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LESSON

1

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION – I

Mechanics can be defined as the science, which describes

and predicts the condition of rest or motion of bodies under

the action of forces. Mechanics is divided into statics and

dynamics, the former deals with bodies at rest, while the

latter with bodies in motion. We study Dynamics in two

parts kinetics and kinematics. In kinetics we study about

cause of motion and in kinematics we study about geometry

of motion irrespective of its cause.

effect on motion, i.e., kinetics. The first section of this lesson

is devoted to the study of three laws of Newton, and the

second section to the application of these laws for solving

questions based on motion of connected bodies.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-2

SECTION I

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-3

Till the mid of 17th century most of the philosophers thought that some influence was

needed to keep a body moving. They thought that a body was in its „natural state‟ when it was at

rest and some external influence was needed to continuously move a body; otherwise it would

naturally stop moving.

Confusions about these issues were solved in 1687 when Newton presented his three laws

of motion. According to him influence is needed not for all kind of motion it is needed for

accelerated motion only. Before going in details about these three laws, let us summerise these

three laws first.

Law 1: An object/body will remain at rest or continue to move with uniform velocity unless an

external force is applied to it.

Law 2: When an external force is applied on a body of constant mass the force produces an

acceleration, which is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of

the body.

Law 3: When a body A exerts a force on another body B, B exerts an equal and opposite force

on A.

Before going in details about Newton‟s laws, let us first define frame of reference. Suppose

you are standing on your school bus with one of your friend who is properly seated in his seat.

There is another friend of yours standing on bus stop, waves his hand to stop the bus. The driver

applies brakes and your friend in bus observes you to move forward but your friend outside the

bus observes bus and you to stop together. So your two friends one in the bus and other outside

the bus observe you differently. The person in bus finds you initially at rest and then starts moving,

while a friend outside the bus observes nothing unusual. Each observer such as your friend in bus

or your friend outside bus defines a reference frame. A reference system requires a co-ordinate

system (made of origin and co-ordinate axes) and a set of clocks, which enable an observer to

measure positions, velocities and accelerations in his or her particular reference frame. Observers

in different frame may measure different displacements, velocities and accelerations.

Newton‟s laws are applicable for a special kind of frame of reference. In the example given

earlier, the friend outside the bus is in a frame which observes you moving with bus and then

comes to rest. But the friend inside the bus finds you to come in motion without any cause. So we

can say that your motion can‟t be analysed using Newton‟s law with respect to your friend in bus.

The first law of Newton is called “law of inertia” and the frame in which this law is applicable is

called as inertial frame. In the said example your friend outside the bus defines an inertial frame.

Any reference frame which is not accelerated (either at rest or moving with uniform

velocity) is called an inertial frame. Newton‟s first law is applicable only in an inertial frame. We

generally apply Newton‟s first law with respect to earth by assuming it an inertial frame. In actual

practice earth experiences an accelerations of 4.4 × 103 m/s2 towards the sun due to its circular

motion around sun. In addition earth rotates about its own axis once every 24 hours, a point on the

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-4

However these accelerations are small compared with g and can often be neglected. In most

situations we shall assume that a set of nearby points on earth‟s surface constitutes an inertial

frame. At a later stage we will study about accelerated frame also.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-5

If a body is observed from an inertial frame which is at rest or moving with uniform velocity

then it will remain at rest or continue to move with uniform velocity until an external force is applied

on it.

The property due to which a body remains at rest or continue its motion with uniform

velocity is called as Inertia.

Force is a push or pull that disturbs or tends to disturb inertia of rest or inertia of uniform

motion with uniform velocity of a body.

Hence first law of motion defines inertia, force and inertial frame of reference.

Illustration 1

4N 4N

acting on a particle. Find whether the

acceleration of the particle is zero or

non-zero. 120° 120°

6N

4 sin 30°

4 sin 30°

acceleration or not, let us see net force is 4N

4N

zero or not. Resolving the forces in

horizontal and vertical directions. 4cos 30° 4 cos 30°

Net force in horizontal direction

=0

6N

Net force in vertically downward direction

will have acceleration.

Newton‟s first law gives definition of force and inertia. Newton‟s second law of motion

defines magnitude of force. Before stating Newton‟s Second‟s Law, Let us know about Mass.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-6

If we attempt to change the state of rest or motion with uniform velocity, the object resists

this change. Inertia is solely a property of an individual object; it is a measure of response of an

object to an external force. If we take two blocks identical in shape and size; one of wood and the

other of steel, the same force causes more acceleration in the wooden block. Therefore we say

steel block has more inertia than the wooden block.

of the body‟s surrounding and of the method used to measure it. Its SI unit is kg.

Mass should not be confused with weight. Mass and weight are different quantities. We will

see later, the weight of a body is equal to magnitude of force exerted by the earth on the bodies

and varies with location. For example a body, which weighs 60 N on earth weights 10 N on moon.

But its mass is 6 kg on earth as well as on moon.

If we push a block of ice on a smooth surface by applying a horizontal force F, the block

will move with some acceleration. If we double the force the acceleration doubles, likewise if we

make the force 3F the acceleration triples. From such observations we conclude that the

acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on it.

Also if we push a block of ice on a smooth surface by applying a force F, the block moves

with an acceleration of a. If we double the mass, the same force causes an acceleration of a/2. If

we triple the mass of block, the acceleration will be a/3.

proportional to the net force acting on it and is inversely proportional to its mass’. Thus we can

relate mass, force and acceleration through following mathematical relation,

F ext Ma . … (1)

It is important to note here that it is a vector relation that is acceleration is in the direction of

net force. Also the relation is valid when mass of the object remains constant. More detailed cases

will be dealt later.

Illustration 2

Question: Two forces F1 and F2 act on a 5.0 kg F2

mass in mutually perpendicular

directions. If F1 = 20.0 N and F2 = 15.0 N,

find the acceleration.

90°

m F1

Solution: Acceleration will be in the direction of net force and will have the magnitude given by

F Ma

F = F1 F2

|F | 20 2 15 2 25 N

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-7

|F |

5 ms

-2

|a |=

5 .0

If the resultants force is at angle with F1 .

15

tan = = 37°

20

Therefore, acceleration is 5 ms2 at an angle 37° with the direction of F 1 .

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-8

We state this law as, “To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction”.

But what is meaning of action and reaction and which force is action and which force is

reaction?

Every force that acts on a body is due to the other bodies in environment. Suppose that a

body A experiences a force FAB due to other body B. The body B will also experience a force FBA

due to A. According to Newton‟s third law two forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in

direction. Mathematically we write it as

FAB = – FBA …..(2)

Here we can take either FAB or FBA as action force and the other will be the reaction force.

