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Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol.

14(2):208-225
Copyright © Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.
Print ISSN: 1596-2490, Electronic ISSN: 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

MEASUREMENTS-BASED PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A 4G LTE


NETWORK IN AND AROUND SHOPPING MALLS AND CAMPUS ENVIRONMENTS IN
LAGOS NIGERIA

*A. L. Imoize and O. D. Adegbite


(Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos, Nigeria.)
*Corresponding Author: aimoize@unilag.edu.ng

Abstract
Performance analysis of a Fourth Generation (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus environments in Lagos is presented. Propagation measurements of key
performance indicators (KPIs) were observed at an operating frequency of 1876.6 MHz, using Huawei
Technologies drive test (DT) equipment. The test area covers the University of Lagos (BS 1), Ikorodu (BS 2)
and Oniru (BS 3), all located in Lagos, Nigeria. Five key performance parameters consisting of signal-to-
interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), reference signal received power (RSRP), reference signal received
quality (RSRQ), received signal strength indicator (RSSI), packet data convergence protocol (PDCP)
downlink (DL) throughput, and packet component carrier (PCC) physical (PHY) downlink (DL) throughput,
were measured at a near constant mobile antenna height of 1.5m. Measurements campaign span a transmitter
to receiver distance of 1km at an interval of 0.1km, starting from a reference distance of 0.1km from the tested
base stations (eNodeBs). Test results were extracted using MapInfo tool and analyzed in MATLAB. In order
to examine the goodness of fit, a ninth order degree polynomial was fitted to measured data. Generally, results
indicate a maximum RSRP of 2.49dBm in BS 3, RSRQ of 0.37dBm in BS 1, RSSI of 2.30dBm in BS 1,
PDCP Throughput of 1867.41bps in BS 3, PCC PHY Throughput of 2256.35 bps in BS 3, and SINR of
2.15dB in BS 2. These results compare favorably with the specific KPIs provided by the Nigerian
Communication Commission (NCC). Overall, the fitted models could be very useful for the characterization
of radio channels in similar environments.

Keywords: 4G LTE network; Measured pathloss; Key performance indicators; RSRP; RSRQ; RSSI; SINR;
Throughput; Root mean squared errors, Norm of residuals.

1. Introduction
Significant progress has been recorded in mobile telecommunication from the use of primitive rotary
type telephones to the fourth generation (4G) mobile systems. The most prominent is the rapidly
increasing capacity of wireless networks, coverage expansion, improved quality of service, and
enhanced mobile devices. The International Telecommunication Union provided a report (ITU,
2008) on the requirements related to technical performance for International Mobile
Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-Advanced) radio interface(s) for 4G mobile system (Correia,
2010; Singh and Singh, 2016). The specifications showed that 4G mobile system would provide data
speed up to 100Mbps for high mobility and 1Gbps for low mobility. In addition, there is higher
roaming capacity and more user-friendly applications on this mobile system. However, this
development plan is hampered by certain challenges such as handover issues, poor network coverage
and denial of service.
In Nigeria for instance, the mobile systems prior to 4G network had unresolved issues such as denial
of service, service interruption and poor internet connectivity, and previous studies have identified
poor network planning as a root cause of these problems. In order to address these shortcomings,
there is a need to examine and evaluate key performance indicators of the recently deployed 4G LTE
network in Nigeria. This will provide basic information on the performance of the network to
facilitate improvement initiatives. Although there are few studies on the performance of 4G LTE
networks (Imran, Jamal, and Qadeer, 2016; Kassim, et al., 2017; Yi, et al., 2017; Ismail, Ali,
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

Ya’acob, 2018; Lee, et al., 2018), but none presented an elaborate information on the performance of
the recently commercialized 4G LTE network in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper is focused on
investigating the performance of a live 4G LTE network in Nigeria, with a goal to providing new
models for the investigated environments. This would be achieved through extensive propagation
measurements using Huawei Technologies drive test equipment.
Key performance indicators of the 4G LTE network comprising of the reference signal received
power (RSRP), reference signal received quality (RSRQ), received signal strength indicator (RSSI),
packet component carrier (PCC) physical (PHY) downlink (DL) Throughput, and packet data
convergence protocol (PDCP) downlink (DL) Throughput, would be measured at an operating
frequency of 1876.6 MHz. Propagation measurements would span over transmitter and receiver
distance of 1000m at an interval of 100m, starting from a reference distance of 100m from the fixed
base station. Here, pathloss of measured data would be extracted and analyzed in MATLAB.

1.1 Related Works


Few studies on the performance of 2G, 3G and 4G LTE networks have been reported. Here, we
present an overview of some reports that are related to this study.
Ozovehe and Usman (2015) carried out a comparative analysis on the performance of four GSM
network operators in Nigeria. Here, the key performance indicators (KPIs) as specified by the
Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) were used. These comprise of Call Success Setup
Rate (CSSR), Call Drop Rate (CDR), Standalone Dedicated Control Channel Congestion Rate
(SDCCH), and Traffic Channel Congestion Rate (TCCR). From the operator’s perspective, the KPIs
used include Bit Error Rate (BER), Frame Erasure Rate (FER), Bit Error Probability (BEP), Mean
Opinion Score (MOS), Received Signal Strength Level (RxLev), Speech Quality Index (SQI), and
Received Signal Quality (RxQual). The results of the study revealed that one of the operator’s
network was comparatively better and the network with the most comprehensive data was favored
for optimization to improve its performance characteristics.
In another related study, Ameen and Ismail (2011) worked on how to reduce interference in 4G
networks using a relatively different radio access network architecture, and proposed new techniques
for base station and cell allocation, channel allocation, and carrier frequencies. In addition, new
interface between cells to improve quality of service from the microwave link to optic fibre system,
using ring topology for situating the Central Base Stations (CBS), was proposed. It was noted in the
paper that optic fibre system comes at a high installation cost but has a low running cost as well as
improved quality of service and high data rate.
Deepak and Balaji (2015) carried out a comparative analysis on the competing multiple input
multiple output (MIMO) transmission techniques. Here, image files were developed using various
MIMO transmission techniques over 4G networks. The MIMO transmission techniques include
Optimized Data Quality (ODQ), Block-based Synchronized Transmission (BST), Optimized
Blocked-based Synchronized Transmission (OBST), Cell-wise Optimization (CO), and Row-wise
Optimization (RO). Average throughput and peak-signal to noise ratio (PSNR) were used to explore
the best of the five techniques. Here, results revealed that the ODQ produced the best image quality.
Keerthana and Premalatha (2016) presented methods of improving network performance based on
network techniques and handover schemes. Here, multiple input multiple output orthogonal
frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) multiple access technology was seen to be best
suited for maximum coverage and capacity of the network. In addition, a combination of Seamless
Mobile Internet Protocol (SMIP) for mobility protocol and Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for layer
protocol was proposed for deployment to support proper handover of networks.
Navita (2016) reported a study similar to Keerthana and Premalatha (2016), on a comparative
analysis of three multiple access technologies; MIMO, OFDMA, and synchronized channel

209
Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng
frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA). The binary phase shift keying (BPSK), 16-
quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM), and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation
techniques were applied to the three multiple access technologies. Performance analysis was
conducted to examine the bit error rate (BER) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the candidate
technologies. Here, results showed that OFDMA had the least SNR at minimum BER, and it was
concluded that OFDMA would provide the best quality of service.
Furthermore, Kumar and Yadav (2011) presented a comparative analysis of 3G (UMTS) and 4G
(Mobile WiMAX) networks. Here, a simulator called QUALNET was deployed to evaluate the two
mobile systems. The parameters measured by the simulator were used to obtain the Packet Delivery
Ratio (PDR), average end-to-end delay, throughput and collision. The PDR and throughput network
were found to be higher for 4G than 3G. In addition, 3G network had more end-to-end delay and
more collision. The study showed that 4G network has better quality of service (QoS) compared to
3G mobile network.
In a similar study, Amin and Ylä-Jääski (2013) presented handover mechanisms for improving
packet forwarding between base stations. Here, analysis was based on data transfer using the uplink
radio resource control (RRC) status load, and the buffer size of the packet data convergence protocol
(PDCP). It was noted that polling the User Equipment (UE) frequently, during handover between
base stations, proved the most efficient technique to attain least packet forwarding during handover.
Afroz, et al. (2015), presented a study on the relationships between four LTE measurements namely;
referenced signal received power (RSRP), the referenced signal received quality (RSRQ), the
received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR). In
addition, analysis was carried out on the effects of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on throughput during
data transfer. Here, results showed that handover occurred during the experiment and further analysis
was conducted based on how the four LTE measurements affected handover.
Recently, Tanhatalab, Jadeh and Esfahani (2017) reported methods of improving the throughput of a
live LTE network. Different parameters such as power, channel quality offset, channel load and
interference were modulated to improve throughput. Here, these parameters were optimized resulting
in improved throughput of the LTE network.

