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ABSTRACT

Software training is one of the requirements to be fulfilled in order to obtain the Bachelor’s
degree in technology. Each student needs to do software training in a recognized company of
their respective domain. The students are compulsory to do training for duration of 2 months
which is intended for their exposure to the software industry. A well planned, properly
executed and evaluated software training helps a lot in developing a professional attitude. It
develops an awareness of software approach to problem solving, based on a broad
understanding of processes. Besides software training build self confidence among students and
let students know the technical knowledge and professionalism.

During industrial training at AUTODESK, most of the theoretical knowledge gained during the
course of studies was put to test. Various efforts and processes involved in designing of a
components was studied and understood during the training. In our training, I undertook
courses of AutoCAD and SOLIDWORKS.

The training gave me good experience from the view of implementing my theoretical
knowledge in practical aspects. It gave me first hand experience of working as an engineering
professional. It helped me in improving my technical, interpersonal and communication skills,
both oral and written. Overall , it is a great experience to have industrial training in such a
reputed firm and I believe that it will help me in building a successful career.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING
Software Training in CADD Includes several modules and combination of packages like
AutoCAD, SolidWorks, CATIA, PTC Creo, Siemens NX CAD/CAM etc.

Figure 1- Different CAD Software Tool

When we think of Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD), certain questions
arise that we never think of while working on the drawing board. We do not use the
essential drawing board tools: paper, pencil, T-square, compass, eraser or scale, yet still
have to design or make a drawing. When even one of these tools is missing we know
how aggravating it can be. With CADD we don’t need even one of them.

Computer-aided design (CAD ) is the use ofcomputer systems to assist in the


creation,modification, analysis, or optimization of adesign. CAD software is used to
increasethe productivity of the designer, improve thequality of design,
improvecommunicationsthrough documentation, and to create adatabase for manufacturing.
CAD output isoften in the form of electronic files for print,machining, or other
manufacturingoperations.

Computer-aided design is used in manyfields.Its use in designing electronic systems isknown


as electronic design automation, orEDA . In mechanical design it is known asmechanical
design automation ( MDA ) orcomputer-aided design ( CAD ), which includesthe process of
creating a technical drawingwith the use of computer software.CAD software for mechanical
design useseither vector-based graphics to depict theobjects of traditional drafting, or may
alsoproduce raster graphics showing the overallappearance of designed objects. However,
itinvolves more than just shapes. As in themanual drafting of technical and
engineeringdrawings, the output of CAD must conveyinformation, such as materials,
processes,dimensions , and tolerances, according toapplication-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design curves andfigures in two-dimensional (2D) space; orcurves,
surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space. CAD is an important industrial art
extensivelyused in many applications, includingautomotive, shipbuilding, and
aerospaceindustries, industrial and architectural design,prosthetics, and many more.CAD is
alsowidely used to produce computer animationfor special effects in movies, advertising
andtechnical manuals, often called DCC digitalcontent creation.

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OVERVIEW:-

Starting around the mid 1970s as computer aided design systems began to provide more
capability than just an ability to reproduce manual drafting with electronic drafting, the cost for
companies to switch to CAD became apparent. The benefit of CAD systems over manual
drafting are the capabilities one often takes for granted from computer systems today;
automated generation of Bill of Material, auto layout in integrated circuits, interference
checking, and many others. Eventually CAD provided the designer with the ability to perform
engineering calculations. During this transition, calculations were still performed either by
hand or by those individuals that could run computer programs. CAD was a revolutionary
change in the engineering industry, where draftsmen, designers and engineering roles begin to
merge. It did not eliminate departments, as much as It merged departments and empowered
draftsman, designers and engineers. CAD is just another example of the pervasive effect
computers were beginning to have on industry.

CAD is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of
buildings, from small residential types (houses) to the largest commercial and industrial
structures (hospitals and factories)

CAD is mainly used for detailed engineering of 3D models and/or 2D drawings of physical
components, but it is also used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and
layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of
manufacturing methods of components. It can also be used to design objects. Furthermore,
many CAD applications now offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers
can better visualize their product designs. 4D BIM is a type of virtual construction engineering
simulation incorporating time or schedule related information for project management.

CAD has become an especially important technology within the scope of computer-aided
technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a greatly shortened
design cycle. CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print it out and
save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings .

USES:-

Computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in
many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question.

