See benzyl thiol. carcinogen.
Use: Dyes, manufacture of organic chemicals.
toluene trichloride. See benzotrichloride.
o-toluidine. (o-aminotoluene).
toluene trifluoride. See benzotrifluoride. CAS: 95-53-4. CH3C6H4NH2.
Properties: Light-yellow liquid, becomes reddish-
brown on exposure to air and light. Volatile with
toluhydroquinone. CH3C6H3(OH)2. steam, d 1.008 (20/20C), fp −16C, bp 200C, flash p
Properties: Pink to white crystals. Mp 125–127C. 185F (85C). Soluble in alcohol and ether; very
Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and slightly soluble in water. Combustible.
acetone. Derivation: By the reduction of o-nitrotoluene or
Use: Antioxidant, polymerization inhibitor. obtained mixed with p-toluidine by the reduction of
crude nitrotoluene.
␣-toluic acid. See phenylacetic acid. Grade: Technical.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and ingestion, absorbed
m-toluic acid. (m-toluylic acid; 3-methylben- by skin. TLV: 2 ppm; animal carcinogen.
zoic acid). C6H4CH3COOH. Use: Textile printing dyes, vulcanization accelerator,
Properties: White to yellowish crystals. D 1.0543, organic synthesis.
mp 109C, bp 263C, ionization constant 5.3 × 10−5.
Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alcohol and p-toluidine. (p-aminotoluene).
ether. Combustible. CAS: 106-49-0. CH3C6H4NH2.
Derivation: Oxidation of m-xylene with nitric acid. Properties: White lustrous plates or leaflets. D 1.046
Use: Organic synthesis, to form N,N-diethyl-m-to- (20/4C), mp 45C, bp 200.3C, flash p 189F (87.2C).
luamide, a broad-spectrum insect repellent. Soluble in alcohol and ether; very slightly soluble in
water. Combustible.
o-toluic acid. (o-toluylic acid; 2-methylben- Derivation: By the reduction of p-nitrotoluene with
zoic acid). C6H4CH3COOH. iron and hydrochloric acid.
Properties: White crystals. D 1.0621, mp Grade: Technical, flake, or cast.
103.5–104C, bp 256C, refr index 1.512 (114.6C), Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and ingestion, absorbed
ionization constant 1.2 × 10−5. Slightly soluble in by skin. TLV: 2 ppm; animal carcinogen.
water; soluble in alcohol and chloroform. Combus- Use: Dyes, organic synthesis, reagent for lignin, ni-
tible. trite, chloroglucinol.
Derivation: Oxidation of o-xylene with dilute nitric
acid. toluidine maroon. CH3C6H3NO2N2C10H5OH-
Use: Bacteriostat. CONHC6H4NO2. An organic azo pigment obtained
by the azo coupling of m-nitro-p-toluidine with the
p-toluic acid. (p-toluylic acid; 4-methylben- m-nitroanilide of ␤-hydroxynaphthoic acid.
zoic acid). C6H4CH3COOH. Properties: Good lightfastness and weather resis-

tance, excellent acid and alkali resistance, poor re- 4-o-tolylazo-o-diacetotoluide. See diacety-
sistance to bleeding. laminoazotoluene.
Use: Air-dried and baked enamels, truck body fin-
ishes. o-tolyl biguanide. NH2(CNHNH)2C6H4CH3.
Properties: White to off-white powder. Mp 138C
toluidine red. Any of a class of pigments based (min). Combustible.
on couplings of ␤-naphthol and m-nitro-p-toluidine. Use: Antioxidant for soaps produced from animal or
See toluidine maroon. vegetable oil.

tolu oil. (tolu balsam oil). p-tolyldiethanolamine. (HOC2H4)2NC6H4CH3.

Properties: Yellow liquid; hyacinth-like odor. D Properties: Crystals. Mp 62C, bp 297.1C, vap press
0.945–1.09. Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, <0.1 (20C), d 1.0723 (20/20C), solubility in water
and carbon disulfide. Chief known constituents: A 1.67% by weight (20C), viscosity 155 cP (20C),
terpene, C10H16, and esters of cinnamic and benzoic flash p 385F (196C). Very soluble in acetone, etha-
acid. nol, ethyl acetate, benzene. Combustible.
Derivation: From tolu balsam by distillation. Use: Emulsifier, dyestuff intermediate.
Grade: Technical.
Use: Medicine (expectorant), cough syrups. 2-p-tolyl-5,6-dihydroimidazo(2,1-a)
See balsam. isoquinoline.
CAS: 61001-19-2. mf: C18H16N2.
toluol. Obsolete name for toluene. Hazard: A reproductive hazard.

toluqinone. (2-methylquinone; p-toluqinone). m-tolylenediamine. See toluene-2,4-diamine.

Properties: Yellow leaflets or needles. Mp 65–67C. m-tolylenediaminesulfonic acid. [4,6-di-
Soluble in hot water; very soluble in alcohol, ether, amino-m-toluenesulfonic acid (SO3H = 1)].
acetone, ethyl acetate, and benzene. CH3C6H2(NH2)2SO3H.
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Soluble in al-
“Tolu-Sol” [Shell]. TM for a series of solvents, kalies.
predominantly C7 hydrocarbons, low in naphthenic Derivation: By addition of m-toluylenediamine sul-
hydrocarbons and containing 3–50% aromatics, the fate to oleum and heating.
balance being essentially paraffinic. Use: Dyes.
Use: Lacquer diluents and gravure ink solvents.
Hazard: May be flammable. m-tolylenediisocyanate. See toluene-2,4-dii-
toluyl aldehyde. See tolylaldehyde.
toluylene. See stilbene. CAS: 61001-04-5. mf: C18H14N2.
Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
m-toluylenediamine. See toluene-2,4-di-
amine. p-tolyl isobutyrate. See p-cresyl isobutyrate.

toluylene red. See neutral red. 2-tolyl isocyanate. See 1-isocyanato-2-me-

m-, o-, and p-toluylic acid. See corre-
sponding toluic acid. 4-tolyl isocyanate. See 1-isocyanato-4-me-
tolyl acetate. See cresyl acetate.
p-tolyl-1-naphthylamine-8-sulfonic acid.
p-tolylaldehyde. (p-toluylaldehyde; p-tolual- (tolylperi acid). C17H15NO3S.
dehyde; p-methylbenzaldehyde). Properties: Greenish-gray needles. Soluble in alco-
CAS: 1334-78-7. CH3C6H4CHO. hol; rather insoluble in water. Combustible.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Refr index 1.54693 Derivation: Arylation of 1-naphthylamine-8-sufon-
(16.6C), d 1.020, bp 204C. Slightly soluble in water; ic acid with p-toluidine.
soluble in alcohol and ether. There are also o- and m- Grade: Technical, mostly as sodium salt.
isomers. Combustible. Use: Azo colors.
Grade: Technical, pure.
Use: Perfumes, pharmaceutical and dyestuff interme- 4-(p-tolyl)-6h-1,3,5-oxathiazine. See 4-(4-
diate, flavoring agent. methylphenyl)-6h-1,3,5-oxathiazine.

␣-tolylaldehyde dimethylacetal. See phe- p-tolyl phenylacetate. See p-cresyl pheny-

nylacetaldehyde dimethylacetal. lacetate.

3-(p-tolylsulfonyl)acrylonitrile. TOPO. Abbreviation for trioctylphosphinic

CAS: 1424-48-2. mf: C10H9NO2S. oxide.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. A moderate
eye irritant. topochemical reaction. Any chemical reac-
tion that is not expressible in stoichiometric relation-
tolyl-p-toluenesulfonate. See cresyl-p-to- ships. Such reactions are characteristic of cellulose;
luenesulfonate. they can take place only at certain sites on the mole-
cule where reactive groups are available, i.e., in the
tomatidine. C27H45NO2. A steroid secondary amorphous areas or on the surfaces of the crystalline
amine, the nitrogenous aglycone of tomatine. Isolat- areas.
ed from the roots of the Rutgers tomato plant as the
hydrochloride, C27H45NO2•HCl. topoisomerases. Enzymes that introduce posi-
Properties: Crystals. Decomposes at 275–280C. tive or negative supercoils in closed, circular duplex
CAS: 17406-45-0. C50H83NO21. A glycosidal alka- “Tordon” [Dow]. TM for picloram.
loid prepared from the dried leaves and stems of the
tomato plant. White crystals used as plant fungicide torr. A pressure unit used chiefly in vacuum tech-
and as a specific precipitating agent for cholesterol nology; it is the pressure required to support 1 mm
and other sterols. The crude extract is referred to as Hg at 0C.
torsion balance. A balance having equal arms
tomatine hydrochloride. and using horizontal steel bands for pivots and
CAS: 17605-83-3. mf: C50H83NO21•ClH. bearings.
Hazard: A poison. An eye irritant.
torula yeast. A yeast that utilizes fermentable
“Tone” [Dow]. TM for caprolactone-based mo- sugar in industrial wastes, such as fruit cannery
nomers and polymers. refuse and sulfite liquor from pulp mills. The dried
Use: For high-performance urethane elastomers and yeast is high in protein and vitamin content, en-
adhesives. abling it to be used for enriching animal feeds. The
enzymes present are destroyed during drying. It is
now being made by a new process utilizing petrole-
toner. An organic pigment that does not contain um-derived ethanol.
inorganic pigment or inorganic carrying base
(ASTM). Important toners are Pigment Green 7, torus. A doughnut-shaped vacuum chamber that
Pigment Blue 15, Pigment Yellow 12, and Pigment is an essential part of a nuclear fusion reactor.
Blue 19. See tokamak; JET.
See lake.
tosyl. (Ts).
tonka. (tonka bean; coumarouna bean; dip- CAS: 302-17-0. CH3C6H4SO2−. The p-toluenesulfo-
teryx). nyl radical. Esters of p-toluenesulfonic acid are
Properties: Black-brownish seeds with wrinkled known as tosylates.
surface and brittle shining or fatty skins, aromatic
bitterish taste, balsamic vanilla-like odor, efflo- Toth process. A process for production of alu-
rences of coumarin often appear on the surface. minum metal that utilizes kaolin and other high-alu-
Combustible. mina clays. The clay is chlorinated after calcination,
Use: Production of natural coumarin, flavoring ex- and the aluminum chloride resulting is reacted with
tracts, toilet powders. metallic manganese to yield aluminum and manga-
nese chloride. The reaction occurs at the compara-
tonka bean camphor. See coumarin. tively low temperature of 260C. The manganese
chloride is recovered as manganese metal and chlo-
“Tonox” [Uniroyal]. TM for a blend of aro- rine by oxidation and subsequent reduction, the
matic primary amines, the main component of manganese being recycled. This is a much cheaper
which is p,p-diaminodiphenylmethane. and more efficient method than the Hall process,
Use: Epoxy and urethane curative. because it requires less energy input and does not
utilize imported bauxite.
Topfer’s reagent. Dimethylaminoazobenzene
0.5 g in 100 cc 95% ethanol. tourmaline.
Use: To test acidity of stomach contents. (Na,Ca)(Al,Fe)B3Al3(AlSi2O9)(O,OH,F)4. A
complex borosilicate of aluminum.
topical. A medical term meaning “applied to the Use: Pressure gauges, optical equipment, oscillator
surface of the skin.” plates, source of boric acid.

tower, distillation. A metal cylinder from 6 with protein expression patterns using bioinformat-
inches to 20 ft in diameter located between the boiler ics to understand the role of gene-environment inter-
and the condenser in distillation units. The vapors actions in disease and dysfunction.
rise through the tower, some of the liquid conden-
sate flowing back down through the tower (reflux). toxicology. The branch of medical science devot-
Horizontal plates at intervals of 2 ft are used to ed to the study of poisons, including their mode of
achieve contact between countercurrent liquid and action, effects, detection, and countermeasures. The
the vapor stream. Vapor passes through the liquid on subject may be subdivided into (1) clinical, (2) envi-
the plate through several apertures, each covered by ronmental, (3) forensic, and (4) occupational (indus-
a cap, an arrangement called a bubble cap plate. trial). The Institute of Chemical Toxicology was
Various types of packings are used in smaller col- formed in 1975, its members comprising a number
umns, e.g., metal chains, tubes, glass beads, Raschig of the larger chemical companies.
rings, etc. See toxicity; poison (1).
See HETP (2).
Possibly supplanting distillation towers in the future
is a circular metal drum that rotates at 1800 rpm and toxic substances. The following list includes a
contains conventional packing materials. The cen- number of chemical individuals and groups that are
trifugal force separates the liquid and vapor compo- generally regarded as having toxic properties by
nents as they pass through the drum. This novel ingestion, inhalation, or absorption via the skin.
distillation technique has been developed by ICI in There is considerable variation in the degree of tox-
England and is called Higee, i.e., high gravity. icity among these, and the listing is by no means
toxaphene. (generic name for technical chlo- See toxicity.
rinated camphene). Individuals Groups
CAS: 8001-35-2. C10H10Cl8. Formula is approxi-
mate, contains 67–69% chlorine. aniline aldehydes
Properties: Amber, waxy solid; mild odor of chlo- asbestos (carcinogen) alkaloids
rine and camphor. Melting range 65–90C, d 1.66 benzidine (carcin- allyl compounds
(27C). Soluble in common organic solvents. ogen)
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, skin absorp- benzpyrene (carcin- arsenic and compounds
tion; most uses prohibited. TLV: 0.5 mg/m3; STEL 1 ogen)
mg/m3); animal carcinogen. carbon monoxide barium and soluble
chlorine compounds
toxicity. The ability of a substance to cause dam- coal tar pitch (carcin- barbiturates
age to living tissue, impairment of the central ner- ogen)
vous system, severe illness, or, in extreme cases, cresol beryllium and soluble
death when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed by the hydrogen peroxide compounds
skin. The amounts required to produce these results hydrogen sulfide chlorinated hydrocarbons
vary widely with the nature of the substance and the methanol chromium (hexavalent
time of exposure to it. “Acute” toxicity refers to nickel carbonyl carcinogenic compounds)
exposure of short duration, i.e., a single brief expo- osmium tetroxide corrosive materials
sure; “chronic” toxicity refers to exposure of long oxalic acid cyanides
duration, i.e., repeated or prolonged exposures. ozone cadmium and compounds
The toxicity hazard of a material may depend on its phenol fluorine and compounds
physical state and on its solubility in water and acids. pyrene lead compounds
Some metals that are harmless in solid or bulk form pyridine mercury and compounds
are quite toxic as fume, powder, or dust. Many sub- phosphine organic phosphate esters
stances that are intensely poisonous are actually stibine radioactive substances
beneficial when administered in micro amounts, as sulfur dioxide selenium and compounds
in prescription drugs, e.g., strychnine. vinyl chloride mono- thallium and compounds
Toxicity is objectively evaluated on the basis of test mer (carcinogen)
dosages made on experimental animals under con- tin (organic compounds)
trolled conditions. Most important of these are the The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) passed
LD50 (lethal dose, 50%) and the LC50 (lethal concen- by the U.S. Congress in 1976 provides the legal
tration, 50%) tests, which include exposure of the basis for regulations concerning all aspects of the
animal to oral ingestion and inhalation of the materi- manufacture of such products. Establishment and
al under test. A substance having an LD50 of less than enforcement of such regulations are carried out by
400 mg/kg of body weight is considered very toxic. the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The
American Conference of Governmental Industrial
toxicogenomics. The study of how genomes re- Hygienists issues a periodically revised list of
spond to environmental stressors or toxicants. Com- Threshold Limit Values for substances in workroom
bines expression profiling of genome-wide mRNA air, upon which the industrial safety standards of the

Occupational Safety and Health Administration tracer. A chemical entity (almost invariably ra-
(OSHA) are based. The Food and Drug Administra- dioactive and usually an isotope) added to the react-
tion (FDA) is responsible for the enforcement of the ing elements or compounds in a chemical process,
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Decisions made by which can be traced through the process by appro-
these agencies are arrived at only after extensive priate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Com-
testing by both manufacturers and independent pounds containing tracers are often said to be
groups. Effective control of toxic materials has as- “tagged” or “labeled.” Carbon-14 is a commonly
sumed increasing importance in recent years and used tracer, and radioactive forms of iodine and
may be expected to become still more rigorous. sodium are also used. Many complex biochemical
See poison (1); NIOSH. reactions have been examined in this way (e.g.,
A Toxicology Data Bank (TDB) has been estab- photosynthesis). Nonradioactive deuterium (hydro-
lished by the National Library of Medicine of NIH. gen isotope) is sometimes used, the detection being
The data are set up in a computer-based on-line file by molecular weight determination. Radioactive en-
available for public use. Extensive physical data are zymes are also available for tracer studies, e.g.,
included. ribonuclease, pepsin, trypsin, and others.
Additional information can be found in Dangerous See labeling (2).
Properties of Industrial Materials, 11th Edition,
Richard J. Lewis, Sr., Editor, published by John “Tra-Cide” [Nalco]. TM for testing service.
Wiley & Sons, Inc. This book contains 25,000 en- Use: To determine biocide toxicity and microbiologi-
tries, each of which gives physical, chemical, and cal activity in industrial process waters.
toxicological data about potentially hazardous ma-
trademark. (TM). A word, symbol, or insignia
designating one or more proprietary products or the
Toxic Substances Control Act. (TSCA). manufacturer of such products, that has been offi-
See toxic substances; Environmental Protection cially registered with the government trademark
Agency. agency. The accepted designation is a superior capi-
tal R enclosed in a circle; however, quotation marks
toxins. Proteins produced by some organisms and may also be used, as in this dictionary. The term
toxic to some other species. trade name, though widely used, is not applicable to
such products; according to the U.S. Trade Mark
TPA. Abbreviation for terephthalic acid. Association, a trade name is the name under which a
company does business, e.g., the Blank Chemical
TPB. Abbreviation for tetraphenylbutadiene. Company. Use of a trademark without proper indi-
cation of its proprietary nature places the name in
TPG. Abbreviation for triphenylguanidine. jeopardy; a number of trademarks have been invali-
dated as a result of this practice.
TPN. Abbreviation for triphosphopyridine nucle-
See nicontinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. trade name. See trademark.

TPO rubber. Abbreviation for thermoplastic trade sales. In the paint industry this term is
polyolefin rubber. applied to paints intended for sales to the general
See elastomer. public, as in hardware stores and similar outlets.

Tpp. (1) Abbreviation for triphenyl phosphate. (2) tragacanth gum.

Abbreviation for thiamine pyrophosphate. CAS: 9000-65-1.
See cocarboxylase. Properties: Dull white, translucent plates or yellow-
ish powder. Soluble in alkaline solutions, aqueous
TPT. (1) Abbreviation for triphenyltetrazolium hydrogen peroxide solution; strongly hydrophilic;
chloride. insoluble in alcohol. Combustible.
See tetrazolium chloride. (2) Abbreviation for tetrai- Chief constituents: Polysaccharides of galactose,
sopropyl titanate. fructose, xylose, and arabinose with glucuronic
trace element. (micronutrient). An element es- Occurrence: Southwestern Europe, Greece, Turkey,
sential to plant and animal nutrition in trace concen- Iran.
tration, i.e., minute fractions of 1% (1000 ppm or Grade: USP, FCC, No. 1, 2, 3.
less). Plants require iron, copper, boron, zinc, man- Use: Pharmacy (emulsions), adhesives, leather dress-
ganese, potassium, molybdenum, sodium, and chlo- ing, textile printing and sizing, thickener and emul-
rine. Animals require iron, copper, iron, manganese, sifier, dyes, food products (ice cream, desserts),
cobalt, selenium, and potassium. Such elements are toothpastes, coating soap chips and powders, hair-
also called micronutrients. Do not confuse with wave preparations, confectionery, printing inks, tab-
tracer. let binder.

tranquilizer. See psychotropic drug transesterification. See ester interchange.

trans-. See cis-. transfection. The introduction of foreign DNA

into a host cell.
transalkylation. A type of disproportionation See cloning vector; gene therapy.
reaction by which toluene is hydrogenated to ben-
zene and mixed xylene isomers free from ethylben- transferase. An enzyme whose activity causes a
zene, avoiding the formation of methane resulting transfer of a radical from one molecule to another.
from the conventional hydrodealkylation process. Examples are transaminases, transacetylases, and
Transalkylation of toluene to benzene involves the transmethylases, which effect the transfer of amino,
use of a catalyst; the yield is claimed to be 97%, acetyl, and methyl groups respectively.
based on toluene feed. See enzyme.

transaminase. (aminopherase). An enzyme that transference number. That portion of the total
facilitates the reversible transfer of an amino group current carried by any species of ion in an electrolyte
from an ␣-amino acid to an ␣-keto acid. in the fluid state. The symbol t+ is usually used for a
See aminotransferases. positive ion and t− for a negative ion.

transamination. The use of nitrogen of one ami- transfermium element. An elements with an
no acid for synthesizing another amino acid in vivo. atomic number greater than 100, the atomic number
of fermium.
transcription. The enzymatic process whereby See periodic table; atomic number.
the genetic information contained in one strand of
DNA is synthesized into a complementary sequence transfer mold. A chamber in which a thermo-
of bases in an mRNA chain. setting plastic is softened by heat and pressure and
from which it is forced by high pressure through a
suitable orifice into a closed mold for final curing.
transcriptional control. The regulation of the
rate of a protein’s synthesis by regulation of the transferrin. A 90 kDa protein responsible for the
formation of its mRNA. transport of iron and uptake by the liver.
transcription factor. A protein which is in- transfer RNA. See ribonucleic acid.
volved in the transcription of genes. These usually
bind to DNA as part of their function (but not neces- transformation. A process by which the genetic
sarily). A transcription factor may be general (i.e., material carried by an individual cell is altered by
acting on many or all genes in all tissues) or tissue- incorporation of exogenous DNA into its genome.
specific (i.e., present only in a particular cell type
and activating the genes restricted to that cell type). transformer oil. A liquid having the property of
Its activity may be constitutive or may depend on the insulating the coils of transformers, both electrically
presence of some stimulus; for example, the gluco- and thermally. There are two broad classes, (1) natu-
corticoid receptor is a transcription factor which is ral and (2) synthetic. The natural type includes re-
active only when glucocorticoids are present. fined mineral oils (petroleum fractions), which have
low viscosities and high chemical and oxidative
transcription unit. The sequence from the stability. The synthetic types are (1) chlorinated
transcriptional start site to the site of termination, aromatics (chlorinated biphenyls and trichloroben-
inclusive of introns. zene) known collectively as askarels; (2) silicone
oils; and (3) ester liquids such as dibutyl sebacate.
transcriptome. The full complement of activa- All these types are nonflammable but combustible.
ted genes, mRNAs, or transcripts in a particular Flash points are 250–300F (121–148C).
tissue at a particular time See dielectric.
Note: Use of PCB (chlorinated biphenyls) has been
transduction. (1) The conversion of energy from discontinued because of their ecologically damag-
one form to another (ATP synthesis by a chemios- ing effects.
motic mechanism). (2) The conversion of informa-
tion from one form to another (epinephrine outside a transgenic. An organism that has genes from
liver cell causing cAMP inside the cell). (3) The another organism incorporated within its genome as
transfer of genetic information from one cell to an- a result of recombinant DNA procedures.
other by means of a viral vector.
transgenic mouse. A mouse which carries ex-
trans effect. Bond holding a group trans to the perimentally introduced DNA. The procedure by
more electronegative or other labilizing group is which one makes a transgenic mouse involves the
weakened. injection of DNA into a fertilized embryo at the pro-

nuclear stage. The DNA is generally cloned and may perform the synthesis, and tRNA to bring in the
be experimentally altered. It will become incorpo- amino acids.
rated into the genome of the embryo. That embryo is
implanted into a foster mother, who gives birth to an translational control. The regulation of the
animal carrying the new gene. Various experiments rate of a protein’s synthesis by regulation of the rate
are then carried out to test the functionality of the of translocation of the ribosome.
inserted DNA.
translational repressor. A repressor that
transient transfection. When DNA is trans- blocks translation of a mRNA.
fected into cultured cells, it is able to stay in those
cells for about 2-3 days, but then it will be lost unless transmix. See 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-
steps are taken to ensure that it is retained—see dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic.
stable transfection). During those 2-3 days, the DNA
is functional and any functional genes it contains
will be expressed. Investigators take advantage of transmutation. The natural or artificial transfor-
this transient expression period to test gene function. mation of atoms of one element into atoms of a
different element as the result of a nuclear reaction.
“Transist AR” [Mallinckrodt]. A grade of The reaction may be one in which two nuclei inter-
reagent-quality chemicals, specially controlled for act, as in the formation of oxygen from nitrogen and
use in the manufacture of semiconductors and other helium nuclei (␤-particles), or one in which a nu-
electronic devices and precision instruments. cleus reacts with an elementary particle such as a
neutron or proton. Thus a sodium atom and a proton
transition element. (transition metal). Any of form a magnesium atom. Radioactive decay, e.g., of
a number of elements in which the filling of the uranium, can be regarded as a type of transmutation.
outermost shell to eight electrons within a period is The first transmutation was performed by the En-
interrupted to bring the penultimate shell from 8 to glish physicist Rutherford in 1919.
18 or 32 electrons. Only these elements can use
penultimate shell orbitals as well as outermost shell transpiration. Passage of water from the roots of
orbitals in bonding. All other elements, called “ma- a plant to the atmosphere via the vascular system and
jor group” elements, can use only outermost shell the stomata of the leaves.
orbitals in bonding. Transition elements include ele-
ments 21 through 29 (scandium through copper), 39 transposable element. A class of DNA se-
through 47 (yttbrium through silver), 57 through 79 quences that can move from one chromosomal site
(lanthanum through gold), and all known elements to another.
from 89 (actinium) on. All are metals. Many are See transposon.
noted for exhibiting a variety of oxidation states and
forming numerous complex ions, as well as possess- transposition. The movement of a gene or set of
ing extremely valuable properties in the metallic genes (transposon) from one site in the genome to
state. another.
See orbital theory.
transportation label. See label (1).
transition point The temperature at which two
crystalline forms of a polymorphic substance are in transporters. Proteins that span a membrane and
equilibrium. transport specific molecules across the membrane.
transition state. An activated form of a mole-
cule in which the molecule has undergone a partial “Transport-Plus” [Nalco]. TM for boiler wa-
chemical reaction and has bond characteristics of ter treatment program.
both reactant and product.
transposon. (transposable element). A segment
transition state theory. (TSS). Gives ap- of DNA that can move from one position in the
proximate descriptions of chemical reaction rates genome to another.
based on the on the properties of two potential wells
and a transition state between them. transuranic element. An element of higher
atomic number than uranium, not found naturally,
transition-type system. See peritectic and produced by nuclear bombardment. The highest
system. discovered are 105 and 106. They are all radioactive.
See actinide; periodic table.
translation. The process of decoding a strand of
mRNA, thereby producing a protein based on the “Trasar” [Nalco]. TM for technology that uses
code. This process requires ribosomes (which are information from a chemical trace to enhance pro-
composed of rRNA along with various proteins) to gram value such as automation and diagnostics.

