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 Introduction

 Basic Concept of MT Method

 MT Method from Data Acquisition to Interpretation

 MT Method in Indonesia: Success Story in Geothermal


Exploration
 History
 MT (Low Frequency 300-0.001 Hz) : Cagniard (1953), Kato and Kikuchi (1950),
Rikitake (1950,1951), and Tikonov (1950)
 AMT (10 Hz – 10 kHz) : 1960
 CSAMT (2 kHz – 1 Hz) : Goldstein (1971), David Strangway (1975), Zonge (1980)

 Worldwide applications
 MT has been popular for geothermal exploration, mineral exploration,
hydrocarbon exploration and regional geophysical mapping.
 It is used in oil exploration for low-cost reconnaissance of sedimentary basins and
for exploration in areas where seismic surveys are difficult because of severe
topography or the presence high-impedance volcanic rocks near the surface.
 Geothermal, hydrocarbon, mineral, tectonic
1. MT method recently becomes popular in geothermal exploration, because of
its ability to detect deep subsurface information

2. MT can map structure and conductance of <180°C low resistivity smectite clay
zone capping the relatively resistive >200°C propylitic reservoir

3. MT can be integrated with geochemistry and geology to

 Develop a geothermal conceptual model


 Estimate resource capacity
 Target wells for high temperature permeability
Magnetotelluric (MT) methods have the following
features in common

A primary EM Measurement
field can be of E and B
man made or fields
natural
 The magnetotelluric (MT) method is the
measurement of the Earth’s naturally occurring,
time-varying EM fields.

 The electromagnetic fields are generated by two


sources.
1. First is the interaction of the Earth’s
magnetic field with the solar wind
(charged particles emitted from the
sun) that results in fluctuations in the
magnetosphere. The fields resulting from
this interaction typically contain
frequencies below 1 Hz.

2. Second is the electromagnetic energy


that comes from lightning activity
which typically results in frequencies
above 1 Hz.
Ionospheric Current
 Naturally occurring variations in the Earth's magnetic
field induce eddy currents in the Earth that are D
 H  j 
detectable as electric (or telluric) field variations on t
the surface.
B
 E  
 The magnetotelluric (MT) method is an t
electromagnetic (EM) technique for determining the
resistivity distribution of the subsurface from H : input E : output
measurements of natural time-varying magnetic
and electric fields at the surface of the Earth.
Z, earth

 The ratio of the horizontal electric field to the


orthogonal horizontal magnetic field (termed the EM
impedance, Z), measured at a number of frequencies,
gives Earth resistivity as a function of frequency
or period, resulting in a form of depth sounding.
Transverse Magnetic Mode (TM): Transverse Electric Mode (TE):

• Magnetic field polarized parallel • Electric field polarized parallel


to the strike direction. to the strike direction.
• Electric field components are • Magnetic field components are
confined to the y-z plane confined to the y-z plane.

strike strike

2 2
Ey Ex
 yx  0.2T  xy  0.2T
Hx Hy
• Uses natural EM signal
• > 5 km depth
• Records 14 hours
• 1-4 stations/equipment/day
• One station Remote
Reference
 Measuring Magnetic Field in remote (“noise free”) area
 Usually located more than 50 km from MT Sites

MT Remote Reference

MT Station
Types of MT Measurement:

 Line System (2-D Survey)

 Gridding System Survey (2-D and 3-D


Survey)
Time series data

FFT
Robust remote
Frequency domain data
process

MT Transfer function Tipper, induction arrows,


Impedances SEG EDI format impedance strikes, etc.
Using Software Developed by
Geothermal Laboratory,
The University of Indonesia
Using Software Developed by Geothermal Laboratory,The
University of Indonesia
 3-D visualization can be constructed using GeoSlicer-X
software developed by the Geothermal Laboratory of UI

 This software can be used for visualizing the subsurface


resistivity structure in:
 3-D “cake” model
 Horizontal Slice
 Vertical Slice
 Wireframe model
 3-D Rotation
Typical Characteristics of
Geothermal System in
Indonesia:

• High terrain
• Deep (1-3 km) &
• Concealed reservoir
• Complex Structure
• Located in a dense jungle
• Some fields with long and
deep outflow
EXPLORATION TARGET:
GEOTHERMAL CONCEPTUAL MODEL & DRILLING
STRATEGY

- Hidrology
Geochemistry - Up/Out Flow Zone
- Type of Fluids

GEOPHYSICS:
• MT/TDEM - Reservoir Geometry Geothermal
• Gravity - Geological Structure Conceptual Model
• MEQ - Fracture Zone

- Structures
Geology - Alteration Zone
- Lithology

DRILLING
STRATEGY
(materials published in International Journal/Seminar/Symposium
by Daud et al.)

barat-laut

G. Pintau
NW G. Sibayak
SE
G. Pratektekan

Clay Cap Reservoir

up- flow
out- flow
recharge
SIBAYAK
GEOTHERMAL FIELD

Medan

Jakarta

Location of Sibayak Geothermal Field, Indonesia

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Some photos of Sibayak Geothermal Field, Indonesia
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 Sibayak is situated in high terrain area inside Singkut caldera

 The stratigraphy of Sibayak area is composed of:


 Quaternary volcanic formation (upper)
 Pre-Tertiary to Tertiary sedimentary formation (lower):
 Predominantly sandstone, followed by shale and limestone

 Geological structures are controlled by volcanic and tectonic processes

 Manifestation is mainly found around the summit of Mt Sibayak


(solfataras, fumaroles, sulfate-bicarbonate to sulfate water) as well as
in the vicinity of caldera rim in the shouthern part.