CAD is one part of the whole Digital Product Development (DPD) activity within the Product
Lifecycle Management (PLM) processes, and as such is used together with other tools, which
are either integrated modules or stand-alone products, such as:

 Computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Finite element analysis (FEA)


 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) including instructions to Computer Numerical
Control (CNC) machines
 Photo realistic rendering and Motion Simulation.
 Document management and revision control using Product Data Management (PDM).

CAD is also used for the accurate creation of photo simulations that are often required in the
preparation of Environmental Impact Reports, in which computer-aided designs of intended
buildings are superimposed into photographs of existing environments to represent what that
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locale will be like, where the proposed facilities are allowed to be built. Potential blockage of
view corridors and shadow studies are also frequently analyzed through the use of CAD.

CAD has been proven to be useful to engineers as well. Using four properties which are
history, features, parameterization, and high level constraints. The construction history can be
used to look back into the model's personal features and work on the single area rather than the
whole model. Parameters and constraints can be used to determine the size, shape, and other
properties of the different modeling elements. The features in the CAD system can be used for
the variety of tools for measurement such as tensile strength, yield strength, electrical or
electro-magnetic properties. Also its stress, strain, timing or how the element gets affected in
certain temperatures, etc.

INTRODUCTION TO AUTOCAD
AutoCAD is the combination of two words Auto+CAD. The word Auto stands for name of the
firms that is Autodesk and CAD is stands for feature of the software that is Computer Aided
Designing or Drafting.

AutoCAD is a commercial software application for 2D and 3D computer-aided design


(CAD) and drafting — available since 1982 as a desktop application and since 2010 as a
mobile web- and cloud-based app marketed as AutoCAD 360.

Developed and marketed by Autodesk, Inc., AutoCAD was first released in December 1982,
running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers.Prior to the introduction of
AutoCAD, most commercial CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers,
with each CAD operator (user) working at a separate graphics terminal.

4.1 - NAVIGATING THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT


Before you begin creating drawings, you should familiarize yourself with the interface.
After completing this lesson, you will be able to start the application, activate the appropriate
workspace, and identify key parts of the interface.
The following image identifies key interface elements:

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Figure58. AutoCAD Window

4.2 - CREATING BASIC OBJECTS


All drawings consist of basic objects that you create using basic commands. In this lesson, you
learn how to create objects such as lines, circles, arcs, rectangles, and polygons. You also learn
how to use the Erase command to erase objects.

Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
 Use the Line command to create lines in the drawing.

Command Line: Line, L


Ribbon: Home tab > Draw panel > Line

Figure 59. Line Command

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 Use the Circle command to create circles in the drawing.

Figure 1 Circle in Menu Bar

Command Line: CIRCLE, C


Menu Bar: Draw > Circle > choose option
Ribbon: Home tab > Draw panel > Circle

Figure 60. Circle Commands

 Use the Arc command to create arcs in the drawing.

Command Line: ARC, A


Menu Bar: Draw > Arc > 3 Points
Ribbon: Home tab > Draw panel > Arc

Figure 61. Arc in Menu Bar

 Use the Erase command to erase objects in the drawing.

Command Line: ERASE, E


Menu Bar: Modify > Erase
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Erase

Figure 62. Erase in AutoCAD

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 Use the Undo and Redo commands to return to previous drawing states.

Command Line: U, UNDO


Menu Bar: Edit > Undo
Quick Access Toolbar: Undo

Command Line: REDO


Menu Bar: Edit > Redo
Quick Access Toolbar: Redo
Figure63. Undo and Redo

 Use the Rectangle command to create rectangles in the drawing.

Command Line: RECTANGLE, REC


Menu Bar: Draw > Rectangle
Ribbon: Home tab > Draw panel > Rectangle

Figure64. Rectangle

 Use the Polygon command to create equal-sided polygons in the drawing.

Command Line: POLYGON, POL


Menu Bar: Draw > Polygon
Ribbon: Home tab > extended Draw panel > Polygon

Figure65. Polygon

4.3MANIPULATING OBJECTS
Editing objects is a common part of all design tasks. Whether you make modifications as a
result of a design change or in the process of creating more complex objects, editing is
something you will be required to do frequently as you draw.

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4.3.1 - MOVING OBJECTS
Command Line: MOVE, M
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify Panel >
Move

Figure67. Move Example


Figure66. Move

4.3.2 - COPYING OBJECTS


Ribbon: Draw tab > Modify panel > Copy
Command Line: COPY, CO
Menu Bar: Modify > Copy
Shortcut Menu: Select objects then right-click anywhere
in the drawing window and select Copy.