1.2 Key Performance Indicators


In the recent 4G network, key performance indicators (KPIs) are defined differently from the earlier
generations such as 2G and 3G networks. This is perhaps to be expected because 4G is packet
switched, and the network designers seem to have modified the general KPIs to achieve increase in
network capacity, enhance network coverage, and improve quality of service (Afroz, et al., 2015).
Some of the KPIs are briefly described as follows.
1.2.1 Reference Signal Received Power
Reference signal received power (RSRP) is the average power taken across resource elements that
carry reference signals for specific cells in a given bandwidth. One resource block has 84 resource
elements, and the resource blocks have a total size of 180 KHz in the frequency domain, and 0.5ms
in the time domain. Each user is allocated a number of so-called resource blocks in the time
frequency grid (Correia, 2010). The higher the RSRP, the greater the channel quality indicator
assigned to the user and the more resource blocks a user receives and the higher the modulation used
in the resource elements, the higher the bit-rate. RSRP is measured in decibel-milliwatts (dBm) as
shown in Eq. (1). In most practical scenarios, it is used together with the reference signal received
quality (RSRQ) in determining handover and cell re-selection of a network system accessed by the
user. Here, two antenna ports are mostly used in taking measurements such that the UE has signals to
detect at every point during the experiment (Benmansour, Ahmed, and Moussaoui, 2017).
(1)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

where
is the received signal power
is the number of resource blocks or elements of the LTE signal carrier bandwidth.

1.2.2 Reference Signal Received Quality


The reference signal received quality (RSRQ) is very similar to the RSRP, and there is a direct
relationship between the two as shown in Eq. (2). It is utilized in ranking cells for handover and cell
reselection. In a situation where the RSRP measurement is not sufficient to make an informed
decision on handover and cell reselection, it is suggested that a combination of RSRP and RSRQ is
deployed.

(2)

1.2.3 Received Signal Strength Indicator


The received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is similar to the RSRP. The difference is that RSSI is
measured only in OFDM symbols carrying reference symbols from co-channel non-serving, and
serving cells, adjacent channel interference, and thermal noise of a user equipment (Afroz, et al.,
2015). If the number of resource blocks, RSRP and RSRQ are specified, then the RSSI can be
calculated, using Eq. (2).

1.2.4 Signal-to-Noise Plus Interference Ratio


Signal to noise plus interference ratio (SINR) is the measurement of the unwanted part of the
received signal. It is defined as the ratio of the signal power to the sum of average interference power
from neighboring cells and the background noise. SINR can be measured from the user’s equipment
via its Resource Block (RB). This measurement is very vital as it used to determine the modulation
code scheme (MCS) that would be suitable for transmitting data in the RB, and hence determines
whether throughput is good or not. A user that has a good value of SINR will have higher throughput
due to the fact that higher order MCS would be applied to this signal which will result to the
transmission of more bits per modulation symbol. Mathematically, SINR is defined as shown in Eq.
(3).

(3)
where
is the signal to interference plus noise ratio in decibel (dB)
is received signal power measured from the UE on the resource block.
is the average interference power of a neighboring cell
is the power of background noise.