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Zone with
NW Scaling Legend :
359 QpaP Mt. Pintau Problem Al Altered outcrop

F6 QhaS Sibayak Hornblende


Al Andesite
QhaP QpaS
Mt. Sibayak QpaP
Pintau Pyroxene
Andesite

358
F5 Mt. Simpulanangin QhaP Pratektekan
Hornblende Andesite
Mt. Pratektekan QpaS Simpulanangin
Pyroxene Andesite

QhaS SBY-5 Al QlbS


Singkut Laharic
SBY-6 Breccia
SBY-3 SBY-8
SBY-7
SBY-4
Singkut
QdaS
357 Dacite-Andesite
SBY-10
B
A SBY-9

Zone with
Normal Fault
SBY-1
C F1
Caldera
Strong
Acid 356 F3
QlbS F4 Solfatara/Fumarole
Hotspring
F2 Al F1
SBY-2
Well Pad
QdaS
SE
Mt. Singkut
SBY-1 Well SBY-1

355 0m Scale 1000 m


444 445 446 447 448 449

Geological map of Sibayak geothermal field

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2-D Inversion of MT Data
Ohm.m
NW SBK-218 SBK-216 NE 1000
SIB-132 SBK-201 960
SIB-131 SBK-119 SBK-205 SBK-211 SBK-104 SBK-207 920
2000 880
840
800
760
720
1000 74 99 680
Elevation (meter)

640
139 110 600
560
218 520
0 270 236
254 266 480
Up-dome shaped
306 256 440
400
360
-1000 320
280
240
200
160
-2000 120
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 80
40
Distance (meter) 0

2-D inversion result of MT data along the profile Line NW-SE


Numbers inside the figure denote formation temperatures measured from wells

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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MT
RESISTIVITY
362000

361000 meter (a.s.l)

600
400
300
360000 200
100
0
-200
Mt. Pintau
Northing (meter)

-400
359000
-600
F6 -800
Mt. Sibayak -1000

358000 F5 Mt. Simpulanangin -1200


-1400
Mt. Pratektekan -1600
5 -1800
3 8 6 7 -2000
-2200
357000 10 4 -2400
Mt Uncim 9 -2600
F3 -2800
F2 -3000
F4
356000 2 F1

Mt. Singkut
355000
442000 443000 444000 445000 446000 447000 448000 449000 450000
Easting (meter)

Map showing spatial distribution of the interpreted up-domed shape of


resistive layer below the intense alteration cap
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Proposed Proposed
Production Reinjection Zone
Zone barat-laut

Caldera Caldera
Northwest Boundary G. Pintau Boundary
G. Sibayak Souteast
G. Pratektekan

Clay Cap
Reservoir

up-flow
out-flow
recharge
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NW Singkut Caldera SE
Reservoir Zone
Mt Pintau Mt Sibayak
2000 Cluster B Cluster A
Elevation (meter)

1000
200
250
0
• High temperature (>300 C) 1
3 4 300
• High permeability-thickness (2-4 darcy-m)
5 8 2
• High
-1000 production rate
(30~>50 t/hr of steam)

-2000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000
Distance (meter)

Argillitic Altered Rock (resistivity = 5-10 ohm-m) Mineral Deposition Hot-water flow

Prophylitic Altered Rock (resistivity = 50-200 ohm-m) Sedimentary rock Cold-water flow

Fumarole / Solfatara Hotspring Well Cluster

Conceptual geothermal model of the Sibayak geothermal field.

37
362000

361000 meter (a.s.l)


Natural Water
Recharge Outflow Zone 600
400
300
360000 200
Upflow Zone 100
0
-200
Mt. Pintau
Northing (meter)

-400
359000
-600
F6 -800
Mt. Sibayak -1000

358000 F5 Mt. Simpulanangin -1200


-1400
Mt. Pratektekan -1600
5 -1800
Outflow Zone
3 8 6 7 -2000
-2200
357000 10 4 -2400
Mt Uncim 9 -2600
F3 -2800
F2 -3000
F4
356000
Natural Water 2 F1
Recharge

Mt. Singkut
355000
442000 443000 444000 445000 446000 447000 448000 449000 450000
Easting (meter)

Hydrogeological map of the Sibayak geothermal field.


Proposed production and re-injection drillings are indicated with
the symbol
38
 Seismic reflection is a highly effective tool for imaging complex structures in
hydrocarbon exploration.

 However, in certain scenarios, seismic data quality can be severely diminished.


For example, near-surface carbonates and volcanic rocks can degrade the
quality of seismic data through static effects.

 Problems can also arise in overthrust belts, where high-velocity rocks are
emplaced over a low-velocity layer. In these situations, magnetotelluric can
be used to provide alternative or complementary information about the
subsurface structure.

 While seismic is able to image subsurface structure, it cannot detect changes in


resistivity. MT does detect resistivity variations in subsurface structures, which in
certain situation can differentiate between structures bearing hydrocarbons and
those that do not.
Geological Model
MT Application for
Hydrocarbon
Exploration in Turkey
(Watts and Pince, 1998)

MT Data Model Seismic Data Section


Structural imaging in the Rocky Mountain Foothills
(Alberta) using magnetotelluric exploration
(Xiao & Unsworth, 2006)

• Overthrusts are often associated with effective hydrocarbon


traps. As with subsalt exploration, this geometry can place high
velocity thrust sheets above lower velocity rocks, and resolution at
depth with seismic reflection exploration is compromised.

• In addition, weathering and static problems can seriously


degrade the quality of seismic data in this context.

• Can MT contribute in this situation? Again this geometry usually


corresponds to a low resistivity layer (a conductor) below a high
resistivity layer, which is again favourable for detection with MT.
THANK YOU

MAGENTOTELLURIC (MT) METHOD:


SUCCESS STORY IN GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION