MODE 5: VC1
L1(dIi/dt) = Vi –Vc1 Iir
→(1)
Consider the loop pqrsp
VL2 –iL2r –Vc2 = 0
VL2 = Vc2 –
iL2r
Fig 2.5 Mode 5. L2(diL2/dt) = Vc2 –iL2r→(2)
In mode 5, the switch S1 is ON and Consider the loop LMNOL
switch S2 is OFF. The current direction VC2 –VLf –Vo +VC1 = 0
is from source voltage through L1,L2,Lf VLf = Vo +VC2 +VC1
and filter capacitor. Lf(diLf/dt) = Vo +VC2 +VC1→(3)
By KCL,
At node (B) For ideal case
Ii –iLf –iC1 = 0 r = 0 Ω ; R = 100 Ω
iC1 = Ii –iLf where,
C1(dVc1/dt) = Ii –iLf →(4) r –equivalent resistance of inductor
R – load resistance
At node (q) 3.5 MATLAB PROGRAM
iL2 –iLf –iC2 = 0 • clc;
iC2 = iL2 –iLf • clear all;
C2(dVc2/dt) = iL2 –iLf →(5) • D=0:0.1:1;
At node (x) • r=0;
iLf –io –iCf = 0 • R=100;
iCf = iLf –io • Ko=((1D)./((1
Cf(dVo/dt) = iLf –io →(6) (2.*D)).*(1+(2.*(r./R)).*((1D)./(1
The summary of equations of nonshoot (2.*D))).^2)));
through and shoot through state • plot(D,Ko);
L1(dIi/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(Vi –Vc1 –Iir) + • title('\bf Output voltage gain
(DT/T)(Vi+Vc2rIi) = 0 versus duty cycle with variable
L2(diL2/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(–Vc2 –iL2r) + ratio of r/R');
(DT/T)(Vc1riL2) = 0 • xlabel('\bf Duty cycle(D)');
Lf(diLf/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(Vo+Vc2+Vc1) • ylabel('\bf Voltage gain(Ko)');
+ (DT/T)(Vo) = 0 • grid on;
C1(dVc1/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(Ii –iLf) +
(DT/T)(iL2) = 0
C2(dVc2/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(iL2 –iLf) +
(DT/T)(Ii) = 0
Cf(dVo/dt) = ((1D)T/T)(iLf –(Vo/R)) +
(DT/T)(iLf –(Vo/R)) = 0
Time (ms)
Fig 5.1 Waveform of triangular input
WAVEFORM INFERENCE
The OPAMP compares the triangular
input voltage with the battery voltage
and the corresponding output pulses are
generated. These PWM pulses are
given to the switches through ONOFF
controller to trigger them.
SIMULATION
Fig 5.PWM pulse generation using MODEL – OPEN LOOP
operational amplifier.
Fig 5.3 Waveform of gate pulses ,
input voltage , output voltage.
WAVEFORM INFERENCE
When 75 percent duty cycle and input
voltage of 220 V is given the output
voltage is bucked to 90 V.
SIMULATION
MODEL CLOSED LOOP
Fig
5.6ProportionalIntegral Controller
The transfer function of a proportional
integral (PI) controller is defined as:
G(s) = k. ((1 + sT) / T)
Where ,
k – gain. ; T – time constant.
The output from the summer is given as Fig 5.8
the PI output.
voltage(Vo=337V)
versus Time(s).
SAG
Input Output
voltage(Vp2) voltage(Vp1)
319
300
320
290
337
280
270 321
SWELL
Input Output
voltage(Vp2) voltage(Vp1)

319 368 Fig 5.18
330 386

338 395

Fig 5.19
350 426
Step voltage source
A step voltage source changes from
Table 2. SWELL ( Input voltage and
one level to another at a given time.
output voltage)
Fig 5.20
Monostablemultivibrator
Fig 5.17
In a monostablemultivibrator, the
Absolute function block
positive (or negative) edge of the input
An absolute value function block gives
signal triggers the monostable. A pulse,
the absolute value of the input. The
with the specified pulse width, will be
output from the summer is given as
generated at the output. The output
input to this function block and the
output is given to the PI controller.
pulse width can be either fixed or
adjusted through another input variable.
CONCLUSION
In this paper, a new quasi Zsource
dynamic voltage restorer based on
singlephase quasi Z source ACAC
converter is proposed. The proposed
system is able to compensate voltage
swells and compensate up to over 50%
severe voltage sags. One of the
advantages in the proposed system is
that energy storage devices are not
require to compensate the voltage sag
swell. The feature that the output
voltage is boosted and inphase with the
input voltage is used for voltage sag
compensation; the feature that the
output voltage is bucked/boosted and CHAPTER 7
outof phase with the input voltage is
used for voltage swell compensation REFERENCES
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devices, therefore high efficiency and called singlephase quasiZsource ac–
reliability can be achieved. ac converters. The proposed converter
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This paper presents a quasiZsource phase angle. In addition, the proposed
inverter (qZSI) derived from the converter has the unique features that
traditional Zsource inverter (ZSI).The the input voltage and output voltage
proposed qZSI has the unique share the common ground and the
advantages of lower component ratings operation is in the continuous current
and constant dc current from the source. mode.
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systems, due to the fact that the PV This paper deals with a new quasi Z
cell's output varies widely with source Dynamic Voltage
temperature and solar irradiation. Restorer(DVR). The proposed system
based on singlephase quasi Zsource
ACAC converter which has features
such as the input voltage and output
voltage are sharing ground, and the
input current operates in continuous
current mode. Also the proposed system
is able to compensate voltages sags
and swells.