1.2.5 Throughput
Throughput is simply the rate of data transmission over the resource blocks assigned to a user (Shi, et
al., 2015). A user closer to the base station (eNodeB) will most likely have a higher throughput
compared to someone who is farther away from that serving eNodeB. The scheduler in the eNodeB
uses the Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) reports sent by the UE to get the information about the
channel quality experienced by the users and based on this allocates resources to each user. This type
of scheduling method is called maximum scheduling (Amin and Ylä-Jääski, 2013). Here, we consider
the PCC PHY DL Throughput and the PDCP DL Throughput.
The PCC PHY DL Throughput measures the rate of successful data delivered over the physical link
of the 4G LTE network. This parameter was measured over several distances with varying values.
The unit of the PCC PHY DL throughput is in bits per second (bps). For instance, at a given distance,

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng
the PCC PHY DL throughput was 17832bps, which implies that 17832 bits are successfully
delivered over the physical link of the 4G LTE communication network in one second.
The PDCP DL Throughput is very similar to the PCC PHY downlink throughput. The difference
between the two parameters is the link they are measured. The PDCP downlink throughput is
measured over the logical link of the communication channel while the PCC PHY downlink
throughput is measured over the physical link. Asides the fact that the logical links are not visible,
the logical links are functionality protocols that ensure that data is properly transmitted. The
important functions of the PDCP incudes compressing and decompressing data, ciphering and
deciphering data and transfer of user data (Sesia, Baker, and Toufik, 2011).
The various mathematical expressions for throughput are as shown in Eq. (4)-(7). The general
definition of throughput is given in Eq. (4), and Eq. (5)-(7) show specific definitions.

(4)

where
= throughput
= payload information transmitted in a slot time
= length of a slot time.
For a cell;

(5)
where
= cell throughput
= total amount of acknowledged data sent to MAC level for scheduling priority class of 0 to 15 in
every 2ms.
= number of sub frames in every 2ms.
= number of sub frames in which no data is transmitted with pending user data.
For a user;


(6)
where
= user throughput
= total amount of acknowledged data sent to MAC level for scheduling priority class of 0 to 15 in
every 2ms.
= number of user buffers for scheduling priority class 0 to 15 in every 2ms sub-frame.
For given values of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR);
(7)
where
= throughput
= bandwidth of one resource block
= correction factors with magnitude between 0.1 and 1.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents materials and methods,
starting with the investigated environments, experimental set-up, and measurements procedure.
Section 3 presents results and useful discussions. Finally, the conclusion to the paper is given in
Section 4.

2. Materials and Method


2.1 Investigated Environments
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

The Palms shopping mall is one of the largest malls in Nigeria. It occupies 11 acres (45000m 2) of
land and has a usable space of 5 acres (21000m2) for retail shops. As at December 2016, there were
69 retails shops and a parking lot that can occupy over 1000 cars. The location area is an urban
terrain and has heavy traffic during busy hours. The pictorial view of the mall located on latitude 6 o
26’ 5.39” N and longitude 3o 27’ 2.39” E is as shown in Figure 1.
Maryland Mall is located in a typical urban terrain on 350-360 Ikorodu road, Maryland, Lagos. It
occupies a land area of 7,700m2. There are several retail shops, a cinema and a bank within with the
premises of the mall. Mobility around this mall is high because of very good road networks around it
and mobile traffic is usually very high in and around the mall during busy hours. The front view of
the mall is as shown in Figure 2.
The University of Lagos (UNILAG) is located in a typical urban setting on latitude 6o31’0”N and
longitude 3o23’10”E in Lagos mainland, Akoka, Lagos. The institution of higher learning is owned
and managed by the Federal Government of Nigeria. The University boasts combined undergraduate
and graduate students population of over 50000, and a robust academic and non-academic staff. This
area is selected for the measurements campaigns due to the high number of students and staff using
mobile and wireless network services. The University of Lagos main campus entrance gate is as
shown in Figure 3.

Figure 1: Pictorial view of Palms shopping mall

Figure 2: Front view of Maryland shopping mall

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

Figure 3: University of Lagos main campus entrance gate

2.2 Measurement Campaigns


Measurements campaign at 1876.6MHz using a personal computer with Genex probe, a data
collection software interface and a GPS unit for tracking distance covered is presented in the
experimental set-up as shown in Figure 4. Here, the reference signal received power measurements
were taken and stored on a personal computer (PC) which had GENEX probe drive test (DT)
software installed on it, and a 4G compactible Huawei Model E392. The operating frequency is set
from the PC and other readings such as transmitter-receiver distance, received signal level, locations
are viewed from the computer. Here, the personal computer with GENEX software installed on it,
the Huawei modem and the GPS system were set-up in the drive test vehicle. The channel frequency
was set to 1876.6MHz, and the reference distance used for the measurements is 100m from the fixed
base station. Transmitter to receiver distance was varied between 0.1km to 1.0km in steps of 100m at
a near constant receiver antenna height of 1.5m. The transmitter-receiver distance was limited to
1km, in order to limit the impact of interference from neighboring transmitting antennas. The
locations of the investigated environments on a Google map is as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 4: Experimental set-up inside a drive test vehicle


Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

Figure 5: Locations of the investigated environments on a Google map

2.3 Measurement Parameters


The operating frequency is fixed at 1876.6MHz, distance between the transmit antenna and the
receiver is limited to 1km with the transmitter height at 30m. It is suggested that 1km is a reasonable
antenna separation distance to limit the impact of interference from adjacent base stations. For the
Lagos environment, average inter-building distance is about 20m and street width is about 10m. The
measurement parameters are as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Measurement parameters


Parameters Values
Operating frequency 1876.6MHz
Downlink frequency 1872.6MHz
Uplink frequency 1776.6MHz
Receiver antenna height 1.5m
Transmitter antenna height 30m
Average building height 15m
Transmitter-receiver distance 100m
Base station transmitter power 46dBm

3. Results and Discussion


In this section, we present the results of the extensive propagation measurements. Here, the results of
the tested key performance indicators: signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), reference
signal received power (RSRP), reference signal received quality (RSRQ), received signal strength
indicator (RSSI), packet data convergence protocol (PDCP) downlink (DL) throughput, and packet
component carrier (PCC) physical (PHY) downlink (DL) throughput, are presented. For simplicity,
we adopt a statistical approach to report the performance of the investigated 4G LTE network in
Lagos, Nigeria. Measured RSRP and RSSI are as shown in Figure 6. The results for the RSRQ are as
shown in Figure 7. The observed SINR is as shown in Figure 8. The measured PDCP DL
Throughput and PCC PHY DL Throughput is as shown in Figure 9.

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng
RSRP AND RSSI (dBm) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
-40

-50

RSRP AND RSSI (dBm)


-60

-70

-80 BS1 RSRP


BS2 RSRP
BS3 RSRP
BS1 RSSI
-90
BS2 RSSI
BS3 RSSI
-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 6: Measured RSRP and RSSI of tested base stations

RSRQ (dBm) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)


-7
BS1 RSRQ
-7.5 BS2 RSRQ
BS3 RSRQ
-8

-8.5
RSRQ (dBm)

-9

-9.5

-10

-10.5

-11

-11.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 7: Measured RSRQ of tested base stations


SINR (dB) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
25
BS1 SINR
BS2 SINR
BS3 SINR
20

15
SINR (dB)

10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 8: Measured SINR of tested base stations


Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

4
x 10 PDCP-PCC DL THROUGHPUT (bps) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
2.5

BS1 PDCP

PDCP AND PCC DL THROUGHPUT (bps)


BS2 PDCP
2
BS3 PDCP
BS1 PCC
BS2 PCC
1.5 BS3 PCC

0.5

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 9: Measured PDCP and PCC PHY DL Throughput of tested base stations

3.1 Statistical Analysis


The basic statistics for the measured data are as shown in Tables 2-7. Table 2 shows the statistics for
the RSRP, Table 3 shows the RSRQ information, Table 4 presents the RSSI data, Table 5 shows the
SINR statistics, Table 6 highlights PDCP DL Throughput, and Table 7 gives the PCC PHY DL
Throughput information.

Table 2: RSRP of tested base stations


Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (dBm) -80.88 -76.49 -74.14
Median (dBm) -78.71 -72.67 -72.53
Minimum (dBm) -98.07 -91.38 -85.02
Maximum (dBm) -64.76 -67.53 -62.60
Range (dBm) 33.31 23.85 22.42
Standard Deviation (dBm) 10.06 7.70 6.37

Table 3: RSRQ of tested base stations


Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (dBm) -8.79 -9.41 -9.13
Median (dBm) -8.58 -9.42 -8.96
Minimum (dBm) -11.29 -10.19 -10.76
Maximum (dBm) -7.08 -8.51 -8.61
Range (dBm) 4.21 1.68 2.15
Standard Deviation (dBm) 0.92 0.44 0.49

