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ABSTRACT on inverter systems consisting of

energy storage and power switches


The proposed system based on
to increase the reliability of a power
single-phase quasi Z-source AC-AC
distribution system. In order to
converter which has features such
overcome the inconvenience of the
as the input source and output load
traditional Z-source inverter, a quasi
are sharing common ground, and the
Z-source inverter is implemented
input current operates in continuous
which has the advantages such as
current mode.Also the proposed
reducing passive component ratings
system is able to compensate
and improving input profiles. The
voltages sags and swells. During the
Dynamic Voltage Restorers (DVR)
voltage sags or swells, the proposed
developed are able to compensate
system regulates the adding or
voltage sags and swells, harmonics
missing voltage and maintaining the
maintaining a regulated voltage at
rated voltage at the terminals of the
critical load. But some of them are
load.An AC-AC converter is used
based on energy storage devices
instead of a power inverter in the
such as large capacitors or batteries
topology of a dynamic voltage
bank. If the power is increased, the
restorer avoiding the energy storage
size of these devices will increase
devices.With the increased use of
and make them more expensive.
the sophisticated electronics, high
Hence in this paper Dynamic Voltage
efficiency variable speed drive, and
Restorer (DVR) is implemented.
power electronics controller, power
quality has become an increasing
concern to utilities and customers INTRODUCTION
and huge economical losses due to
the interruption of production For ac–ac power conversion, the most
processes.The Voltage sag and popular topologiesare indirect ac–ac
Voltage swell are the most common converters with a dc link , matrix
type of power quality disturbance in converters, and direct pulsewidth
the distribution system. Many voltage modulation (PWM)ac–ac converters.
sag mitigation schemes are based
The indirect ac–ac converters andmatrix and a PWM inverter to the DC-link. The
converters can provide variable output DC-link quantity is then impressed by an
voltage and variablefrequency. energy storage element that is common
However, for applications, where only to both stages, which is a capacitor C
voltageregulation is needed, the direct for the voltage DC-link or an inductor L
PWM ac–ac converters are used for the current DC-link. The PWM
to perform as ac choppers or power line rectifier is controlled in a way that a
conditioners withthe following features: sinusoidal AC line current is drawn,
the provision of a better power factorand which is in phase or anti-phase (for
efficiency, low harmonic current in line, energy feedback) with the
single-stageconversion, simple corresponding AC line phase voltage.
topology, ease of control, smaller size,
andlowercost . The ac–ac conversions
or ac–ac lineconditioners can also Traditional single-phase Z-source PWM
ac–ac converters proposed have the
perform conditioning, isolating, and
following features: the output voltage
filtering of the incoming power in can be bucked-boosted and both in-
phase/out-of-phase with the input
addition to voltage regulation.In order to
voltage. However, the conventional Z-
overcome the inconvenience of the source PWM ac–ac converters have a
significant drawback: in that the input
traditional Z-source inverter, a class of
voltage and output voltage does not
quasi-Z-source inverters has been share the same ground, thus the feature
that the output voltage reverses or
presented in this paper which have
maintains its phase angle relative to the
some advantages, such as reducing input voltage is not supported well.
Another drawback is that the input
passive component ratings and
current of the conventional single-phase
improving input profiles. Z-source PWM ac–ac converters is
operated in the discontinuous current
mode (DCM). When the input current
operates in DCM, its waveform is
nonsinusoidal, which increases the input
current THD. Moreover, the peak of the
input current in the DCM is higher than it
An AC-AC converter with sinusoidal
is in the continuous current mode
input currents and bidirectional power (CCM).
flow can be realized by coupling a
pulse-width modulation (PWM) rectifier PROPOSED CONVERTER
In this paper, a kind of quasi-Z-source restorer consist of two inductors L1, L2
and two capacitor C1, C2
converter applied to ac–ac power
conversion is presented. The proposed (quasi Z-network), two bidirectional
converter called the single-phase quasi- switches, input LC filter and output LC
Z-source ac–ac converter inherits all the filter of the quasi Z-source converter, an
advantages of the traditional single- injection transformer and load. In
phase Z-source ac–ac converter, which addition, a voltage sag-swell controller
can realize buck–boost, reversal, or along with an instantaneous value
maintenanceof the phase angle. detection algorithm, which achieves not
Moreover, the proposed single-phase only a fast response but also a simple
quasi-Z-source ac–ac converter has a implementation is proposed for a new
number of the unique advantages as quasi Z-source dynamic voltage
follows: the input voltage and output restorer.
voltage shares the same ground, thus 3.2 DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER
the feature that the output voltage Dynamic Voltage Restoration (DVR) is a
reverses or maintains phase angle with method and apparatus used to sustain,
the input voltage is supported well; the or restore, an operational electric load
converter operates in CCM with special during sags, or spikes, in voltage
features, such as reducing in-rush, a supply. Often used in manufacturing
harmonic current, and improved power areas requiring significant power to run
factor. The operating principles and tools/equipment, and utility plants, this
simulation results in comparison to custom device mitigates potential
those of conventional single-phase Z- damage to equipment and undesirable
source ac–ac converter are presented. slowdowns to the production line caused
by an abrupt change in electric load.
This method uses critical devices such
The proposed scheme of the system is
shown in Fig.1.The proposed system as an automatic Transfer switch and
can be divided into five parts: the
IGBT Modules in order to operate.
ACinput, the quasi Z-source AC-AC
converter, the filter circuit, the injection
transformer and load as shown Fig.1. A
new quasi Z-source dynamic voltage 3.3 OPERATION PRINCIPLE
Operation principle of the proposed
system can beexplained with the
following modes.
MODES OF OPERATION:
MODE 1:

