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To study the use of construction and demolition waste material in concrete paving

blocks

1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with details regarding generation of the C&D waste. The
composition of the waste generated in construction industry. Also various types of
paver blocks are available in the market. Details of those are discussed in this chapter.

1.1 Introduction to topic

In India, a huge quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) wastes is produced


every year .The disposal of this waste has become a severe social and environmental
problem in the territory. The possibility of recycling of these wastes in the
construction industry is thus of increasing importance. In addition to the
environmental benefits in reducing the demand on land for disposing the waste, the
recycling of C&D wastes can also help to conserve natural materials and to reduce the
cost of waste treatment prior to disposal.
C&D wastes are normally composed of concrete rubbles, bricks and tiles, sand and
dust, timber, cardboard and metals. It has been shown that the crushed concrete
rubble, after separation from other C&D wastes and sieved, can be used as a substitute
for natural coarse aggregates in concrete or as a sub-base or base layer in pavements.
This type of recycled material is called recycled aggregate.
Successful application of recycled aggregate in construction projects has been
reported in some European and American countries. While this type of material has
been used in a large amount in non-structural concretes or used as road bases, its use
in structural concrete is limited. Only a few cases have been reported on the use of
recycled aggregates in structural concrete.
The limited use of recycled aggregate in structural concrete is due to the inherent
deficiency of this type of material. In comparison with natural normal weight
aggregates, recycled aggregates are weaker, more porous and have higher values of
water absorption. The results of research studies show that, when recycled fine
aggregates obtained from crushed concrete are used to replace shows little effect on
the properties of concrete is noticed. However, when used at a higher level of
replacement, the high water absorption ability of recycled aggregate results in a
higher total water demand. This renders the control of the free water-to-cement ratio

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(w/c) and the workability of fresh concrete difficult and results in a higher shrinkage
and creep of the hardened concrete when compared with the concrete prepared with
natural aggregates.
The extent to which the properties of concrete are affected by the use of recycled
aggregate depends on the water absorption, crushing value, soundness of the recycled
aggregate and percentage replacement of aggregate. The requirement for maintaining
a workable mix is not so important. Only a minimal amount of water is needed to
make the mixture fluid enough to be fed into the moulds. This reduces the difficulties
of controlling the w/c ratio and workability. Also, the low water content of the
concrete mixtures for the moulded blocks significantly reduces the shrinkage of the
hardened products. The blocks are available in various dimensions and shapes that are
used in proportions of 0, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80 to replace fine aggregate.

1.2 Problem Statement

To utilize the waste generated from the construction and demolition waste for casting
of paver blocks as a substitute for fine aggregates for various proportions.

1.3 Aim

To develop sustainable paving blocks using construction and demolition waste for
different proportions of recycled aggregates to find best combination for getting
desired properties.

1.4 Objective

1. To find the properties of recycled aggregates by performing tests related to


aggregates.
2. To perform mix design for M30 grade of concrete and cast the paving blocks.
3. To perform the tests as per IS 15658:2006 and compare the properties with the
conventional paving block.
4. To prepare cost analysis.

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1.5 Introduction to paver blocks


Paver blocks differ in shape, size and grade. Different shapes of paver blocks used in
the construction industry are shown in the figure no. 1.1. Based on market survey, we
have chosen red shaped paver block.

Fig. no 1.1 Different types of paver


blocks[https://www.google.co.in/search?q=different+types+of+paver+blocks]

1.6 Sizes of paver blocks


Dimensions of different paver blocks which are generally used in construction
industry are given below

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Fig. no 1.2 Dimensions of paver blocks


[Source: Google http://www.pavingexpert.com/blocks.html]

Fig. no 1.3 Tested paver blocks for compression test


[Source:self]

The test performed on various shapes of paver block in fig. no. 1.3 is done
because to know the strength taken by various shapes. From this, we observed that
the strength taken by red shaped paver block is much higher than the other shapes.

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1.7 Introduction to waste material

There are basically five types of construction and demolition waste namely:-
1) Excavation waste.
2) Demolition waste.
3) Site clearance waste.
4) Roadwork waste.
5) Renovation waste.
The relative proportions of each category are presented in Table no.1and fig. no. 1.4.
The figure shows that the first three categories usually consist of high percentages of
inert and non-putrescible materials. On the contrary, wastes generated from site
clearance activities and renovation works are typically contaminated with organic
matters and other debris. Such a mixed material has to be disposed of at landfills
despite it contains a significant proportion of reusable materials. In view of this, there
is a need to perform sorting of building construction materials.

Table no. 1 Types of Waste Materials

SR.NO TYPE OF MATERIAL INERT NON INERT


(%) (%)
1 Road work material 95.7 4.3
2 Excavation soil 97.9 2.1
3 Demolition material 82.8 17.2
4 Site clearance material 64 36
5 Building renovation material 62.1 37.9

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120.00%
95.70% 97.90%
100.00% 82.80%
PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT

80.00% 64.00% 62.10%


60.00%
36.00% 37.90%
40.00%
17.20%
20.00% 4.70% 2.10%
0.00%
ROADWORK EXCAVATION SOIL DEMOLITION SITE CLEARANCE BUILDING
MATERIAL MATERIAL MATERIAL RENOVATION
MATERIAL
WASTE CATEGORY

Fig. no 1.4 Percentage of inert and non-inert material in C&D waste.


[Source: Reference paper: 1]

1.7.1 Introduction to site used as waste material:-

Hotel fountain
Inn

Fig. no 1.5 Location of Fountain Hotel


[Source: Google maps]

Hotel fountain Inn is situated in kalewadi phata in Pune. Due to ongoing metro
construction, the site had to be demolished for space requirement. Hence, this site was
chosen for the collection of waste materials. In building demolitions, almost the whole
building structure, including the superstructure, the concrete foundations, driveways,
etc. will end up as C&D waste. Demolition waste usually consists of high percentage
of inert materials like bricks, sand and concrete. Metals, timber, glass, plastics and
other mixed materials make up the lesser percentages. The characteristics of the waste

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may vary according to the types of structures demolished and the demolition
techniques used. For instances, in ‘piece-by-piece’ wrecking, workers usually employ
mechanical hand tools to recover the maximum amount of reusable material.
Whereas, in heavy demolition with heavy equipment, the waste generated is a
commingled pile that separation of reusable materials is difficult. The success of
waste separation on-site is highly dependent on the demolition method used.
Out of different types of wastes generated on site, we have selected only the concrete
of the. Also, we have used manual method of wrecking the waste with the help of
hammer.

Fig. no 1.6 On site sorting and collection of waste material


[Source: self] [Location: Hotel fountain Inn]

1.7.2 Composition of site clearance waste:-


When the site is demolished, there are many types of wastes were produced.
This waste is categorised in different proportions. The table below shows
different percentages of waste on site.

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Table no. 2 Composition of site clearance waste

Sr no. Constituent % Sr no. Constituent %

1 Asphalt 1.61 10 Brick 0.20

2 Concrete 19.99 11 Other Organics 1.3

3 Reinforced concrete 33.1 12 Plastic pipe 0.61

4 Dirt,Soil,mud 11.91 13 Sand 1.44

5 Rock 6.83 14 Trees 0.00

6 Rubble 4.95 15 Fixtures 0.04

7 Wood 7.15 16 Junk 0.07

8 Bamboo 0.31 17 Metal(ferrous) 3.41

9 Block concrete 6.33 18 Total 100

[Source: Reference paper 1]

1.8 Casting of paver blocks at site


The paver blocks that were casted was done at a site at Ravet , Pune. The site had
a concrete mixer of capacity 1 m³, vibrating table, various shapes of moulds in
large quantity. The total casting of our project was done at this site. Fig no. 1.7
shows the site at Ravet.

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Fig. no 1.7 Ravet site


[Source: self]

1.9 Recommended Grades of Paver Blocks for Different Traffic Categories


Paver blocks are classified according to their grades based on traffic conditions.
The recommended grades for different traffic conditions are given in IS
15658:2006 clauses 5 and 9.4 .

Table no.3 Recommended Grades of Paver Blocks for Different Traffic Categories
Sr Grade Compressive Traffic Recommended Traffic examples of
No. Designation strength at category minimum application
of Paver 28 days in paver block
blocks N/mm² thickness
1 M 30 30 Non- 50 mm Building premises,
traffic monument
premises,
landscapes, public
gsrdendparks,
domestic

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drives, paths and
patios,
embankment
slopes, sand
stabilization area.

2 M 35 35 Light 60 mm 60 Pedestrian
traffic plazas, shopping
complexes ramps,
car parks, oflke
driveways, housing
colonies, office
complexes, rural
roads with low
volume traffic,
farm houses, beach
sites, tourist resorts
local authority
footways,
residential roads,
etc

3 M 40 40 Medium 80 mm City streets, small


Traffic and medium market
roads, low volume
roads, utility cuts
on arterial roads,
etc

4 M 50 50 Heavy 100 mm Bus terminals,


traffic industrial
complexes, mandi
houses, roads on

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expansive soils,
factory floor,
service stations,
industrial
pavements, etc

5 M 55 55 Very 120 mm Very heavy-traffic


heavy Container
traffic terminals, ports,
docks yards,
mine access roads,
bulk cargo handling
areas, airport
pavements, etc

[Source : IS 15658:2006]

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter contains details of various national and international papers referred for
this work.

2.1 JOURNAL PAPER REFFERED


2.1.1 International papers:
1. On-site sorting of construction and demolition waste in Hong Kong, by
C.S.Poon, Ann T.W. Yu, L.H.Ng,- The results of the survey undertaken to
evaluate three alternative waste sorting methods on building construction sites and
to compare them with the use of an off-site central waste sorting facility.There has
been extensive building and infrastructure development in Hong Kong. This,
together with redevelopment of old districts, has produced an increasing amount
of construction and demolition (C&D) waste (Poon, 1997). According to the
Environmental Protection Department (EPD) (Chung, 2000), the construction
industry generated about 32 710 t of C&D waste per day in 1998, nearly 15%
more than the 1997 figure. About 80% of the C&D wastes landfilled are inert
material, which could be better reused for land reclamation (Environmental
Protection Department, 1998).The feasibility of on-site waste sorting is examined
respectively in construction and demolition sites. For construction waste,
alternative 1 is the most applicable on-site sorting method. It involves two refuse
chutes set up for each building block for debris collection, enabling separation of
non-inert materials from inert materials at the source of waste generation. For
congested building sites in urban areas where the floor layout plan does not allow
twin debris chutes, alternative 2 would be more applicable. Nevertheless,
additional management effort is required to run the sorting process in which the
single chute conveys either inert or non-inert materials at separate specified time
slots. on-site waste sorting be fully implemented to become a long-term solution
to the landfill shortage problem. [1]

2. Properties of concrete paving blocks made with waste marble, by Osman


Gencela, Cengiz Ozelb, Fuat Koksalc, Ertugrul Erdogmusd-Marble industry
produces large amounts of waste marble e what causes environmental problems.

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In paving blocks based on two cement types we have partly replaced aggregate
with waste marble. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on blocks so
produced. The cement type turns out to be an important factor. Mechanical
strength decreases with increasing marble content while freeze-thaw durability
and abrasive wear resistance increase. Waste marble is well usable instead of the
usual aggregate in the concrete paving block production. Although compressive
strength decreases with increasing marble content in the concrete, the blocks give
satisfactory strength values after 28 days. The cement type is an important factor
for strength of the blocks. Abrasive resistance of the blocks is strongly influenced
by their marble aggregate content. Highest abrasion rates were obtained for
control blocks that do not contain marble (A0 and B0). Freeze-thaw durability of
paving blocks containing marble aggregate is higher than those of the control
blocks.Finally, conclusion came out as incorporation of marble waste provides
concrete paving blocks of sufficient quality.[2]
3. Paving blocks from ceramic tile production waste by D .wattanasiriwech, A.
saiton, S. wattanasiriwech- This paper presents the use of waste mud from
ceramic tile production as the main component in paving blocks.
Compressive strength values of the blocks were compared with the standard
value as prescribed by the Thailand Industrial Standard. The waste mud was
first characterized using XRD, XRF, SEM, Laser diffraction particle size
analyzer and sieve analysis. Paving blocks were subsequently prepared by
mixing the waste mud with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and compacted
using a hydraulic press. Water was added to the cement–mud mix to assist
compaction and to strengthen the blocks by hydration of OPC. Effects of
water and cement content, immersion in water, as well as compaction
pressure on compressive strength were subsequently studied. Increasing
compaction pressure and also immersion in water for 5 min every 24 h were
found to enhance densification and thus compressive strength of the test
samples. The blocks containing 15 wt% cement required a long curing period
of up to 28 days for their compressive strength to reach the standard
requirement while the compressive strength of the blocks containing 25–
30 wt% cement exceeded the standard requirement after curing for only 7
days.