Another important thing is these two forces always acts on different bodies.

Illustration 3

force, causing it to accelerate as shown

in figure. Newton’s third law says that

the cart exerts an equal and opposite

force on the horse. In view of this, how

can the cart accelerate?

Solution: The motion of any object is determined by the external forces that acts on it. If resultant of

external force is non-zero, the object accelerate in the direction of resultant force. In this

situation, the horizontal forces exerted on the cart are forward force exerted by the horse (F)

and the backward contact force (f1) due to roughness of surface. When forward force

exerted on the cart exceeds the backward force, the resultant force on it is in the forward

direction. This resultant force causes the cart to accelerate to the right. The horizontal force

that acts on the horse are the forward contact force (f2) due to roughness of surface and the

backward force of the cart (F). The resultant of these two forces causes the horse to

accelerate.

F F

f1 f2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-9

Which one of the three laws of Newton do you think as most important?

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-10

PROFICIENCY TEST - I

The following questions deal with the basic concepts of this section. Answer the

following briefly. Go to the next section only if your score is at least 80%. Do not consult

the Study Material while attempting these questions.

(i) force,

(ii) inertia,

(iv) equilibrium.

2. Is there any relation between the total force acting on a body and the direction in which it

moves?

3. If a small sports car collides head-on with a massive truck, which vehicle experiences the

greater impact force? Which vehicle experiences the greater acceleration?

4. A force, F, applied to an object of mass m1 produces an acceleration of 3.0 ms-2. The same

force applied to another object of mass m2 produces an acceleration of 1.0 ms-2.

m2

What is the value of the ratio ? If m1 and m2 are combined, find their acceleration under

m1

the action of force F.

5. Two forces F1 and F2 of equal magnitudes act as shown

in figure on a 5.0 kg mass. If | F1 || F2 | = 5 N. Find the F2

magnitude and direction of the acceleration with F1 .

60°

F1

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-11

6. What is wrong with the statement, “Since the car is at rest, there is no force acting on it”?

How would you correct this statement?

6N

8N

4. 3

5. 1 N, 600

8. 10 N, 1430

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-12

SECTION II

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-13

Before knowing how to apply Newton‟s laws of motion to solve questions based on motion

of connected bodies and to know about the stepwise procedure to solve the same, let us know

about the commonly used forces in such situations.

Also in a particular question some assumptions will be given and one should know how to

use them while analysing the problem. Such assumptions definitely simplify the analysis at the

cost of some physical reality. But in later stages we add some new techniques that permit us to be

more realistic in our analysis.

(i) Weight of a body: It is the force with which Earth attracts a body towards its center. If

M is mass of body and g is acceleration due to gravity, weight of the body is Mg. We take its

direction vertically downward.

It is acted upon by its weights in vertically downward direction and is at

rest. It means that there is another force acting on the block in opposite

direction, which balances its weight. This force is provided by the table

and we call it as normal force. Hence, if two bodies are in contact a

contact force arises, if the surface is smooth the direction of force is Fig. 1

normal to the plane of contact. We call this force as Normal force. We

take its direction towards the body under consideration.

Weight of the block is acting in vertically downward but it is not

moving, hence its weight is balanced by a force due to string. This

force is called ‘tension in string’. Tension is a force in a stretched

string. Its direction is taken along the string and away from the

body under consideration.

2.2 ASSUMPTIONS AND THEIR BENEFITS

Fig. 2

(i) If the bodies are rigid and moving together then their accelerations, velocities and

displacements will be same. As in the figure acceleration of blocks A, B and C will be same

A aA = aB = aC

B

C

Fig. 3

(ii) If the surface is smooth the contact force will only be the normal force.

(iii) If the string is inextensible then accelerations, velocities and displacements of two blocks

moving together will be same as in figure

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-14

A B C F aA = aB = aC

Fig. 4

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-15

(v) If the pulley is massless and frictionless then tension on the two sides of pulley will be

same.

In later stage we will discuss about flexible string, massive and rough pulley also.

CONNECTED BODIES

In such questions you will be given a system of bodies under the action of forces and you

will need to find out accelerations of different bodies and unknown forces on bodies. The following

steps are needed by you to apply while solving such questions.

Step 1: Identify the unknown accelerations and unknown forces involved in the question.

Step 2: Draw free body diagram of different bodies in the given system.

Free body diagram (FBD). It is a diagram that shows forces acting on the body making it

free from other bodies applying forces on the body under consideration. Hence free body diagram

will include the forces like weight of the body, normal force, tension in string and the applied force.

The important thing while drawing FBD is the shape of the body should be taken under

consideration and force should be shown in a particular way. For example weight should be

applied from center of gravity of body, normal force(s) should be applied on the respective

surface(s), tension should be applied on the side(s) of string(s).

Examples

Mg

Fig. 5

(ii) Free body diagram of bodies in contact and moving together on smooth surface.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-16

M1g M2g

F N N

M1 F

M2

N2

N1

Fig. 6

Note that, normal force is taken normal to the surface of contact and towards the body

under consideration

(iii) Free body diagram of bodies connected with strings and moving under the action of

external force, on a smooth surface.

M2g M1g

M2 T T

M1 F F

N2

N1

Fig. 7

Note that, tension is acting along the string and away from the body under consideration.

Step 3: Identify the direction of acceleration and resolve the forces along this direction

and perpendicular to it.

Step 4: Find net force in the direction of acceleration and apply F = Ma to write equation

of motion in that direction. In the direction of equilibrium take net force zero.

Step 5: If needed write relation between accelerations of bodies given in the situation

Step 6: Solve the written equations in steps 4 and 5 to find unknown accelerations and

forces.

Illustration 4

strings.

a 37° 53° c

A body of mass 12.5 kg is suspended with

the help of strings as shown in figure.

Find tension in the string connected with b

12.5 kg block. Strings are light

d

[g = 10 ms2]

12.5 kg

Solution: Let the tensions in strings ab, bc and bd are respectively T1, T2, and T3. As the body is

hanging in equilibrium, we can use the condition that net force on block is zero. This will

give the value of T3. To know the values of T1 and T2 we need to draw FBD of knot b also.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-17

T2sin 53°

T3

T1sin37°

T2

T1

T2cos53°

T1cos37° b

12.5 g

T3

(FBD of hanging body) (FBD of knot b)

Illustration 5

M

A block of mass M = 3 kg is placed on a

frictionless, inclined plane of angle = 30 , as

0

= 300

shown in the figure.

is released. What is force exerted by the

2

incline on the block? [take g = 10 m/s ]

Solution: When the block is released, it will move down the incline. Let its acceleration be a. As the

surface is frictionless, so the contact force will be normal to the plane. Let it be N.

motion along the plane and equation for

equilibrium perpendicular to the plane.

i.e., Mg sin = Ma

0 N Mg sin

Mg cos

2 Mg

a = 5 m/s

(FBD of Block)

Also, Mg cos – N = 0

3

N = Mg cos = 3 10

2

N = 15 N

Illustration 6

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-18

F

Two blocks of masses M1 = 2 kg and M2 = 4kg M1

M2

are placed in contact with each other on a

frictionless horizontal surface as shown in

figure. A constant force F = 24 N is applied on

M1 as shown. Find magnitude of acceleration of

the system. Also calculate the contact force

between the blocks.