Table 4: RSSI of tested base stations


Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (dBm) -58.15 -51.98 -49.95
Median (dBm) -57.44 -47.70 -49.32
Minimum (dBm) -74.16 -67.73 -60.35
Maximum (dBm) -41.61 -41.88 -40.49
Range (dBm) 32.55 25.85 19.86
Standard Deviation (dBm) 10.56 8.15 5.27

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng
Table 5: SINR (dB) of tested base stations
Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (dB) 12.29 9.55 6.06
Median (dB) 11.07 10.32 3.10
Minimum (dB) 0.72 2.60 1.91
Maximum (dB) 24.71 15.06 13.65
Range (dB) 23.99 12.46 11.74
Standard Deviation (dB) 7.96 2.98 4.29

Table 6: PDCP DL Throughput of tested base stations


Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (bps) 8829.29 5989.57 8163.08
Median (bps) 7599.64 6198.62 7285.78
Minimum (bps) 2339.19 3036.73 3512.48
Maximum (bps) 22322.77 8535.77 14783.04
Range (bps) 19983.58 5499.04 11270.56
Standard Deviation (bps) 6289.09 1638.34 3557.72

Table 7: PCC PHY DL Throughput of tested base stations


Statistics BS 1 BS 2 BS 3
Mean (bps) 11094.05 7584.71 11235.68
Median (bps) 9521.33 8140.48 11360.22
Minimum (bps) 2500.98 3756.22 4762.28
Maximum (bps) 24174.12 10859.00 17284.04
Range (bps) 21673.14 7102.78 12521.76
Standard Deviation (bps) 7634.48 1990.63 4209.34

3.2 Curve Fitting and Norm of Residuals


In order to examine the goodness of fit of measured data, we fit a higher order polynomial of degree
nine to measured data as shown in Eq. (8) (Ibhaze, et al., 2017). Comparisons of measured and fitted
data are as shown in Figures 10-15. The comparison between the measured and fitted RSRP is as
shown in Figure 10. A comparison between the measured and fitted RSRQ is as shown in Figure 11.
Figure 12 shows the comparison between the measured and fitted RSSI. Similarly, the measured and
fitted SINR are compared as shown in Figure 13. The measured and fitted PDCP DL Throughput are
compared as shown in Figure 14. Last, a comparison between the measured and fitted PCC PHY DL
Throughput is as shown in Figure 15.
The norm of the residuals, which is a measure of the deviation between the correlation and the
measured data, is summarized in Table 8. The lower the value of the norm of residual, the closer the
curve is representative of the measured data.

(8)

where, are coefficients of the ninth degree polynomial in decreasing order of


powers, and d is the distance interval starting from a reference distance from the fixed base station.
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

RSRP (dBm) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)


-60

-65

-70

-75

RSRP (dBm) -80

-85
BS1 RSRP Fitted
BS1 RSRP Measured
-90 BS2 RSRP Fitted
BS2 RSRP Measured
-95 BS3 RSRP Fitted
BS3 RSRP Measured
-100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 10: Measured and fitted RSRP of tested base stations


RSRQ (dBm) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
-7

-7.5

-8

-8.5
RSRQ (dBm)

-9

-9.5

-10 BS1 RSRQ Fitted


BS1 RSRQ Measured
-10.5 BS2 RSRQ Fitted
BS2 RSRQ Measured
-11 BS3 RSRQ Fitted
BS3 RSRQ Measured
-11.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 11: Measured and fitted RSRQ of tested base stations


RSSI (dBm) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
-40

-45

-50
RSSI (dBm)

-55

-60
BS1 RSSI Fitted
BS1 RSSI Measured
-65
BS2 RSSI Fitted
BS2 RSSI Measured
-70 BS3 RSSI Fitted
BS3 RSSI Measured

-75
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 12: Measured and fitted RSSI of tested base stations

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and around
Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225 ISSN 1596-2490;
e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng
SINR (dB) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
25

BS1 SINR Fitted


BS1 SINR Measured
20
BS2 SINR Fitted
BS2 SINR Measured
BS3 SINR Fitted
15 BS3 SINR Measured

SINR (dB)
10

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 13: Measured and fitted SINR of tested base stations