Figure 68. Copy Icon Figure 69. Copy Example

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4.3.3 - ROTATING OBJECTS

Command Line: ROTATE, RO


Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Rotate

Figure 70. Rotate Icon Figure71. Rotating Object

4.3.4 - MIRRORING OBJECTS


Command Line: MIRROR, MI
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify
panel > Mirror

Figure72 Mirroring Object


Figure72 Mirror Icon

4.3.5 - SCALING OBJECTS


Command Line: SCALE, SC
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify
panel > Scale

Figure 73. Scaling Object

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4.3.6 - CREATING AN ARRAY OF OBJECTS
Command Line: ARRAY, AR
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify
panel > Array

Figure 75. Use of ARRAY


Figure74 Array Icon

4.4 - ALTERING OBJECTS


Of all CAD design tasks, editing objects is most common. Editing is something you will be
required to do nearly every time you draw whether as the result of design changes or just the
standard practice of creating more complex objects from simple ones

4.4.1 - TRIMMING OBJECTS


Command Line: TRIM, TR
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Trim

Figure76. Trim Icon

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Figure77. Trimming Object

4.4.2 - OFFSETTING OBJECTS


Command Line: OFFSET, O
Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Offset

Figure78. Offset Icon


Figure79. Use of Offset

4.4.3 - CREATING FILLETS

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Original objects Fillet radius nonzero Fillet radius zero

Command Line: FILLET, F


Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Fillet

4.4.4 - CREATING CHAMFERS

Command Line: CHAMFER, CHA


Ribbon: Home tab > Modify panel > Chamfer

Figure80. Chamfer Icon

4.5 - ANNOTATING THE DRAWING


No drawing is complete without some kind of text to annotate the design. In this chapter, you
learn tocreate and edit text objects. You also learn how to edit and scale text so thatit appears
consistently inyour drawing and drawing layouts

Objectives

 Use the Mtext command to create multiline text.


 Create single line text.
 Use different methods to edit text.
 Create text styles to manage text.

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Multiline Text

Figure81. Multiline Text

Command Line: MTEXT, MT, T


Ribbon: Annotate tab > Text panel > Multiline Text

Ribbon: Home tab > Annotation panel > Multiline Text

Menu Bar: Draw > Text > Multiline Text

4.6 - DIMENSIONING
You use dimensions on drawings to convey size and specifications. Most drawings are not
completeuntil you have added dimensions.When dimensioning a drawing, you need to consider
the final output scale of the drawing, theplacement of dimensions, and how the dimensions
should appear.In this chapter, you learn how to create, edit, and manage dimensions in a typical
design environment.

Objectives
Create dimensions.
 Use dimension styles to manage dimensions.
 Create and edit multileader styles and multileaders.
 Use different commands and methods to edit dimensions

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Following example can be considered to understand the process of dimensioning in
AutoCAD.

Figure82. Dimensioning in AutoCAD

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4.7 - HATCHING OBJECTS
You can use hatch patterns and gradient fills on the drawing to bring focus or call attention to
certainareas. Once you have created hatch patterns and fills, you can edit them using similar
methods.

Figure85. Hatching

Point 1: Select the closed loop or profile where


Command Line: HATCH, H
you need hatching
Ribbon: Home tab > Draw panel > Hatch
Point2: You can select type of Hatching
Point 3: You can increase or decrease the gap
between hatching by scale changing.
Point 4: From preview tab you can watch hatch
preview.

At last click OK Tab.


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Figure86. Hatching Icon

4.8 - WORKING WITH REUSABLE CONTENT


When you create a drawing file, you are creating and interacting with a special database file
through a graphical interface. In some cases, you need to define a number of individual objects
as a single object for greater ease of use. That single object is referred to as a block. Once you
have grouped objects together into a block, you can reuse that data in other locations in the
same drawing or in other drawings. Leveraging existing data in your drawings helps you to
work more efficiently and keeps your design data consistent.

4.8.1 - CREATING BLOCKS

1. Begin a blank drawing and create some simplegeometry.


2. To create a block:
 On the Insert tab, click Block panel >Create.
 In the Block Definition dialog box, for the
block name, enter widget (1).
 For the block base point, click Pick Point
(2).
 Using object snap, select a point on the
object (3).
 Click Select Objects (4) and select the
Geometry you have created. Press ENTER to
Return to the dialog box.
 Click the Convert to Block option (5).
 Select OK to exit the dialog box.
3. To check that the geometry was converted to
a block:
 With the command line blank, select the
 object.
 The object should be highlighted with one
Grip visible at the base point you selected
for the block.
4. Save this drawing to practice the Insert Figure87. Block Definition
Command in the next section
Command Line: BLOCK, B
Ribbon: Insert tab > Block panel >
Create

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4.8.2 - INSERTING BLOCKS

Command Line: INSERT, I


Ribbon: Insert tab > Block panel > Insert

4.9 - PLOTTING YOUR DRAWINGS


In this lesson, you learn how to plot from a layout or model Figure88.
space to Insert
paperBlock
or toIcon
an electronic
file. Outputting your drawings is a crucial step in communicating your design ideas to others.

