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Law of dominance a dominant allele completely masks the applies to genes located on sex chromosomes
effects of a recessive allele. A dominant Sex linked
allele produces the same phenotype in refers to any genes associated with the chromosomal sex of an
heterozygotes and homozygotes. individual
X linked
Law of segregation in diploid organisms, chromosome pairs
(and their alleles) are separated into Color blindness
individual gametes (eggs or sperm) to hemophilia
transmit genetic information to offspring. Y linked
Law of independent alleles on different chromosomes are Hypertrichosis pinnae auris
assortment distributed randomly to individual gametes. Sex-influenced any trait in a diploid organism
In other words, genes for different traits trait whose expression is affected by
pass independently. an individual’s biological sex; trait
Non-MENDELIAN LAW that occurs at a higher frequency
in one sex over the other
incomplete results when 2 dominant alleles combine
dominance to form a phenotype that is not the
characteristic of the original alleles. Sex-limited trait
any trait in a diploid organism whose expression is limited to just
CO DOMINANCE results when 2 dominant alleles combine one biological sex
and both characteristics are expressed
Functional Mammary Glands
and are discernible
SEX LINKED genes for a specific trait that are carried by
sex chromosomes of organism

Atypical and non mendelian inheritance

-is a condition in which cells within the same person have a Genetics study of heredity and variation
different genetic makeup. VARIATION permanent change in the chemical structure
-This condition can affect any type of cell including: Blood of chromosomes
cells, Egg and Sperm cells, Skin cells CHROMOSOMES threadlike structure of nucleic acids and
-caused by an error in cell division very early in the protein found in the nucleus of most living
development of the unborn baby cells, carrying genetic information in the form
Mosaic Down syndrome of genes.
Mosaic klinefelter syndrome ALLELES one of the possible form of genes
Mosaic turner syndrome DOMINANT masks expression of the other allele;
Genomic imprinting expressed trait
-refers to certain genes that are differently inactivated or RECESSIVE fully or partially masked; fully expressed only
switched off during gamete formation when paired with recessive allele
Prader willi GAMETES sex cells
Angelman syndrom SOMATIC non-sex cells
Mitochondrial diseases DIPLOID cells contain the complete set of necessary
-clinically heterogenous group of disorders that arise as a chromosomes
result of dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. HAPLOID only half the number of chromosomes found
-can be caused by mutation of genes encoded by either in the nucleus
nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA. Gene unit of instruction for heritable traits
Pearson syndrome character heritable traits
Leber optic atrophy trait variant for a character
Mitochondria myopathies Homozygous consists of single trait
Epistasis Heterozygous consists of mixture of traits
-type of polygenic inheritance where the alleles at one genes Phenotype physical expression of genotype
locus can hide or prevent the expression of alleles at a genotype allele representation
second gene locus. Pure bred organism that possess homozygous
Coat or fur color of Labrador retrievers characteristic
hybrid organism that possess characteristics
resulting from its heterozygous alleles
Pedigree analysis Polymers many small repeating molecular units
-making use of diagram showing ancestral relationships nucleotides small units
and transmission of genetic traits over several polynucleotides nucleotides linked together
generations in a family
Uses of pedigree analysis
-determine mode of inheritance of a trait (dominant,
recessive, sex-linked, autosomal, mitochondrial,
maternalete, etc.)
-determine probability of an affected offspring for a given

Dna Rna Nucleotides

Deoxyribose nucleic Ribonucleic acid -building blocks of any nucleic acid
acid -single stranded -composed of a Phosphate group,5 Carbon sugar molecule
-double helix ; double -cytoplasm (Deoxyribose), 1 of 4 Nitrogenous bases (Adenine,
stranded (Watson & Crick) -Uracil instead of Thymine; Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine)
-nucleus and mitochondrion A, G, C Friedrich miescher
-Thymine; AT, GC -ribose sugar (more O2) 1869
-deoxyribose sugar -information in form of base -White blood cells
-repository of genetic sequence is transformed, -Nuclein
sequence of bases encodes transcribed into mRNA, -Bandages from hospital
the blueprint for like tRNA and rRNA. Rosalind franklin
processes template copied -ATG (codon) x-ray crystallography
into RNA -double helix structure of DNA
-Chargaff’s rule (AT, GC) -sugar phosphate
-is a nucleic acid
-set of instructions needed
to make a living thing
-blueprint for life 4 dna bases
Purine bases Adenine, Guanine Larger
Pyrimidine Thymine, Cytosine Uracil
-paired by hydrogen bond
-base pairs:
A  T (2 hydrogen bonds)
G  C (3 hydrogen bonds)
4 levels of protein structure
Folding and protein structure
Primary Sequence Sequence of amino acids Alphabets
Secondary Sheets and spirals Interactions between adjacent amino acids Words
Tertiary R group bonds 3d folding of the polypeptide Sentence
Kapag na misfold ang proteins, magca-cause ito ng abnormalities sa tao.
Myeloid misfolding of proteins, causes Alzheimers
quaternary Multiple proteins Arrangement of multiple polypeptides Paragraphs

Central dogma of molecular biology

 DNA is a self-replicating molecule in almost all living organisms as the primary component of chromosomes.
 Expression of information stored in the DNA will result to an individual’s particular trait.
 Consists of 3 general processes:
a) REPLICATION (DNA synthesis)
b) TRANSCRIPTION (RNA synthesis)
c) TRANSLATION (Protein synthesis)
 Proposed by Francis Crick- double helix structure

1. DNA replication (dna synthesis)

DNA is replicated in a semi-conservative manner.

DNA strands separate and serve as template for the production of new DNA molecule.
Base pairing is contained.
New DNA molecules are produced in 5’ and 3’ direction.
The leading strand and lagging strand is produced discontinuously in short stretches called Okazaki

Replication enzyme function

Dna helicase Unzips/unwinds molecule
Dna gyrase (Type II topoisomerase) Open up/cuts the strands
Keeps the replication fork stable
Single strand binding proteins (SSBP) Keeps the DNA strands from re
Primase Synthesizes the RNA primer/starts the

Dna polymerase I Removes the RNA primer and fills in -Helps in proof reading to see if there is
-arthur kornberg the nucleotides which are necessary any mistake done while replication and
for the formation of the DNA in the while matching base pairs
direction- 5’ to 3’. -It only adds the nucleotides but does not
join them.
Dna polymerase II -prokaryotic DNA-Dependent DNA
Backup (only) enzyme in prokaryotic polymerase encoded by the PolB gene
DNA replication - 5’ → 3’ DNA synthesis capability as well
as 3’ → 5’ exonuclease proofreading
-interacts with multiple binding partners
common with DNA Pol III in order to
enhance its fidelity and processivity
Dna polymerase Iii (holoenzyme) Synthesizes the direction
-thomas kernberg & Malcolm gefter essential for the replication of the
leading and the lagging strands

Dna ligase Makes a phosphor-diester bond


2. rNA transcription (rna synthesis)

Unwinding of the DNA and one strand is used as template for the production of a RNA molecule.
Undergoes 3 processes: Initiation, Elongation and Termination

initiation elongation Termination

-RNA Polymerase attaches to a specific -RNA Polymerase moves along the -When RNA Polymerase reaches the
Sequence in the DNA called PROMOTER anticoding strand of the DNA which is the termination point, protein factor RHO
located upstream from the gene being 3’ and 5’ strand of the gene binds to the enzyme and dissociates it from
transcribed. -Single stranded RNA is produced the DNA to stop transcription.
-made possible with the help of the polypeptide
mrna trna rrna
Provides template that contains nucleotide code Transfers amino acids from the cytoplasm Complexed with ribosomal proteins to form
for amino acid sequence of protein to the ribosomes ribosomes the protein synthesizing
organelles of the cells
-may TATA box na nag-uumpisa ng initiation
-RHO acts like a stop codon
-5’ or methylated cap, 3’ end or Poly A-tail (stops the sequence, prevents mutation)
Intron –sequence pf nucleotides in mRNA that is not used, and only stays in nucleus; non-coding
Exon –used in production of RNA; used as template for protein synthesis

3. translation (protein synthesis)

Genetic code is the correspondence of the mRNA codons to amino acids.
An amino acid is specified by a codon with 3 code letters
initiation elongation Termination
-initiation factor (F1) stimulates the dissociation -Amino acids are linked by peptide bond -a stop codon signals the end of
of the small and large subunits of ribosomes formation due to the action of peptidyl translation.
-small subunit of ribosome binds the transferase known to be part of the -No amino acid corresponds to a stop codon
mRNA and allows the entrance of a tRNA to the ribosome subunit -release factor halt the process and
P site bearing the first amino acid. the polypeptide is released
-large subunit of ribosome then
binds and together they form an assembly
ready for the next amino acid in the A site of
the ribosome.
-mRNA is released in the cytoplasm where it bonds with the ribosomes
-Once mRNA is in place, tRNA molecules each associated with the specific amino acids, bind to the ribosome in a sequence defined by the
mRNA code
-At its tail end, tRNA has an acceptor stem that attaches to a specific amino acid.
-At its head, tRNA has 3 nucleotides that make up an anticodon
-The process continues until one of the 3 stop codons enters the A site. At that point, the protein chain connected to the tRNA in the Psite is
released. Translation complete.

Aminoacyl-trna synthetases –group of enzymes responsible for the right binding of codons and tRNA. Ensures that the right amino

acids will be carried to ribosomes

Peptidyl site & Aminoacyl site –Initiation site
Peptide –produces protein

Polymerase ii DNA Replication

Helicase ii DNA Replication
Aminoacyl trna synthetases Translation
Promoter Transcription
Large ribosomal unit Translation
p-site Translation
Okazaki fragment DNA Replication
Lagging strand DNA Replication
A new mrna molecule is produced Transcription
Trna with an amino acid binds to a p-site Translation
Primase creates primer DNA Replication
A new polypeptide is produced Translation
Process of making mrna from dna template Transcription
Tata box Transcription
A release factor attaches to a stop codon Translation

Classical breeding Recombinant dna technology

Focuses on the mating of organisms with desirable traits joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are
inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations
that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture and industry.

Kobe/Wagyu beef Human insulin-producing bacteria

Guapple Flavr-savr (delayed ripening tomatoes)
Macapuno trait in coconuts
General outline of recombinant dna
1. Cutting or cleavage of DNA by restriction enzymes (REs)
2. Selection of an appropriate vector or vehicle which would propagate the reccmbinant DNA (ex. Circular plasmid, in the bacteria
with a foreign gene of interest)
3. Ligitation (joint together) of the gene of interest (ex. From animals) with the vector (cut bacterial plasmid)
Geological time scale
Is a system of chronological dating that relates geological stratigraphy to time
Used by geologists, paleontologists and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relations hips of events that have occurred during
Earth’s history
-largest division
-spans hundreds to thousands of millions of years ago (mya)
-span time periods of tons to hundreds of millions of years
-spans no more than one hundred million years