Traube purine synthesis. Preparation of an triacontanoic acid. See melissic acid.

appropriate 4,5-diaminopyrimidine by introduction
of the amino group into the 5 position of 4-amino-6- 1-triacontanol. CH3(CH2)28CH2OH. A 30-car-
hydroxy- or 4,6-diaminopyrimidines by nitrosation bon, straight-chain fatty alcohol.
and ammonium sulfide reduction, followed by ring Properties: Colorless needles from ether. Mp
closure with formic acid or chlorocarbonic ester. 85−88C, d at mp 0.777. Soluble in most organic
solvents; insoluble in water. Combustible.
Traube’s rule. The adsorption from aqueous Occurrence: Beeswax, carnauba wax, leaf wax.
solution on carbon increases with increase in molec- Use: Biochemical research, growth promoter, fertil-
ular weight of a homologous series of fatty acids. izer supplement.
CAS: 1332-21-4. Ca2Mg5Si8(OH)2. A variety of as- triacyiglycerol. An ester of glycerol with three
bestos. Some tremolite is sold as “fibrous talc.” molecules of fatty acid; also called a triglyceride or
Properties: White to light-green color, vitreous to neutral fat.
silky luster. Mohs hardness 5–6, d 3.0–3.3, resistant
to acids. Noncombustible. “Triadine” [Olin]. TM for industrial bacteri-
Occurrence: New York, California, Maryland, cide/fungicide.
South Africa. Use: As a preservative in inhibiting growth of bacte-
Hazard: Inhalation of dust or fine particles is danger- ria and fungi in aqueous-based metal working fluids,
ous. Carcinogenic. aqueous analytical and diagnostic reagents.
Use: As asbestos, particularly in acid-resisting appli-
cations, ceramics, paint. trialkyl boranes. R3B. (where R = alkyl radi-
tremorine dichlorohydrate. See tributylborane; triethylborane.
CAS: 300-68-5. mf: C12H20N2•2ClH.
Hazard: A poison.
trialkylsilanol. An alcohol derivative of silane.
Hazard: May be flammable.
treemoss concrete. Use: Short-stopping agent for silicone polymers.
CAS: 68648-41-9.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact.
A mild skin irritant. triallylamine.
Source: Natural product. CAS: 102-70-5. (H2C:CHCH2)3N.
Properties: Liquid. D 0.800 (20/4C), fp −70C, bp
trenbolone. mf: C18H22O2. 150–151C, refr index 1.4501 (20C), flash p 103F
Properties: Crystals. Mp: 186°. (39.4C) (TOC).
Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive. Hazard: Fire risk. Irritant.
Use: Intermediate.
“Trendcheck” [Nalco]. TM for real-time sta-
tistical process control system. triallyl cyanurate.
CAS: 101-37-1. (CH2:CHCH2OC)3N3.
tretamine. (generic name for 2,4,6-tris(1-azir- Properties: Colorless liquid or solid. Mp 27.32C,
idinyl)-s-triazine). flash p above 176F (80C) (TOC), d 1.1133 (30C),
See triethylenemelamine. refr index 1.5049 (25C). Miscible with acetone, ben-
zene, chloroform, dioxane, ethyl acetate, ethanol,
triacetate fiber. See acetate fiber. and xylene. Combustible.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
triacetin. (glyceryl triacetate). Use: Polymers as monomer and modifier, organic
CAS: 102-76-1. C3H5(OCOCH3)3. intermediate.
Properties: Colorless liquid; slight fatty odor; bitter
taste. D 1.160 (20C), bp 258–260C, sets to a glass at triallyl cyanurate coagent. See “Perkalink”
−37C, refr index 1.4312 (20C), flash p 300F (149C), [Akzo].
bulk d 9.7 lb/gal. Slightly soluble in water; very
soluble in alcohol, ether, and other organic solvents.
Combustible. triallyl phosphate. (CH2:CHCH2O)3PO.
Derivation: Action of acetic acid on glycerol. Properties: Water-white liquid. Fp −50C, bp 80C
Method of purification: Vacuum distillation. (0.5 mm Hg), refr index 1.448 (25C), d 1.064 (25/
Grade: Technical, CP, ND, FCC. 15C). Combustible.
Use: Plasticizer, fixative in perfumery, manufacture Use: Intermediate.
of cosmetics, specialty solvent, to remove carbon
dioxide from natural gas, medicine (topical anti- triallyl phosphite. See phosphorous acid, tri-
fungal). allyl ester.

triamcinolene. (␣-fluoro-16(␣)-hydroxypredni- 180F (82.2C). Soluble in alcohol and ether. Com-

solone). bustible.
CAS: 124-94-7. C21H27FO6. Derivation: direct heating of boric acid and amyl
Properties: White, crystalline powder. Mp alcohol.
264–268C. Insoluble in water; slightly soluble in Use: Varnishes.
usual organic solvents; soluble in dimethylform-
amide. tri-p-tert-amylphenyl phosphate.
Grade: ND. (C5H11C6H4)3PO.
Use: Medicine. Also available as the acetonide. Properties: White solid; odorless. Liquid. Boiling
range 305–345C (5 mm Hg), mp 62–63C. Insoluble
1,3,5-triaminobenzene. in water. Combustible.
CAS: 108-72-5. C6H3(NH2)3. Use: Plasticizer.
Properties: Solid. Mp (anhydrous) 129C, (hydrate)
84–86C (1.5 moles water). Soluble in water, ace- triarylmethane dye. Any of a group of dyes
tone, and alcohol; insoluble in ether, cold benzene, whose molecular structure involves a central carbon
carbon tetrachloride, and petroleum ether. Combus- atom joined to three aromatic nuclei. CI numbers
tible. range from 42000 to 44999. The color is due in part
Use: Ion-exchange resin intermediate, wetting and to the aromatic rings and to the chromophore groups
frothing agents, photographic developers, organic ==C==NH and ==C==N−. The members of this class
reactions. function as basic dyes for cotton, using tannin as a
mordant, or if they contain sulfonic acid groups, as
2,4,6-triaminotoluene trihydrochloride. acid dyes for wool and silk. Examples are malachite
C6H2(NH2HCl)3CH3•H2O. green and methyl violet.
Properties: Light-tan to cream crystals. Mp 119C See triphenylmethane dye.
(free base). Very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol
and acetone; insoluble in benzene. s-triazine derivatives. See ammelide;
Use: Nongelatin photographic emulsion with ethyl- ammeline; melamine.
enediamine for fixation, ion-exchange resins, wet-
ting and frothing agents, photographic developers, s-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione riboside. See
intermediate for varnishes and rubber chemicals. 6-azauridine.

2,4,6-triamino-sym-triazine. See melamine. s-triazine-2,4,6-triol. See cyanuric acid.

s-triaminotrinitrobenzene. See 2,4,6-trini- triazole. C2H3N3. A five-membered ring com-

tro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine. pound containing three nitrogens in the ring.
Use: Suggested as photoconductors in copying
triamminetrinitratatorhodium (III).
CAS: 41762-18-9. mf: H9N6O9Rh. (1,2,4)triazolo(1,5-a)pyrimidine.
Properties: IDLH 100 mg/m3 (as Rh). CAS: 275-02-5. mf: C5H4N4.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 1 mg(Rh)/m3. Not Classifi- Hazard: A poison.
able as a human carcinogen.
triamylamine. (C5H11)3N. CAS: 274-98-6. mf: C5H4N4.
Properties: Colorless to yellow liquid. D 0.79–0.80 Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
(20C), triamylamine content at least 98.0%, 95%
boils between 225 and 260C, flash p 215F (101.6C), (1,2,4)triazolo(4,3-a)quinoline.
refr index 1.4374 (18C). Insoluble in water; soluble CAS: 235-06-3. mf: C10H7N3.
in gasoline. Combustible. Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
Derivation: Reaction of amyl chloride and ammonia.
Hazard: Irritant. (1h-1,2,4-triazolyl-1-yl)tricyclo-
Use: Corrosion inhibitor, insecticidal preparations. hexylstannane.
CAS: 41083-11-8. mf: C20H35N3Sn.
triamylbenzene. (C5H11)3C6H3. Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by
Properties: Colorless liquid; odor faintly aromatic. skin contact. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
D 0.87 (20C), boiling range 300–320C, flash p 270F mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
(132.2C). Combustible.
Use: Chemical intermediate. triazone resin. One of a class of amino resins
produced from urea, formaldehyde, and a primary
triamyl borate. (C5H11)3BO3. amine.
Properties: Colorless liquid; odor faintly alcoholic. Use: Textile and fabric treatment.
D 0.845 (20C), boiling range 220–280C, flash p See dimethylolethyltriazone.

tribasic. See monobasic. 1,1,1-tribromo-2-methyl-2-propanol.

tribenzoside. See ethyl-3,5,6-tri-o-benzyl-d- Properties: Fine, white crystals. Mp 176–177C. Sol-
glucofuranoside. uble in water, methanol, ether. Combustible.
Use: Organic synthesis.
tribenzylchlorostannane. See chlorotriben-
zylstannane. tribromonitromethane. See bromopicrin.

tribenzyltin chloride. See chlorotribenzyl- tribromophenol. See bromol.

1,2,3-tribromopropane. (allyl tribromide).
tribenzyltin formate. See formyloxytriben- CAS: 96-11-7. BrCH2CHBrCH2Br.
zylstannane. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 2.43, mp 16C, bp
220C, refr index 1.584. Soluble in alcohol and ether;
insoluble in water.
tribrominated polystyrene. See ethenylben- Derivation: Gamma-ray initiated reaction of bromo-
zene tribromo deriv. homopolymer. trichloromethane with allyl bromide.
Use: Nematocide.
tribromoacetaldehyde. (bromal). CBr3CHO.
Properties: Oily, yellowish liquid. D 2.66, bp 174C. 3,4′,5-tribromosalicylanilide. (tribromasa-
Soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. Combustible. lan).
Derivation: (1) By adding bromine to a solution of CAS: 87-10-5. Br2C6H2(OH)C(O)NHC6H4Br. An
paraldehyde in ethylacetate. (2) By adding bromine active antiseptic.
to absolute alcohol, fractionating, treating the frac- Use: Soaps.
tion boiling at 165C with water, and distilling. Hazard: A suspected carcinogen. Use in cosmetics
Hazard: As for bromine. prohibited (FDA).
Use: Organic synthesis.
tributoxyethyl phosphate.
tribromoacetic acid. CBr3COOH. [CH3(CH2)3O(CH2)2O]3PO.
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 135C, bp Properties: Slightly yellow, oily liquid. D 1.020
245–250C. Soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. Com- (20C), fp −70C (viscous liquid), boiling range
bustible. 215–228C (4 mm Hg), flash p 435F (223C), refr
Derivation: By oxidizing tribromoacetaldehyde index 1.434 (25C). Insoluble or limited solubility in
with nitric acid. glycerol, glycols, and certain amines; soluble in
Hazard: As for bromine. most organic liquids. Combustible.
Use: Organic synthesis. Use: Primary plasticizer for most resins and elasto-
mers, floor finishes and waxes, flame-retarding
tribromo-tert-butyl alcohol. (acetone-bro- agent.
moform). CBr3C(CH3)2OH.
Properties: Fine, white, prismatic crystals; camphor tri-n-butyl aconitate. C3H3(COOC4H9)3.
odor and taste. Mp 176C. Slightly soluble in water; Properties: Colorless, odorless liquid. D 1.018
soluble in alcohol and ether. Combustible. (20C), refr index 1.4500–1.4530 (25C), bp 190C (3
Derivation: Reaction of acetone and bromoform mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in organic sol-
with solid potassium hydroxide. vents. Combustible.
Hazard: As for bromine. Use: Plasticizer-stabilizer for vinylidene chloride
Use: Vinyl chloride polymerization. polymers, synthetic rubbers and cellulosic lacquers,
tribromoethanol. (1,1,1-tribromoethyl alco-
hol). tri-n-butylaluminum. (CH3CH2CH2CH2)3Al.
CAS: 75-80-9. CBr3CH2OH. Properties: Colorless, pyrophoric liquid. Bulk d
Properties: White crystals or powder; slight aromat- 0.823 g/mL (20C), fp −26.7C.
ic odor and taste. Mp 79–82C, bp 94C (11 mm Hg), Derivation: Exchange reaction of butene-1 and iso-
unstable in air and light. Slightly soluble in water; butyl aluminum.
soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, and amylene hy- Hazard: Highly flammable, dangerous fire risk, ig-
drate; aqueous and alcoholic solutions decompose nites spontaneously.
on exposure to light. Combustible. Use: Production of organo-tin compounds.
Grade: NF.
Derivation: By reduction of tribromoacetaldehyde tri-n-butylamine.
with aluminum isopropylate. CAS: 102-82-9. (C4H9)3N.
Use: Medicine (basal anesthetic). Properties: Pale-yellow liquid; amine odor. Bp
214C, fp −70C, d 0.8 (20/20C), bulk d 6.5 lb/gal, refr
tribromomethane. See bromoform. index 1.4297 (20C), flash p 185F (85C) (OC).

Slightly soluble in water; soluble in most organic tributyl(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)phosphonium

solvents. Combustible. chloride.
Derivation: By reaction of butanol or butyl chloride CAS: 115-78-6. Cl2C6H3CH2P(C4H9)3Cl.
with ammonia. Properties: White, crystalline solid; mild aromatic
Grade: Technical. odor. Technical grade melts at 114–120C. Soluble in
Hazard: Skin irritant, CNS stimulant. water, acetone, ethanol, isopropanol and hot ben-
Use: Solvent, inhibitor in hydraulic fluids, interme- zene; insoluble in hexane and ether.
diate. Use: Growth retardant for ornamental plants.

tri-n-butylborane. (tri-n-butylborine). tributyl(glycoloyloxy)tin. See (glycoloylox-

(CH3CH2CH2CH2)3B. y)tributylstannane.
Properties: Colorless pyrophoric fluid. Fp −34C, bp
170C (222 mm Hg), d 0.747 (25C), vap press 0.1 tributyliosocyanatostannane.
mm Hg (20C), refr index 1.4285 (20C), flash p −32F CAS: 681-99-2. mf: C13H27NOSn.
(−35.5C). Insoluble in water; soluble in most organ- Hazard: A poison. Flammable liquid. TWA 0.1
ic solvents. mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, store and
use in inert atmosphere, ignites spontaneously in air. tributyl(methacryloxy)stannane.
Use: Petrochemical industry, organic reactions, cata- CAS: 2155-70-6. mf: C16H32O2Sn.
lyst. Hazard: A poison by ingestion and intravenous
routes. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3
tributyl borate. (butyl borate). (C4H9)3BO3. (skin).
Properties: Water-white liquid. D 0.8550–0.8570,
bp 232.4C, distillation range, 85% distills between tributyl(oleoyloxy)stannane.
135C and 140C (40 mm Hg), refr index 1.4071 CAS: 3090-35-5. mf: C30H60O2Sn.
(25C), fp below −70C, viscosity 1.601 cP (25C), Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/
flash p 200F (93.3C) (OC). Hydrolyzes rapidly; m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
miscible with common organic liquids. Combus-
tible. 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol.
Derivation: From butanol and boric acid. [(CH3)3C]3C6H2OH.
Use: Welding fluxes, intermediate in preparation of Properties: Solid. Mp 131C. Insoluble in water; sol-
borohydrides, flame retardant for textiles (with bo- uble in most organic solvents. Combustible.
ric acid). Use: Permissible antioxidant for aviation gasolines
(when mixed with other butylphenols) (ASTM).
tri-n-butylborine. See tri-n-butylborane.
tributyl-o-phenylphenoxytin. See (2-biphe-
tributylchlorostannane. See chlorotributyl- nyloxy)tributyltin.
tri-p-tert-butylphenyl phosphate.
tri-n-butylchlorostannate. See tributyltin [(CH3)3CC6H4O]3PO.
chloride. Properties: Solid. Bp 320C (5 mm Hg), mp
102–105C, flash p 545F (285C). Insoluble in water.
tributyl citrate. (butyl citrate). Combustible.
C3H5O(COOC4H9)3. Use: Plasticizer.
Properties: Colorless or pale-yellow, stable,
odorless, nonvolatile liquid. Fp −20C, bp 233.5C tributyl phosphate. (TBP).
(22.5 mm Hg), flash p 315F (157C) (COC), refr CAS: 126-73-8. (C4H9)3PO4.
index 1.4453 (20C), d 1.042 (25/25C), bulk d 8.7 lb/ Properties: Stable, colorless liquid; odorless. Refr
gal at 20C, pour p viscosity 31.9 cP (25C). Practical- index 1.4226 (25C), bp 292C, latent heat of vapor-
ly insoluble in water. Combustible. ization 55.1 cal/g (289C), fp below −80C, flash p
Grade: Technical. 295F (146C) (COC), Saybolt viscosity 38.6 sec at
Use: Plasticizer, antifoam agent, solvent for nitrocel- 29.4C, bulk d 8.19 lb/gal, d 0.978 (20/20C). Misci-
lulose. ble with most solvents and diluents; soluble in wa-
ter. Combustible.
tri-n-butyl citrate. See tributyl citrate; “Ci- Grade: Technical.
troflex 4” [Reilly]; “TBC” [Reilly]. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, irritant to
skin. TLV: 0.2 ppm.
n,n,n-tributyl-2,4-dichlorobenzenemetha- Use: Heat-exchange medium, solvent extraction of
naminium chloride. metal ions from solution of reactor products, solvent
CAS: 3278-43-1. mf: C19H32Cl2N•Cl. for nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, plasticizer, pig-
Hazard: A severe eye irritant. ment grinding assistant, antifoam agent, dielectric.

tri-n-butyl phosphine. (CH3CH2CH2CH2)3P. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
Properties: Colorless liquid; garlic odor. D 0.8100 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
(min at 25/4C), fp −60 to −65C, bp 240C, flash p
104F (40C), autoign temp 392F (200C), refr index tri-n-butylstannane hydride.
1.463 (20C). Almost insoluble in water; miscible CAS: 688-73-3. mf: C12H28Sn.
with ether, methanol, ethanol, benzene. An organic Properties: A liquid. D: 1.103 @ 20°, bp:
base and strong reducing agent. Combustible. 112.5−113.5° @ 8 mm.
Use: Polymerization cross-linking catalyst, organic Hazard: Moderately toxic by inhalation. TWA 0.1
intermediate, fuels. mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).

tributyl phosphite. tributylstannic hydride. See tri-n-butylstan-

CAS: 102-85-2. (C4H9O)3P. nane hydride.
Properties: Water-white liquid. Bp 120C (8 mm
Hg), d 0.911 (25C), refr index 1.4301 (25C), flash p tributyl thiophosphate. See tributyl phos-
250F (121C). Decomposes in water; soluble in com- phorothioate.
mon organic solvents. Combustible.
Use: Additive for greases and extreme-pressure lu- tributyltin-p-acetamidobenzoate.
bricants, stabilizer for fuel oils and polyamides, gas- CAS: 2857-03-6. mf: C21H35NO3Sn.
oline additive. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
O,O,O-tributyl phosphorothioate. (tributyl
thiophosphate). (C4H9O)3PS. tributyltin acetate.
Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. Bp CAS: 56-36-0. (C4H9)3SnOOCCH3.
142–145C (4.5 mm Hg), d 0.987, flash p 295F Properties: White, crystalline solid.
(146C) (COC). Insoluble in water; soluble in most Derivation: Reaction of sodium acetate with tribu-
organic solvents. Combustible. tyltin chloride.
Hazard: Highly toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor. Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3.
Use: Plasticizer, lubricant additive, antifoam agent, Use: Fungicide and bactericide.
hydraulic fluid, intermediate.
tributyltin benzoate. See benzoyloxytribu-
S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate. tylstannane.
(“DEF”) [Bayer].
CAS: 78-48-8. (C4H9S)3PO. tri-n-butyltin bromide.
Properties: Liquid. Bp 150C (0.3 mm Hg). Insoluble CAS: 1461-23-0. mf: C12H27Sn•Br.
in water; soluble in aliphatic, aromatic, and chlori- Properties: Liquid. D: 1.3365, bp: 163°/12 mm, refr
nated hydrocarbons. index: 1.5000.
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by
Use: Cotton defoliant. skin contact and inhalation. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3;
STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
tributylphosphorotrithioite. tributyltin chloride. (tri-n-butylchlorostan-
CAS: 150-50-5. (C4H9S)3P. nate). (C4H9)3SnCl.
Properties: Nearly colorless liquid. Bp 115–134C Properties: Colorless liquid.. D 1.20 (20/4C); refr
(0.08 mm Hg), d 1.02 (20C), refr index 1.542 (25C). index 1.4903 (25C); bp 145–147C (5 mm Hg). Solu-
Insoluble in water; soluble in a variety of organic ble in the common organic solvents; including alco-
solvents. hol, heptane, benzene, and toluene; insoluble in cold
Derivation: Reaction of butyl mercaptan with phos- water, but hydrolyzes in hot water
phorus trichloride. Derivation: Reaction of tetrabutyltin with dibutyltin
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor. chloride.
Use: Cotton defoliant. Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3.
Use: Rodenticide, intermediate, rodent-repellent ca-
n-(tributylplumbyl)benzimidazole. ble coatings.
CAS: 23188-89-8. mf: C19H32N2Pb.
Hazard: A poison. tributyltin chloroacetate.
CAS: 5847-52-9. mf: C14H29ClO2Sn.
tributyl(8-quinolinolato)tin. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
CAS: 5488-45-9. mf: C21H33NOSn. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). tributyltin-␥-chlorobutyrate.
CAS: 33550-22-0. mf: C16H33ClO2Sn.
tributylstannanecarbonitrile. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
CAS: 2179-92-2. mf: C13H27NSn. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).

tributyltin cyanate. See cyanatotributylstan- tributyltin laurate.

nane. CAS: 3090-36-6. mf: C24H50O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/
tri-n-butyltin cyanide. See tributylstannane- m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
tributyl tin linoleate. See (linoleoylox-
tributyltin cyclohexanecarboxylate. y)tributylstannane.
CAS: 2669-35-4. mf: C19H38O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tributyltin methacrylate. See tribu-
mg/m3 (skin) tyl(methacryloxy)stannane.

tributyltin-s,s′-dibutyldithiocarbamate. tri-n-butyltin methanesulfonate.

See 2,2-dibutyl-1,3,2-oxathiastannolane. CAS: 13302-06-2. mf: C13H30O3SSn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
tributyltin dimethyldithiocarbamate. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
CAS: 20369-63-5. mf: C15H33NS2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tributyltin neodecanoate.
mg/m3 (skin) CAS: 28801-69-6. mf: C22H46O2Sn.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. TWA 0.1
tributyltin-2-ethylhexanoate. mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
CAS: 5035-67-6. mf: C20H42O2Sn.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. TWA 0.1 tributyltin nonanoate.
mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). CAS: 4027-14-9. mf: C21H44O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
tributyltin hydroxide.
CAS: 1067-97-6. mf: C12H28OSn.
Properties: Waxy solid or oil. Mp: 15−16°.
tri-n-butyltin oleate. See tribu-
Hazard: Moderately toxic. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3;
STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Use: Agricultural chemical.
tributyltin-o-phenylphenoxide. See (2-bi-
tri-n-butyltin iodide. See iodotributylstan- tributyltin salicylate. See salicyloyloxytribu-
nane. tylstannane.
tributyltin iodoacetate. tributyltin sulfide. See 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexabutyl-
CAS: 73927-91-0. mf: C14H29IO2Sn. distannthiane.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). tri-n-butyltin undecylate. See tribu-
CAS: 73927-93-2. mf: C19H31IO2Sn. tributyltin-␣-(2,4,5-trichloro-
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 phenoxy)propionate.
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). CAS: 73940-89-3. mf: C21H33Cl3O3Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
tributyltin-p-iodobenzoate. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
CAS: 73940-88-2. mf: C19H31IO2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tri-n-butyl tricarballylate.
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). (C4H9OCOCH2)2CHCOOC4H9.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.004 (24C), refr index 1.4388
tributyltin-␤-iodopropionate. (26.5C). Insoluble in water. Combustible.
CAS: 73927-95-4. mf: C15H31IO2Sn. Use: Plasticizer.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). tributyl(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)tin.
CAS: 73927-98-7. mf: C18H29Cl3OSn.
tributyltin isopropylsuccinate. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
CAS: 53404-82-3. mf: C19H38O4Sn. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg/m3 (skin) tributyl(undecanoyloxy)stannane.
CAS: 69226-47-7. mf: C23H48O2Sn.
tributyltin isothiocyanate. See tributyliso- Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/
cyanatostannane. m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).

tributyrin. See glyceryl tributyrate. irritant to skin and tissue. TLV: 1 ppm; not classifia-
ble as a human carcinogen.
tricalcium aluminate. See calcium alumi- Use: Organic synthesis, reagent for detection of albu-
nate. min, medicine, pharmacy, herbicides.

tricalcium citrate. See calcium citrate. trichloroacetic acid tripropylstannyl ester.

See tripropyltin trichloroacetate.
tricalcium orthoarsenate. See calcium arse-
nate. trichloroacetonitrile.
CAS: 545-06-2. CCl3CN.
tricalcium orthophosphate. See calcium Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 85C, d 1.44, refr
phosphate, tribasic. index 1.440.
Derivation: Reaction of methylnitrile, hydrochloric
tricalcium phosphate. See calcium phos- acid, and chlorine.
phate, tribasic. Hazard: Strong irritant to tissue.
Use: Insecticide.
tricalcium silicate.
Use: Anticaking agent in foods (up to 2%). trichloroacetyl chloride. CCl3COCl.
See cement, Portland. Properties: Liquid. D 1.654 (0/4C), bp 118C. De-
composes in water; soluble in alcohol.
tricamba. (3,5,6-trichloro-o-anisic acid). Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
CAS: 2307-49-5. C6HCl3(COOH)(OCH3). irritant to skin and tissue.
Properties: Crystals. Mp 137–139C. Very slightly
soluble in water; moderately soluble in xylene; free- S-2,3,3-trichloroallyl-N,N-diiso-
ly soluble in alcohol. propylthiolcarbamate.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. CAS: 2303-17-5.
Use: Herbicide. [(CH3)2CH]2NC(O)SCH2CCl:CCl2.
Properties: Oily liquid. Bp 148–149C (9 mm Hg),
tricarbimide. See cyanuric acid. mp 29–30C. Practically insoluble in water; soluble
in alcohol, acetone, ether, and heptane. Combus-
tricarboxylic acid cycle. See TCA cycle. tible.
Use: Herbicide.
trichlohexyltin hydroxide. See cyhexatin.
trichloro-o-anisic acid. See tricamba.
trichlorfon. (O,O-dimethyl[2,2,2-tri-chloro-1-
hydroxyethyl]phosphonate). 2,4,6-trichloroanisole. C7H5Cl3O.
CAS: 52-68-6. (CH3O)2P(O)CH(OH)CCl3. Properties: Acicular crystals. Mp 60C, bp 240C (238
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 83–84C, bp mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in benzene,
100C (1 mm Hg), d 1.73 (20/4C). Soluble in water, methanol, and dioxane; gradually sublimes at room
benzene, chloroform, ether; insoluble in oils. temperature.
Hazard: Cholinesterase inhibitor, absorbed by skin, Use: Dyeing auxiliary for polyester fabrics.
use may be restricted.
Use: Systemic insecticide, medicine (anthelmintic). 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene.
CAS: 87-61-6. C6H3Cl3.
trichloroacetaldehyde. See chloral. Properties: White crystals. D (solid) 1.69, refr index
1.5776 (19C), bp 221C, mp 52.6C, flash p 235F
trichloroacetaldehyde, hydrated. See chlo- (112.7C) (CC). Insoluble in water; slightly soluble
ral hydrate. in alcohol; soluble in ether. Combustible.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
trichloroacetic acid. (TCA). Use: Organic intermediate.
CAS: 76-03-9. CCl3COOH.
Properties: Deliquescent, colorless crystals; sharp, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.
pungent odor. D 1.6298, mp 57.5C, bp 197.5C, flash CAS: 120-82-1. C6H3Cl3.
p none. Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Non- Properties: Colorless, stable liquid; odor similar to
flammable. that of o-dichlorobenzene. D 1.4634 (25C), bp
Derivation: (1) By treating chloral hydrate with fum- 213C, mp 17C, flash p 210F (98.9C). Miscible with
ing nitric acid. (2) From glacial acetic acid by the most organic solvents and oils; insoluble in water.
action of chlorine in the presence of sunlight, UV Combustible.
radiation, or catalysts. Derivation: Chlorination of monochlorobenzene.
Grade: Technical, CP, USP. Grade: Technical, 99%, mixture of 1,2,4- and 1,2,3-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong isomers distilling at 213–219C.

Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. TLV: 1,1,1-trichloroethane. (methyl chloroform).

ceiling 5 ppm. CAS: 71-55-6. CH3CCl3.
Use: Solvent in chemical manufacturing, dyes and Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.325, bp 75C, fp
intermediates, dielectric fluid, synthetic transformer −38C, flash p none. Insoluble in water; soluble in
oils, lubricants, heat-transfer medium, insecticides. alcohol and ether. Nonflammable.
Hazard: Irritant to eyes and tissue. TLV: 350 ppm.
2,3,6-trichlorobenzyloxypropanol. Use: Solvent for cleaning precision instruments, met-
(Cl)3C6H2CH2OCH2CH(CH3)OH. al degreasing, pesticide, textile processing.
Properties: Liquid. Bp 121–124C (0.1 mm Hg). Al- See “Aerothenet TT” [Dow]; “Tri-Ethane” [PPG].
most insoluble in water; soluble in most organic
solvents. Combustible. 1,1,2-trichloroethane. (vinyl trichloride; ␤-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. trichloroethane).
Use: Herbicide. CAS: 79-00-5. CHCl2CH2Cl.
Properties: Clear, colorless liquid; characteristic
((2,3,6-trichlorobenzyl)oxy)-2-propanol. sweet odor. Bp 113.7C, d 1.4432 (20C/4C), refr
CAS: 34314-31-3. mf: C10H11C13O2. index 1.4458, vap press 16.7 mm Hg (20C), bulk d
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. 12.0 lb/gal (20C), fp −36.4C, flash p none. Miscible
Use: Agricultural chemical. with alcohols, ethers, esters, and ketones; insoluble
in water. Nonflammable.
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane. Grade: Technical.
See DDT. Hazard: Irritant, absorbed by skin. TLV: 10 ppm.
Use: Solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, other prod-
ucts; organic synthesis.
methoxyphenyl)ethane. See methoxychlor.
CAS: 115-20-8. CCl3CH2OH.
B-trichloroborazole. Properties: Viscous liquid; etherlike odor; hygro-
❘ ❘ scopic. Bp 150C, fp 13C, d 1.541 (25/4C). Slightly
BClNHBClNHBClNH. soluble in water; miscible with alcohol, ether, and
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 84.5–85.5C, carbon tetrachloride. Combustible.
bp 96.5–98C (37 mm Hg). Soluble in many organic Use: Intermediate, anesthetic.
solvents; highly reactive.
Use: Intermediate, gelling agent, catalyst complex- trichloroethylene. (tri).
ing agent. CAS: 79-01-6. CHCl:CCl2.
Properties: Stable, low-boiling, colorless, photo-
trichlorobromomethane. See bromotrichlo- reactive liquid; chloroform-like odor. Will not at-
romethane. tack the common metals even in the presence of
moisture. Bp 86.7C, fp −73C, d 1.456–1.462 (25/
trichlorobutylene oxide. (TCBO). 25C), refr index 1.4735 (27C). Miscible with com-
mon organic solvents; slightly soluble in water.
Derivation: From tetrachloroethane by treatment
with lime or alkali in the presence of water, or by
thermal decomposition, followed by steam distilla-
A reactive liquid epoxide used as an organic solvent tion.
and surfactant intermediate; its polymers can be used Grade: USP, technical, high purity, electronic, metal
for polyester, polyurethane, and polyacrylic resins, degreasing, extraction.
polyether polyols, flame-retardants, etc. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. Use as solvent not
permitted in some states. FDA has prohibited its use
3,4,4′-trichlorocarbanilide. in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. TLV: 50 ppm.
C6H3Cl2NHCONHC6H4Cl. Use: Metal degreasing; extraction solvent for oils,
Properties: Heat-resistant white powder. Mp 250C. fats, waxes; solvent dyeing; dry-cleaning; refriger-
Use: Bacteriostat in soaps and detergents, plastics. ant and heat-exchange liquid; fumigant; cleaning
and drying electronic parts; diluent in paints and
1,2,4-trichloro-5-(2,6- adhesives; textile processing; chemical intermedi-
dichlorophenoxy)benzene. ate; aerospace operations (flushing liquid oxygen).
CAS: 130892-67-0. mf: C12H5Cl5O.
Hazard: A reproductive hazard. trichloroethylene epoxide. See epoxy-1,1,2-
trichloroethane. See “Extrema” [Schumach-
er]. trichloroethyltin. See ethyltin trichloride.

trichlorofluoroethylene. trichloromethyl chloroformate. (diphos-

CAS: 359-29-5. mf: C2Cl3F. gene). ClCOOCCl3.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and inhala- Properties: Colorless liquid; odor similar to phos-
tion. gene (newly mown hay). D 1.65 (15C), bp
127–128C, fp −57C, vap d 6.9 (air = 1), refr index
trichlorofluoromethane. (fluorotrichloro- 1.45664 (22C). Decomposed by heat, porous sub-
methane; fluorocarbon-11). stances, activated carbons (with evolution of phos-
CAS: 75-69-4. CCl3F. gene), also by alkalies, hot water. Soluble in alcohol,
Properties: Colorless, volatile liquid; nearly benzene, and ether. Noncombustible.
odorless. Bp 23.7C, fp −111C, d 1.494 (17.2C), Derivation: (1) By chlorinating methyl formate, (2)
critical press 43.2 atm. Noncombustible. by chlorinating methyl chloroformate. In both meth-
Derivation: From carbon tetrachloride and hafnium, ods the mixture of chloro-derivatives is then sepa-
in the presence of fluorinating agents such as anti- rated by fractionation.
mony tri- and pentafluoride. Grade: Technical.
Grade: Technical, 99.9% min. Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and ingestion, strong
Hazard: TLV: Celling of 1000 ppm. irritant to tissue.
Use: Solvent, fire extinguishers, chemical intermedi- Use: Organic synthesis, military poison gas.
ate, blowing agent.
trichloromethyl ether. CHCl2OCH2Cl.
3,5,6-trichloro-2-hydroxypyridine. See 2- Properties: Liquid; pungent odor. D 1.5066 (10C),
hydroxy-3,5,6-trichloropyridine. bp 130–132C. Soluble in alcohol, benzene, and
ether; insoluble in water.
trichloroisocyanuric acid. (1,3,5-trichloro-s- Hazard: Strong irritant to eyes and skin, evolves
triazine-2,4,6-trione). lachrymatory fumes.
CAS: 87-90-1.
❘ ❘ N-(trichloromethylmercapto)-tetra-
OCNClCONClCONCl. hydrophthalimide. See captan.
Properties: White, slightly hygroscopic, crystalline
powder or granules. Loose bulk d 31 lb/cu ft, granu- trichloromethylphenylcarbinyl acetate.
lar 60 lb/cu ft; available chlorine 85%; decomposes (␣-[trichloromethyl]benzyl acetate).
at 225C. CAS: 90-17-5. C6H5CH(CCl3)OOCCH3.
Hazard: Fire risk in contact with organic materials, Properties: White, crystalline solid; intense rose
strong oxidizing agent. Toxic by ingestion. odor. Mp 86–88C. Soluble in 18 parts of 95% al-
Use: Active ingredient in household dry bleaches, cohol.
dishwashing compounds, scouring powders, deter- Use: Perfumes, fixative for essential oils and per-
gent sanitizers, commercial laundry bleaches, fumes.
swimming-pool disinfectant, bactericide, algicide,
bleach, and deodorant. trichloromethylphosphonic acid.
CCl3PO(OH)2. Strong dibasic acid.
trichloroisocyanuric acid-potassium Properties: Soluble in water and alcohol; insoluble
dichloroisocyanurate (1:4). See monotri- in benzene and hexane.
chloro-tetra(monopotassium dichloro)-penta-s. Use: Catalyst and condensation agent.

trichloromelamine. (N,N′,N′-trichloro-2,4,6- 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol. See

triamine-1,3,5-triazine). chlorobutanol.
❘ ❘
NC(NHCl)NC(NHCl)NC(NHCl). trichloromethylsulfenyl chloride. (perchlo-
Properties: Fine, white powder. Autoign temp 320F romethyl mercaptan).
(160C). Slightly soluble in water and glacial acetic CAS: 594-42-3. ClSCCl3.
acid; insoluble in carbon tetrachloride and benzene; Properties: Yellow, oily liquid; disagreeable odor.
pH of saturated aqueous solution 4. Mildly decomposed by moist air, subject to the ac-
Derivation: By chlorination of melamine. tion of oxidizing agents, reducing agents, chlorine,
Grade: 89% available chlorine. etc. D 1.722 (0C), bp 148–149C (decomposes), vap
Hazard: Dangerous fire risk, can ignite spontaneous- d 6.414, volatility 18,000 mg/cu m (20C). Insoluble
ly in contact with reactive organic materials. in water. Nonflammable but supports combustion.
Use: Chlorine bleach and bactericide. Derivation: Chlorination of carbon disulfide, thio-
phosgene, or methyl thiocyanate.
trichloromethane. See chloroform. Grade: Technical.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
␣-(trichloromethyl)benzyl acetate. See tri- irritant to eyes and skin. TLV: 0.1 ppm.
chloromethylphenylcarbinyl acetate. Use: Organic synthesis, dye intermediate, fumigant.

3-trichloromethylthiobenzothiazolone. Use: Plant hormone, herbicide, defoliant.

CAS: 3567-79-1. mf: C8H4Cl3NOS2. See dioxin.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
Use: Agricultural chemical. 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)ethyl-2,2-
dichloropropionate. See erbon.
trichloronaphthalene. (halowax).
CAS: 1321-65-9. C10H5Cl3. 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid.
Properties: A white solid. Mw 231.50. See silvex.
Hazard: A poison. TLV: 5 mg/m3 (skin).
Use: Wire coating, electrical insulations. 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl acetate.
CAS: 23399-90-8. C6H2Cl3OOCCH3.
trichloronitromethane. See chloropicrin. Use: Fungicide, especially on cotton seed.

trichloronitrosomethane. CCl3NO. 1-((2,3,6-trichlorophenyl)methoxy)-2-

Properties: Dark-blue liquid; unpleasant odor. D 1.5 propanol.
(20C); bp 5C (70 mm Hg). Slowly decomposes, but CAS: 1861-44-5. mf: C10H11Cl3O2.
is more stable in solution. Soluble in alcohol, ben- Hazard: A mild eye irritant.
zene, ether; insoluble in water.
Derivation: Interaction of sulfuric acid, sodium tri- 1,2,3-trichloropropane.
chloromethylsulfinate, and sodium nitrate. CAS: 96-18-4. CH2ClCHClCH2Cl.
Grade: Technical. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.3888 (20/4C), fp
Hazard: Strong irritant to eyes and tissue. −15C, bp 156.17C, refr index 1.4822 (20C), flash p
Use: Organic synthesis, military poison gas (lachry- 180F (82.2C) (COC). Slightly soluble in water; dis-
mator). solves oils, fats, waxes, chlorinated rubber, and nu-
merous resins. autoign temp 580F (304C). Combus-
trichlorononylsilane. See nonyl trichlorosi- tible.
lane. Derivation: Chlorination of propylene.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation and skin absorption;
trichlorooctadecylsilane. See octadecyltri- strong irritant. TLV: 10 ppm.
chlorosilane. Use: Paint and varnish remover, solvent, degreasing
trichlorooctylsilane. See octyl trichlorosi-
lane. tri(chloropropyl) phosphate.
CAS: 26248-87-3. mf: C9H18Cl3O4P.
2,4,5-trichlorophenol. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. A reproduc-
CAS: 95-95-4. C6H2Cl3OH. tive hazard.
Properties: Gray flakes in sublimed mass; strong See “Antiblaze” [Albermarle].
phenolic odor. D 1.678 (25/4C), bp 252C, mp
68–70C, no flash p. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and trichlorosilane. (1) (silicochloroform).
acetone. Nonflammable. CAS: 10025-78-2. SiHCl3.
Hazard: May cause skin irritation. Properties: Colorless volatile liquid. D 1.336, fp
Use: Fungicide, bactericide. −127C, bp 32C, refr index 1.3990, flash p 7F
(−13.9C). Soluble in benzene, ether, heptane, per-
2,4,6-trichlorophenol. (2,4,6-T). chloroethylene; decomposed by water. Purity of
CAS: 88-06-2. C6H2Cl3OH. 99.9999% is commercially attainable.
Properties: Yellow flakes; strong phenolic odor. D Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk.
1.675 (25/4C), fp 61C, bp 248–249C. Soluble in Use: Intermediate, purification of silicon.
acetone, alcohol, and ether. Nonflammable. (2) Generic name for compounds of the formula
Hazard: May cause skin irritation. RSiCl3 of which methyl trichlorosilane, CH3SiCl3 is
Use: Fungicide, herbicide, defoliant. most important.

3,4,5-trichlorophenol. N,N′,N′′-trichloro-2,4,6-triamine-1,3,5-
CAS: 609-19-8. mf: C6H3Cl3O. triazine. See trichloromelamine.
Hazard: A poison.
2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine. See cyanuric
2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. (2,4,5- chloride.
CAS: 93-76-5. C6H2Cl3OCH2CO2H. 1,3,5-trichloro-s-triazine-2,4,6-trione. See
Properties: Light-tan solid. Mp 151–153C. Soluble trichloroisocyanuric acid.
in alcohol; insoluble in water; available as sodium
and amine salts. trichloromethyltin. See methyltrichlorostan-
Hazard: Use has been restricted. TLV: 10 mg/m3. nane.

trichlorotrifluoroacetone. (1,1,3-trichloro- CAS: 78-30-8. (CH3C6H4O)3PO. A mixture of

1,3,3-trifluoroacetone). CCl2FCOCClF2. isomers.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 84.5C, fp −78C. Properties: Practically colorless liquid; odorless.
Miscible with water and most organic solvents; sta- Stable, nonvolatile. Bp 420C, refr index 1.556
ble to acid but not alkalies. Nonflammable. (25C), d 1.162 (25/25C), bulk d 9.7 lb/gal, crystal-
Hazard: Strong irritant to eyes. lizing p −35C, flash p 437F (225C), autoign temp
Use: Solvent in acid media, complexing agent. 770F (410C). Miscible with all the common sol-
vents and thinners, also with vegetable oils; insolu-
1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane. (tri- ble in water. Combustible.
fluorotrichloroethane). Derivation: From cresol and phosphorus oxychlo-
CAS: 76-13-1. CCl2FCClF2. ride.
Properties: Colorless, volatile liquid; nearly Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and skin absorption. The
odorless. Bp 47.6C, fp −35C, critical press 33.7 atm, o- isomer is highly toxic. TLV: 0.1 mg/m3 (skin);
d 1.42 (25C). Noncombustible. Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen.
Derivation: From perchloroethylene and hafnium. Use: Plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene,
Grade: Technical, spectrophotometric. nitrocellulose; fire-retardant for plastics; air-filter
Hazard: TLV: 1000 ppm. medium; solvent mixtures; waterproofing; additive
Use: Dry-cleaning solvent, fire extinguishers, to to extreme pressure lubricants; hydraulic fluid; heat-
make chlorotrifluoroethylene, blowing agent, poly- exchange medium.
mer intermediate, solvent drying, drying electronic
parts and precision equipment. tri-o-cresylphosphate. See tricresyl phos-
trichocyst. Organelle in ciliates and dinoflagel-
lates which releases long filamentous proteins when tricresyl phosphite. (CH3C6H4O)3P.
the cell is disturbed. Used as a defense against Properties: Colorless liquid; slight phenolic odor.
would-be predators. Bp 191C (0.11 mm Hg), d 1.115 (20/4C), flash p
440F (226.6C) (OC). Insoluble in water; miscible
tricholine citrate. (tris[2-hydroxyeth- with acetone, alcohol, benzene, ether, and kerosene.
yl]trimethylammonium citrate). Combustible.
[(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH]3•C6H5O7. Grade: Technical.
Use: Medicine, nutrition. Use: Stabilizer and plasticizer for plastics and resins.

trichotecene. See mycotoxin. tricyanic acid. See cyanuric acid.

tricobalt tetraoxide. See cobalto-cobaltic tricyclic. An organic compound composed of

oxide. only three-ring structures, which may be identical or
different, e.g., anthracene.
tricosane. CH3(CH2)21CH3.
Properties: Glittering leaflets. D 0.779 (48C), bp sym-tricyclodecane. See adamantane.
234C (15 mm Hg), mp 48C. Soluble in alcohol;
insoluble in water. Combustible. tricyclodecanedimethanol.
Grade: Technical. CAS: 26160-83-8. mf: C12H20O2.
Use: Organic synthesis. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

n-tricosanoic acid. CH3(CH2)21COOH. A satu- tricyclohexyl borate. See boric acid ester.
rated fatty acid not normally found in natural fats or
oils. 1-(tricyclohexylstannyl)-1h-1,2,4-triazole.
Properties: Synthetic compound is a white crystal- See (1h-1,2,4-triazolyl-1-
line solid. Mp 79.1C. yl)tricyclohexylstannane.
Use: Purified product is used in medical research and
as reference standard for gas chromatography. n-tridecane. CH3(CH2)11CH3.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.755 (20/4C), bp
tri-m,p-cresyl borate. (CH3C6H4)3BO3. 225.5C, fp −5.45C, refr index 1.4250 (20C), flash p
Properties: Light-amber liquid. D 1.065 (25C), bp 175F (79.4C). Soluble in alcohol; insoluble in water.
385–395C, refr index 1.5480 (24C), flash p 240F Combustible.
(115.5C) (COC). Miscible with acetone, benzene, Grade: 95%, 99%, research.
chloroform; hydrolyzes on contact with water. Use: Organic synthesis, distillation chaser.
Use: Plasticizer, organic synthesis. n-tridecanoic acid. (tridecylic acid; tridecoic
acid). CH3(CH2)11COOH. A saturated fatty acid
tricresyl phosphate. (tritolyl phosphate; usually prepared synthetically.
TCP). Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 44.5C, d 0.8458

(80/4C), bp 312.4C, 192.2C (16 mm Hg), refr index bility in water 0.002% (85C) by weight. Combus-
1.4328 (50C). Slightly soluble in water; soluble in tible.
alcohol and ether. Combustible. Use: Plasticizer.
Grade: 99% pure.
Use: Organic synthesis, medical research. tridodecyl amine. See trilauryl amine.
tridecanol. See tridecyl alcohol. tridodecyl borate. See boric acid ester.
CAS: 7774-82-5. mf: C13H24O. tridymite. (christensenite; crystalline silica).
Properties: White to yellow liquid; oily, citrus odor. CAS: 15468-32-3. SiO2. A vitreous, colorless, or
D: 0.842−0.862, refr index: 1.457. Sol in alc, fixed white native form of pure silica, found variously but
oils; insol in water. not so commonly as quartz. Quartz will change into
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact. tridymite with a 16.2% increase in volume at 870C.
Use: Food additive. Unlike quartz, it is soluble in boiling sodium carbon-
ate solution; d 2.28–2.3; Mohs hardness 7.
tridecoic acid. See n-tridecanoic acid. Hazard: TLV: (silica, crystalline) Respirable Frac-
tion: 0.05 mg/m3.
tridecyl alcohol. (tridecanol). C12H25CH2OH.
A commercial mixture of isomers. trietazine. (generic name for 2-chloro-4-dieth-
Properties: Low-melting white solid; pleasant odor. ylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine).
Bp 274C, mp 31C, d 0.845 (20/20C), bulk d 7.0 lb/ CAS: 1912-26-1. ClC3N3[N(C2H5)2]NHC2H5.
gal, flash p 180F (82.2C) (TOC). Combustible. Properties: Solid. Practically insoluble in water; par-
Derivation: Oxo process from C15 hydrocarbons. tially soluble in benzene and chloroform.
Grade: Technical. Use: Herbicide, plant growth regulator.
Use: Esters for synthetic lubricants, detergents, anti-
foam agent, other tridecyl compounds, perfumery. “Tri-Ethane” [PPG].
CAS: 71-55-6. TM for 1,1,1-trichloroethane sol-
tridecylbenzene. (1-phenyltridecane). vent.
C6H5(CH2)12CH3. Use: Cold cleaning, vapor degreasing, resins applica-
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.85–0.86 (60/60F), tion, dry-film photoresist processing, adhesive sol-
refr index 1.4815–1.4830. Combustible. vent, in aerosols as solvent and vapor-pressure de-
Use: Detergent intermediate. pressant.

tridecylic acid. See n-tridecanoic acid. triethanolamine. (TEA; tri[2-hydroxyeth-

tri(decyl)orthoformate. CH(OC10H21)3. CAS: 102-71-6. (HOCH2CH2)3N.
Properties: Liquid. Bp 194C, fp −15 to −20C, refr Properties: Colorless, viscous, hygroscopic liquid;
index 1.448. Insoluble in water; soluble in benzene, slight ammoniacal odor. Mp 21.2C, bp 335C (de-
naphtha, ether, and alcohol. composes), vap press below 0.01 mm Hg (20C), d
Use: To remove small quantities of water from ethers 1.126, flash p 375F (190.5C) (OC), bulk d 9.4 lb/gal.
or other solvents in which acid catalysts can be Miscible with water, alcohol; soluble in chloroform;
employed. slightly soluble in benzene and ether; slightly less
alkaline than ammonia, commercial product con-
tri(decyl) phosphite. (C10H21O)3P. tains up to 25% diethanolamine and up to 5% mo-
Properties: Water-white liquid; decyl alcohol odor. noethanolamine. Combustible.
D 0.892 (25/15.5C), mp below 0C, refr index 1.4565 Derivation: Reaction of ethylene oxide and am-
(25C), flash p 455F (235C). Combustible. monia.
Use: Chemical intermediate, stabilizer for polyvinyl Grade: Technical, regular, 98%, USP.
and polyolefin resins. Use: Fatty acid soaps used in dry-cleaning, cosmet-
ics, household detergents, and emulsions. Wool
2,4,6-tri(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol. scouring, textile antifume agent and water-repellent,
[(CH3)2NCH2]3C6H2OH. dispersion agent, corrosion inhibitor, softening
Properties: Liquid. Refr index 1.5181. Combustible. agent, emulsifier, humectant and plasticizer, chelat-
Use: Antioxidants, acid neutralizers, stabilizers, and ing agent, rubber accelerator, pharmaceutical alkal-
catalysts for epoxy and polyurethane resins. izing agent.

tri(dimethylphenyl)phosphite. (trixylenyl triethanolamine dodecylbenzene sulfonate.

phosphate). [(CH3)2C6H3O]3PO. CAS: 27323-41-7. mf: C18H20O3S•C6H15NO3.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.155, refr index 1.5535, bp Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact.
243–265C (10 mm Hg), flash p 450F (232C). Solu- Use: Food additive.

triethanolamine lauryl sulfate. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, ignites

CAS: 139-96-8. (HOC2H4)3NOS(O)2OC12H25. A liq- spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with water,
uid or paste. acids, alcohols, halogens, and amines. Destructive
Use: Detergent; wetting, foaming, and dispersing to tissue.
agent for industrial, cosmetic and pharmaceutical Use: Catalyst intermediate for polymerization of ole-
applications, especially shampoos. fins, especially ethylene; pyrophoric fuels; produc-
tion of ␣-olefins and long-chain alcohols; gas plat-
triethanolamine methanearsonate. ing of aluminum.
CAS: 5902-97-6. mf: C6H15NO3•xCH5AsO3.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion. triethylamine.
Use: Agricultural chemical. CAS: 121-44-8. (C2H5)3N.
Properties: Colorless liquid; strong ammoniacal
triethanolamine oleate. See trihydroxyethy- odor. Bp 89.7C, fp −115.3C, d 0.7293 (20/20C),
lamine oleate. bulk d 6.1 lb/gal, flash p 10F (−6.67C) (OC). Soluble
in water and alcohol.
triethanolamine stearate. See trihydroxye- Derivation: From ethyl chloride and ammonia with
thylamine stearate. heat and pressure.
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive
triethanolamine titanate. See titanium che- limits in air 1.2–8.0%. Toxic by ingestion and inha-
late. lation, strong irritant to tissue. TLV: 10 ppm.
Use: Catalytic solvent in chemical synthesis; acceler-
1,1,3-triethoxybutane. ator activators for rubber; wetting, penetrating, and
CAS: 5870-82-6. mf: C10H22O3. waterproofing agents of quaternary ammonium
Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact. types; curing and hardening of polymers (e.g., core-
Low toxicity by inhalation. A mild skin irritant. binding resins); corrosion inhibitor; propellant.

1,1,3-triethoxyhexane. triethyl(3-aminopropyl)silane. See (3-ami-

CH(OC2H5)2CH2CH(OC2H5)C3H7. nopropyl)triethylsilane.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.8746 (20/20C), bp
133C (50 mm Hg), fp −100C, bulk d 7.3 lb/gal, flash
p 210F (98.9C). Insoluble in water. Combustible.
triethylborane. (triethylborine; boron trie-
thyl). (C2H5)3B.
Use: Synthesis of aldehydes, acids, esters, chlorides,
Properties: Colorless liquid. D (25C), flash p −32F
amines, etc.
(35.5C), fp −93C, bp 95C, refr index 1.3971, heat of
combustion 20,000 Btu/lb. Miscible with most or-
triethoxymethane. See triethyl-o-formate. ganic solvents; immiscible with water.
Derivation: Reaction of triethylaluminum and boron
1,1,3-triethoxy-3-methoxypropane. (trie- halide or diborane and ethylene.
thylmethyl malonaldehyde diacetal). Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, ignites
(CH3O)(C2H5O)CHCH2CH(OC2H5)2. spontaneously in air. Reacts violently with water
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.9300 (25/4C), bp and oxidizing materials. Toxic by inhalation, strong
86C (6 mm Hg). Combustible. irritant.
Grade: 99%. Use: Igniter or fuel for jet and rocket engines, fuel
Use: Intermediate, cross-linking, and insolubilizing additive, olefin polymerization catalyst, interme-
agent. diate.
C2H5OOCCHC(COOC2H5)CH2COOC2H5. triethyl borate. (ethyl borate). (C2H5)3BO3.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.096 (25C), refr index 1.4517 Properties: Colorless liquid; mild odor. Hydrolyzes
(26C), bp 154–156 (5 mm Hg). Combustible. rapidly depositing boric acid in finely divided crys-
Use: Plasticizer. talline form. Bp 120C, d 0.863–0.864 (20/20C),
flash p 51.8F (11C) (CC), bulk d 7.20 lb/gal (20C),
triethylaluminum. (ATE; TEA; aluminum refr index 1.37311 (20C).
triethyl). Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk.
CAS: 97-93-8. (C2H5)3Al. Use: Antiseptics, disinfectants, antiknock agent.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.837, fp −52.5C, bp
194C, sp heat 0.527 (33C), flash p −63F (−53C). triethylborine. See triethylborane.
Miscible with saturated hydrocarbons.
Derivation: By introduction of ethylene and hydro- triethyl citrate. (ethyl citrate).
gen into an autoclave containing aluminum. The CAS: 77-93-0. C3H5(COOC2H5)3.
reaction proceeds at moderate temperature and var- Properties: Colorless, mobile liquid; bitter taste. Bp
ying pressures. 294C, bp 126–127C (1 mm Hg), d 1.136 (25C), pour
Grade: 88–94%. p −46C, flash p 303F (150.5C) (COC). Solubility in

water 6.5 g/100 cc; solubility in oil 0.8 g/100 cc. triethylene glycol didecanoate.
Combustible. C9H19COO(C2H4O)3OCC9H19.
Derivation: Esterification of citric acid. Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 237 (2.0 mm Hg), d
Grade: Technical, refined, FCC. 0.9584 (20/20C), viscosity 28.6 cP (20C). Combus-
Use: Solvent and plasticizer for nitrocellulose and tible.
natural resins, softener, paint removers, agglutinant, Use: Plasticizer.
perfume base, food additive (not over 0.25%).
See “TEC” [Reilly]. triethylene glycol di(2-ethylbutyrate).
triethylene diamine. (1,4-diazobicy- Properties: Light-colored liquid. D 0.9946 (20/
clo[2,2,2]octane). 20C), bulk d 8.3 lb/gal (20C), bp 196C (5 mm Hg),
CAS: 280-57-9. N(CH2CH2)3N. vap press 5.8 mm Hg (200C), viscosity 10.3 cP
Properties: Colorless, hygroscopic crystals. Mp (20C), flash p 385F (196C). Solubility in water
158C, bp 174C. 0.02% by weight (20C). Combustible.
Hazard: Skin irritant. Use: Plasticizer.
Use: Catalyst for polyurethane foams, oxidation and
polymerization catalyst, chemical intermediate
(metal complexes, quaternary ammonium com- triethylene glycol di(2-ethylhexoate).
pounds, etc.), bromine and iodine addition com- C7H15OCOCH2(CH2OCH2)2CH2OCOC7H15.
pounds. Properties: Light-colored liquid. D 0.9679 (20/
20C), bulk d 8.1 lb/gal (20C), bp 219C (5 mm Hg),
triethylene glycol. (TEG). vap press 1.8 mm Hg (200C), viscosity 15.8 cP
CAS: 112-27-6. HO(C2H4O)3H. (20C), flash p 405F (207C). Insoluble in water.
Properties: Colorless, hygroscopic liquid; practical- Combustible.
ly odorless. D 1.1254 (20/20C), bp 287.4C, vap Use: Plasticizer.
press below 0.01 mm Hg (20C), flash p 350F
(176.6C) (CC), bulk d 9.4 lb/gal (20C), fp −7.2C, triethylene glycol dihydroabietate.
viscosity 0.478 cP (20C), autoign temp 700F C19H31COO(C2H4O)3OCC19H31.
(371C). Soluble in water; immiscible with benzene, Properties: Liquid. D 1.080–1.090 (25C), refr index
toluene, and gasoline. Combustible. 1.5180 (20C), vap press 2.5 (225C), flash p 438F
Derivation: From ethylene and oxygen as a by-prod- (226C). Insoluble in water. Combustible.
uct of ethylene glycol manufacture. Use: Plasticizer.
Grade: Technical, CP.
Use: Solvent and plasticizer in vinyl, polyester, and triethylene glycol dimethyl ether. (tri-
polyurethane resins; dehydration of natural gas; hu- glyme). CH3(OCH2CH2)3OCH3.
mectant in printing inks; extraction solvent. Properties: Water-white liquid; mild ether odor. D
0.9862 (20/20C), refr index 1.4233 (20C), flash p
triethylene glycol diacetate. 232F (111C), bp 216.0C (760 mm Hg), 153.6C (100
CAS: 111-21-7. mm Hg), fp −46C. Completely soluble in water and
CH3COOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OOCCH3. hydrocarbons at 20C. May contain peroxides. Com-
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.112 (25C), refr bustible.
index 1.437 (25C), bp 300C, fp below −60C. Com- Use: Solvent for gases, coupling immiscible liquids.
Use: Plasticizer. triethylene glycol dioctoate. See triethylene
glycol dicaprylate.
triethylene glycol dibenzoate.
Properties: Crystals. Bp 210–223C, mp 46C, flash p triethylene glycol dipelargonate.
457F (236C) (TOC), d 1.168. Combustible. C8H17COO(C2H4O)3OCC8H17.
Use: Plasticizer for vinyl resins, adhesives. Properties: Clear liquid. D 0.964 (20/20C), bp 251C
(5 mm Hg), fp +1 to −4C, refr index 1.4470 (23C),
triethylene glycol dicaprylate. (triethylene flash p 410F (210C). Almost insoluble in water;
glycol dioctoate). soluble in most organic solvents. Combustible.
C7H15COO(CH2CH2O)3OCC7H15. Use: Plasticizer.
Properties: Clear liquid. D 0.973 (20C), acidity
0.3% max (caprylic), moisture 0.05% max, fp −3C, triethylene glycol dipropionate.
bp 243C (5 mm Hg), soluble in most organic sol- C2H5CO(OCH2CH2)2OOCC2H5.
vents. Combustible. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.066 (25C), refr
Use: Low-temperature plasticizer for elastomers. index 1.436 (25C), bp 138–142C (2 mm Hg), fp
below −60C. Solubility in water 6.70% by weight.
triethylene glycol dichloride. See triglycol Combustible.
dichloride. Use: Plasticizer.

triethylene glycol monobutyl ether. See mp sets to a glass at low temperature, refr index
butoxytriglycol. 1.451 (25C), flash p 340F (171C) (COC). Combus-
triethylene glycol monohexyl ether. See Use: Plasticizer, intermediate.
tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate.
triethylenemelamine. (tretamine; TEM; C6H3(COOC8H17)3.
2,4,6-tris(1-aziridinyl)-s-triazine). Properties: Clear liquid; mild odor. D 0.992 (20/
CAS: 51-18-3. 20C), distillation range 278–284C (3 mm Hg)
❘ ❘ (5–95%), fp a gel at −35C, refr index 1.4846 (23C),
NC[N(CH2)2]NC[N(CH2)2]NC[N(CH2)2]. bulk d 8.26 lb/gal (20C). Combustible.
Properties: White, crystalline, powder; odorless. Mp Use: Plasticizer.
160C (polymerizes); polymerizes readily with heat
or moisture. Soluble in alcohol, water, methanol, triethylhydroxytin sulfate. See
chloroform, and acetone. bis(triethyltin) sulfate.
Grade: NF.
Hazard: Highly toxic. triethylmethane. See 3-ethylpentane.
Use: Medicine (antineoplastic), insecticide, chemo-
sterilant. triethylmethyl malonaldehyde diacetal.
See 1,1,3-triethoxy-3-methoxypropane.
triethylenephosphoramide. (tepa; tris-(1-
aziridinyl)-phosphine oxide; APO). triethylorthoformate. (triethoxymethane).
CAS: 545-55-1. CAS: 122-51-0. CH(OC2H5)3.
❘ ❘ Properties: Colorless liquid; pungent odor. Bp
(NCH2CH2)3PO. 145.9C, refr index 1.39218 (18.8C), d 0.895 (20/
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 41C. Soluble in 20C), flash p 86F (30C) (CC). Soluble in alcohol,
water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible. ether; decomposes in water.
Derivation: From ethyleneimine. Derivation: Reaction of sodium ethylate with chlo-
Hazard: Highly toxic, strong irritant to skin and roform or reaction of hydrochloric acid with hydro-
tissue. cyanic acid in ethanol solution.
Use: Medicine (antineoplastic), insect sterilant. Also Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. Toxic.
used with tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium Use: Organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals.
chloride (THPC) to form a condensation polymer
suitable for flame-proofing cotton. triethyl phosphate. (TEP).
See tris[1-(2-methyl)aziridinyl]phosphine oxide. CAS: 78-40-0. (C2H5)3PO4.
Properties: Colorless, high-boiling liquid; mild
triethylenetetramine. odor. Fp −56.4C, bp 216C, flash p 240F (115.5C),
CAS: 112-24-3. NH2(C2H4NH)2C2H4NH2. refr index 1.4055 (20C), bulk d 8.90 lb/gal (20C).
Properties: Moderately viscous, yellowish liquid, Very stable at ordinary temperatures, compatible
less volatile than diethylenetriamine but resembles with many gums and resins, soluble in most organic
it in many other properties. Bp 277.5C, d 0.9818 (20/ solvents, miscible with water. When mixed with
20C), mp 12C, flash p 275F (135C) (CC), bulk d 8.2 water is quite stable at room temperature, but at
lb/gal (20C), autoign temp 640F (337.7C). Soluble elevated temperatures it hydrolyzes slowly. Com-
in water. Combustible. bustible.
Grade: Technical, anhydrous. Grade: Technical, 97%.
Hazard: Strong irritant to tissue, causes skin burns Hazard: May cause nerve damage but to a lesser
and eye damage. extent than other cholinesterase-inhibiting com-
Use: Detergents and softening agents; synthesis of pounds.
dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, and rubber accelerators. Use: Solvent; plasticizer for resins, plastics, gums;
manufacture of pesticides; catalyst; lacquer re-
tri(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate. mover.
CAS: 78-42-2. [C4H9CH(C2H5)CH2]3PO4.
Properties: Light-colored liquid. D 0.9260 (20/ triethyl phosphite.
20C), bulk d 7.70 lb/gal (20C), bp 220C (5 mm Hg), CAS: 122-52-1. (C2H5)3PO3.
vap press 1.9 mm Hg (200C), viscosity 14.1 cP Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.9687 (20C), bp
(20C), pour p −74C, flash p 405F (207C). Insoluble 156.6C, refr index 1.413 (25C), flash p 130F
in water. Combustible. (54.4C). Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol and
Use: Plasticizer. ether. Combustible.
Hazard: Moderate fire risk.
tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphite. (C8H17O)3P. Use: Synthesis, plasticizers, stabilizers, lubricant and
Properties: Straw-colored liquid. D 0.897 (25/15C), grease additives.

O,O,O-triethyl phosphorothioate. (triethyl Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
thiophosphate). mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
CAS: 126-68-1. (C2H5O)3PS.
Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. Bp trifluoroamine oxide.
93.5–94C (10 mm Hg), d 1.074, flash p 225F CAS: 13847-65-9. (F3NO). A perfluorated amine
(107.2C) (COC). Combustible. obtained by fluorination of nitrosyl fluoride with
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion, cholinesterase inhib- UV light or high temperature or pressure. An alter-
itor. nate process is by burning nitric oxide and fluorine,
Use: Plasticizer, lubricant additive, antifoam agent, rapidly quenching the gaseous mixture as it leaves
hydraulic fluid, intermediate. the flame zone.

triethylstannium bromide. See bromotrie- trifluorobromomethane. (bromotrifluoro-

thylstannane. methane; Halon 1301).
CAS: 75-63-8. CBrF3.
triethyltin acetate. See acetoxytriethylstan- Properties: Nonflammable colorless gas. Mw
nane. 148.92, mp −167.7C, bp −58C, vap d 5 (air = 1) at
−58C. Very soluble in chloroform.
triethyltin bromide. See bromotriethylstan- Hazard: TLV: 1000 ppm.
nane. Use: Fire-extinguisher agent.

triethyltin bromide-2-pipecoline. trifluorochloroethylene. Legal label name

CAS: 73926-90-6. mf: C6H15BrSn•C6H13N. (Rail) for chlorotrifluoroethylene.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg/m3 (skin) trifluorochloromethane. See chlorotrifluoro-
triethyltin chloride.
CAS: 994-31-0. mf: C6H15ClSn. 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-
Properties: Colorless liquid. D: 1.440 @ 20°/4°, mp: toluidine. See trifluralin.
15.5°, bp: 210°. Insol in water; sol in org solv.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 trifluoroethene.
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). CAS: 359-11-5. mf: C2HF3.
Hazard: Low toxicity by inhalation.
triethyltin phenoxide.
CAS: 1529-30-2. mf: C12H20OSn. trifluoromethane. See fluoroform.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). 4-trifluoromethoxy-n-chloro-
carboxyphenylurethan. See methyl (chlo-
triethyltin sulphate. See bis(triethyltin) sul- rocarbonyl)(4-(trifluoromethox-
fate. y)phenyl)carbamate.

triethyl tricarballylate. trifluoromethylbenzene. See benzotri-

(C2H5OCOCH2)2CHCOOC2H5. fluoride.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.087 (20C), refr
index 1.4234 (26C), bp 158–160C (5 mm Hg). Solu- 2-trifluoromethyl benzimidazole.
bility in water 0.62% (20C) by weight. Combustible. CAS: 312-73-2. mf: C8H5F3N2.
Use: Plasticizer. Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
Use: Agricultural chemical.
triethyl(trifluoroacetoxy) stannane. See
trifluoroacetic acid triethylstannyl ester. 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol. (1,1,1-tri-
fluoro-4-nitro-m-cresol). CF3C6H3(NO2)OH.
trifluoroacetic acid. Properties: Crystals. Mp 74–76C.
CAS: 76-05-1. CF3COOH. Use: To exterminate lampreys, especially in the
Properties: Colorless, fuming liquid; hygroscopic; Great Lakes. It is placed in tributary streams, where
pungent odor. Bp 72.4C, d 1.535, fp −15.25C, index it kills the lamprey larvae.
of refr 1.2850 (20C). Very soluble in water. Non-
flammable. 4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1-
Hazard: Irritant to skin. piperazineethanol mono(2-
Use: Strong nonoxidizing acid, laboratory reagent, (acetyloxy)benzoate) (salt).
solvent, catalyst. CAS: 54851-13-7. mf: C13H17F3N2O•C9H8O4.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
trifluoroacetic acid triethylstannyl ester.
CAS: 429-30-1. mf: C8H15F3O2Sn. trifluoronitrosomethane. CF3NO.