Solution: Here accelerations of both blocks will be same as they are rigid and in contact. As the

surfaces are frictionless, contact force on any surface will be normal force only. Let the

acceleration of each block is a and contact forces are N1, N2 and N as shown in free body

diagrams of blocks.

M1g M2g

F N N

N1 N2

F – N = M1a … (i)

M1g – N1 = 0 … (ii)

N = M2a …(iii)

M2g – N2 = 0 … (iv)

F 24

Solving (1) and (3) a = 4 m/s2

M1 M2 24

M2 F 4 24

N= 16 N

M1 M2 24

Illustration 7

M2 M1 F

A light, inextensible string as shown in

figure connects two blocks of mass

M1 = 2kg and M2 = 8kg. A force F = 20 N

as shown acts upon M1. Find

acceleration of the system and tension

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-19

in string.

Solution: Here as the string is inextensible, acceleration of two blocks will be same. Also, string is

massless so tension throughout the string will be same. Contact force will be normal force

only.

Let acceleration of each block is a, tension in string is T and contact force between M1 and

surface is N1 and contact force between M2 and surface is N2.

a a

M2g M1 g

T T F

N2 N1

(FBD of M2) (FBD of M1)

For M1 , F – T = M1 a … (i)

M1g – N1 = 0 … (ii)

M2g – N2 = 0 … (iv)

F 20

a

2

= 2 m/s

M1 M 2 82

M2 F 8 20

and T = 16 N

M1 M 2 28

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-20

Illustration 8

passes over a pulley. (Atwood’s Machine)

M2 = 2kg are suspended vertically over a

frictionless pulley of negligible mass as shown

M2

in figure. Find accelerations of each block and

2

tension in the string. [take g = 10 m/s ]

M1

Solution: As the string is inextensible, the magnitude of acceleration of two blocks will be same.

Pulley in question is massless and frictionless so tension in strings on two sides of pulley

will be same.

T T

a a

M1g M2g

(FBD of block M1) (FBD of block M2)

(M1 M 2 ) g 3 2

a= 10

M1 M 2 32

2

a = 2 m/s

2M1 M 2 23 2

and T g 10

M1 M 2 32

T = 24 N

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-21

Illustration 9

with the help of a spring balance. The

spring balance is attached to the ceiling a0

of an elevator moving with upward

2

acceleration a0 = 1 m/s as shown in

figure. What is reading of spring

2

balance? [take g = 10 m/s ]

M

the block moving with the elevator upward

with an acceleration a0. Also spring balance

will give the reading according to tension in

spring. So calculating reading of spring a0

balance means to find tension in the spring

of spring balance.

Mg

Let tension in spring is T.

(FBD of block)

Applying Newton‟s Second law for the block,

This will be the reading of spring balance. Note that the reading given by spring balance is

different from the weight of block.

Till now we had seen the case when accelerations of the different parts of a system are

same. There are situations in which the accelerations of different parts of the system may not be

same. We get such situations in case of moveable pulleys or bodies in contact where each body is

free to move.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-22

P B

B A

Fig. 9

Fig. 8

For example in the figure 8, pulley P is movable which leads to different accelerations of

block B and A.

In the figure 9, triangular wedge A and sphere B will not have same acceleration.

properties of system. We call such relations as constrained relation.

Illustration 10

and acceleration of block B.

B A

inextensibility of string.

xB d k e

i.e., ab + bc + cd + de + ef = constant … (i)

xA

b g c

Let at any moment A and B are at distances

xA and xB from the support as shown in

figure. h

B f

Let us take gh = 1 and i k = 2 and express

A

the length in equation (i) in terms of xA, xB, 1

and 2

we get,

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-23

2xB - xA =0

2xB x A

Also, =0

t t

2VB – VA =0

2VB VA

=0

t t

aA

2aB = aA 2

aB

Here we get the relation between the acceleration by using the inextensibility of string but

after some practice such relation can easily be written by observation.

Let us think B moves by a distance x during an interval of time, this will cause movement of

pulley g by x. an extra length of 2x of string will come to the left of pulley k. This must be

coming from right side of pulleys. Hence displacement of A will be 2x. On the basis of this

discussion we can say if the acceleration of block B is a, then the acceleration of A will be

2a.

Illustration 11

is a rod. The rod is constrained to move

vertical. The acceleration of wedge A is aA and B

a

that of rod B is aB. Find A .

aB A

=45 0

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-24

rigidity of body. Let xA and xB are displacement of

wedge and rod as shown in figure. p

r

In pqr, qr = xA and pr = xB q

xB

tan = =45

0

xA

xA

xB = xA tan

VB = VA tan

aB = aA tan

aA 1

aB tan 45 0

aA

1

aB

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-25

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-26

PROFICIENCY TEST - II

The following questions deal with the basic concepts of this section. Answer the

following briefly. Go to the next section only if your score is at least 80%. Do not consult

the Study Material while attempting these questions.

1. In a tug-of-war between two athletes, each pulls on the rope with a force of 200 N. What is

tension in the rope?

30°

T1

T2

T3

10 kg

4. Draw free body diagram of bodies in the given system. All surfaces are frictionless and

strings are massless.

F1 M1

M2 F2 M3 M2 M1

M3 F2 F1

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-27

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-28

1. 200 N

2. T1 = 200 N, T3 = 100 N

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-29

Example 1:

If a force F = ( 3iˆ 4jˆ 10 kˆ ) N produces an acceleration of 1 m/sec in a given mass, then

2

the mass is

Solution:

Magnitude of the force = | F | = (3)2 ( 4)2 (10 )2 125 N

(a)

Example 2:

hanging on a string passing over a fixed frictionless pulley

as shown in figure. The tension in string connecting B and

C is nearly

(a zero (b) 13 N A B

(c) 3.3 N (d) 19.6 N

Solution:

2g T2 = 2a … (i)

T2 2g

Adding (1), (2) and (3)

2g T2

2g g C 2kg

a

6 3

2g

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-30

2g

Tension, T2 = 2g 2a = 2g

3

4g 49.8 39 .2

= 13 N

3 3 3

(b)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-31

Example 3:

A rope of length L is pulled by a constant force F. What is the tension in the rope at a

distance x from one end where the force is applied?

