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UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

FLUID MECHANICS
ENGR30002 2014
TUTORIAL SHEET 3

Problem A

Aqueous nitric acid is to be pumped from a storage tank, through 278 m of steel
pipe (inside diameter = 3.20 cm, absolute roughness when new = 0.0035 mm) to
discharge freely at a point 57.4 m above the pump outlet. The pump will be situated
immediately beside the storage tank, and will draw acid from a point 5.60 m below
the surface of the liquid in the tank which is open to the atmosphere. Calculate:

(a) the power required to deliver acid solution at a rate of 2.35 kg/s

(b) the gauge pressure at the pump outlet

(c) the percentage increase in power that the pump must be designed to deliver to
maintain flow at 2.35 kg/s when corrosion has increased the absolute roughness of
the pipeline to 0.050 mm

(d) the gauge pressure at the pump outlet when the pipe roughness has increased
to 0.050 mm.

Assume that the nitric acid has S.G. of 1.068 and a viscosity of 1.06 x 10−3 Pa s.

Ans: 2.58 kW, 1228 kPa, 15.5%, 1409 kPa

Problem B

A factory draws its water supply from a lake located on a nearby hill at an elevation
of 75 m above the factory. The water is supplied via 3000m of 15 cm diameter cast
iron pipe. For control purposes, there are several valves in the line, together with a
number of standard elbows. The valves and elbows together have a total equivalent
length of 30m. The water is received at the factory at atmospheric pressure. the
present water supply system as described is just adequate to meet the maximum
requirements of the factory, although the maximum flow is not known. However, it
is proposed to double the size of the factory in the near future, which would mean
doubling the water requirements.
Determine the fluid power required for a pump to double the flow rate. Assume that
the Fanning friction factor f = 0.079Re−0.25 (Blasius equation).
Ans: 146 kW

1
TUTORIAL SHEET 7

Problem A
Problem C
Oil in a storage tank is loaded into a tanker through a horizontal pipeline having
Oil in a storage tank is loaded into a tanker through a horizontal pipeline having
inside diameter
inside diameter of and
of 10.5 cm 10.5 length
cm and 87length 87 pipe
m. If the m. Ifentrance
the pipeis entrance is initially
initially 16.8 m 16.8 m
below the surface of the oil in the storage tank, calculate the initial
below the surface of the oil in the storage tank, calculate the initial volumetric flow volumetric flow
rate at rate
whichatoilwhich oil will
will flow intoflow into the tanker,
the tanker,

(i) when(i)the
when
oil isthe oil is draining
draining freelythe
freely through through the pipeline
pipeline

(ii)the
(ii) when when
flowthe flow is accelerated
is accelerated by a pumpbyimparting
a pump imparting 320
320 joules of joulesper
energy of kilo-
energy per kilo-
gram ofgram
oil. of oil.

Ignore changes in kineticinenergy.


Ignore changes kinetic The oil has
energy. Thedensity
oil has kg m−3908
908density andkgviscosity
m−3 and 3.9viscosity 3.9
−2
× 10 × kg/m/s. The absolute
10−2 kg/m/s. roughnessroughness
The absolute of the pipeofisthe
0.046
pipemm.
is 0.046 mm.

16.8m
87m

Figure 1: Figure 1: Tank


Tank and tankerand tanker

Ans:
Ans: (i) (i) 0.0283
0.0283 m30.0532
m3 /s, (ii) /s, (ii) m 3
0.0532
/s m3 /s

2
and absolute roughness = 8.2 x 10 cm) will discharge freely at a point 4.9 m below
the surface of the reservoir. If a flow rate of 113.6 litres/min is required without
pumping,

(i) Derive an equation relating the minimum pipe diameter (D) and the Fanning
Problem
frictionDfactor (f )
Water is to be drawn from a reservoir for irrigation. The pipeline (length = 485 m
(ii) Calculate D using this equation and the friction factor chart. (note: an iterative
and absolute roughness = 8.2 x 10−3 cm) will discharge freely at a point 4.9 m below
themethod is the
surface of required)
reservoir. If a flow rate of 113.6 litres/min is required without
pumping,
Ignore changes in kinetic energy. The water has density of 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity
(i) of 1.42 an
Derive 10−3 kg/m/s.
× equation relating the minimum pipe diameter (D) and the Fanning
friction factor (f )

(ii) Calculate D using this equation and the friction factor chart. (note: an iterative
method is required)

Ignore changes in kinetic energy. The water has density of 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity
of 1.42 × 10−3 kg/m/s.

4.9m

485m

Figure Figure 2: Reservoir


2: Reservoir

5 5 10−3× −3 = 0.0068, D = 0.06m


Ans:
Ans: (i) 48.02D
(i) 48.02D =×5.64
= 5.64 f ,10
(ii) f , (ii) f = 0.0068, D = 0.06m

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