Fig 2.2 Mode 2


Now the switch S1 is OFF and switch
S2 is ON. Hence the source voltage is
disconnected from the switch S1. The
pre charged capacitor now supplies the
Fig 2.The equivalent circuit of the current through the inductor L2,switch
proposed converter. 2.1. Mode 1. S2. The filter capacitor supplies the
In this mode, the circuit is in the non-
resistive load. This state is called as the
shoot through state. In this state the shoot through state.
switch S1 is ON and switch S2 is MODE 3:
OFF. The current from the source
voltage flows through the inductor
L1,L2,Lf and the capacitor C1,C2
and Cf get charged.

Fig 2.3 Mode 3.


MODE 2:

In mode 3 again switch S1 is ON and


the switch S2 is OFF. The energy stored
in the inductor L1 and the supply voltage
charges the capacitor C1. The energy
stored in the inductor L2 charges the
capacitor C2.
NON SHOOT THROUGH STATE
MODE 4:

Fig3.Circuit analysis of the proposed


Fig 2.4 Mode 4. converter during the non shoot
In mode 4, the switch S1 is OFF and through state.
switch S2 is ON. The current direction is By KVL,
from source voltage through L1,C2, Consider the loop ABCDA
switch S2. The capacitor C1 also +Vi –VL1 – Iir –Vc1 = 0

energises the inductor L2. VL1 = Vi –Iir –

MODE 5: VC1
L1(dIi/dt) = Vi –Vc1 Iir
→(1)
Consider the loop pqrsp
-VL2 –iL2r –Vc2 = 0
VL2 = -Vc2 –
iL2r
Fig 2.5 Mode 5. L2(diL2/dt) = -Vc2 –iL2r→(2)
In mode 5, the switch S1 is ON and Consider the loop LMNOL
switch S2 is OFF. The current direction VC2 –VLf –Vo +VC1 = 0
is from source voltage through L1,L2,Lf VLf = -Vo +VC2 +VC1
and filter capacitor. Lf(diLf/dt) = -Vo +VC2 +VC1→(3)

3.4 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

By KCL,
At node (B) For ideal case
Ii –iLf –iC1 = 0 r = 0 Ω ; R = 100 Ω
iC1 = Ii –iLf where,
C1(dVc1/dt) = Ii –iLf →(4) r –equivalent resistance of inductor
R – load resistance
At node (q) 3.5 MATLAB PROGRAM
iL2 –iLf –iC2 = 0 • clc;
iC2 = iL2 –iLf • clear all;
C2(dVc2/dt) = iL2 –iLf →(5) • D=0:0.1:1;
At node (x) • r=0;
iLf –io –iCf = 0 • R=100;
iCf = iLf –io • Ko=((1-D)./((1-
Cf(dVo/dt) = iLf –io →(6) (2.*D)).*(1+(2.*(r./R)).*((1-D)./(1-
The summary of equations of non-shoot (2.*D))).^2)));
through and shoot through state • plot(D,Ko);
L1(dIi/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(Vi –Vc1 –Iir) + • title('\bf Output voltage gain
(DT/T)(Vi+Vc2-rIi) = 0 versus duty cycle with variable
L2(diL2/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(–Vc2 –iL2r) + ratio of r/R');
(DT/T)(Vc1-riL2) = 0 • xlabel('\bf Duty cycle(D)');
Lf(diLf/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(-Vo+Vc2+Vc1) • ylabel('\bf Voltage gain(Ko)');
+ (DT/T)(-Vo) = 0 • grid on;
C1(dVc1/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(Ii –iLf) +
(DT/T)(-iL2) = 0
C2(dVc2/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(iL2 –iLf) +
(DT/T)(-Ii) = 0
Cf(dVo/dt) = ((1-D)T/T)(iLf –(Vo/R)) +
(DT/T)(-iLf –(Vo/R)) = 0

Fig 4.Output voltage gain versus duty


The output voltage gain is
cycle.
Ko = (Vo/Vi) = ((1-D)/((1-
The waveform infers that below duty
2D)*(1+(2(r/R))*((1-D)/(1-2D))^2)))
cycle of 0.5,voltage sag is
compensated and above 0.5 value of
duty cycle, voltage swell is Triangular input voltage(V)
compensated.
• L1 = L2 ≥ ((√2 D(1-D)T*Vi^2)/((1-
2D)x%Po)
• C1 ≥ ((√2 ILf*D*T)/y%Vi)
• C2 ≥ ((√2 ILf*(1-D)T)/y%Vi)
Battery input voltage (V)
Where,
• Vi – rms value of input
voltage.
• D – duty ratio. PWM pulses (V)
• Po – output power.
• T – switching period.
• ILf – rms value of filter inductor
current.

Time (ms)
Fig 5.1 Waveform of triangular input

SIMULATION MODEL voltage, Battery voltage , PWM


pulses.

WAVEFORM INFERENCE
The OP-AMP compares the triangular
input voltage with the battery voltage
and the corresponding output pulses are
generated. These PWM pulses are
given to the switches through ON-OFF
controller to trigger them.
SIMULATION
Fig 5.PWM pulse generation using MODEL – OPEN LOOP
operational amplifier.
Fig 5.3 Waveform of gate pulses ,
input voltage , output voltage.

WAVEFORM INFERENCE
When 75 percent duty cycle and input
voltage of 220 V is given the output
voltage is bucked to 90 V.

SIMULATION
MODEL- CLOSED LOOP

Fig 5.2 Simulation model of open


loop.
SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig 5.4 Step


down transformer
The two terminals across the primary
winding is connected across the load
and the secondary terminals is
connected across the diode bridge
rectifier. The output ac voltage from the
load is stepped down and given to the
single phase diode bridge rectifier.
Fig
5.7Limiter
The output of a limiter is clamped to the
upper or lower limit whenever the input
exceeds the limiter range. If the input is
within the limit, the output is equal to the
Fig 5.5 Single phase
input. The output of the limiter is given
diode bridge rectifier
as feedback input to the OP-AMP as
The terminals from the stepdown
shown in fig 5.8.
transformer is given as input to the
single phase diode bridge rectifier. The
positive terminal on the other end is
given to the summer as shown in
fig..and the negative end is grounded.
This rectifier converts ac voltage to dc
voltage.

Fig
5.6Proportional-Integral Controller
The transfer function of a proportional-
integral (PI) controller is defined as:
G(s) = k. ((1 + sT) / T)
Where ,
k – gain. ; T – time constant.
The output from the summer is given as Fig 5.8

input to the PI controller.To avoid over Simulation model of closed loop

saturation, a limiter should be placed at SIMULATION RESULTS

the PI output.
voltage(Vo=337V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.9 Waveform of input voltage(Vi=


270V) and output voltage(Vo=321V)
versus Time(s).
Fig 5.11 Waveform of input
voltage(Vi= 290V) and output
voltage(Vo=320V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.10 Waveform of input


voltage(Vi= 280V) and output
Fig 5.13 Waveform of input
voltage(Vi= 290V) and output
voltage(Vo=320V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.12 Waveform of input


voltage(Vi= 300V) and output
voltage(Vo=319V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.14 Waveform of input


voltage(Vi= 318V) and output
voltage(Vo=-368V)
versus Time(s).
Fig 5.15 Waveform of input
voltage(Vi= 338V) and output
voltage(Vo=-395V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.14 Waveform of input


voltage(Vi= 329V) and output
voltage(Vo=-386V)
versus Time(s).

Fig 5.16 Waveform of input


voltage(Vi= 349V) and output
voltage(Vo=-429V)
versus Time(s).

SAG
Input Output
voltage(Vp2) voltage(Vp1)
319
300
320
290
337
280
270 321

Table 1. SAG ( Input voltage and


output voltage)

SWELL
Input Output
voltage(Vp2) voltage(Vp1)
-
319 368 Fig 5.18

- Fault creating block

330 386
-
338 395
-
Fig 5.19
350 426
Step voltage source
A step voltage source changes from
Table 2. SWELL ( Input voltage and
one level to another at a given time.
output voltage)

Fig 5.20
Monostablemultivibrator
Fig 5.17
In a monostablemultivibrator, the
Absolute function block
positive (or negative) edge of the input
An absolute value function block gives
signal triggers the monostable. A pulse,
the absolute value of the input. The
with the specified pulse width, will be
output from the summer is given as
generated at the output. The output
input to this function block and the
output is given to the PI controller.
pulse width can be either fixed or
adjusted through another input variable.

Fig 5.21 Voltage


sensor
Voltage sensors measure the voltages
of the power circuit and send
them to the control circuit.

Fig 5.23 Simulation model of closed


Fig 5.22 Gate turn loop with fault creating block.
off thyristor
A GTO switch is a symmetrical device
with both forward-blocking and reverse
blocking capabilities.
The fault is created in the input side by
setting time step of 0.2 seconds with the
pulse width of 0.004 seconds. The time
step is set in the step voltage source
block and the pulse width is set in
monostablemultivibrator block. This is
given to input side through the gate turn
off thyristor.
Fig 5.24 Waveform of input voltage
and output voltage versus Time(s)
Fig 5.24 Waveform of input with fault occurring in the input side.
voltage(Vi= 279V) and output
voltage(Vo=356V) WAVEFORM INFERENCE
versus Time(s). The fault created at 0.2 seconds for a
duration of 0.004 seconds in the input
side but the output side there is no
effect at that time instead it boosts the
voltage to overcome the fault.

CONCLUSION
In this paper, a new quasi Z-source
dynamic voltage restorer based on
single-phase quasi Z source AC-AC
converter is proposed. The proposed
system is able to compensate voltage
swells and compensate up to over 50%
severe voltage sags. One of the
advantages in the proposed system is
that energy storage devices are not
require to compensate the voltage sag-
swell. The feature that the output
voltage is boosted and in-phase with the
input voltage is used for voltage sag
compensation; the feature that the
output voltage is bucked/boosted and CHAPTER 7
out-of phase with the input voltage is
used for voltage swell compensation REFERENCES
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conduction and switching loss, less family of single-phase ac–ac converters
devices, therefore high efficiency and called single-phase quasi-Z-source ac–
reliability can be achieved. ac converters. The proposed converter
3. Y. Li, J. Anderson, F. Z. Peng, inherits all the advantages of the
and D. Liu, “Quasi-Z-source inverter traditional single-phase Z-source ac–ac
for photovoltaic systems,” in Proc. converter, which can realize buck–
IEEE APEC, 2009, pp. 918–924. boost, reversing, or maintaining the
This paper presents a quasi-Z-source phase angle. In addition, the proposed
inverter (qZSI) derived from the converter has the unique features that
traditional Z-source inverter (ZSI).The the input voltage and output voltage
proposed qZSI has the unique share the common ground and the
advantages of lower component ratings operation is in the continuous current
and constant dc current from the source. mode.
All of the boost control methods that 5. Ki-Taeg Lee †,” A New Z-Source
have been developed for the ZSI can be Dynamic Voltage Restorer,” Journal
used by qZSI.The qZSI features a wide of International Council on Electrical
range of voltage gain which is suitable Engineering .,vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 259-
for applications in photovoltaic (PV) 253, 2011.
systems, due to the fact that the PV This paper deals with a new quasi Z-
cell's output varies widely with source Dynamic Voltage
temperature and solar irradiation. Restorer(DVR). The proposed system
based on single-phase quasi Z-source
AC-AC converter which has features
such as the input voltage and output
voltage are sharing ground, and the
input current operates in continuous
current mode. Also the proposed system
is able to compensate voltages sags
and swells.