Properties: Midnight blue, fairly stable gas; dis- Derivation: Extraction from animal, vegetable, and
agreeable odor. Bp −84C, fp −150C. Nonflamm- marine matter.
able. Use: Fatty acids and derivatives, manufacture of edi-
Derivation: (1) Interaction of fluorine and silver ble oils and fats, manufacture of monoglycerides.
cyanide in the presence of silver nitrate; (2) from
nitric oxide and iodotrifluoromethane or bromotri- triglycerol monolinolenate. See polyglycer-
fluoromethane in the presence of UV light. ol ester.
Hazard: Strong irritant to mucous membranes and
tissue. triglycerol trilinoleate. See polyglycerol
Use: Monomer for nitroso rubber. ester.

trifluorostyrene. C8H5F3. A monomer designed triglycine. See nitrilotriacetic acid.

for the production of polytrifluorostyrene and for
copolymerization with vinyl monomers. triglycol dichloride. (triethylene glycol di-
Properties: Liquid. Bp 68C, fp −23C, refr index chloride). Cl(C2H4O)2C2H4Cl.
1.474, d 1.22, dipole moment 1.98 (D). The polymer Properties: Colorless liquid. D 1.1974 (20/20C), bp
is soluble in toluene, chloroform, and methyl ethyl 241.3C, flash p 250F (121C), bulk d 10.0 lb/gal
ketone and has dielectric constant of 2.56. Non- (20C), fp −31.5C. Insoluble in water. Combustible.
flammable. Grade: Technical.
Use: Membranes for fuel tanks and water purifica- Use: Solvent for hydrocarbons, oils, etc.; extractant;
tion. intermediate for resins and insecticides; organic
trifluorotrichloroethane. See trichlorotri-
fluoroethane. triglycollamic acid. See nitrilotriacetic acid.

4,4′-((2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoro- triglyme. See triethylene glycol dimethyl

methyl)ethylidene)bis(4,1- ether.
CAS: 69563-88-8. mf: C27H20F6N2O2. trigonelline. (coffearine; caffearine; gynesine;
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con- N-methylnicotinic acid betaine).
tact. An eye irritant. C5H4NCOOCH3•H2O. A base formed in the seeds of
many plants.
Properties: Colorless prisms. Mp 218C (decom-
trifluorovinylchloride. See chlorotrifluoroe-
poses). Very soluble in water; soluble in alcohol;
nearly insoluble in ether, benzene, and chloroform.
Derivation: Plant seeds, coffee beans, synthetically
trifluralin. (generic name for 1,1,1,-trifluoro- by heating nicotinic acid with methyl iodide and
2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine). treatment with silver oxide.
CAS: 1582-09-8. F3C(NO2)2C6H2N(C3H7)2. Use: Biochemical research.
Properties: Yellowish-orange solid. Mp 48.5–49C,
bp 139–140C (4.2 mm Hg). Insoluble in water; solu- “Trigonox 22-8880” [Akzo]. TM for mixture
ble in xylene, acetone, and ethanol. of 80% 1,1-bis(tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexane in bu-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. tyl benzoyl phthalate.
Use: Herbicide, especially for cotton plant. Available forms: Liquid.
Use: Initiator for SMC and BMC formulations.
CAS: 26644-46-2. mf: C10H14Cl6N4O2. tri-n-hexylaluminum. (C6H13)3Al.
Properties: White crystals. Mp: 155°. Sol in water, Properties: Colorless, pyrophoric liquid. Bp 105C
CMF, DMSO. (0.001 mm Hg).
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, and Derivation: Exchange reaction between hexene and
skin contact. Human systemic effects. isobutyl aluminum.
Use: food additive; fungicide; agricultural chemical. Hazard: Ignites in air at room temperature.
Use: Polyolefin catalyst.
triformol. See sym-trioxane.
trihexylene glycol biborate. (C6H12O2)3B2. A
triglyceride. Any naturally occurring ester of a cyclic borate.
normal acid (fatty acid) and glycerol. The chief Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.982 (21C), boiling
constituents of fats and oils, they have the general range 314–326C, refr index 1.4375 (25C), flash p
formula: CH2(OOCR1)CH(OOCR2)CH2(OOCR3), 345F (173.9C). Soluble in most organic solvents;
where R1, R2, and R3 are usually of different chain hydrolyzes slowly in water. Combustible.
length. Refining processes often yield commercial Derivation: Reaction of hexylene glycol with boric
products in which the R chain lengths are the same. oxide.

Use: Gasoline additive, chemical intermediate. factant made by reaction of triethanolamine with
oleic acid. Combustible.
trihexyl phosphite. (C6H13O)3P. Use: Emulsifying agent.
Properties: Mobile, colorless liquid; characteristic
odor. D 0.897 (20/4C), bp 135–141C (0.2 mm Hg), trihydroxyethylamine stearate. (triethano-
flash p 320F (160C) (COC). Miscible with most lamine stearate). (HOCH2CH2)3N•HOOCC17H35.
common organic solvents; insoluble in water; hy- Properties: Cream-colored, waxlike solid; faint fatty
drolyzes very slowly, high degree of thermal stabili- odor. D 0.968, pH 8.8–9.2 (25C) (5% aqueous dis-
ty; exposure to air should be minimum. Combus- persion), mp 42–44C. Soluble in methanol, ethanol,
tible. mineral oil, vegetable oil; dispersible in hot water.
Use: Intermediate for insecticides, component of vi- Combustible.
nyl stabilizers, lubricant additive, specialty solvent. Use: Emulsifying agent for cosmetic and pharmaceu-
tical industries.
trihexyltin acetate. See acetoxytrihexylstan-
nane. 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone.
See emodin.
tri-n-hexyl trimellitate. See “Morflex 560”
[Reilly]. 2,4,6-trihydroxytoluene. See methylphloro-
trihydric. Any alcohol in which three hydroxyl
groups are present. 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. C6H2I3COOH. A
See polyol; glycerol. plant growth regulator used as a growth retardant.

trihydrochloride. 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid sodium salt. See

CAS: 146714-97-8. mf: C25H34N4O2. sodium 2,3,5-triiodobenzoate.
Hazard: A poison.
1,2,3-trihydroxyanthraquinone. See an- CAS: 21342-26-7. mf: C3H7GeI3.
thragallol. Hazard: A poison.

1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone. See pur- triiodomethane. See iodoform.

CAS: 13904-39-7. mf: C3H7GeI3.
1,2,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone. See an-
Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
triiodothyronine. (liothyronine; 3,5,3′-triiodo-
1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene. See pyrogallol. thyronine). HOC6H3IOC6H2I2CH(NH2)COOH. Ei-
ther a derivative or precursor of thyroxine. Triiodo-
1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene. See phloroglu- thyronine increases the metabolic rate and oxygen
cinol. consumption of animal tissues.
Use: Biochemical research, medicine (metabolic in-
3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. See gallic sufficiency).
triisobutylaluminum. (TIBAL).
2,4,5-trihydroxybutyrophenone. [(CH3)2CHCH2]3Al.
C6H2(OH)3COC3H7. Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.7876 (20C), fp
Properties: Yellow-tan crystals. Mp 149–153C, −5.6C, bp 114C (30 mm Hg), flash p 32F (0C),
bulk d 6.0 lb/gal (20C). Very slightly soluble in autoign temp 39F (4C).
water; soluble in alcohol and propylene glycol. Derivation: Reaction of isobutylene and hydrogen
Use: Antioxidant for polyolefins and paraffin waxes, with aluminum under moderate temperature and
food additive. varying pressures.
Hazard: Highly toxic, destroys tissue. Flammable;
4,5,7-trihydroxycoumarin. dangerous fire risk; ignites spontaneously in air;
CAS: 17575-26-7. mf: C9H6O5. reacts violently with water, acids, alcohols, amines,
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. and halogens.
Use: Polyolefin catalyst, manufacture of primary al-
tri(2-hydroxyethyl)amine. See triethanola- cohols and olefins, pyrophoric fuel.
triisobutylene. (C4H8)3. A mixture of isomers
trihydroxyethylamine oleate. (triethanola- readily prepared by polymerizing isobutylene. A
mine oleate). (HOCH2CH2)3•HOOCC17H33. Sur- typical mixture is 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane-3

and 2-neopentyl-4,4-dimethylpentene-1. May be Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. D

depolymerized to simpler isobutylene derivatives. 0.914 (20/4C), bp 94–96C (50 mm Hg), flash p 165F
Properties: Liquid. D 0.764 (60F), boiling range (73.9C) (COC). Miscible with most common organ-
175.5–178.9C. Combustible. ic solvents; insoluble in water; hydrolyzes slowly in
Use: Synthesis of resins, rubbers, and intermediate water; exposure to air should be minimum; high
organic compounds; lubricating-oil additive; raw thermal stability. Combustible.
material for alkylation in producing high-octane Use: Intermediate for insecticides, component of vi-
motor fuels. nyl stabilizers, lubricant additive, specialty solvent.

triisobutyltin chloride. See chlo- triisopropyltin acetate.

ro(triisobutyl)stannane. CAS: 19464-55-2. mf: C11H24O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/
triisodecyl phosphite. See isodecyl phos- m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
triisopropyltin chloride.
triisooctyl phosphite. (C8H17O)3P. CAS: 14101-95-2. mf: C9H21ClSn.
Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. D Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
0.891 (20/4C), bp 161–164C (0.3 mm Hg), flash p
385F (196C) (COC). Miscible with most common triisopropyltin undecylenate.
organic solvents; insoluble in water, hydrolyzes CAS: 73928-00-4. mf: C20H42O2Sn.
very slowly; exposure to air should be minimum; Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
high thermal stability. Combustible. mg/m3 (skin)
Use: Intermediate for insecticides, component of vi-
nyl stabilizers, lubricant additive, specialty solvent. triketohydrindene hydrate. See ninhydrin.
O,O,O-triisooctyl phosphorothioate. (trii- trilaurin. The glyceride of lauric acid (glyceryl
sooctyl thiophosphate). (C8H17O)3PS. trilaurate).
Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. Bp
160–170C (0.2 mm Hg), d 0.933, flash p 410F
(210C) (COC). Insoluble in water; soluble in most
trilaurylamine. (tridodecyl amine).
organic solvents. Combustible.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.82, mp 14C. Solu-
Hazard: Highly toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor.
ble in organic solvents; insoluble in water. Combus-
Use: Plasticizer, lubricant additive, hydraulic fluid,
Use: Chemical intermediate, metal complexes.
triisooctyl trimellitate. C6H3(COOC8H17)3.
Properties: Clear liquid; mild odor. D 0.992 (20/ trilauryl phosphite. (C12H25O)3P.
20C), distillation range 272–286C (5–95%), fp a gel Properties: Water-white liquid. D 0.866 (25/15C),
at −45C, refr index 1.4852 (23C). Practically insolu- refr index 1.456 (25C), mp 10C. Combustible.
ble in water. Combustible. Use: Stabilizer in polymers, chemical intermediate.
Use: Plasticizer.
trilauryl trithiophosphite. (C12H25S)3P.
triisopropanolamine. N(C3H6OH)3. Properties: Pale yellow liquid. D 0.915 (25/15C),
Properties: Crystalline, white solid. Mild base (a mp 20C, refr index 1.502 (25C), flash p 430F (221C)
mixture of isopropanolamines that has density of (COC). Combustible.
1.004–1.010 and is liquid at room temperature is Use: Stabilizer, lubricant, chemical intermediate.
also marketed). D 0.9996 (50/20C), mp 45C, bp
305C, vap press below 0.01 mm Hg (20C), viscosity “Trilene” [Great Lakes/Asia Pacific]. TM
1.38 cP (60C), flash p 320F (160C) (OC). Soluble in for liquid EPDM.
water. Combustible.
Grade: Technical. trimagnesium phosphate. See magnesium
Hazard: Irritant to skin and eyes. phosphate, tribasic.
Use: Emulsifying agents.
triisopropyl borate. [(CH3)2CH]3BO3. CAS: 8077-38-1.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 138–140C, fp mf: C10H11ClO3•C8H6Cl2O3•C8H6Cl2O3•C2H7N.
−59C, d 0.8138, flash p 82F (27.7C) (TCC). Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
Derivation: Reaction of isopropyl alcohol with boric Use: Agricultural chemical.
Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. trimedlure. (generic name for tert-butyl 4(or
triisopropyl phosphite. [(CH3)2CH]3PO3. H3C(Cl)C6H9COOC(CH3)3.

Properties: Liquid. Bp 90–92C (0.6 mm Hg). Solu- Use: Medicine (anticonvulsant).

ble in most organic solvents; insoluble in water.
Use: Insect attractant. trimethoxyborine. See trimethyl borate.
trimellitic acid. (1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic trimethoxyboroxine. (methyl metaborate).
acid). (CH3O)3B3O3. A cyclic compound.
CAS: 528-44-9. C9H6O6. Properties: Colorless liquid. Mp 10–11C, bp (disso-
Properties: Colorless crystals. Mp 220C. Partially ciates), d 1.216 (25C), refr index 1.3986. Non-
soluble in DMF and alcohol; insoluble in benzene flammable.
and carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water. Derivation: Reaction of methyl borate with boric
Derivation: Oxidation of pseudocumene. acid.
Use: Organic synthesis (plasticizers, polymers, and Grade: 99%.
similar products). Use: Metal-fire extinguishing fluid.
trimellitic anhydride. (TMA; 1,2,3-benzene- trimethoxymethane. See methyl orthofor-
tricarboxylic acid-1,2-anhydride). mate.
CAS: 552-30-7.
❘ ❘ 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine. See mes-
HOCOC6H3COOCO. caline.
Properties: Solid. Mp 164–166C. Combustible.
Derivation: From pseudocumene.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 0.005 ppm.
2,4,5-trimethoxy-1-propenylbenzene. (as-
arone). (CH3O)3C6H2CH:CHCH3.
Use: Plasticizer for polyvinylchloride, alkyd coating
Properties: Crystals. Mp 67C. Insoluble in water;
resins, high-temperature plastics, wire insulation,
soluble in alcohol.
gaskets, automotive upholstery.
Derivation: Either extracted from calamus oil or
synthesized (Wittig reaction).
“Trimene Base” [Uniroyal]. TM for a reac- Use: Grain fumigant, insect chemisterilant.
tion product of ethyl chloride, formaldehyde, and
Properties: Dark-brown, viscous liquid. D 1.10. Sol- 3,4,5-trimethoxy-n-(4-propylcyclohexyl)
uble in water and acetone; insoluble in gasoline and benzamide.
benzene. CAS: 315706-65-1. mf: C19H29NO4.
Use: Rubber accelerator. Hazard: A poison by ingestion.

trimer. An oligomer whose molecule is com- 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl chloride.

prised of three molecules of the same chemical com- CAS: 2530-87-2. mf: C6H15ClO3Si.
position. Examples are trioxane and tripropylene. Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact.
See polymer; dimer.
trimercuric orthophosphate. See mercuric propanediamine.
phosphate. CAS: 25147-91-5. mf: C9H24N2O3Si.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact. A
trimercurous orthophosphate. See mercu- mild skin and severe eye irritant.
rous phosphate.
trimesoyl trichloride. (benzene-1,3,5-tricar- propyl)-1-propanamine.
boxylic acid chloride). C6H3(COCl)3. CAS: 82985-35-1. mf: C12H31NO6S12.
Use: Specialty organic. Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact. A
moderate skin and severe eye irritant.
trimethadione. (3,5,5-trimethyl-2,4-oxazolidi-
nedione). trimethylacethydrazide ammonium
CAS: 127-48-0. chloride. See Girard’s T Reagent.
❘ ❘
C6H9NO or O C(O)N(CH3)C(O)C(CH3)2. trimethylacetic acid. (pivalic acid; neopen-
Properties: White, granular, crystalline substance; tanoic acid).
camphorlike odor. Mp 45–47C. Soluble in water; CAS: 75-98-9. (CH3)3CCOOH.
freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether; pH Properties: Colorless crystals. D 0.905 (50C), refr
6.0 (5% solution). index 1.3931 (36.5C), mp 35.5C, bp 163.8C. Solu-
Grade: USP. ble in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible.
Hazard: May have adverse side effects; toxic in Use: Intermediate, as a replacement for some natural
overdose. materials.

trimethylacetic acid sodium salt. See so- n,n,4-trimethylaniline.

dium 2,2-dimethylpropanoate. CAS: 99-97-8. mf: C9H13N.
Hazard: A poison.
trimethyladipic acid. C9H16O4.
Properties: Powder. Combustible. trimethyl benzene.
Use: Esterification agent for plasticizers, lubricants, CAS: 25551-13-7. (CH3)3C6H3.
alkyd resins, polyurethane, polyester, special poly- Properties: Liquid. Mw 120.9. Insoluble in water.
amides; intermediate for the production of glycols. Hazard: TLV: 25 ppm.
Use: Raw material for chemical synthesis.
trimethylaluminum. (aluminum trimethyl;
ATM). 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. See hemimellitene.
CAS: 75-24-1. (CH3)3Al.
Properties: Colorless, pyrophoric liquid. Bp 126C, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. See pseudocumene.
mp 15.4C, d 0.752.
Derivation: By sodium reduction of dimethylalumi- 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. See mesitylene.
num chloride.
Hazard: Highly flammable; dangerous fire risk; (trimethylbenzyl)dodecyldimethyl
flames instantly on contact with air; reacts violently ammonium chloride.
with water, acids, halogens, alcohols, and amines. [(CH3)3C6H2CH2N(CH3)2C12H25]Cl. A quaternary
Use: Catalyst for olefin polymerization, pyrophoric ammonium salt.
fuel, manufacture of straight-chain primary alcohols Properties: White to slightly yellow, crystalline
and olefins, to produce luminous trails in upper powder; mild odor and taste. Mp 162–163C, bulk d
atmosphere to track rockets. 4.62 lb/gal. Soluble in water, alcohol, glycerol, ace-
tone; pH of 10% solution in distilled water 4.4.
trimethylamine. (TMA). Use: Germicide.
CAS: 75-50-3. (CH3)3N.
Properties: Colorless gas at room temperature; fishy trimethyl borate. (methyl borate; trimethox-
ammoniacal odor; readily liquefied. Anhydrous yborine).
form shipped as liquefied compressed gas. D 0.6621 CAS: 121-43-7. (CH3O)3B.
(−5C), bp −4C, fp −117.1C, autoign temp 374F Properties: Water-white liquid. Bp 67–68C, d 0.915,
(190C), flash p 10F (−12.2C) (CC), flash p (25% fp −29C. Miscible with ether, methanol, hexane,
solution) 38F (3.3C) (TOC). Soluble in water, alco- tetrahydrofuran; decomposes in presence of water;
hol, and ether. flash p 80F (26.6C).
Derivation: Interaction of methanol and ammonia Derivation: Reaction of boric acid and methanol.
over a catalyst at high temperature. The mono-, di-, Hazard: Flammable, fire risk, reacts with water and
and trimethylamines are produced, and yields are oxidizing agents.
regulated by conditions. Use: Solvent, dehydrating agent, fungicide for citrus
Method of purification: Azeotropic or extractive fruit, neutron scintillation counters, brazing flux,
distillation. boron compounds, catalyst.
Grade: Anhydrous 99% min, aqueous solution 25,
30, 40%. 2,2,3-trimethylbutane. (isopropyltrimethyl-
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive methane; triptane). CH3C(CH3)2C(CH3)CH3.
limits in air 2–11.6%. Toxic by inhalation, vapor Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.691, bp 81.0C, fp
highly irritating. TLV: 10 ppm; STEL 15 ppm. −24.96C, refr index 1.3895 (20C). Soluble in alco-
Use: Organic synthesis, especially of choline salts, hol; insoluble in water.
warning agent for natural gas, manufacture of disin- Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk.
fectants, flotation agent, insect attractant, quater- Use: Organic synthesis, aviation fuel.
nary ammonium compounds, plastics.
␤,␥,␥-trimethylcaproaldehyde thiosemi-
trimethylamine sulfur trioxide. carbazone.
(CH3)3N•SO3. CAS: 63884-77-5.
Properties: White powder. Mp 232–238C (decom- Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
poses). Soluble in hot water, ethanol; soluble with Use: Agricultural chemical.
difficulty in cold water and acetone; not dissociated
in benzene and chloroform solutions; distinctly dif- trimethyl carbinol. See tert-butyl alcohol.
ferent from the isomeric adduct of trimethylamine
oxide and sulfur dioxide. 1,1,3-trimethyl-5-carboxy-3-(p-
Use: Separation of isomers, soil sterilant, catalyst for carboxyphenyl)indane. An aromatic di-acid
thermosetting resins. used as an intermediate in the manufacture of poly-
ester fibers, polyamides, and alkyd resins; hot-melt
2,4,5-trimethylaniline. See pseudocumidine. adhesives; engineering thermoplastics.

trimethylchlorosilane. (1r,4r)-bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one.
CAS: 75-77-4. (CH3)3SiCl. CAS: 316172-58-4. mf: C20H36N2O2.
Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 57C, d 0.854 (25/ Hazard: A poison.
25C), refr index 1.3893 (25C), flash p −18F
(−27.7C). Readily hydrolyzed with liberation of hy- trimethyl dihydroquinoline polymer.
drogen chloride; soluble in benzene, ether and per- (TDQP). (C12H15N)n (probably three or more
chloroethylene. quinoline groups).
Derivation: By Grignard reaction of silicon tetra- Properties: Amber pellets. D 1.08, softening p 75C.
chloride and methylmagnesium chloride. Insoluble in water; miscible with ethanol, acetone,
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, reacts vio- benzene, monochlorobenzene, isopropyl acetate,
lently with water. Strong irritant to tissue. and gasoline.
Use: Intermediate for silicone fluids, as a chain-ter- Use: Antioxidant, stabilizer or polymerization inhib-
minating agent, imparting water repellency. itor.

trimethylchlorostannane. See chlorotrime- 3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol.

thylstannane. See nerolidol.

trimethylchlorotin. See 3,7,11-trimethyl-2-6-10-dodecatrien-1-ol.

chlorotrimethylstannanechlorotrimethylstannane. See farnesol.

3,3,5-trimethyl-5-cyanocyclohexanone. trimethylene. See cyclopropane.