4.9.1 - PLOT

Command Line: PLOT, PRINT


Application Menu: Print or Print > Plot
Quick Access Toolbar: Plot

Figure89. Plot

So above mentioned are the features of AutoCAD in 2D. It also offers modelling in
three dimensions.The 3D module also have many features.First of all a 2D sketch is
formed and then with the help of features present in AutoCAD, it is converted into a
3D object. This moduke of 3D modelling is not explained here due to its complexicity.

SOLIDWORKS
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INTRODUCTION TO SOLIDWORKS

•The SolidWorks application is a mechanical design automation software package used to


create parts, assemblies, and drawings which take advantage of the familiar Microsoft
Windows graphical user interface.

•SolidWorks is an easy to learn design and analysis tool, (COSMOSXpress, COSMOSWorks,


COSMOSFloWorks, and COSMOSMotion) which makes it possible for designers to quickly
sketch 2D and 3D concepts, create 3D parts and assemblies, and detail 2D drawings. In
SolidWorks part, assembly, and drawing documents are all related.

•Drawings. Create 2D drawings of the 3D solid parts and assemblies which you design. Parts,
assemblies, and drawings are linked documents. This means that any change incorporated into
the part or assembly changes the drawing document. A drawing generally consists of several
views generated from the model. Views can also be created from existing views. Example: The
Section View is created from an existing drawing view.
.
•Constraints. SolidWorks supports numerous constraints. Constraints are geometric relations
such as: Perpendicular, Horizontal, Parallel, Vertical, Coincident, Concentric, etc. Apply
equations to establish mathematical relationships between parameters. Insert equations and
constraints to your model to capture and maintain.

Getting Started

Preparation. First you have to install a copy of Solidworks on your PC.

Interface. Once Solidworks is loaded you should get the following screen:

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Starting of SolidWorks

By selecting New Documenta new window appears giving the user the possibility to select
from three types of documents (Part, Assembly and Drawing)

New SolidWorks docoment

SolidWorks Menus and Toolbars

•By default, the Features toolbar contains the most commonly used solid features.

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Feature Toolbar

•The Sketch toolbar is the most frequently used toolbar in SolidWorks. The figure below
shows the default sketch entities on the Sketch toolbar, but there are many other entities that do
not appear on it and that you may want to use. These entities include Ellipse, Centerpoint
Ellipse, Spline on Surface, Split Entities, and many more.

Sketch Toolbar

•The Dimensions/Relations toolbar contains tools for creating all of the dimension types in
SolidWorks, including ordinate dimensions.

•In addition to the Sketch toolbar, you can also find tools for working with sketch relations.

•The Drawing toolbar contains tools for drawing view creation. You can also add buttons that
do not display by default on the toolbar, including Empty View, Predefined View, and
Update View.

drawing

•In SolidWorks it is easy to add or remove toolbars and icons. You can add or remove toolbars
in several ways:

•Right-click any toolbar, and then activate or deactivate the toolbar.

•Click Tools – Customize, and then activate or deactivate the toolbar from the Toolbars tab.

•Right-click any toolbar, select Customize, and again select the toolbar from the Toolbars tab.
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•Click View - Toolbars to activate or deactivate toolbars.

customize

We can enable the Status Bar in which SolidWorks communicates information back to the
user. It is located at the bottom of the screen and can display the following information,
indicators and icons:

• Progress as parts, assemblies, or drawings load

• Tooltips for icons

• Measurements

• Sketch status for an active sketch

• In-context editing

• Suspend Automatic Rebuilds

• Icons that allow you to turn Quick Tips off or on

• Sheet scale for drawings

• Cursor position for drawings and sketches

• Whether you are editing the sheet, sheet format, or view of a drawing

Identifying SolidWorks Documents

SolidWorks main design document file types:


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• Design Documents

•*.sldprt: SolidWorks Part file type

•*.sldasm: SolidWorks Assembly file type

•*.slddrw: SolidWorks Drawing file type

SolidWorks Commands and Tools

 Extrusion

We will start by selecting the top face , select sketch from the standard tool bar, and
then, using the elements found within the sketch toolbar. we will draw the contour
which will later be extruded.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

Figure 4.19-Extrusion
 Extruded Cut

•First we have to select a surface in which to create the pocket,


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•choose the normal view tool,

•select sketch and then in this case rectangle.

