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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY  how the body maintains conditions within a

narrow range of values in the presence of a


continually changing environment
ANATOMY o Newborn baby - doesn't have the
 Investigates the structure of the body capability to shiver
 "dissect" or cut apart and separate  will result to hyperthermia
 "TOMY" - to cut / process of cutting
 "ANA" - apart/up
 study of structure and shape of the body and Division/Type of study
its parts and their relationship with one another  According to the organism involved
o Human physiology - study of specific
organism, the HUMAN
Branches of Anatomy  According to levels of organism within
GROSS ANATOMY
 large, easily observable structures CHEMICAL LEVEL
MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY  simplest level of structural ladder
 too small to be seen with the naked eye  involves interaction among atoms and their
SYSTEMIC ANATOMY combinations into molecules
 ATOMS - building block of matter, combine
 By systems
to form MOLECUELS such as water, sugar,
REGIONAL ANATOMY and proteins
 Study of organization of the body by areas  For ex.
 within each region such as the head, o Collagen molecules are strong
abdomen, or arm
 approach taken by most medical and dental
 Organelles - small structures that make up
books
cell that performs one or more functions
SURFACE ANATOMY
Ex.
 external structures
 Nucleus - contains the cells hereditary
ANATOMIC IMAGING information
 involves the use of x-rays, ultrasound, MRI,  Mitochondria - manufacture ATP
and other technologies to create picture of  ATP - molecule used by cells for a source of
internal organs energy

 Both surface anatomy and anatomic STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION


imaging are useful in diagnosing disease  Cells - basic structural and functional units of
organisms such as plants and animals
PHYSIOLOGY  Tissues - group of similar cells
o characteristic of the cells and
 Scientific discipline that deals with the surrounding materials determine the
processes or functions of living things functions
 study of how the body and its part work or  Organ - structure compose of two or more
function tissue types that together perform a function
 "PHYSIO" - nature  Organ system - group of organs classified as
 "LOGY" - the study of a unit because of a common function or set of
functions
Major goals:
 Understand and predict the body's
responses to stimuli
11 Major systems: Integumentary system  Nervous System
 Skeletal System  Major regulatory system that detects
 Muscular System sensation and controls movements,
 Lymphatic System physiologic processes and
 Respiratory System intellectual functions
 Digestive System  Brain, spinal cord, nerves and
 Nervous System sensory receptors
 Endocrine System  Endocrine System
 Cardiovascular System  Major regulatory system that
 Urinary System influences metabolism, growth, and
 Reproductive System reproduction
 Coordinated activity is necessary for  Glands such as pituitary gland
normal function  Cardiovascular System
 Organ system are interrelated,  Transports nutrients, waste
dysfunction of one can affects on products, gases, and hormones
other system  Immune responses and regulation of
 Integumentary System body temperature
 Protection, regulates temperature,  Heart, blood vessels, blood
prevents water loss, produces  Urinary System
Vitamin D Precursors  Removes waste products from the
 Skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands blood and regulates blood pH, ion
 Skeletal System balance and water balance
 Protection and support, allows body  Kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts
movements, produces blood cells, that carry urine
and stores mineral and fat  Reproductive System
 Bones, associated cartilages,  Female
ligaments and joints  Produces oocytes, site of fertilization
 Muscular System and fetal development
 Body movement, maintains posture,  Produces milk, hormones that
and produces body heat influence sexual function
 Muscles attached to the skeleton by  Male
tendons  Sperm cell and hormone that
 Lymphatic System influence sexual function and
 Remove foreign substances from behaviors
blood and lymph, combats diseases, Organism - highest level of structural organization
maintains tissue fluid balance and Organization - parts of organism have specific
absorbs fat from digestive tract relationship to each other and the parts interact to
 Consists of the lymphatic vessels, perform specific function
lymph nodes, and other lymphatic
organs Living things - highly organized
 Respiratory System
 Exchanges oxygen and carbon Metabolism - ability to use energy to perform vital
dioxide between the blood and air function such as growth, movement and
and regulate blood pH reproduction
 Lungs and respiratory passages
 Plants capture energy from sunlight
 Digestive System
 Humans obtain energy from food
 Performs the mechanical and
chemical processes of digestion, Responsiveness- ability to sense changes in the
absorption of nutrients and environment and make adjustment that help
elimination of wastes maintain its life
 Mouth, esophagus, stomach,  Internal responses
intestines, and accessory organs  Increased body temperature due to a hot
environment
Growth - results in an increase in size of all or part 3 components of Negative Feedback
of the organism Receptor - monitors the values of a variables such
 can results from increase in cell number, as a blood pressure
cell size, or the amount of substance Control center - such as part of the brain,
surrounding cells establishes the set point around which the variables
Development - changes an organism undergoes is maintained
through time Effector - such as the heart, can change the value
 begins at fertilization and ends at death of the variable (depends partly in the heart's
 greatest development occurs before birth, contraction = HR produce in BP and vice versa)
but many changes continue after birth and
some continue throughout life
Negative Feedback Mechanism
Differentiation - change in cell structure and
function from generalized to specialized  Net effect of the response to the stimulus is
to shut off the original stimulus and reduce
Reproduction - formation of new cells or new its intensity
organism
 without reproduction of tissues and cells,
growth and tissue repair is impossible Positive Feedback

Homeostasis - existence and maintenance of a  not homeostatic and rare in healthy


relatively constant environment within the body individuals
even though the outside world is continuously Positive
changing  implies that when deviation from a normal
 HOMEO - same value occurs the response of the system is
 STASIS - standing still to make the deviation even greater
o Does not mean an unchanging  creates a cycle leading away and causes
still, instead a dynamic state of death
equilibrium or a balance Positive Feedback Mechanism
 net results of the response is the tendency
Variables - conditions that affect the fluid to increase the original disturbance
environment of each cell are necessary to maintain (stimulus) and to move the variables farther
that normal functions from its original value
 ex. temperature, volume, and chemical  most familiar example of Positive Feedback
content mechanism is the birth of the baby

Set point - ideal normal value


Normal range - values slightly around the set Anatomical Positions
point  Standing erect face forward, upper limbs
o 36.5-37.5 - normal range of body hanging on the sides, palms of the hands
temperature facing forward
o 37 - set point
Homeostatis - homeostatic mechanisms are not BODY PLANES INSERT HERE
able to maintain the.....
Section - cut of the internal structure of the body
Negative Feedback Mechanism Sectioning - to look inside and observe body
 one that regulates most systems of the structures
body, which function to maintain Longitudinal sections - cut through the long axis
homeostasis of the organ
 ex. maintenance of normal blood pressure
Transverse sections - cut at a right angle to the
long axis
Oblique section - cuts made diagonally

Regional terms
 visible landmarks on the body surface which
maybe used to specifically refer to a body
part or area
Upper limb
 arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
Lower limbs
 thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
Central region of the body
 head, neck, and trunk

SEROUS MEMBRANE INSERT HERE

Mesenteries
 two layers of peritoneum fused together
 anchors the organ to the body wall and
provides a pathway
Retroperitoneal organs
 found behind the parietal peritoneum
 kidneys, ....