See isophoronenitrile.
trimethylene bromide. (1,3-dibromopro-
trimethylcyclododecatriene. (TMCDT). A pane).
cyclic hydrocarbon. CAS: 109-64-8. CH2BrCH2CH2Br.
Use: Intermediate in making derivatives useful in the Properties: Colorless liquid; sweet odor. D 1.979
perfume and pharmaceutical industries, as well as (20/4C), bp 166C, fp −34.4C. Insoluble in water;
catalysts. soluble in organic solvents. Combustible.
Grade: Technical, CP.
3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexanol-1. Use: Intermediate for dyestuff and pharmaceutical
CAS: 116-02-9. C6H8(CH3)3OH. industries, cyclopropane manufacture.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.878 (40/20C), mp
35.7C, bp 198C, flash p 165F (73.9C) (OC). Soluble trimethylene chlorobromide. See 1-bromo-
in most organic solvents, hydrocarbons, oils; insolu- 3-chloropropane.
ble in water. Combustible.
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant. trimethylene chlorohydrin. (3-chloro-1-pro-
Use: Menthol and camphor substitute, antifoaming panol). ClCH2CH2CH2OH.
agent, hydraulic fluids and textile soaps, odor mask- Properties: Colorless to pale-yellow liquid; charac-
ing, esterification agent, pharmaceuticals, wax addi- teristic odor. D 1.130–1.150 (25/25C), refr index
tive, printing inks. 1.445–1.447 (25C). Soluble in water, alcohols, and
ethers; insoluble in hydrocarbons. Combustible.
3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one. See Use: Intermediate.
trimethylenedicyanide. See glutaronitrile.
3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexyl salicylate. See
homomenthyl salicylate. trimethylene glycol. (1,3-propylene glycol;
1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(3-(diethylamino)-2- CAS: 504-63-2. CH2OHCH2CH2OH.
hydroxypropyl)oxime (1r,4r)- Properties: Colorless liquid; odorless. D 1.0537
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. (25C), bp 210–211C, autoign temp 752F (400C).
CAS: 314238-30-7. mf: C17H32N2O2. Soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Combustible.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Derivation: From acrolein.
Grade: Technical 95%, pure 99%.
1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(3-(2,6-dimethyl-4- Use: Intermediate, especially for polyesters.
(1r,4r)-bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. trimethylene oxide. See oxetane.
CAS: 316172-59-5. mf: C19H34N2O3.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. sym-trimethylene trinitramine. See cy-
piperidinyl)-2-hydroxypropyl)oxime trimethylethylene. See 3-methyl-2-butene.

trimethylglycine. See betaine. Use: Plasticizer for PVC, intermediate for pharma-
ceutical and agricultural chemicals, high-boiling
trimethylheptanoic acid. See isodecanoic solvents, low-temperature lubricants.
trimethylnonanol. See 2,6,8-trimethylnonyl-4
1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(3-(hexahydro-1h-azepin- alcohol.
1-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)oxime (1r,4r)-
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. 2,6,8-trimethyl-4-nonanone. (isobutyl hep-
CAS: 314238-35-2. mf: C19H34N2O2. tyl ketone).
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. CAS: 123-17-1. C12H26O.
Properties: Water-white liquid; pleasant odor. D
2,2,5-trimethylhexane. 0.8165 (20/20C), bulk d 6.8 lb/gal, fp −75C, bp
CAS: 3522-94-9. (CH3)3CCH2CH2CH(CH3)2. 211–219C, viscosity 1.91 cP (20C), flash p 195F
Properties: Colorless liquid. Fp −105.84C, bp (90.5C) (COC). High solvent power for vinyl resins,
124.06C, d 0.711 (15.5/15.5C), refr index 1.399 the cellulose esters and ethers and many difficultly
(20C), flash p 55F (12.7C). soluble substances; insoluble in water. Combus-
Grade: 95%, 99%; research. tible.
Hazard: TLV: 200 ppm. Flammable, dangerous fire Use: Solvent, dispersant, intermediate, lubricating-
risk; the 2,3,3-, 2,3,4-, and 3,3,4-isomers are less oil dewaxing.
Use: Synthesis, motor-fuel additive.
2,6,8-trimethylnonyl-4-alcohol. (trimethyl-
3,5,5-trimethylhexan-1-ol. C9H20O. (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OCH2CH(CH3)CH2CH(CH3)2.
Properties: Colorless liquid; mild odor. Bp 194C, d Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. D
0.8236 (25/4C), bulk d 6.86 lb/gal (25C), refr index 0.8913 (20/20C), bulk d 6.9 lb/gal (20C), bp 225.2C,
1.4300 (25C), flash p 200F (93.3C) (OC). Insoluble fp −60C (sets to a glass), viscosity 21.4 cP, flash p
in water. Combustible. 200F (93.3C) (COC). Insoluble in water. Combus-
Derivation: High-pressure synthesis. tible.
Use: Synthetic lubricants, additives to lubricating Derivation: Oxo process.
oils, wetting agent, softener in manufacture of vari- Use: Surface-active and flotation agents, lubricant
ous plastics, disinfectants and germicides. additives, rubber chemicals.
methylethyl)amino)propyl)oxime (1r,4r)- trimethylolethane. (pentaglycerine; methyltri-
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. methylolmethane). CH3C(CH2OH)3.
CAS: 314238-31-8. mf: C16H30N2O2. Properties: Colorless, hygroscopic crystals. Soluble
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. in water and alcohol. Combustible.
Use: Conditioning agent, manufacture of varnishes,
1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(2-hydroxy-3-(4- alkyd and polyester resins, synthetic drying oils.
morpholinyl)propyl)oxime (1r,4r)-
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. trimethylolmelamine.
CAS: 314238-34-1. mf: C17H30N2O3. CAS: 1017-56-7. C3N3(NHCH2OH)3. The first stage
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. in making melamine resins.

1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(2-hydroxy-3-(1- trimethylolpropane. (hexaglycerol).

piperidinyl)propyl)oxime (1r,4r)- C2H5C(CH2OH)3.
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. Properties: Colorless, hygroscopic crystals. Soluble
CAS: 314238-33-0. mf: C18H32N2O2. in water and alcohol. Combustible.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Use: Conditioning agent, manufacture of varnishes,
alkyd resins, synthetic drying oils, urethane foams
1,7,7-trimethyl-o-(2-hydroxy-3-(1- and coatings, silicone lubricant oils, lactone plasti-
pyrrolidinyl)propyl)oxime (1r,4r)- cizers, textile finishes, surfactants, epoxidation
bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-one. products.
CAS: 314238-32-9. mf: C17H30N2O2.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. trimethylolpropane monooleate.
C2H5C(CH2OH)2CH2OOCC17H33 (theoretically).
trimethylmethane. See isobutane. The commercial product is a mixture of mono-, di-,
and triesters, free polyol, and free oleic acid. Com-
trimethyl nitrilotripropionate. bustible.
N(CH2CH2COOCH3)3. Properties: Oily liquid. D 0.954 (25C), fp <−20C.
Properties: Weakly basic tertiary amine and organic Insoluble in water; soluble in most organic solvents.
ester. Use: Water-in-oil emulsifier, corrosion inhibitor,

low-temperature plasticizer, deicing agent for gaso- 1.4423 (20C), flash p 245F (118.3C) (COC). Insolu-
line. ble in water; soluble in benzene, alcohol, acetone,
and carbon tetrachloride. Combustible.
trimethylolpropane triacetoacetate. See Use: Intermediate in the manufacture of plasticizers,
2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol tria- surfactants, pesticides, and resins.
2,4,4-trimethylpentene-1 (␣-diisobutylene).
trimethylolpropane tris(mercapto- H2C:C(CH3)CH2C(CH3)3.
propionate). C2H5C(CH2OOCCH2CH2SH)3. Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 101.44C, fp
Properties: Liquid. D 1.21 (25C), refr index 1.5151 −93.5C, refr index 1.4086 (20C), d 0.7150 (20C),
(25C), insoluble in water and hexane, soluble in flash p 35F (1.67C).
acetone, benzene, and alcohol. Combustible. Derivation: Polymerization of isobutene.
Use: Curing or cross-linking agents for polymers, Grade: 95%, 99%; research.
especially epoxy resins, intermediate for stabilizers Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk.
and antioxidants. Use: Organic synthesis; motor-fuel synthesis, partic-
ularly isooctane; peroxide reactions.
trimethylolpropane trithioglycolate.
CH3CH2C(CH2OOCCH2SH)3. 2,4,4-trimethylpentene-2. (␤-diisobutylene).
Properties: Liquid. D 1.28, refr index 1.5292 (25C). H3CC(CH3):CHC(CH3)3.
Combustible. Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 104.55C, d 0.724
Use: Curing or cross-linking agent for polymeric (60/60F), fp −106.4C, refr index 1.416 (20C), flash
systems, especially epoxy resins; intermediate for p 35F (1.67C) (TOC).
stabilizers and antioxidants. Grade: 95%.
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. Irritant and
2,4,5-trimethyl ␦-3-oxazoline. mf: C6H11NO. narcotic in high concentration.
Properties: Yellow-orange liquid; powerful, musty, Use: Organic synthesis.
nut-like odor. D: 0.911−0.932, refr index:
1.414−1.435. Sol in alc, propylene glycol, water; tri-2-methylpentylaluminum.
insol in fixed oils. [(CH3)2CH(CH2)3]3Al.
Use: Food additive. Properties: Colorless liquid.
Derivation: Reaction of 2-methylpentene and isobu-
3,5,5-trimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione. See tylaluminum.
trimethadione. Hazard: Flammable.
Use: Polyolefin catalyst.
triazadec-7-enoic acid ethyl ester.
CAS: 64028-99-5. mf: C9H17N3O4S2. n,n,␣-trimethylphenethylamine.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. CAS: 4075-96-1. mf: C11H17N.
Use: Agricultural chemical. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

2,2,4-trimethylpentane. 2,4,6-trimethyl phenol. See mesitol.

CAS: 540-84-1. (CH3)2CHCH(CH3CH)CH3CH3.
Properties: Liquid. Fp −109.43C, bp 113C, d 0.723 trimethyl phosphate.
(60/60F), refr index 1.4042 (20C), flash p 41F (5C). CAS: 512-56-1. (CH3O)3PO.
Grade: 95%, 99%; research. Properties: Colorless liquid, 22.1% phosphorus. D
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. 1.210 (68F), flash p above 300F (148C), bp 193C,
Use: Intermediate, azeotropic distillation entrainer. refr index 1.397 (20C), pour p −46C. Soluble in both
gasoline and water. Combustible.
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
(CH3)2CHCH(OH)C(CH3)2CH2OH. irritant to skin and eyes.
Properties: (96% pure): White solid. D 0.928 (55/ Use: For controlling spark plug fouling, surface igni-
15C), mp 46–55C, bp 215–235C, flash p 235F tion and rumble in gasoline engines.
(112.7C). Slightly soluble in water; soluble in alco-
hol, acetone, ether, and benzene. Combustible. trimethyl phosphite.
Use: Polyester resins, plasticizers, lubricants, surface CAS: 121-45-9. (CH3O)3P.
coatings and printing inks, insect repellent. Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 108–108.5C, pour p
below −60C, d 1.046 (20/4C), flash p 100F (37.7C)
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (COC). Insoluble in water; soluble in hexane, ben-
monoisobutyrate. zene, acetone, alcohol, ether, carbon tetrachloride,
(CH3)2CHCH(OH)C(CH3)2CH2OOCCH(CH3)2. and kerosene.
Properties: Liquid. D 0.945–0.955 (20/20C), bp Hazard: Flammable, moderate fire risk. TLV: 2
180–182C (125 mm Hg), pour p −57C, refr index ppm.

Use: Chemical intermediate, especially for insecti- trimethyltin thiocyanate.

cides. CAS: 4638-25-9. mf: C4H9NSSn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
trimethyl phosphorotrithioate. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
CAS: 816-80-8. mf: C3H9PS3.
Properties: Water-white liquid. Bp 78C (12 mm 2,4,6-trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxane. See paralde-
Hg). hyde.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. Moderately toxic by
skin contact. A severe eye irritant. 1,3,5-trimethyl-2,4,6-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-
Use: Extraction of mineral salts from alkyl acid phos- hydroxybenzyl)benzene.
phate solvent solutions, plasticizer. Properties: Free-flowing, white, crystalline powder;
no odor. Mp 244C. Partially soluble in benzene and
1,2,4-trimethylpiperazine. (CH3)3C4H7N2. methylene chloride; insoluble in water. Permissible
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.851 (25/25C), fp in contact with food products. Combustible.
−44C, bp 151C, refr index 1.4480 (20C), flash p Use: Antioxidant for polypropylene, high-density
257F (125C) (OC). Miscible with water. Combus- polyethylene, spandex fibers, polyamides and spe-
tible. cialty rubbers.
Use: Polymerization catalyst.
trimethylpropylmethane. See 2,2-dimethyl- (CH3)2C:CHC2H4CH(CH3)C3H6CH(CH3)CHO.
pentane. Properties: Clear, yellow liquid; strong, pungent,
ozonelike odor. D 0.850–0.860 (25/25C), refr index
2,4,6-trimethylpyridine. See 2,4,6-collidine. 1.4530–1.4630 (20C). Combustible.
Use: Perfume.
trimethylstannane sulphate. See trimethyl-
tin sulphate. trimethylvinylammonium hydroxide. See
(o-((methylamino)carbonyl)oxime). trimethylxanthine. See caffeine.
CAS: 66637-26-1. mf: C9H15N3O3S.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
Use: Agricultural chemical.
CAS: 3564-66-7. mf: C20H26N2.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion.
trimethyltin acetate.
CAS: 1118-14-5. mf: C5H12O2Sn.
Properties: White crystals. Mp: 196−197°. Spar sol “Trimmit” [Syngenta].
in CHCl3 and CCl4. CAS: 76738-62-0. mf: C15H20ClN3O. TM for a plant
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/ growth regulator for turfgrass.
m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. A reproduc-
tive hazard.
trimethyltin cyanate. Use: Agricultural chemical.
CAS: 73940-86-0. mf: C4H9NOSn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 trimyristin. The glyceride of myristic acid, glyc-
mg/m3 (skin) eryl trimyristate.

trimethyltin hydroxide. trineophyltin acetate.

CAS: 56-24-6. mf: C3H10OSn. CAS: 1636-70-0. mf: C32H42O2Sn.
Properties: Colorless, white crystals. Mp: 118° (de- Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. TWA 0.1
comp). Sol in water and many org solv. mg(Sn)/m3. STEL 0.2 mg/m3 (skin) Not classifiable
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 as a human carcinogen
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Use: Drug. trinickelous orthophosphate. See nickel
trimethyltin iodide. See iodotrimethyltin.
trinitite. Green glazed glass material produced by
trimethyltin isothiocyanate. See isothio- the 100 million degree farenheit heat from an atomic
cyanatotrimethyltin. explosion. It was named for Trinity, New Mexico, a
sand-covered site 80 miles from the Almagordo
trimethyltin sulphate. atomic bomb test site.
CAS: 63869-87-4. mf: C3H10O4SSn.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/ trinitroaniline. (picramide).
m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). CAS: 489-98-5. C6H2NH2(NO2)3.

Properties: Orange-red crystals. Mp 188C, bp (ex- 2,4,7-trinitrofluoren-9-one.

plodes), d 1.762. CAS: 129-79-3. mf: C13H5N3O7.
Derivation: Nitrating aniline in glacial acetic acid Properties: Pale-yellow needles from AcOH or
solution or by the use of mixed nitric-sulfuric acid in C6H6. Mp: 176°.
limited amounts. Hazard: Suspected carcinogen. Mildly toxic by in-
Hazard: Dangerous, explodes by heat or shock. gestion. A skin and eye irritant.
Use: Explosive compositions.
trinitroglycerin. See nitroglycerin.
trinitroanisole. (methyl picrate; 2,4,6-trinitro-
phenyl methyl ether). CH3OC6H2(NO2)3. trinitromethane.
Properties: Crystals, mp 68.4C, d 1.408 (20/4C). CAS: 517-25-9. CH(NO2)3.
Hazard: High. Dangerous, explodes by heat or Properties: White crystals. Mp 15C, d 1.469 (25C),
shock. decomposes above 25C, heat of combustion 746 cal/
Derivation: Interaction of methyl iodide and silver g. Soluble in water.
picrate, nitration of anisic acid. Derivation: Reaction of acetylene with nitric acid.
Use: Explosive compositions. Hazard: Explodes on heating, concentrations above
50% in air may explode.
1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. (TNB). Use: Manufacture of propellants and explosives.
CAS: 99-35-4. C6H3(NO2)3.
Properties: Yellow crystals. D 1.688 (20/4C), mp
122C. Soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble in 1,3,5-trinitronaphthalene. (naphite).
water. C10H5(NO2)3. Commercial preparation is a mixture
of isomers that melts at 110C.
Derivation: From trinitrotoluene by removal of the
Hazard: Explosion risk when shocked or heated.
methyl group.
Use: Explosive, stabilizer for nitrocellulose.
Hazard: Dangerous, explodes by heat or shock.
Use: Explosive compositions.
trinitrophenol. See picric acid.
2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid. (trinitrobenzoic
acid). 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl methyl ether. See
CAS: 129-66-8. C6H2(NO2)3COOH. trinitroanisole.
Properties: Orthorhombic crystals. Mp 228.7C.
Sublimes with decomposition, forming carbon diox- trinitrophenylmethylnitramine. See tetryl.
ide and trinitrobenzene; slightly soluble in water and
benzene; soluble in alcohol, ether, and acetone. 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol. Legal label name for
Derivation: Oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with styphnic acid.
chromic acid.
Hazard: Dangerous, explodes by heat or shock.
Use: Explosive compositions. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. (TNT; methyltrinitro-
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. CAS: 118-96-7. CH3C6H2(NO2)3.
CAS: 2508-19-2. mf: C6H3N3O9S.
Hazard: A poison.

CAS: 3058-38-6. mf: C6H6N6O6.
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and inhalation. A
mild eye irritant.

4,4,4-trinitrobutyric acid. Properties: Yellow, monoclinic needles. D 1.654,

CAS: 5029-46-9. mf: C4H5N3O8. mp 80.9C. Soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble in
Hazard: A poison by inhalation. Moderately toxic by water.
ingestion. Derivation: Nitration of toluene with mixed acid.
Small amounts of the 2,3,4- and 2,4,5-isomers are
2,4,6-trinitro-m-cresol. (cresolite; cresylite). produced that may be removed by washing with
(NO2)3C6H(CH3)OH. aqueous sodium sulfite solution.
Properties: Yellow crystals. Mp 106C. Readily solu- Grade: Technical.
ble in alcohol, ether, and acetone. Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, moderate
Derivation: Prepared from m-cresol by a process explosion risk, will detonate only if vigorously
similar to that in picric acid is prepared from phenol. shocked or heated to 450F (232C). Toxic by inges-
Hazard: Explodes at 300F (148.8C), severe explo- tion, inhalation, and skin absorption. TLV: 0.1 ppm.
sion risk when shocked or heated. Use: Explosive, intermediate in dyestuffs and photo-
Use: Bursting charges and other high explosive uses. graphic chemicals.

trinitrotrimethylenetriamine. See cy- autoign temp 777F (413C). Soluble in water, alcohol
clonite. and ether.
Derivation: By distillation of formaldehyde with an
trioctadecyl phosphite. (C18H37O)3P. acid catalyst and extraction with solvent.
Properties: White, waxy solid. Mp 45–47C, d 0.940 Hazard: Moderate fire risk, explosive limits in air
(25/25C). 3.6–29%.
Use: Stabilizer in polymers; intermediate. Use: Organic synthesis; disinfectant; nonluminous,
odorless fuel.
tri-n-octylaluminum. (C8H17)3Al. See formaldehyde.
Properties: Colorless, pyrophoric liquid.
Derivation: Reaction between octene and isobutyla- 2,6,8-trioxypurine. See uric acid.
Hazard: Flammable, ignites in air. tripalmitin. (palmitin; glyceryl tripalmitate).
Use: Polyolefin catalyst. C3H5(OOCC15H31)3.
Properties: White, crystalline powder. Mp 65.5C, d
trioctyl(butylthio)stannane. See (butylthi- 0.866 (80/4C). Soluble in ether and chloroform;
o)trioctylstannane. insoluble in water. Combustible.
Derivation: From glycerol and palmitic acid.
Grade: Technical.
trioctyl(ethylthio)stannane. See (ethylthi- Use: Soap, leather dressing.
trip balance. Stabilized pan balance in which
trioctyl phosphate. (octyl phosphate). plates or pans are positioned above an equal arm
(C8H17)3PO4. beam.
Properties: Liquid, d 0.924 (26C), bp 220–30 (8 mm
Hg). Soluble in alcohol, acetone, and ether. Com- tripelennamine citrate.
bustible. CAS: 91-81-6. C16H21N3•C6H8O7. 2-[benzyl-(2-di-
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation. methylaminoethyl)amino]pyridine dihydrogen ci-
Use: Solvent, antifoaming agent, plasticizer. trate.
Properties: White, bitter, crystalline powder. Solu-
tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. tions are acid to litmus. Mp 107C. Soluble in water
CAS: 78-50-2. mf: C24H51OP. and alcohol; very slightly soluble in ether; practical-
Hazard: A severe eye and moderate skin irritant. ly insoluble in chloroform and benzene; 1% solution
in water has a pH of 4.3.
trioctylphosphinic oxide. (TOPO). Grade: USP.
(C8H17)3PO. Hazard: Toxic by ingestion.
Properties: Solid. Mp 55C, min purity 95%. Use: Medicine (antihistamine, sunburn treatment).
Use: Reagent for extraction of metals from aqueous
and nonaqueous solutions, including fissionable ac- tripentaerythritol. C15H32O10.
tinide elements. Properties: White to ivory powder; has eight pri-
mary hydroxyl groups, all esterifiable. Melting
trioctyl phosphite. See tris-2-ethyl-hexyl range 225–240C. Combustible.
phosphite. Use: Hard resins, varnishes, and fast-drying tall-oil
tri-n-octyltin chloride.
CAS: 2587-76-0. mf: C24H51ClSn. tri-n-pentyltin bromide. See bromotripen-
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. tylstannane.

triolein. See olein. triphenol phosphorus. See 1,1,3-

triose. A simple sugar with a backbone containing
three carbon atoms.
CAS: 603-34-9. C18H15N.
Properties: Monoclinic crystals from EtOAc. D
sym-trioxane. (triformol; trioxin; metaformal- 0.774 @ 0°/0°C, mp 127°C, bp 195−205°C @ 10−22
dehyde). mm, mw 245.34.
❘ ❘ Hazard: TLV: 5 mg/m3.
(CH2O)3 or C H2OCH2OCH2O. A trimer of formalde-
hyde, not to be confused with paraformaldehyde, triphenylantimony. (triphenylstibine).
which consists of eight or more formaldehyde units. CAS: 603-36-1. Sb(C6H5)3.
Properties: White crystals; formaldehyde odor. Mp Properties: White, crystalline solid. D 1.434 (25C),
62C, sublimes at 115C, flash p 113F (45C) (OC), mp 46–53C, bp below 360C. Insoluble in water;

slightly soluble in alcohol; soluble in most organic Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 3 mg/m3; not
solvents. Combustible. classifiable as a human carcinogen.
Derivation: Reaction of antimony trichloride with Use: Fire-retarding agent, plasticizer for cellulose
phenyl magnesium bromide or phenyl sodium. acetate and nitrocellulose.
Use: Stibonium salts, cocatalyst in converting trienes
to aromatics and hydroaromatics, reacts with nitric- triphenylphosphine. See triphenylphos-
sulfuric acid to give trinitro derivatives, polymeriza- phorus.
tion inhibitor, lubricating-oil additive.
triphenylphosphine monosulfide.
triphenylborane. CAS: 3878-45-3. mf: C18H15PS.
CAS: 960-71-4. mf: C18H15B. Hazard: A poison.
Hazard: A severe eye irritant.
triphenyl phosphite.
triphenylboron. B(C6H5)3. A type of Lewis acid CAS: 101-02-0. (C6H5O)3P.
used as catalyst and intermediate. Properties: Water-white to pale-yellow solid or oily
liquid; pleasant odor. D 1.184 (25/25C), mp
triphenyl formazan. CN4H(C6H5)3. Red, insol- 22–25C, bp 155–160C (0.1 mm Hg), refr index
uble derivative of tetrazolium chloride, formed 1.589 (25C), flash p 425F (218.3C) (COC). Com-
when the latter comes into contact with viable por- bustible.
tions of a seed. Use: Chemical intermediate, stabilizer systems for
Use: Germination and viability tests. resins, metal scavenger, diluent for epoxy resins.

triphenylguanidine. (TPG). triphenylphosphorus. (triphenylphosphine).