4
x 10 PDCP DL THROUGHPUT (bps) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
2.5
BS1 PDCP Fitted
BS1 PDCP Measured
BS2 PDCP Fitted
2
BS2 PDCP Measured
PDCP DL THROUGHPUT (bps)

BS3 PDCP Fitted


BS3 PDCP Measured
1.5

0.5

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 14: Measured and fitted PDCP DL Throughput of tested base stations
4
x 10 PCC PHY DL THROUGHPUT (bps) AGAINST DISTANCE (KM)
2.5

BS1 PCC Fitted


BS1 PCC Measured
2
PCC PHY DL THROUGHPUT (bps)

BS2 PCC Fitted


BS2 PCC Measured
BS3 PCC Fitted
1.5 BS3 PCC Measured

0.5

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
DISTANCE (KM)

Figure 15: Measured and fitted PCC PHY DL Throughput of tested base stations
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

Table 8: Norm of residuals for measured parameters

Parameter Base Station Norm of Residuals

RSRP (dBm) BS 1 5.93


BS 2 10.54
BS 3 11.14
RSRQ (dBm) BS 1 1.67
BS 2 1.39
BS 3 1.55
RSSI (dBm) BS 1 10.28
BS 2 5.95
BS 3 10.00
PDCP Throughput (bps) BS 1 7001.00
BS 2 4719.70
BS 3 8351.30
PCC PHY Throughput (bps) BS 1 7071.80
BS 2 6424.00
BS 3 10091.00
SINR (dB) BS 1 6.34
BS 2 9.62
BS 3 6.52

3.3 Validation of fitted models


The root mean squared error (RMSE), a metric that measures the error between the measured
and the fitted data, as shown in Eq. (9) is used for model validation (Ajose and Imoize, 2013;
Ibhaze, et al., 2017). The calculated and the acceptable values of RMSEs for the tested
parameters are as shown in Table 9. The acceptable RMSEs for SINR, RSRP, RSRQ and
RSSI ranges from 0.2dBm to 6dBm, and the PCC PHY and PDCP DL Throughput should be
less than the norm of residual. Finally, we evaluate the performances of the tested base
stations in line with the results of propagation measurements. The best and least performed
base stations with reference to the tested parameters are as shown in Table 10.

√∑ (9)

where is the number of measured values, which is 20.


and are the respective values of the measured and fitted parameters.

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around Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818, www.azojete.com.ng

Table 9: RMSEs of tested parameters


Parameters Base RMSEs Range of Accepted Values
Station

RSRP (dBm) BS 1 1.51 0.2 to 6.0


BS 2 2.36 0.2 to 6.0
BS 3 2.49 0.2 to 6.0
RSRQ (dBm) BS 1 0.37 0.2 to 6.0
BS 2 0.31 0.2 to 6.0
BS 3 0.35 0.2 to 6.0
RSSI (dBm) BS 1 2.30 0.2 to 6.0
BS 2 1.33 0.2 to 6.0
BS 3 2.24 0.2 to 6.0
PDCP Throughput (bps) BS 1 1565.48 0.1 to 7001.00
BS 2 1055.35 0.1 to 4719.70
BS 3 1867.41 0.1 to 8351.30
PCC PHY Throughput (bps) BS 1 1581.30 0.1 to 7071.80
BS 2 1436.45 0.1 to 6424.00
BS 3 2256.35 0.1 to 10091.00
SINR (dB) BS 1 1.42 0.2 to 6.0
BS 2 2.15 0.2 to 6.0
BS 3 1.46 0.2 to 6.0

Table 10: Performance of tested base stations


Parameter Best performance Least performance
RSRP BS 3 BS 1
RSRQ BS 1 BS 2
RSSI BS 3 BS 1
PDCP DL Throughput BS 1 BS 2
PCC PHY DL Throughput BS 1 BS 2
SINR BS 1 BS 2