•Also in order to create a more complex pocket we will select the line tool and draw a simple
form.
• exit the sketch using the confirmation corner
• select the extrude cut, isometric view
• select Blind from the direction drop down menu

1. 2.

Figure 4.20- Extruded Cut

 Revolve

Revolve features have some rules that you must observe when choosing sketches that can be
used to create a revolve:

•Draw only half of the revolve profile (draw the section to one side of the centerline).

•The profile must not cross the centerline.

•The profile must not touch the centerline at a single point. It can touch along a line, but not at
a point. Revolving a sketch that touched the centerline at a single point would create a point of
zero thickness in the part.

 Revolved Cut

• In order to create a revolved cut we start by creating a sketch on a surface.

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• After completing the sketch we select the Revolved Cut feature.
After selecting the revolved cut feature we have to select a center line.
•After that we choose the revolve parameters (direction->one direction/two directions/mid-
plane and the angle).
•Clicking ok and accepting the changes will result in a revolved cut.
 Mirror feature

• Mirror Entities works by simply selecting the entities that you want to mirror along with a
single centerline, and pressing the Mirror Entities button on the Sketch toolbar.

• The mirror command applies not only to entities but to features as well.

• In order to demonstrate we will learn how to mirror a feature.

• First select the mirror tool.

• Select the plane against which you want to mirror the feature (in this case the top plane) .

Mirror feature

 Chamfer

•In order to do so, select the chamfer tool and the menu shown below will appear
As we can see the Angle distance is selected;
•first we select an edge, the chamfer distance is 10mm at an angle of 15 degrees.

•If we want to flip the direction of the chamfer we select the Flip direction check box.

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PROJECT UNDERTAKEN
MODELING OF TRACTOR

Undertaking a project is the way to test the knowledge gained in the training. I undertook
modeling of TRACTOR as my project during the training. All the tools that were studied in the
training were used in order to prepare the desired model.

First the parts were prepared separately and then were assembled finally. Following figures
show the different parts of the bicycle:

BODY:

FRONT TYRE:

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REAR TYRE

SILENCER

AIR FILTER

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The commands that were used in preparing the above mentioned parts are given below:

 Sketcher
 Extrude boss
 Extrude cut
 Mirror
 Fillet
 Loft
 Wrap
 Reference geometry
 Pattern
 Revolve

ASSEMBLY:
The components are assembled in the assembly module. The assembled bicycle is shown in the
figure below:

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RESULTAND DISCUSSION
By accepting CAD software tool, engineers can do the designing work faster than the
conventional drafting, therefore the industry’s overall requirement of the number of
designers get reduces. Thus CAD software tool is able to carry out the changes in the
products faster and bring them into the market faster before the competition.
According to the various survey carried out on increase in productivity of the industries
due to CAD software tool, it has been found that at lower ends the increase in
productivity is in the ratio of 3:1 and in many cases it is 10:1. This increase in
productivity is measured against the conventional designing process in which most of
the calculations are done by manually and drafting is done by using the drawing
boards. There are some cases where the increase in productivity is in the ratio of 100:1,
but this is not the general figure.
There are number of reasons which decide the increase in productivity by using CAD
software compared to using conventional designing process. These reasons are:

1) To make complicated and complex engineering drawing : For highly complicated and
complex drawings the conventional drawing process consumes lots of time.

2) Detailing required in the drawing: If more details are required, it can be done much
faster with CAD software tool.

3) Repetition of parts in the drawings: There is a feature of saving the repeated


drawings In CAD software and they can be used in other drawing without having to
draw them again.

4) Symmetrical drawing: The symmetry feature in the CAD software helps drawing
symmetrical parts faster

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CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE
In this section I have a lot of words to share but due to limitations I just want to tell
you that there is a bright future of CAD Software. Due to it, the process of new
innovations will increase and all of us know that innovation is the backbone of new
technology and new generation for world.
Everything can be digitalized easily due to uses of it. Material lose will be approx. to
zero. If you like to watch Hollywood movies then you will notice that all the scenes
will be possible in real world.

Figure 91 31
.

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