FL F (L x) FL Fx

(a) (b) (c) (d)

x L (L x) (L x)

Solution: P

F

Let AB be a rope of length L. Let F be the force onstant force acting on end B

pulling the rope to the right. A B

M

Mass per unit length of rope = where M is the total mass.

L

Let P be a point at a distance x from B. If T is the tension in the rope at P then for the part AP, the

tension is towards right while for the part PB it is towards left. If a is the acceleration produced in the

rope, then for part PB

F–T = mass of PB a

Mx

F–T = a

L

F(L X)

T

L

(b)

Example 4:

frictionless surface by a rope of mass m. The force P is

applied at one end of the rope. What is the force, which

the rope exerts on the block?

P P PM PM

(a) (b) (c) (d)

M m M(m M) Mm M m

Solution:

acceleration of the system.

a

Here T = Ma for block.

T T P

PT = ma for rope.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-32

P Ma = ma

P

P = a (M + m) a

M m

MP

T =

(M m)

(c)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-33

Example 5:

2

A body of mass 1 kg is suspended from a spring balance graduated at g = 10 m/s . The

2

spring balance is fixed in a lift, which is moving up with an acceleration of 5 m/s . What is the

reading in the spring balance?

Solution:

T mg = ma T = m (g + a) newton

a

mg 1

g kg 5

= = 1 kg = 1.5 kg

g 10

(b)

Example 6:

With what acceleration ‘a’ should the box in the figure Box

descend so that a body of mass M placed in it exerts a

Mg

force on the base of the box?

4 a

3g g

(a) (b)

4 4

g g

(c) (d)

2 8

Solution:

elevator, equation of motion can be written as a

Mg N = Ma N

Mg

Mg 3g

Here, N a FBD of block

4 4

(a)

Example 7:

2

An elevator weighing 6000 kg is pulled upward by a cable with an acceleration of 4.9 m/s .

The tension in the cable is

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-34

Solution:

g

T 6000g = 6000 a = 6000

2

T = 9000g N

(d)

Example 8:

Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are connected by a light string passing over a smooth light

fixed pulley. The acceleration of the system is g/7. The ratio of their masses is

Solution:

m1m2 g

a= g

m1m2 7

7m1 7m2 = m1 + m2

6m1 = 8m2

m1 4

or, =

m2 3

(c)

Example 9:

2

A force F1 acting on a free mass m at rest produces in it an acceleration of 1 m/s . Another

force F2 acting on the same mass at rest can produce in it a velocity of 10 m/s after 5 s. The

greatest acceleration of the mass m when both forces F1 and F2 act on it together will be

2 2 2 2

(a) 2 m/s (b) 4 m/s (c) 3 m/s (d) 1 m/s

Solution:

2

F1 produces an acceleration of 1 m/s .

2

v = at, 10 = 5a, a = 2 m/s

2

Hence both together can produce a maximum acceleration of 3 m/s

(c)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-35

Example 10:

A body (mass 0.5 kg) is constrained to move Eastwards. A force of 20 N acts on the body

directed 30° east of north. The acceleration produced in the body due to the force will be

2 2 2

(a) 40 m/s (b) 20 m/s (c) 20 3 m/s (d) zero

Solution:

The body is constrained to move only in the East direction. Hence only the component of 20 N in the

East direction can be effective on the body. The component force is 20 cos 60° = 10 N. This is

10 2

acting on mass of 0.5 kg will produce an acceleration of = 20 m/s .

0.5

(b)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-36

Example 1:

An aeroplane, which together with its load has a mass M =9600kg, is falling with an

2

acceleration of a = 5 m/s . If a part of the load equal to m kg be thrown out, the aeroplane will

2

begin to rise with an acceleration of a = 5 m/s . Find the value of m?

Solution:

Let R be the upthrust acting on it. Since it is falling down with an acceleration a,

Mg R = Ma ... (i)

Let a mass m kg be thrown out. The remaining mass is (M m) kg and now the plane

2

begins to rise up with an acceleration a m/s .

mg = (2M m)a

or, m (g + a) = 2Ma

2Ma 2 9600 5

m kg = = 6400 kg

a g 5 10

Example 2:

In the system shown below, friction and mass of the pulley are negligible. Find the

acceleration of m2 if m1 = 300 g, m2 = 500 g and F = 3.4 N

F

m2

m1

Solution:

When the pulley moves a distance d, m1 will move a distance 2d. Hence m2 will have twice as large

an acceleration as m2 has. Also because the total force on the pulley must be zero,

T1 = (T2/2).

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-37

T1

T2

F

m2

m1 T1

T2

Putting T1 = , (i) gives T2 = 4m1 a

2

F 3.4

2

Hence a = = 2 m/s

4m1 m2 4(0.3)0.5

Example 3:

A light inextensible string passing over a smooth fixed pulley attaches two masses of

magnitudes m and xm. Find the product of two possible values of x if the acceleration of the

system is g/4.

Solution:

Case 1:

When x < 1, xm < m and the mass m will fall while the mass xm T T

will rise.

m

xm

The equations of motion will be

Adding, mg (1 x) = (1 + x) ma

or, g(1 x) = a (1 + x)

g

It is given a = . Putting this value,

4

1 x

(1 x) =

4

3

or, 5x = 3 Hence x =

5

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-38

Case 2:

When x > 1, xm > m and the mass xm will fall while mass m will rise. The equations of motion will be

Adding, (x 1) mg = (x + 1) ma

g

Putting a = , 4(x 1) = (x + 1)

4

5

or, 3x = 5 giving x =

3

g 3 5

Thus the two possible values of x for which the acceleration of the system will be are and .

4 5 3

3 5

Therefore their product is

5 3

=1

Example 4:

A mass of 2 kg hangs freely at the end of a string, which passes over a smooth pulley fixed

at the edge of a smooth table. The other end of the string is attached to a mass M on the

table. If the mass on the table is doubled the tension in the string increases by one-half. Find

the mass M.

Solution: a

T

The tension in the string is given by M

mM

T = g … (i)

m M

T

In the second case M changes to 2M and T changes

3 a

to T m

2

mg

3 m(2M )

T g … (ii)

2 m(2M )

2 m 2M 1

3 m M 2

Substituting m = 2 kg, M = 1 kg

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-39

Example 5:

pulley system as shown. A is a fixed pulley while B is a A

movable one. Both are considered light and frictionless.

2

Find the acceleration of 2 kg mass. [take g = 10 m/s ] B

2 kg

7 kg

Solution:

will descend downwards while M2 rises up. If the acceleration A

of M1 is a downwards, M2 will have an acceleration 2a

upwards.

T T T

Now, M1g 2T = M1a

T M2g = M2 2a M B

2a 2

M

2g

M12M2 7 22

a = g 10

M1 4M2 7 42 M a

1

M

a = 2 m/s

2 1g

2

acceleration of 2 kg mass = 2a = 4 m/s

Example 6:

which passes over a pulley as shown in figure. The masses

are held initially with equal lengths of the strings on either

side of the pulley. Find the velocity of masses at the instant

the lighter mass moves up a distance of 15m. The string is

suddenly cut at that instant. Calculate the time taken by

2

heavier mass to reach the ground. (g = 10 m/s ) 2m

m

30 m

Ground

Solution:

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-40

the horizontal position through the line AB.

When the masses are left free, B comes down, A moves up with

acceleration a.

(2mm)g g B

Now, a = A

2mm 3 m 2m

velocity v is given by

10

v= 2aS 2 15 10 m/s

3

Both the masses A and B have the velocity of same magnitude 10 m/s. At this instant the string

snaps.

u = 10 m/s

2

a = 10 m/s

S = (30–15) = 15 m

1 1

at 15 = 10 t + 10 t

2 2

S = ut +

2 2

Solving t = 1 s

Example 7:

A lift is going up. The total mass of the lift and the passengers is 1500 kg. The variation in the

speed of the lift is given in the graph.

Speed m/s

3.6

0 t sec

2 10 12

What will be the tension in the rope pulling the lift at t equal to (i) 1 s (ii) 6 s and

2

(iii) 11 s? [take g = 9.8 m/s ]

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-41

Solution:

v m/s

A B

3.6

ts

0 2 10 12

3.6

From t = 0 to t = 2 s, the lift moves up with uniform acceleration a = 1.8 m/s 2

2

If T be the tension in the rope pulling the lift with the passengers up, then

T Mg = Ma

or T = M (g + a)

= 17400 N

(ii) At t = 6 s, the lift moves with uniform speed of 3.6 m/s and hence a = 0

or T = Mg

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-42

3.6 2

The deceleration = 18

. m/s

2

are placed on a smooth horizontal table. A string,

which joins them, hangs over the edge supporting

a light pulley, which carries a block of mass 16 kg.

and perpendicular to the edge of the table. The

parts of the string outside the table are vertical.

Find the acceleration of the block of mass 16kg.

2

[ take g = 10 m/s ] 16kg

Solution:

Let T be the tension in the string; a be the acceleration of the mass 18 kg; 2a be the acceleration of

mass 9 kg.

T = m 2a

a 2a 3a

The mass 16 kg will come down with an acceleration

2 2

3a

16 g 2T 16 18kg 9kg

2

3a a 2a

16 g 4 9a 16

2

T T

8

a m/s

2

3

3 2T

the acceleration of 16 kg mass = a = 4 m/s2 3a

2

2

16kg

3 mg

Example 9:

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-43

inextensible string. Consider a smooth inclined plane of inclination 30° over which one of

them can be placed while the other hangs vertically and freely. If t1 and t2 are the time taken

in dragging m1 and m2 up the whole length of the plane, find t2/t1.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-44

Solution:

m2 m1

(9 kg) (6 kg)

m1 m2

30°

Case (i):

Let a1 be the acceleration of the system when 9 kg mass hangs freely and T the tension in the

string.

m1g T = m1a1

1

g 96

a1

2 6g 2g

15 15 5

Case (ii):

Let a2 be the acceleration of the system when 6 kg mass hangs freely and T the tension in the

string.

m2g T = m2a2

1 3g g

= g 69 a2 (69) a2

2 30 10

1

In case (i), S a1t12

2

1

In case (ii), S a2t22 a1t12 a2t22

2

t2 a1

2

t1 a2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-45

Example 10:

wedge A in the arrangement shown in

B

figure, if the ratio of the mass of wedge to

A

that of rod equals n and there is no friction

between any contact surfaces. =45 0

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-46

Solution:

M

Let m be the mass of rod B and M that of wedge n

m

aB = aA tan … (i)

mg

aA

aB

Mg

=450

N1

N

FBD of rod FBD of wedge

gtanα

aB

tanα ncotα

g

aA

tanα ncotα

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-47

MIND MAP

Law 1. (Defines force and Inertia) Law 2. Gives relation between force Law 3. When a body A exerts a force on

Everybody remains at rest or and acceleration another body B, B exerts an equal and

continues to move with uniform opposite force on A. If one of these two

velocity unless an external force is

applied to it.

i.e., F ext Ma forces is considered as action, then

other will be reaction.

Rigid body MOTION Normal force: Normal to the surfaces of

contact and towards the body under

Inextensible string consideration.

(Applicable for inertial frame only) Weight of body: Equals to Mg and acts

Massless string vertically downward.

Tension in string: along the string, away from

Massless and frictionless pulley the body under consideration.

1. Identify the unknown forces and accelerations.

2. Draw FBD of bodies in the system.

3. Resolve forces in the direction of motion and perpendicular to it.

4. Apply F = M a in the direction of motion and F = 0 in the direction of equilibrium.

5. Write constraint relation if required and possible.

6. Solve the equations written in steps 4 and 5 to get the results.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-48

EXERCISE – I

1. A block of mass m is placed on a smooth inclined plane of inclination with the horizontal.

The force exerted by the plane on the block has a magnitude

The acceleration of the particle is 10 ms-2. The tension in the string is

The masses of A and B are 5 kg and 2 kg. The

acceleration of the system is

7

(a) g (b) g

3

A

3 1 B

(c) g (d) g

7 7

10 m/s upward. The velocity of B at that time will

be

(a) 30 m/s downward (b) 20 m/s downward

(c) 10 m/s down ward (d) 5 m/s down ward B

10 m/s A

(neglect friction) T2 T1 0

3 kg 12kg 15kg 30

(a) 3 : 2 (b) 1 : 3

(c) 1 : 5 (d) 5 : 1

6. A body is placed on a rough inclined plane of inclination . As the angle is increased from

0° to 90°, the contact force between the block and the plane

(a) remains constant (b) first remains constant then decreases

(c) first decreases then increases (d) first increases then decreases

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-49

7. Two weights w1 and w2 are suspended form the end of a light string passing over a smooth

pulley. If the pulley is pulled up at an acceleration g, the tension in the string connecting the

two weights will be

4w 1w 2 2w 1w 2 w1 w 2 w 1w 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

w1 w 2 w1 w 2 w1 w 2 2w 1 w 2

8. A ship of mass 3 × 107 kg initially at rest is pulled by a force of 5 × 104 N through a distance

of 3 m. Assuming that the resistance due to water is negligible, the speed of the ship is