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4. The use of recycled demolition aggregate in precast concrete products –


Phase III: Concrete pavement flags by Marios N. Soutsos , Kangkang Tang ,
Stephen G. Millard- A study undertaken at the University of Liverpool has
investigated the potential for using construction and demolition waste (C&DW)
derived aggregate in the manufacture of a range of precast concrete products, i.e.
building and paving blocks and pavement flags. Phase III, which is reported here,
investigated concrete pavement flags. This was subsequent to studies on building
and paving blocks. Recycled demolition aggregate can be used to replace newly
quarried limestone aggregate, usually used in coarse (6 mm) and fine (4 mm-to-
dust) gradings. The first objective was, as was the case with concrete building and
paving blocks, to replicate the process used by industry in fabricating concrete
pavement flags in the laboratory. The ‘‘wet’’ casting technique used by industry
for making concrete flags requires a very workable mix so that the concrete flows
into the mould before it is compressed. Compression squeezes out water from the
top as well as the bottom of the mould. This industrial casting procedure was
successfully replicated in the laboratory by using an appropriately modified cube
crushing machine and a special mould typical of what is used by industry. The
mould could be filled outside of the cube crushing machine and then rolled onto a
steel frame and into the machine for it to be compressed. The experimental work
involved two main series of tests, i.e. concrete flags made with concrete- and
masonry-derived aggregate. Investigation of flexural strength was required for
concrete paving flags with up to 60% of the coarse or 40% of the fine fractions
replaced with concrete-derived aggregates, the target mean flexural strength of 5.0
N/mm2 was still achieved at the age of 28 days. There was similar detrimental
effect by incorporating the fine masonry-derived aggregate.

5. Concrete paving products made with recycled demolition aggregates by K.


Tang, M.N Soutsos & S.G.Millard –The potential for using construction and
demolition waste derived aggregate in the manufacture of concrete paving blocks
is being investigated at the University of Liverpool. Market research indicated that
economic benefits might be achieved by using recycled demolition aggregates in
precast concrete paving products. The mechanical properties i.e., compressive and
tensile splitting strength, of paving blocks made with recycled demolition
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aggregates were also investigated. Levels of aggregate replacement were
determined that produced blocks with similar mechanical properties to those of
blocks made using only natural aggregates, without requiring an increase in the
cement content.

2.1.2 National papers:

1. Replacement of Fine Aggregate by using Recyclable Materials in Paving


Blocks by Shyam Prakash Koganti, Kommineni Hemanthraja, Satish Sajja.-
Cement concrete paving blocks are precast hard products complete out of cement
concrete. The product is made in various sizes and shapes like square, round and
rectangular blocks of different dimensions with designs for interlocking of adjacent
tiles blocks. Several research works have been carried out in the past to study the
possibility of utilizing waste materials and industrial byproducts in the manufacturing
of paver blocks. Various industrial waste materials like quarry dust, glass powder,
ceramic dust and coal dust are used as partial replacement of fine aggregate and
assessed the strength parameters and compared the profit percentages after
replacement with waste materials. Quarry dust can be replaced by 20% and beyond
that the variation in strength is not much higher but considering cost we can replace
upto 40% so that we can get a profit of almost 10%. Similarly we can replace glass
powder and ceramic dust by 20% only beyond that there is decrement in strength and
even with 20% replacement we can get 1.34 % and 2.42% of profit. Coal dust is not
suitable for replacing fine aggregate as it reduces the strength.[1]