3.4 Discussion
Base Station 3 (BS 3) showed the overall best average performance. Base Station 1 (BS 1)
also showed good network performance on the average while Base Station 2 (BS 2) showed
the least good performance among the tested stations. BS 3 maintained excellent RSRP
across the measured distance. The average RSRP for BS 3 is -74.14dBm. This means that
across the resource elements allocated to this base station, the average power is highest. This
is indicative of good channel quality. RSRP measured at BS 1 was the least of the three base
stations at -80.88dBm. BS 1, which had the least good RSRP, showed the best RSRQ
compared to the other three base stations. BS 3 displayed the best RSSI, as shown in Table
10. It should be noted here that RSRP and RSSI showed similar trend. In fact, a critical
examination of the graphs of both parameters showed very similar patterns for the three base
stations. For both parameters, BS 3 showed best performance and BS 1 showed least good
performance. It can be deduced that the RSRP and RSSI are directly proportional. The
performance of BS 1 is excellent while that of BS 3 is fair. The relationship drawn between
the three base stations showed that RSSI is directly proportional to RSRP and inversely
proportional to RSRQ.
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment, June, 2018; Vol. 14(2):208-225.
ISSN 1596-2490; e-ISSN 2545-5818; www.azojete.com.ng

Furthermore, the SINR and throughputs (PCC PHY and PDCP) indicate very similar trends
for the three base stations. BS 1 begins steadily and rises up to a peak value and then decline
afterwards. BS 2 maintains a relatively constant value throughout while for BS 3, there is a
steady decline throughout. It can be deduced that the throughput is directly proportional to
the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. This means that more bits will be transmitted
successfully when the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio is high.
The benchmark values of RSRP shows that for values greater than -75dBm, excellent QoS
can be expected. For RSRP ranging between -75dBm and -95dBm, the QoS is quite good.
Values below -95dBm indicates unacceptable QoS of the network. BS 3 meets the benchmark
for excellent QoS, and the QoS of BS 1 and BS 2 are reasonably fair. For the RSRQ, values
above -9dBm indicates good signal quality at the customer end, and values between -9dBm
and -12dBm indicate neutral QoS, while values below -12dBm means that the customer will
experience degradation in network performance such as call drops and very low throughput
(Ajay, 2007; Mishra, 2007). The RSRQ of BS 1 indicates that, customers around this
environment will experience excellent signal quality. A related study reported by Ahmed et
al., (2013) in India, show the relationship between throughput and SINR. Here, the graphical
representation over the utilized base station shows that the SINR and throughput had a similar
trend to the results presented in our study. In another study carried out in Australia (Afroz et
al., 2015), it is seen that the trends of the measured data shows a similar relationship among
RSSI, RSRP, RSRQ, throughput and SINR as in the case of the results in this paper.
Although the network performance is generally better than the results reported in this paper,
but a careful comparison suggests that our results are valid.

4.0 Conclusion
Performance analysis of a commercial 4G LTE network in Lagos was investigated at an
operating frequency of 1876.6MHz. Six key performance indicators were tested at a near
constant mobile antenna height of 1.5m, using Huawei Technologies drive test equipment.
The tested parameters include; Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal
Received Quality (RSRQ), Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), Primary Component
Carrier Physical Downlink Throughput (PCC PHY DL Throughput), and Packet Data
Convergence Protocol Downlink Throughput (PDCP DL Throughput). These were measured
over three base stations (eNodeBs); Base Station 1 (BS1), Base Station 2 (BS2), and Base
Station 3 (BS3), located in and around the University of Lagos, Oniru and along Ikorodu road
in Lagos, Nigeria. In order to examine the performances of the investigated eNodeBs, the
tested parameters were analyzed in MATLAB. Results revealed that overall; BS 3 performed
best over 1km of propagation measurements. BS 1 also showed good network performance
with reference to the benchmark values for good QoS, and BS 2 was reasonably fair. In order
to examine the goodness of fit, a higher order polynomial of degree nine was fitted to
measured data, and root mean squared error was used to test the validity of the fitted models.
Generally, results compare favourably with related works reported in the literature, and the
fitted models could be very useful to network operators and engineers to better characterize
radio channels for improved mobile services for network subscribers. Future studies could be
directed towards investigating the impact of other network parameters such as jitter and
latency on the performance of the network.

Acknowledgement
The authors are thankful to Huawei Technologies for support during measurements
campaign.

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Imoize and Adegbite: Measurements-Based Performance Analysis of a 4g Lte Network in and
around Shopping Malls and Campus Environments in Lagos Nigeria. AZOJETE, 14(2):208-225
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