(a) 1.5 m/s (b) 60 m/s (c) 0.1 m/s (d) 5 m/s

9. A fireman wants to slide down a rope. The breaking load for the rope is 75% of the weight

of the man. With what acceleration should the fireman slide down? (Acceleration due to

gravity is g).

g g 3g

(a) (b) (c) (d) g

4 2 4

clamped pulley of mass m supports a block m

of mass M as shown. The force on pulley by

the clamp is given by

11. A body of mass 2 kg is acted upon by two force each of magnitude 1 N, making an angle of

60° with each other. The net acceleration of the body (in m/s2) is

3 2

(a) 0.5 (b) 1 (c) (d)

2 3

constant force then acts for 4 second on the body and gives it a speed of 2 m/s in opposite

direction. The force acting on the body is

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-50

and 1 kg blocks in three different cases

as shown in the figure. If x1, x2 and x3 be

the extensions in the spring in these

three cases respectively then

(1) (2) (3)

(a) x1 0, x 3 x 2 (b) x 2 x1 x 3

(c) x 3 x1 x 2 (d) x1 x 2 x 3

moving up so that the block of mass M exerts a force a

7Mg/4 on the floor of the box? M

on the floor as shown in figure. A light string, passing

over a light frictionless pulley, connects them. An

upward force F is applied on the pulley and maintained

constant. Find the maximum value of F applied so that

the accelerations of 5 kg is zero

(g = 10 ms-2) 5 kg 2 kg

(a) 50 N (b) 100 N.

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-51

of mass m each, have

acceleration a1, a2 and a3

respectively. F1 and F2 are

external forces of magnitudes

2 mg and mg respectively. Then m m m

A B C

(a) a1 = a2 = a3 F1 = 2mg 2m m

B

(b) a1 > a3 > a2

F2 = mg

(c) a1 = a2, a2 > a3

stretched between points A and B on a vertical circle. If

the bead starts from rest at A, the highest point on the

circle B

(a) its velocity v on arriving at B is proportional to sin

respect to ground is (Neglect friction) m

B

g g

(a) (b) 10

3 3 m

2g

(c) (d) g

3

m C

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-52

smooth, the acceleration of the block m2 will be m1

m2 g 2m 2 g

(a) (b)

4m1 m 2 4m1 m 2

2m 2 g 2m1g

(c) (d) m2

m1 4m 2 m1 m2

are accelerated by applying a force 15 N on A. If mass

of B is twice that of A, the force on B is

(a) 30 N (b) 15 N (c) 10 N (d) 5 N

(c) the frame may be inertial but the resultant force on the particle is zero

(d) the frame may be noninertial but the resultant force on the particle is zero

22. The force exerted by the floor of an elevator on the foot of a person standing there is more

than the weight of the person if the elevator is

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-53

balances as shown in figure.

(c) The upper scale will read 10 kg and the lower zero

10 kg

(d) The readings may be anything but their sum will be 10 kg

25. In the situation shown in figure, the tension in the string connecting the two blocks will be

(string is massless and frictional force is negligible)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-54

EXERCISE – II

massless spring. At that instant when acceleration of A is

A B F

a, force F acts on the mass B as shown in figure, the

acceleration of B at that instant is

F F

(a) a (b) a (c) -a (d)

M M

suspended as shown is figure. Find the extension in the

spring when acceleration of 3kg and 1kg is same if spring

constant of the spring k = 100 N/m. (g = 10 m/s2)

1 kg

(a) 10 cm (b) 20 cm 2 kg

(c) 30 cm (d) 25 cm

3 kg

figure. Mass of each of blocks A and B is m. If system is in

equilibrium and mass of C is M, then

A C B

m

wedge of mass M so that the block of mass m placed on it F

M

appears stationary w.r.t. wedge, is (neglect friction)

over a fixed pulley and hangs at the other side. It makes a

an angle of 300 with the ground. A monkey of mass 5 kg 300

climbs up the rope. The clamp can tolerate a vertical force

of 40 N only. The maximum acceleration in upward

direction with which the monkey can climb safely is

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-55

(a) 2 m/s2 (b) 4 m/s2 (c) 6 m/s2 (d) 8 m/s2

applied so that the whole system can remain in the state of

rest? Both the wedges are of the same mass M and the F F

angle inclination is . (Neglect friction )

(a) Mg tan (b) Mg/tan

(c) 2Mgtan (d) Mgsin

released from the balloon it starts raising with the same acceleration . Assuming that its

volume does not change, what is the value of m?

2 g g

(a) M (b) M (c) M (d) M

g g 2

force of magnitude (3t) N is applied on the block as shown

300

in the figure at t = 0, where t is the time in second.

Horizontal acceleration of the block when it losses the

contact with the plane is

200 N

9. Two blocks A and B of masses 5 kg and 7 kg are

connected by a heavy rope of mass 2 kg as shown in A 5 kg

figure. An upward force of 200 N is applied on A. Then the

tension at the middle of rope is

(a) 114.3 N (b) 112.2 N 2 kg

(c) 10.3 N (d) none of these

B 7 kg

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-56

figure. The wire passes over a fixed pulley at B and is firmly

F

attached to a vertical wall at A. The line AB makes an angle

with the vertical, and the pulley at B exerts on the wire a

force F, then the value of force F is B

C

(a) 2 mg sin (b) 2 mg cos

2 2 m

(c) 3 mg cos (d) none of these

2

of mass m each, have

acceleration a1, a2 and a3

respectively. F1 and F2 are

external forces of magnitudes 2

mg and mg respectively. Then m m m

A B C

(a) a1 = 2g F1 = 2mg 2m m

B

(b) a2 = g/3

F2 = mg

(c) a3 = g

(d) a1 = a2 = a3 = g

bowl. It passes the point A at t = 0. At this instant of

time, the horizontal component of its velocity is v. A Q

A B

bead Q of the same mass as P is ejected from A at

t = 0 along the horizontal string AB, with the speed v.

Friction between the bead and the string may be

P

neglected. Let tP and tQ be the respective times taken C

by P and Q to reach the point B. Then

(c) tP > tQ (d)

tQ length of cord AB

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-57

horizontal. A groove OA = 5 m cut in the plane makes A

cylinder

an angle 30° with OX. A short smooth cylinder is free to

slide down under the influence of gravity. The time 30°

taken by the cylinder to reach from A to O is 30°

O

(g = 10 m/s2) X

(a) 4 s (b) 2 s

(c) 2 2 s (d) 1 s

masses of the pulley and string and also friction. The

accelerations of blocks A and B are

m1 A

B m2

15. A man thinks about 4 arrangements as shown to raise two small bricks each having mass

m. Which of the arrangement would take minimum time?