C6H5NC(C6H5NH)2. (C6H5)3P.
Properties: White, crystalline powder. D 1.10, mp Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 79–82C, bp
144C. Soluble in alcohol. Combustible. above –360C, d 1.132 (25C), flash p 356F (180C)
Derivation: Desulfurization of thiocarbanilide in the (OC). Insoluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol;
presence of aniline. soluble in benzene, acetone, carbon tetrachloride.
Use: Accelerator for vulcanization of rubber. Combustible.
Derivation: By a modified Grignard synthesis.
triphenylmethane dyes. Any of a group of Use: Synthesis of organic compounds, phosphonium
dyes whose molecular structure is basically derived salts, other phosphorus compounds, polymerization
from (C6H5)3CH, usually by substitution of NH2, initiator.
OH, HSO3, or other groups or atoms for some of the
hydrogen of the C6H5 groups. Many coal tar and triphenyl-2-propenyl-stannane. See allyl-
synthetic dyes are of this class, including rosaniline, triphenyltin.
fuchsin, malachite green, and crystalline violet.
See triarylmethane dye. triphenylstannane sulfate (2:1). See
triphenylmethane triisocyanate. Available
as a brown 20% solution in methylene chloride. triphenylstannyl benzoate.
Use: Bonding uncured rubber to metal or other sur- CAS: 910-06-5. mf: C25H20O2Sn.
faces. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Properties: Orange-colored, free-flowing, crystal- triphenylstibine. See triphenylantimony.
line powder.
Use: Catalyst in the manufacture of polyoxymethy- triphenyltetrazolium chloride. See tetrazo-
lenes (polymers of formaldehyde and trioxane). lium chloride.
See acetal resin.
triphenyl phosphate. (TPP). CAS: 7224-23-9. mf: C19H15NSSn.
CAS: 115-86-6. PO(OC6H5)3. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
Properties: Colorless, crystalline powder; odorless. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Mp 50C, bp 245C (11 mm Hg mercury), d 1.268
(60C), bulk d 10.5 lb/gal, refr index 1.550 (60C), triphenyltin p-acetamidobenzoate.
flash p 428F (220C) (CC). Soluble in most lacquers, CAS: 2847-65-6. mf: C27H23NO3Sn.
solvents, thinners, oils; insoluble in water. Combus- Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
tible. mg/m3 (skin)
Derivation: Interaction of phenol and phosphorus
oxychloride. triphenyltin acetate.
Grade: Technical. CAS: 900-95-8. (C6H5)3SnOOCCH3. An agricultural

biocide, white crystalline solid, made by reaction of pounds (alkynes), typified by acetylene (HC≡CH).
sodium acetate with triphenyltin chloride. See double bond; chemical bonding.
Hazard: Irritant to skin. TLV: 0.1 mg (Sn)/m3.
triple point. The temperature and pressure at
triphenyltin benzoate. See triphenylstannyl which the solid, liquid, and vapor of a substance are
benzoate. in equilibrium with one another. Also applied to
similar equilibrium between any three phases, i.e.,
triphenyltin chloride. two solids and a liquid, etc. The triple point of water
CAS: 639-58-7. (C6H5)3SnCl. is +0.072C at 4.6 mm Hg; it is of special importance
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 106C, bp because it is the fixed point for the absolute scale of
240C (13.5 mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in temperature.
organic solvents. See Plait point.
Derivation: Reaction of tin tetrachloride with phe-
nylmagnesium bromide. triple superphosphate. A dry, granular, free-
Hazard: An irritant to skin. TLV: 0.1 mg (Sn)/m3. flowing product, gray in color. Produced by addition
Use: Biocidal intermediate. of phosphoric acid to phosphate rock, thus avoiding
formation of insoluble gypsum, as in superphosp-
triphenyltin cyanoacetate. hate, and achieving three times the amount of avail-
CAS: 73927-89-6. mf: C21H17NO2Sn. able phosphate (as P2O5). Typical analysis: moisture
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 2%, available P2O5 50%, water solution P2O5 45%,
mg/m3 (skin) free phosphoric acid 1%, also minor ingredients.
Use: Fertilizer.
triphenyltin hydroxide. See superphosphate; nitrophosphate.
CAS: 76-87-9. (C6H5)3SnOH.
Properties: White solid. Mp 118–120C. Insoluble in triplet. An electronic state of a molecule in which
water; soluble in ether, benzene, and alcohol. two spins are aligned. This term is derived from
Hazard: Irritant to skin. TLV: 0.1 mg (Sn)/m3. spectroscopy: a system of two aligned spins has
Use: Insect chemisterilant, fungicide. three possible orientations with respect to a magnet-
ic field; each has a different energy, resulting in sets
of three field-dependent spectral lines
triphenyltin iodide. See iodotriphenylstan-
See doublet; singlet.
tripoli. (amorphous silica; cristobalite; rotten-
triphenyltin levulinate. stone; silicon dioxide).
CAS: 23292-85-5. mf: C23H22O3Sn. CAS: 1317-95-9.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 Properties: Soft, porous granules resulting from nat-
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). ural decomposition of siliceous rock.
Grade: Various grades according to fineness for pol-
triphenyltin methanesulfonate. ishing; rose, cream, white.
CAS: 13302-08-4. mf: C19H18O3SSn. Hazard: TLV: Respirable Fraction: 0.05 mg/m3.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 Use: Abrasive, polishing powder, filtering material,
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). absorbent for insecticidal chemicals, paints (inert
filler, wood filler), rubber filler, base for scouring
triphenyltin propiolate. soaps and powders, oil-well drilling muds.
CAS: 67410-20-2. mf: C21H16O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2 tripolyphosphate. See sodium tripolyphosp-
mg/m3 (skin) hate.
triphenyltin thiocyanate. See triphenylthio- tripotassium dicitratobismuthate. See bis-
cyanatostannane. muth subcitrate.
triphenyl-1h-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl tin. tripotassium orthophosphate. See potassi-
CAS: 974-29-8. mf: C20H17N3Sn. um phosphate, tribasic.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). tripotassium phosphate. See potassium
phosphate, tribasic.
triphosgene. See hexachloromethylcarbonate.
tripropionin. See glyceryl tripropionate.
triphosphoric acid. See polyphosphoric acid.
tri-n-propylaluminum. (C3H7)3Al.
triple bond. A highly unsaturated linkage be- Properties: Colorless, pyrophoric liquid. D 0.820; fp
tween the two carbon atoms of acetylenic com- −84C.

Derivation: Reaction of propylene and isobutyl-alu- Properties: Colorless liquid. D: 1.692 @ 16°, mp:
minum. –53°, bp: 262°. Sol in org solv.
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk, ignites Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
spontaneously in air. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Use: Polyolefin catalyst.
tripropyltin iodoacetate.
tripropylamine. CAS: 73927-92-1. mf: C11H23IO2Sn.
CAS: 102-69-2. (CH3CH2CH2)3N. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
Properties: Water-white liquid; amine odor. Fp mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
−94C, boiling range 150–156C, d 0.754 (20/20C),
refr index 1.417 (20C), flash p 105F (40.5) (OC). tripropyltin-o-iodobenzoate. See (o-iodo-
Combustible. benzoyloxy)tripropylstannane.
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Toxic by inhalation and
ingestion. tripropyltin isothiocyanate.
CAS: 31709-32-7. mf: C10H21NSSn.
tripropyl(butylthio)stannane. Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
CAS: 67445-50-5. mf: C13H30SSn. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg/m3 (skin) tripropyltin trichloroacetate.
Use: Drug. CAS: 73927-99-8. mf: C11H21Cl3O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
tripropylene. (propylene trimer). (C3H6)3. mg(Sn)/m3 (skin).
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.738 (20/20C), boil-
ing range 133.3–141.7C, bulk d 6.17 lb/gal (60F), triptane. See 2,2,3-trimethylbutane.
flash p 75F (23.9C) (TOC).
Derivation: Catalytic polymerization of propylene. triptolide 12,13-chlorhydrin.
Hazard: Flammable, dangerous fire risk. CAS: 132368-08-2. mf: C20H25ClO6.
Use: Oxo feed stock, lubricant additive, plasticizers, Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
nonyl phenol.
tris-. A prefix indicating that a certain chemical
tripropylene glycol. grouping occurs three times in a molecule, e.g.,
CAS: 24800-44-0. HO(C3H6O)2C3H6OH. tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
Properties: Colorless liquid. Supercools instead of (CH2OH)3CNH2.
freezing, bp 268C, d 1.019 (25/25C), bulk d 8.51 lb/ See bis-.
gal, refr index 1.442 (25C), flash p 285F (140.5C).
Soluble in water, methanol, ether. Combustible. tris amine buffer. See
Use: Intermediate in resins, plasticizers, pharmaceu- tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.
ticals, insecticides, dyestuffs, mold lubricants.
tris(aminoethyl)amine. See 2,2′,2′′-nitrilo-
tripropylene glycol monomethyl ether. tris(ethylamine).
CAS: 20324-33-8. HO(C3H6O)2C3H6OCH3.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.961 (25C), bp tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide. Legal la-
242C, 116C (10 mm Hg), viscosity 5.5 cP (25C), bel name for triethylenephosphoramide.
refr index 1.427 (25C), flash p 250F (121C). Misci-
ble with water, VM&P naphtha, acetone, ethanol, 2,4,6-tris(1-aziridinyl)-s-triazine. See trie-
benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ether, methanol, and thylenemelamine.
monochlorobenzene. Combustible.
Use: Ingredient in hydraulic fluids. trisazo dye. One of the four kinds of azo dyes,
characterized by the presence of three azo couplings
tripropyltin acetate. (−N==N−) in each molecule. (CI 30000 to 34999).
CAS: 3267-78-5. mf: C11H24O2Sn.
Hazard: A poison by ingestion. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/ tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate.
m3; STEL 0.2 mg(Sn)/m3 (skin). CAS: 115-96-8. (ClC2H4O)3PO.
Properties: Clear, transparent liquid. D 1.425 (20/
tri-n-propyltin bromide. See bromotripro- 20C), bp 214C (25 mm Hg), refr index 1.4721
pylstannane. (20C), flash p 421F (216C) (COC). Combustible.
Use: Flame-retardant plasticizer.
tripropyltin chloride. See chlorotripropyl-
stannane. tris(2-chloroisopropyl) thionophosphate.
tripropyltin iodide. Properties: Liquid. Phosphorus content 9.0%, d
CAS: 7342-45-2. mf: C9H21ISn. 1.282 at (20C), flash p above 347F (175C) (OC),

pour p below −50C. Readily soluble in gasoline; (0.3 mm Hg). Insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol
insoluble in water. Combustible. and ether, flash p 340F (171C). Combustible.
Use: To extend spark plug life, to control deposit- Use: Synthesis, plasticizers, stabilizers, lubricant and
induced knocking in gasoline engines. grease additives, flameproofing compositions.

tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphite. tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate. (THEIC;

CAS: 140-08-9. (ClC2H4O)3P. tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine-2,4,6-trione).
Properties: Colorless liquid; characteristic odor. D C3N3O3(CH2CH2OH)3.
1.353 (20/4C), bp 119C (0.15 mm Hg), flash p 280F Properties: White solid. Mp 135C, bp (dissociates)
(137.7C) (OC). Miscible with most common organ- 180C (3 mm Hg). Very soluble in water; somewhat
ic solvents; insoluble in water and hydrolyzes in soluble in alcohol and acetone; insoluble in chloro-
water. Undergoes intramolecular isomerization at form and benzene. Combustible.
higher temperatures, exposure to air should be mini- Use: Additive to plastics, especially to impart ther-
mum. Combustible. mal stability.
Use: Intermediate, component of vinyl stabilizers,
grease additives, flameproofing compositions. tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid.
HOCH2C(CH2OH)2COOH. A photographic
tris(p-chlorophenyl)tin fluoride. chemical made by bacterial oxidation of pentaeryth-
CAS: 427-45-2. mf: C18H12Cl3FSn. ritol.
Hazard: A poison. TWA 0.1 mg(Sn)/m3; STEL 0.2
mg/m3 (skin), tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane.
(tri[hydroxymethyl]-aminomethane; THAM;
tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol; tris
(CH2BrCHBrCH2O)3PO. amine buffer). (CH2OH)3CNH2.
Properties: Viscous, pale-yellow liquid. Bulk d 18.5 Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 171–172C,
lb/gal, refr index 1.5772 (20C). Combustible. bp 219–220C (10 mm Hg), pH (0.1M aqueous solu-
Hazard: A carcinogen; use restricted. tion) 10..6, corrosive to copper, brass, aluminum.
Use: Flame-retardant for plastics and synthetic Solubility in water 80 g/100 cc (20C). Combustible.
fibers. Hazard: Irritant to eyes and skin.
Use: Emulsifying agent (in soap form) for oils, fats,
tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate. and waxes; absorbent for acidic gases; chemical
(CH2ClCHClCH2O)3PO. Combustible. synthesis; buffer; medicine.
Use: Flame-retardant in plastics and as a secondary
plasticizer. tris(hydroxymethyl)nitromethane. (2-hy-
Hazard: A carcinogen. droxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol).
CAS: 126-11-4. (CH2OH)3CNO2.
tris(diethyldithiocarbamato)iron. See Properties: White crystals or amorphous solid. Mp
iron(III) diethyldithiocarbamate. 175C (decomposes). Soluble in water and alcohol.
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Irritant to skin and eyes.
tris(diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) Use: Bactericide and slimicide for aqueous systems,
citrate. C19H42O3. cutting oil emulsions, industrial water systems,
Properties: Solid. D 1.28 (25C), mp 16–19C. Solu- drilling muds.
ble in water. Combustible.
Use: Plasticizer. tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine.
CAS: 2767-80-8. mf: C3H9O3P.
tris((2-ethylhexanoyl)oxy)methylsilane. Hazard: A poison by ingestion. A severe skin and
CAS: 70682-61-0. mf: C25H48O6Si. eye irritant.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.
tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane. See 4,4′,4′′-
tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. ethylidynetrisphenol.
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.9260 (20/20C), fp 1,1,3-tris(hydroxyphenyl)propane. (triphe-
−90C (sets to a glass), pour p −74C, mid-boiling p nol P). (C6H4OH)2CHCH2CH2C6H4OH.
216C (4 mm Hg), refr index 1.441 (25C), flash p Properties: White solid. Mp 84C, d 1.226 (20/20C),
420F (215.5C). Insoluble in water; soluble in miner- fp 90–110C, sets to glass below this temperature.
al oil and gasoline. Combustible. Combustible.
Use: Low-temperature plasticizer for PVC resins, Use: Antioxidant, intermediate for polyester and al-
imparting flame and fungus resistance. kyd resins.

tris-2-ethylhexyl phosphite. (trioctyl phos- trisilane. Si3H8.

phite). [C4H9CH(C2H5)CH2O]3P. Properties: Colorless liquid. Bp 53C, mp −117C, d
Properties: Colorless liquid. D 0.902, bp 163–164C 0.74.

Hazard: Explodes on contact with air, reacts violent- trisodium phosphate, chlorinated.
ly with carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. 4(Na3PO4•12H2O)•NaOCl. Active ingredients
3.25% min sodium hypochlorite and 91.75% min
trisiloxane. See siloxane. trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate. Inert ingredi-
ents below 5% sodium chloride.
1,1,1-tris(4-isocyanatophenoxymethyl) Properties: White, crystalline solid. Water soluble;
propane. stable under normal storage conditions; in solution
CAS: 121514-80-5. mf: C27H23N3O6. has the properties of both trisodium phosphate and
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. A mild eye sodium hypochlorite.
irritant. Derivation: By reacting sodium phosphate, caustic
soda, and sodium hypochlorite.
tris[1-(2-methyl)aziridinyl]phosphine oxide. Hazard: Irritant to skin and eyes.
(C3H6N)3PO. Use: Cleaner and bactericide in dairies, food plants,
See metepa. dishwashing compounds, and scouring powders.

tris(nictinato)aluminum. See aluminum nic- trisodium phosphate monohydrate. See

otinate. sodium phosphate, tribasic, monohydrate.

“Tris Nitro” [Angus]. TM for 2-hydroxy- trisodium trithiocyanuric acid. See sodi-
methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol. um trithiocyanurate.
Available forms: Solid and liquid.
Use: A water-soluble antimicrobial agent for use in trisomy. Possessing three copies of a particular
cutting fluids and other aqueous alkaline systems; chromosome instead of the normal two copies.
formaldehyde donor with controlled rate of release See cell; gene; gene expression; chromosome.
and minimum odor.
tristearin. See stearin.
trisodium (carboxymethoxy)propanedioate.
See sodium o-carboxymethyltartronate.
tris(tetrahydrofurfuryl) phosphate.
trisodium citrate. See sodium citrate. (C4H7OCH2O)3PO.
Properties: Yellow liquid. Fp −75C, refr index
trisodium dipotassium tripolyphosphate. 1.4759 (20C). Soluble in water and aromatic sol-
Na3K2P3O10. vents.
Properties: White, crystalline solid. Mp 620–640C, Use: Plasticizer, solvent.
d 2.48. Solubility in water 80 g/100 cc (26C).
Use: Sequestrant. tris(tridecyl)amine.
CAS: 5910-77-0. mf: C39H81N.
trisodium EDTA. (ethylenediaminetetraacetic Hazard: A poison by ingestion and skin contact.
acid trisodium salt).
CAS: 150-38-9. C10H13N2Na3O8•H2O. “Tritac” [Occidental]. TM for a group of her-
Properties: White powder. Freely soluble in water. bicides whose active ingredient is 2,3,6-trichloro-
Use: Chelating agent. benzyloxypropanol.

trisodium hydroxyethylethylenediamine- triticonazole.

triacetate. (NaOOCCH2)2NC2H4N(CH2COO- CAS: 131983-72-7. mf: C17H20ClN3O.
Na)C2H4OH. Hazard: A reproductive hazard.
Properties: Liquid. D 1.285, fp below −5C. Use: Agricultural chemical.
Use: Chelating agent.
tritium. T. Radioactive isotope of hydrogen,
trisodium nitrilotriacetate. mass number 3, isotopic weight 3.017 (two neutrons
CAS: 5064-31-3. N(CH2COONa)3. A sodium salt of and one proton in the nucleus).
nitrilotriacetic acid. Properties: Half-life 12.5 years, radiation ␤, radio-
Use: Sequestrant. toxic material.
Derivation: Bombardment of lithium with low-ener-
trisodium orthophosphate. See sodium gy neutrons.
phosphate, tribasic. Available forms: Gas packaged in ampules and in
tagged compounds such as water, streptomycin, cor-
trisodium orthovanadate. See sodium or- tisone, epinephrine, octadecane, stearic acid, etc.
thovanadate. Use: Bombarding particle in cyclotrons, activator in
self-luminous phosphors, in cold cathode tubes,
trisodium phosphate. See sodium phos- tracer in biochemical research and various special
phate, tribasic. problems in chemical analysis, luminous instrument

dials, thermonuclear power research. acid. (2) A common form of triuranium octoxide is
See fusion. yellow cake, the powder obtained by evaporating an
ammonia solution of the oxide.
tritolyl phosphate. See tricresyl phosphate. Hazard: Radioactive poison. Use appropriate pro-
tection in handling.
“Triton” [Dow]. TM for specialty surfactants Use: Nuclear technology, preparation of other urani-
that are alcohol and ethoxylates, alkoxylates, sul- um compounds.
fates, sulfonates, sulfosuccinates, or phosphate
esters. trivial name. The name applied by early chem-
Use: Industrial and institutional cleaners, various de- ists to a number of simple organic compounds, usu-
tergents, emulsions polymerization processes, pa- ally based on their sources or properties, e.g., ace-
per, and textile processing. tone and acetic acid, from Latin acetum (vinegar),
urea from urine, glucose and glycerol from Greek
“Triton RW 20” [Dow]. glyc- (sweet). Such names remained in common use
CAS: 119823-35-7. TM for a surfactant. regardless of the systematic nomenclature later de-
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con- veloped.
tact. A severe skin irritant.
trivinyltin chloride. See chlo-
“Triton RW 50” [Dow]. ro(trivinyl)stannane.
CAS: 119823-36-8. TM for a surfactant.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and skin con-
tact. A moderate skin and severe eye irritant. trixylenyl phosphate. See
“Triton RW 75” [Dow].
CAS: 86924-47-2. TM for a surfactant. troclosene potassium. See potassium dichlo-
Hazard: Low toxicity by ingestion and skin contact. roisocyanurate.
A severe eye irritant.
trona. (urao).
“Triton RW 100” [Dow]. CAS: 497-19-8. Na2CO3•NaHCO3•2H2O. A natural
CAS: 83383-01-1. TM for a surfactant. sodium sesquicarbonate and the most important of
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Low toxicity the natural sodas.
by skin contact. A severe eye irritant. Properties: White, gray, or yellow with vitreous,
glistening luster. Noncombustible.
“Triton RW 125” [Dow]. See trona process.
CAS: 86924-48-3. TM for a surfactant. Occurrence: Hungary, Egypt, Africa, Venezuela,
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Low toxicity and U.S. (Wyoming, California, especially Searles
by skin contact. A severe eye irritant. Lake, Owens Lake).
Use: Source of sodium compounds, especially the
“Triton RW 150” [Dow]. sodium carbonates.
CAS: 86924-49-4. TM for a surfactant.
Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion. Low toxicity trona process. The method used for separation
by skin contact. A severe eye irritant. and purification of soda ash, anhydrous sodium sul-
fate, boric acid, borax, potassium sulfate, bromine,
triton. The nucleus of the T atom (one proton, two and potassium chloride from Searles Lake (Califor-
neutrons). nia) brine.
tritopine. See laudanidine.
tropacocaine hydrochloride.
C15H19NO2•HCl. An alkaloidal salt.
triturate. To reduce to a powder by rubbing or
Properties: White crystals. Mp 271C. Soluble in
grinding, to pulverize.
water, alcohol, and ether.
Derivation: From a variety of Erythroxylon coca.
triuranium octoxide. (uranous-uranic oxide;
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation.
uranyl uranate). U3O8.
Use: Medicine (spinal anesthetic).
Properties: Olive-green to black solid, crystals, or
granules. D 8.39, decomposes when heated to
1300C to uranium dioxide. Insoluble in water; solu- tropaeolin D. See methyl orange.
ble in nitric acid and sulfuric acid.
Source: The naturally occurring uranium oxide tropaeolin OO. (Orange IV).
found in pitchblende. NaSO3C6H4NNC6H4NHC6H5. (p-diphenylaminoa-
Derivation: (1) As one of the forms of uranium zobenzene-sodium sulfonate). A biological stain
produced from the ores, often by a solvent extraction and acid-base indicator, red at pH 1.4, yellow at pH
process. The solvent used is dodecylphosphoric 2.6. CI 13080.