F

F

m m

m m

(a) (b)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-58

F

F

m

m

(c) (d) m m

sitting on it (as shown in figure). He applies a force

of 250 N. If the combined mass of the man and 250 N

trolley is 100 kg, the acceleration of the trolley will be

[sin 15° = 0.26]

15°

2 2

(a) 2.4 m/s (b) 9.4 m/s

respect to ground is (Neglect friction) m

B

g g 2

(a) (b)

2 2 m

2g

(c) (d) g 2

3

2m C

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-59

diagram. If the inclined plane is frictionless, and

the system is in equilibrium, then force exerted m

by axle on the pulley is

m

m

mg

(a) mg (b) (c) 3mg (d) 2mg

2

19. In the given figure, all strings and pulleys are ideal

g

and acceleration of m1 is m/s2 upward. Then find

3

the ratio of m1/m2.

1

(a) (b) 1

3

m2 m1

1 1

(c) (d)

2 4

exerted by the axle on the pulley. Assuming all 20 kg

surface are frictionless (g = 10 m/s2)

(c) 30 2 N, (d) 40 N 5 kg

fallen into a ditch of width 2d. Two

persons are slowly pulling it out

using a light rope and two fixed h

pulleys as shown in Figure.

Assuming the force exerted by M

two persons are equal, calculate

2d

the force when the boulder is at a

depth h.

Mg 2 Mg 2 Mg 2 2 Mg 2 2

(a) d 4h 2 (b) d 4h 2 (c) d h (d) d h

4h 4 2h 2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-60

on the floor as shown in figure. A light string, passing

over a light frictionless pulley, connects them. An upward

force F is applied on the pulley and maintained constant.

Find the maximum value of F applied so that the

accelerations of 5 kg is zero (g = 10 ms-2)

shown in figure. The wedge is given an acceleration a.

The value of a so that the mass m just falls freely is

m

(a) g (b) g cot a

(c) g sin (d) g tan

B C

upward. If the normal force between 2m and 3m is k, then 2m

3m g

the value of force F applied on 3m is

F

(a) k (b) 6 k

(c) 3 k (d) 2 k

T B

is pulled by a load of 2 kg through a uniform rope ABC of

length 2 m and mass 1 kg. As the load falls from BC =0

to BC =2m, its acceleration (in m/s2) changes from C

20 30 20 30 20 30

(a) to (b) to (c) to (d) none of these

6 5 8 8 5 6

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-61

EXERCISE – III

m

shown in figure. Let a1 be the acceleration of the wedge

M

and a 2 the acceleration of block. N1 is the normal reaction

between block and wedge and N2 is the normal reaction

between wedge and ground. Friction is absent

everywhere. Select the correct alternative(s)

(a) N 2 M m g (b) N1 mg cos | a1 | sin

(c) N1 sin M | a1 | (d) ma2 Ma1

B

smooth. Select the correct alternative(s). A

(a) for any value of acceleration of A and B are equal fixed

(b) contact force between the two blocks is zero if

mA /mB = tan

(c) contact force between the two is zero for any value of

mA or mB

(d) normal reactions exerted by the wedge on the blocks

are equal

to remain in equilibrium under these five forces; F

(a) F = 10 N (b) F = 5 N

(c) 90 < < 180

0 0

(d) 180 < < 270

0 0 3N 6N

8N

1kg

moving leftwards left with constant acceleration a = 5 m/s2.

Let N be the normal reaction between the block and the a

wedge. Then (g = 10 m/s2)

1

(a) N = 5 5 N (b) N = 15 N (c) tan (d) tan 2

2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-62

through a massless string and arranged as shown in A

figure. Friction is absent everywhere. When the system is

released from rest fixed

300 B

mg mg

(a) tension in string is (b) tension in string is

2 4

g 3

(c) acceleration of A is (d) acceleration of A is g

2 4

6. The two ends of a spring are displaced along the length of the spring. All displacements

have equal magnitudes. In which case or cases the tension or compression in the spring

will have a maximum magnitude?

(a) the right end is displaced towards right and the left end towards left

(d) the right end is displaced towards left and the left end towards right

and a2 respectively, then

A

(a) a1 = a2 = zero if F = 100 N

(b) a1 = 5 m/s2 and a2 = 0 if F = 300 N

a1 B a2

(c) a1 = 15 m/s2 a2 = 2.5 m/s2 if F = 500 N

(d) acceleration of the masses is independent of F 5kg m 10kg

8. Choose the correct statement/s from the following. No net force acts on

tension of 600N. The rope will not break if

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-63

(d) monkey falls down the rope nearly freely under gravity

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-64

10. In which of the following situations a force of 9.8 N, would act on a stone of mass 1 kg?

Neglect air resistance.

(b) Just after if is dropped from the window of a train running at a constant speed of

36 km/m

(c) Just after it is dropped from the window of a train accelerating at 1 m/s2

(d) When it is lying at rest on the floor of a train which is accelerating at 1 m/s2

11. In the figure shown all the surfaces are smooth. All B

the strings are either horizontal or vertical. A P2 m P3

horizontal force of magnitude F newton is acting at

the end of the string. Select the correct alternatives P4

if m = 1 kg A P1 2m

C F

(a) acceleration of the block C is zero 2m

2F

(b) acceleration of the block C is m/s2

5

F

(c) net acceleration of the block B is m/s2

3

F

(d) net acceleration of the block B is m/s2

5

12. In figure-1 and figure-2 match A and block B are connected by mass less string and

acceleration of wedge A in both cases is towards right and equal to a with respect to earth

then select the correct alternatives

B

B A

A

Figure-1 Figure-2

a 10 6 cos

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-65

a 6 10 cos

of a light rope passing over a smooth light pulley. Which

of the following are possible?

(a) the lighter man is stationary while the heavier man

slides with some acceleration

(b) the heavier man is stationary while the lighter man

climbs with some acceleration

(c) the two men slide with the same acceleration in the

same direction

(d) the two men slide with accelerations of the same

magnitude in opposite directions

14. A monkey of mass m kg slides down a light rope attached to a fixed spring balance, with an

acceleration a. The reading of the spring balance is W kg. [g = acceleration due to gravity]

Wg a

(a) m (b) m W 1

g a g

strings AB and BC are light, having tensions T1 and T2 1 T1

respectively. The system is in equilibrium with a constant B

horizontal force mg acting on C.

1

(a) tan 1 (b) tan 2 1 2 T2

2

F=mg

(c) T1 5 mg (d) T2 2 mg

C

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-66

EXERCISE – IV

Note: Each statement in column – I has one or more than one match in column –II.

1. Some observations are made inside a moving lift. Match the following

Column-I Column-II

I. The force exerted by the floor of the elevator

is more than the weight of the person A. elevator is going up and slowing down

standing inside.