CAS: 89565-68-4. mf: C17H20N2O2.
Hazard: Human systemic effects.
Use: A substance that is used to prevent nausea and
vomiting caused by chemotherapy. One of the essential amino acids occurring naturally in
the L(−)-form.
Trouton’s rule. The molal heat of vaporization Properties: (DL-) White crystals. Slightly soluble in
of normal liquids, at the boiling point and under water; stable in alkaline solution; decomposed by
atmospheric pressure, divided by the absolute boil- strong acids. (D(+)-) Characteristic sweet taste. Mp
ing temperature is a constant, about 22. 275–290C (decomposes). Soluble in water, hot al-
cohol, alkali hydroxides; insoluble in chloroform.
“Troysan 395” [Troy]. TM for 1,3- (L(−)-) Flat taste (other properties identical with
bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin. D(+)-tryptophan).
Available forms: Liquid. Derivation: (1) Synthetic tryptophan can be made by
Use: Bactericide for water-based systems, paints and the conversion of indole to gramine followed by
coatings, adhesives, joint cements, caulks, and methylation, interaction with acetylaminomalonic
printing inks. ester and hydrolysis, (2) hydrolysis of proteins.
Grade: Reagent, technical, FCC.
Trp. Abbreviation for tryptophan. Use: Nutrition and research, medicine, dietary sup-
plement, cereal enrichment. Available commercial-
true solution. See solution (true). ly in all three forms, as well as acetyl-DL-tryptophan.

truth serum. See scopolamine. “Trysben” 200 [Du Pont]. TM for a weed
killer based on aqueous solution of the dimethyl-
truttine. A protein obtained from fish of the trout amine salt of trichlorobenzoic acid, containing two
family. pounds of acid equivalent per gallon.
Use: Control of broadleaf weeds.
“Trycite” [Dow]. TM for an oriented polysty-
rene film. Ts. Abbreviation for tosyl.
Use: Packaging and in envelope windows.
TSA. Abbreviation for toluenesulfonic acid.
tryparsamide. (sodium-N-phenylglycineam-
ide-p-arsonate). Tscherniac-Einhorn reaction. Introduction
CAS: 618-25-7. of the amidomethyl group into aromatic rings or
NaOAs(OOH)C6H4NHCH2CONH2•1/2H2O. activated methylene groups in the presence of sulfu-
Properties: White, crystalline powder; odorless. ric acid.
Contains 24.6% arsenic, may affect eyes. Soluble in
water; almost insoluble in alcohol; insoluble in TSH. See thyrotropic hormone.
ether, chloroform, benzene.
Grade: Medicinal, USP. TSP. Abbreviation for trisodium phosphate.
Hazard: Highly toxic by ingestion and inhalation. See sodium phosphate, tribasic.
Use: Medicine (treatment of syphilis).
TSPA. Abbreviation for triethylenethiophospho-
trypsin. ramide.
CAS: 9002-07-7. The proteolytic enzyme of pancre-
atic juice, yellow to grayish powder, soluble in wa- TSPP. Abbreviation for tetrasodium pyrophos-
ter, insoluble in alcohol or glycerol. It acts on album- phate.
inoid material, producing amino acids. The See sodium pyrophosphate.
maximum result is obtained in a neutral or slightly
alkaline medium. Trypsins or similar materials are TSS. See transition state theory.
found not only in the pancreas but also in the spleen,
leucocytes, and urine, as well as in beer yeast, TTC. Abbreviation for tetrazolium chloride.
molds, and bacteria.
Grade: NF (crystallized). TTD. Abbreviation for tetraethylthiuram disul-
Hazard: Irritant to skin. fide.
Use: Dehairing of hides.
tubatoxin. See rotenone.
trypsinogen. An inactive precursor of trypsin.
tube mill. A fine-grinding machine composed of
tryptophan. (indole-␣-aminopropionic acid; a rotating steel cylinder that may be from 15 to 50 ft
1-␣-amino-3-indolepropionic acid). long and 6 to 8 ft in diameter, within which are steel
CAS: 54-12-6. balls from 1 to 5 inches in diameter. Depending on

its construction it may be either batch or continuous. tis. Ingestion causes nausea, vomiting, cramps, diar-
Some types have several compartments, each con- rhea and tenesmus, thirst, dizziness, lethargy, and
taining balls of different sizes. Its function is finish- disorientation. Large doses can cause fever, tachy-
grinding of particulates; it is usually fed with 20- cardia, and respiratory effects. Combustible when
mesh material, which it reduces to 325-mesh. exposed to heat or flame. Can react with oxidizing
See ball mill. materials.
Use: Food additive; wood finish.
tuberose oil.
Properties: Colorless to very-light-colored oil. D tungstated pigment. See phosphotungstic
1.007–1.035 (15C). pigment.
Method of purification: Taken from Polianthes
tuberosa, by enfleurage.
Use: Perfume, flavoring. tungstate white. See barium tungstate.

d-tubocurarine chloride. tungsten. (wolfram).

C38H44Cl2N2O6•5H2O. CAS: 7440-33-7. W. Metallic element, atomic num-
Properties: White to light-tan crystalline alkaloid; ber 74, group VIB of periodic system, aw 183.85,
odorless. Mp 270C with decomposition. Soluble in valences of 2, 4, 5, 6; five isotopes.
water and alcohol; insoluble in acetone, chloroform, Properties: Hard, brittle, gray solid; not found na-
and ether; aqueous solution is strongly dextrorotato- tive; the ores are scheelite and wolframite. D 19.3
ry (specific rotation for 1% solution of anhydrous (20C), mp 3410C (highest of all the metals), bp
−208 to +218 degrees). 5927C, high electrical conductivity, soluble in a
Grade: USP. mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen fluoride, corrod-
Hazard: Highly toxic. ed by seawater, oxidizes in air at 400C, the rate
Use: Medicine (muscle relaxant). increases rapidly with temperature.
Derivation: (1) Aluminothermic reduction of tung-
“Tuex” [Uniroyal]. TM for tetramethylthiur- stic oxide, (2) hydrogen reduction of tungstic acid or
am disulfide. its anhydride. The metal can be plated onto objects
Available forms: Pellets as “Tuex Naugets.” by vapor deposition from tungsten hexafluoride or
Use: Sulfur donor accelerator for EV and semi-EV hexacarbonyl and can bond metal parts together.
systems. Tungsten powder (produced by carbon reduction) is
See thiram. converted into solid metal by powder metallurgical
techniques. Large single crystals are grown by an
“Tuffak” [Rohm & Haas]. TM for colored arc-fusion process. Granules obtained by reduction
or colorless polycarbonate resin. of the hexafluoride.
Available forms: Sheet material of various Occurrence: Canada, Bolivia, Peru, Thailand, Chi-
thickness; film. na, the former U.S.S.R., U.S. (Arizona, California,
Use: Skylights, display fixtures, signs, lighting fix- Colorado, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and
tures, safety guards, car mats, and chair mats. Texas).
Grade: Technical, powder, single crystals, ultrapure
“Tuflin” [Dow]. TM for linear low-density granules of 50–600 microns.
polyethylene film resins. Hazard: Finely divided form is highly flammable
Use: For trash bags, packaging and stretch wrap, and and may ignite spontaneously. TLV: (W) (Insoluble
shipping sacks. compounds) 5 mg/m3; (soluble compounds) 1 mg/
tumor suppressor. A gene that inhibits pro- Use: High-speed tool steel, ferrous and nonferrous
gression towards neoplastic transformation. The alloys, ferrotungsten, filaments for electric light
best known examples of tumor suppressors are the bulbs, contact points, X-ray and electron tubes,
proteins p53 and Rb. welding electrodes, heating elements in furnaces
and vacuum-metallizing equipment, rocket nozzles
tung oil. (China-wood oil). and other aerospace applications, shell steel, chemi-
Properties: Yellow drying oil. D 0.9360–0.9432, cal apparatuses, high-speed rotors as in gyroscopes,
saponification value 193, iodine value 150–165, refr solar energy devices (as vapor-deposited film that
index 1.5030, flash p 552F (288.9C), autoign temp retains heat at 500C).
855F (457C). Soluble in chloroform, ether, carbon
disulfide, and oils. Combustible. tungsten boride. WB2.
Derivation: From the seeds of Aleurites cordata, a Properties: Silvery solid. D 10.77, mp 2900C. Insol-
tree indigenous to China. It is now produced in uble in water; soluble in aqua regia and concentrated
China, Argentina, and Paraguay; U.S. production acids; decomposed by chlorine at 100C.
has been virtually discontinued. Derivation: Heating tungsten and boron in electric
Chief constituents: Eleostearic acid (80%). furnace.
Hazard: Toxic by ingestion. Contact causes dermati- Use: Refractory.

tungsten carbide. tungsten hexachloride. WCl6.

CAS: 12070-12-1. WC. A ditungsten carbide, W2C, Properties: Dark-blue or violet hexagonal crystals,
with similar physical properties is also known. WC volatile. Mp 275C, bp 347C, d 3.52, vap press 43
is said to be the strongest of all structural materials. mm Hg (215C). Electrical conductivity (fused state)
Properties: Gray powder. D 15.6, mp 2780C, bp poor. Soluble in organic solvents including ligroin
6000C, Mohs hardness of 9+ in solid form. Insoluble and ethanol; decomposed by moist air and water;
in water but readily attacked by a nitric reduced by hydrogen to the metal.
acid–hydrofluoric acid mixture. Stable to 400C with Derivation: Heating tungsten with dry chlorine at red
chlorine, burns in fluorine at room temperature, oxi- heat.
dizes on heating in air. Hazard: TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3.
Derivation: Heating tungsten and lampblack at Use: Tungsten coatings on base metals, vapor deposi-
1500–1600C. tion for bonding metals, single crystal tungsten wire,
Hazard: Toxic by inhalation. TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3. additive to tin oxide to produce electrically conduct-
Use: Cemented carbide, dies and cutting tools, wear- ing coating for glass, catalyst for olefin polymers.
resistant parts, cermets, electrical resistors. An abra-
sive in liquids. tungsten hexafluoride.
CAS: 7783-82-6. WF6.
tungsten carbide, cemented. A mixture con- Properties: Colorless gas or light-yellow liquid. D
sisting of tungsten carbide 85–95% and cobalt (liquid) 3.44, mp 2.5C, bp 19.5C. Decomposes in
5–15%. water.
Properties: Hardness about that of corundum; not Derivation: Direct fluorination of powdered tung-
affected by high temperatures. D 12–16. sten, purified by distillation under pressure.
Derivation: Ball milling of powdered tungsten car- Hazard: Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, strong
bide with metallic cobalt, followed by sintering. irritant to tissue. TLV: 1 mg(W)/m3.
Hazard: As for tungsten carbide. Use: Vapor-phase deposition of tungsten, fluorinat-
Use: Machine tools and abrasives for machining and ing agent.
grinding metals, rocks, molded products, porcelain,
and glass; in gauges, blast nozzles, knives, drill bits. tungsten lake. See phosphotungstic pigment.

tungsten carbonyl. See tungsten hexacar- tungsten oxychloride. WOCl4.

bonyl. Properties: Dark-red, acicular crystals. Decom-
posed by water and moist air. Keep in sealed glass
tungsten diselenide. WSe2. Lamellar-struc- container. Bp 227.5C, mp 211C, d 11.92. Soluble in
tured, dry, solid lubricant with exceptionally high carbon disulfide.
temperature and high vacuum stability. Retains its Derivation: By the action of chlorine on tungsten or
lubricity to temperatures as low as −265C. tungstic oxide at elevated temperatures.
Grade: 1–2 micron and 40 micron. Method of purification: Vacuum distillation.
Hazard: TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3. Grade: Technical.
Hazard: Irritant. TLV: 1 mg(W)/m3.
tungsten disulfide. WS2. Use: Incandescent lamps.
Properties: Grayish-black solid. Mp above 1480C,
can lubricate at temperatures above 2400F (1316C). tungsten silicide. A ceramic, probably WSi2.
Attacked by fluorine and hot sulfuric and hydrogen Properties: Blue-gray, very hard solid. D 9.4, mp
fluoride. above 900C. Insoluble in water; attacked by fused
Grade: 0.40, 0.70, and 1–2 micron grades. alkalies and mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids.
Use: Solid lubricant for many applications, including Grade: Cylindrical shapes, lumps, standard sieve
use as an aerosol. sizes.
Hazard: Dust flammable. TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3.
tungsten hexacarbonyl. (tungsten carbonyl). Use: Oxidation-resistant coatings, electrical resis-
W(CO)6. tance and refractory applications.
Properties: White, volatile, highly refractive, crys-
talline solid. Decomposes without melting at 150C. tungsten steel. In many of its alloying effects,
One of the more stable carbonyls. D 2.65, vap press tungsten is similar to molybdenum. Tungsten in-
0.1 mm Hg (20C). Insoluble in water; soluble in creases the density of alloys to which it is added.
organic solvents. Use: To obtain steels with great wear resistance and
Derivation: Reaction of tungsten with carbon mon- special resistance to tempering, as in high-speed
oxide at high pressures, reduction of tungsten hexa- steels, hot-work steels, finishing steels that maintain
chloride with iron alloy powders in carbon monox- keen cutting edge and great wear resistance, creep-
ide atmosphere. resisting steels, and oxidation-resistant, high-tem-
Hazard: TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3. perature, high-strength alloys.
Use: Tungsten coatings on base metals by deposition
and decomposition of the carbonyl. tungsten trioxide. See tungstic oxide.

tungstic acid. (wolframic acid; orthotungstic Turkey red. See iron oxide red.
CAS: 11105-11-6. H2WO4. Turkey red oil. (castor oil, sulfonated; ca-
Properties: Yellow powder. D 5.5. Insoluble in wa- stor oil, soluble).
ter; soluble in hydrogen fluoride and alkalies. A CAS: 72-48-0. It is also known as alizarin assistant
white form of tungstic acid exists, having the formu- and alizarin oil because of its use in dyeing with
la H2WO4•H2O. This is formed by acidifying tung- alizarin.
sten solutions in the cold. Properties: Viscous liquid. D 0.95, iodine No. 82.1,
Derivation: Decomposition of sodium tungstate acid No. 174.3, saponification No. 189.3, autoign
with hot sulfuric acid. temp 833F (445C). Soluble in water. Combustible.
Grade: Technical, CP, reagent. Derivation: By sulfonating castor oil with sulfuric
Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3. acid and washing.
Use: Textiles (mordant, color resist), plastics, tung- Grade: Sulfonated castor oil graded as to moisture
sten metal, wire, etc. and color.
Use: Textiles, leather, manufacture of soaps, alizarin
tungstic acid anhydride. See tungstic dye assistant, paper coatings.
Turnbull’s Blue. An inorganic blue pigment
tungstic anhydride. See tungstic oxide. made by the reaction of a ferrous salt and potassium
ferricyanide [Fe3Fe(CN)6]2. One of its important
tungstic oxide. (tungstic acid anhydride; uses is in making blueprints, in which sensitized
tungstic anhydride; tungsten trioxide; wolframic paper containing ferric ammonium citrate and po-
acid, anhydrous). WO3. tassium ferricyanide is exposed to light, the ferric
Properties: Canary-yellow, heavy powder, dark-or- ions being thus reduced to ferrous ions.
ange when heated and regains original color on See iron blue.
cooling. Mp 1473C, d 7.16. Insoluble in water, solu-
ble in caustic alkalies, soluble with difficulty in turnover number. The number of times an
acids. Noncombustible. enzyme molecule transforms a substrate molecule
Derivation: Scheelite ore is treated with hydrochlo- per sec, under conditions giving maximal activity at
ric acid and the resulting product dissolved out with substrate concentrations that are saturating.
ammonia. The complex ammonium tungstate can
then be ignited to tungstic oxide. turpentine (gum). The oleoresin or pitch ob-
Hazard: Toxic material. TLV: 5 mg(W)/m3. tained from living pine trees.
Use: To form metal by reduction, alloys, preparation Properties: Sticky, viscous, balsamic liquid com-
of tungstates for X-ray screens, fireproofing fabrics, prising a mixture of rosin and turpentine oil; strong,
yellow pigment in ceramics. piney odor. Soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform,
and glacial acetic acid. Combustible.
tungstophosphate. Structure and properties are Use: Source of turpentine oil and gum rosin.
similar to molybdophosphate. See rosin.

12-tungstophosphoric acid. See phospho- turpentine (oil).

tungstic acid. CAS: 8006-64-2. C10H16. A volatile essential oil
whose chief constituents are pinene and diterpene.
tungstosilicate. One of a group of complex inor- Derivation: Steam-distillation of the turpentine gum
ganic compounds of high molecular weight, con- exuded from living pine trees (gum turpentine),
taining a central silicon atom surrounded by tung- naphtha-extraction of pine stumps (wood turpen-
sten oxide octahedra. They have high molecular tine), destructive distillation of pine wood.
weight, high degree of hydration, strong oxidizing See rosin; rosin oil.
action in aqueous solutions; decompose in strongly Properties: Colorless liquid; penetrating odor. Im-
basic aqueous solutions to give simple tungstate miscible with water; lighter than water. Consider-
solutions; form highly colored anions or reaction able variation appears in constants reported; the
products. following are based on tests made by the Forest
See silicotungstic acid; sodium-12-tungstosilicate. Products Laboratory: d 0.860–0.875 (15C), refr in-
dex 1.463–1.483 (20C), flash p 90–115F (32–46C)
12-tungstosilicic acid. See silicotungstic (CC), no acidity, bulk d 7.18 lb/gal, autoign temp
acid. 488F (253C).
Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Toxic by ingestion.
turinabol. See 4-chlorotestosterone 17-acetate. TLV: 100 ppm.
Use: Solvent; thinner for paints, varnishes, and lac-
turkey brown. (turkey umber). Natural earth quers; rubber solvent and reclaiming agent; insecti-
used as permanent pigment. Contains iron and man- cide; synthesis of camphor and menthol; wax-based
ganese oxide with some clay. polishes; medicine (liniments); perfumery.

tutocaine hydrochloride. (␥-dimethylamino- nolpolymethylene polymer and low toxicity, non-

␣,␤-dimethylpropyl-p-aminobenzoate hydrochlo- ionic surfactant.
CAS: 532-62-7. C14H22O2N2•HCl. tyloxin. Antibiotic substance isolated from a
Use: Local anesthetic. strain of Streptomyces fradiae.
Properties: Crystals. Mp 128–130C. Solutions are
tuyere. A duct or pipe through which a stream of stable between pH 4 to 9.
hot air is introduced into a blast furnace or cupola to Use: Veterinary medicine.
support combustion.
Tyndall effect. A colloidal phenomenon in
Tw. Abbreviation for Twaddell, used in reporting which particles too small to be resolved in an optical
specific gravities for densities greater than water, as microscope suspended in a gas or liquid reveal their
degrees Tw. A twaddell reading, multiplied by five presence by scattering a beam of light as it passes
and added to 1000, gives specific gravity with refer- through the suspension, the extent of reflection be-
ence to water as 1000. ing dependent on the position of the irregularly
shaped particles relative to the incident light. The
TWA See time-weighted average. effect causes the appearance of a visible cone of
light through the suspension. This principle is uti-
twinning axis. Axis around which one part of a lized in the ultramicroscope.
twin crystal may be viewed as having been rotated
180 degrees relative to the other part. “Tynex” [Du Pont]. TM for nylon filament.
Available tapered, with an essentially uniform taper
Twitchell process. Commercial process for from butt to tip, and also level, i.e., in a wide range of
splitting fats to glycerol and fatty acids by heating constant diameters. The tapered form is used pri-
the sulfuric acid–washed fat 20–48 hours in an open marily in paint brushes, the level form in other
tank with steam in a mixture of 25–50% water, 0.5% brushes.
sulfuric acid, and 0.75–1.25% Twitchell reagent.
The original Twitchell catalyst was prepared by type metal. Alloy of 75–95% lead, 2.5–18%
sulfonation of a mixture of fatty acid and benzene, antimony, with a little tin and sometimes copper,
but toway sulfonated petroleum products are used. which expands slightly upon solidification and pro-
duces sharp castings.
Twitchell reagent. Catalyst for the Twitchell
process (acid hydrolysis of fats). It is a sulfonated Tyr. Abbreviation for tyrosine.
addition product of naphthalene and oleic acid, a
naphthalenestearosulfonic acid. Tyrer sulfonation process. Sulfonation of
benzene in the vapor phase with sulfuric acid at
“Tygon.” TM for a series of vinyl compounds 170–180C with passage of benzene vapor and azeo-
used as linings, coatings, adhesives, tubing, and tropic removal of the water of reaction.
extruded shapes applied to chemical process equip-
ment as corrosion protection. “Tyrez” [Reichhold]. TM for a series of im-
pact modifiers for plastics.
“Tylac” [Reichhold]. TM for a series of syn-
thetic latexes and elastomers. tyrian brilliant blue i 3g. See 6,15-dihy-
(BL) High-strength, film-forming, nitrile rubber la- drohydroxy-5,9,14,18-anthrazinetetrone.
texes and rubbers and carboxylated polymers char-
acterized by exceptional oil, solvent, and abrasion “Tyril” [Dow]. TM for a group of styrene-acry-
resistance. lonitrile copolymers.
(SBL) Butadiene/styrene and carboxylated butadi-
ene/styrene and high styrene latexes of various mo- “Tyrilfoam” 80 [Dow]. TM for expanded
nomer ratios. Modified versions are available. styreneacrylonitrile for flotation uses under condi-
Use: Paper, textiles, adhesives, Portland cement, tions of gasoline spillage, petroleum scum from out-
molded products, and polyvinyl chloride and pheno- board motors, and stagnant water.
lic resin blends.
tyrocidine. Antibiotic produced by the metabolic
“Tylenol” [Ortho-McNeil]. TM for p-acety- processes of the bacteria Bacillus brevis. It is a
laminophenol (acetaminophen). cyclic polypeptide that is active against most Gram-
positive pathogenic bacteria. It is one of the two
tylosin and sulfamethazine. antibiotic components of tyrothricin but has been
Use: Drug (veterinary); food additive. isolated and used alone.
Properties: (Probably the hydrochloride) Fine, crys-
tyloxapol. (USAN). talline needles that decompose at 240C; soluble in
CAS: 25301-02-4. An oxyethylated-tert-octylphe- 95% alcohol, acetic acid, and pyridine; slightly solu-
1297 “TYZOR”

ble in water, acetone, and absolute alcohol; insolu- Derivation: Hydrolysis of protein (casein), organic
ble in ether, chloroform, and hydrocarbons; de- synthesis.
presses surface tension; forms fairly stable colloidal Grade: FCC.
emulsion in distilled water. Use: Growth factor in nutrition, biochemical re-
Use: Medicine (usually as component of tyrothricin), search, dietary supplement. Available commercially
possible fungistat and bacteriostat. as dl-tyrosine.

tyrosinase. An enzyme containing copper that

tyrothricin. An antibiotic produced by growth of
Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of antibiot-
occurs in plant and animal tissue and is responsible
ics, principally gramicidin and tyrocidine. Gramici-
for turning peeled potatoes black when exposed to
din is the more active component. Use is generally
limited to local external applications. It is active
Use: Medicine (antihypertensive).
against some Gram-positive bacteria, including spe-
cies of pneumococci, streptococci, and staphylo-
tyrosine. (␤-p-hydroxyphenylalanine; ␣-amino- cocci.
␤-p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid).
CAS: 60-18-4. C6H4OHCH2CHNH2COOH. A non- “Tyzor” [Du Pont]. TM for a group of simple
essential amino acid. and chelated esters of ortho-titanic acid, such as
Properties: White crystals. dl-Tyrosine mp 316C, tetrabutyltitanate, of varying reactivity.
d(+)-tyrosine mp 310–314C, l(−)-tyrosine mp 295C Use: Chemical intermediates, primers for adhesion
(with decomposition), d 1.456 (20/4C). Soluble in promotion in extrusion coating, dispersants,
water; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether. scratch-resistant finishes on glass, masonry water
Optically active. Readily oxidized by animal or- repellents, cross-linking agents, esterification and
ganisms. olefin polymerization catalyst.