II. The force exerted by the floor of the elevator

is less than the weight of the person B. elevator is going down and slowing down

standing inside.

III. The tension in the cable supporting the

C. elevator is going up and speeding up.

elevator is equal to the weight of the elevator

and the person.

IV. Newton‟s first law is violated D. elevator is going up and uniform speed.

E. elevator is moving horizontally

Note: Each statement in column – I has only one match in column –II

surface and being pulled by two ropes A and B of equal m

m C

mass m. At t 0, force on the left rope (F1 ) is F1 F2

withdrawn but the force on the right end (F2 ) continues A B

to act. Match the following based on the above

information. It is given | F2 || F1 | .

Column-I Column-II

I. Magnitude of net force acting on the rope B at t 0 is mF2

A.

2m M

II. Magnitude of net force acting on the rope A at t 0 is m(F2 F1 )

B.

M 2m

III. Tension force applied by rope B on block C is (at t 0) (m M )(F2 F1 )

C.

M 2m

IV. Tension force applied by rope A on block C is (at t 0) (M m )F2

D.

( 2m M )

(2M m)F2

E.

(2m M )

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-67

triangular wedge fixed inside an accelerating box.

The acceleration of the box is a ( 4iˆ bj ) m/s2

where b is a positive constant. The acceleration of

the box is such that block is not moving relative to m

wedge. Take g 10 m/s2 and match the following. Fixed

wedge

45º

Column-I Column-II

(in newton)

relative to box. The magnitude of pseudo force B. 7

applied by the person on the block must be (in

Newton)

inline plane of wedge is (in m/s2).

E. 10 2

REASONING TYPE

Directions: Read the following questions and choose

(A) If both the statements are true and statement-2 is the correct explanation of

statement-1.

(B) If both the statements are true but statement-2 is not the correct explanation of

statement-1.

Statement-2: For freely falling body a = g, R = mg – ma R = 0.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

2. Statement-1: If you jump barefooted on a hard surface, your legs will get injured. But they

will not be injured if you jump on a soft surface like sand or pillow.

Statement-1: Change in velocity in less time requires high acceleration, which ultimately

results in high value of force.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-68

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-69

3. Statement-1: The mass of a body in a lift moving with constant acceleration changes

Statement-2: Mass of a body is a constant quantity and it does not change, when velocity of

the body is much less than velocity of light.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

4. Statement-1: Two objects of equal masses rest on the opposite pans of an arm balance.

Scale will remains balanced, when it is accelerated up or down in a lift.

Statement-2: Both masses experience unequal fictitious forces in magnitude as well as in

direction

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

5. Statement-1: A car accelerates on a horizontal road due to the force exerted by the engine

of the car.

Statement-2: To accelerate a body force is always needed in the direction of required

acceleration.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

acceleration a0 m/s2. A system inside the

a0 m/s2

wagon contains two blocks of mass M and m

connected by a thread which passes over a m

pulley as shown in the figure (all the surfaces

are smooth)

(a) (b) (c) (d)

mM mM mM M m

(a) (b) (c) (d)

mM M m Mm 2m M

3. Magnitude of normal reaction between the block m and vertical wall when acceleration of

wagon became a0/2

(a) (b) (c) ma0 (d)

2 3 2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-70

4. What is the total reaction force on the pulley as seen from the ground?

(a) (b) (c) (d)

mM M m 2M m 2m M

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-71

EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

and the tension in the cable due to application of

the 300 N force. Neglect all friction and the

masses of pulleys.

2. A string passing over a light frictionless pulley carries at its ends two variable unequal

masses whose sum is constant. If the breaking tension of string is 15/32 of the weight of

the sum of masses, show that least acceleration is g/4 and least value of greater mass is

5/8th of total mass.

can slide along the thread with some friction. The mass of rod

attached at other end is M. The mass of pulley and the friction

in its axle is negligible. At the initial moment the ball is located

opposite to the lower end of the rod. When set free, the ball

gets opposite to the upper end of the rod t second after the M l

beginning of motion. Find the frictional force between the ball m

and the thread. The hanging portion of rod is of length l.

= 1.8 times as great as rod 2. The length of the latter is

l = 100 cm. The mass of the pulley and the threads, as well

as the friction, is negligible. The ball is set on the same level

as the lower end of rod and then released. How soon will the

ball be opposite the upper end of the rod?

l

1 2

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-72

m2 = 4 kg are arranged as shown in figure. The pulleys P and

Q are light and frictionless. All blocks are resting on the P

horizontal floor and pulleys are held such that strings remain

just taut. At moment t = 0, a force F = 30 t N starts acting on

the pulley P along vertically upward direction as shown in

figure; Determine

Q

(a) the time when blocks A and B lose contact with ground,

B A

(b) the velocity of A when B loses contact with ground,

monkey, A which is climbing up a rope. The masses of monkey

A and B are 5 kg and 2 kg respectively. If A can tolerate a A

tension of 30 N in its tail, what force should it apply on the rope

in order to carry the monkey B with it?

(g = 10 ms-2) B

P1 P2

connected by a single string. If the pulleys are frictionless,

string is light inextensible and pulleys P1 and P2 are light, find

tension in the string. m1

m2

m3

strings are mass less. Find acceleration of M. Neglect the

dimensions of pulleys and masses.

m1 m2

light string of length 2l as shown in figure. A constant force F is

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-73

the perpendicular bisector of the line joining the two particles. m m

Show that when the distance between the particles is 2 x, the

F x

acceleration of approach of particles is a

m (l x 2 )1/ 2

2

weighting machine kept in a box of mass 30 kg. The box is

hanging from a pulley fixed to the ceiling through a light rope,

the other end of which is held by the man himself. If the man

manages to keep the box at rest, what is weight shown by the

machine? What force should be exert on the rope to get his

correct weight on the machine?

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-74

ANSWERS

EXERCISE – I

11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (b)

16. (b) 17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (a) 20. (c)

21. (c) 22. (b) 23. (d) 24. (a) 25. (d)

EXERCISE – II

11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (d) 15. (a)

16. (d) 17. (b) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (a)

21. (c) 22. (b) 23. (b) 24. (d) 25. (b)

EXERCISE – III

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-75

EXERCISE – IV

2. I – B ; II – B ; III –D ; IV – A

3. I – C ; II – D ; III – A ; IV – B

REASONING TYPE

EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

2Mml

3. Ffriction =

(M m)t 2

4. t = 1.4 sec

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NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION–I OP-MI-P-76

5

5. (a) tA = 1 sec, tB = 2 sec ; (b) vA = 5 ms1 ; (c) h m

3

4m1m2 m3 g

7. T=

4m1m2 m2 m3 m1m3

48

8. 1 g upward

M M

36

m1 m 2

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