2. Experimental investigation on GGBS paver block with addition of polyester


triangular fibre by M.Praveen Kumar, S.Ramesh Kumar, A.Ranjith Kumar,
S.SaravanaKumar, M.Yeswanth,- In this experimental investigation compressive
strength and water absorption of paver block were evaluated by replacing portion of
cement with the GGBS (Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag). Polyester Triangular
fibers were also incorporated along with the GGBS to further enhance the mechanical
properties. Different proportions of Polyester Triangular fiber starting from 0.4% and
0.5% by weight of materials. 20% to 35% by weight of cement was replaced with the
GGBS. By test testing the specimen optimum fibre and GGBS content find out.
Compressive strength of paver block increases by GGBS, addition of polyester
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triangular fibre and optimum content of GGBS and fibre inclusion was 25% & 0.5%.
A test result at 7days curing period with optimum GGBS and polyester triangular
fibre indicates an increase of 66% in compressive strength. There are 7.87% decrease
in Water absorption at mix MPF0.5G20 replacement of cement with GGBS and
additionally added polyester triangular fibre at 7 days.[2]

3.Properties of Paver Blocks with Groundnut Husk Ash as Fine Aggregates by


S.Revathi, Dr.R.Kumutha, Dr.K.Vijai.-In the present investigation paver blocks
were prepared using M40 mix using 10 mm Coarse aggregates, Portland Pozzolana
Cement and Fine Aggregates .The dimension of the paver block is 215 x 170 x 55
mm. The fine aggregates were partially replaced using Groundnut husk ash in
percentage of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60. Tests were carried out to find out the
Compressive Strength, Water Absorption and Density. Density of paver blocks is
within the range of 1888-2202 kg/cu.m. Density values decreases with increase in
Groundnut husk ash. Groundnut husk ash is suitable in making paver blocks as the
water absorption is less than 7%. The paver blocks prepared using M40 grade of
concrete s can be used for light traffic commercial vehicles like Pedestrian plazas,
shopping complexes ramps, car parks, housing colonies, office complexes etc.[3]

4.Manufacture of paver block using partial replacement ofconstruction and


demolition concrete waste,Dinesh W. Gawatre, Rohit S. Chhajed, Prashik b.
panpatil, Shubham Desarda, Chetan S. Waghchaure, Nikhil S. Agrawal-In India,
total quantum of waste from construction industry is estimated to be between 12 to 14
million tonnes per annum, out of which 7 to 8 million tonnes are concrete and brick
waste. Construction, demolition, renovation generates large amount of concrete waste.
This waste is either dumped or it is diverted towards landfill. This concrete waste can
be qualitatively reused for manufacturing of various concrete blocks. In this paper, we
present the concept of sustainable use of concrete waste in concrete which can be
reused in manufacturing of interlocking paver blocks. After crushing, this concrete
waste can be used as a replacement of coarse and fine aggregates as partial (50%)
replacement in top and bottom layer of paver blocks by considering IS specification.
In this project, by considering suitable materials, size, shape, mix design etc. and by
accepting specific casting methodology, we have casted interlocking paver blocks and
performed various specific tests as per I.S recommendations.[4]
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5.Development of Paver Blocks from Industrial Wastes, Kalingarani.K,


Harikrishna Devudu.P ,Jegan Ram.M, Sriramkumar.V-Interlocking concrete
paver blocks (ICPB) are brick-like piece of concrete commonly used as exterior
flooring which can be used as an alternative pavement to asphalt and concrete
pavements. ICPB is formed from individual concrete paver blocks (CPBs) that fit next
to one another on a suitable sub base leaving a specific joint space among them to be
filled with jointing sand. The main aim of this study is to produce interlocking
concrete paver blocks from industrial wastes .The main reason for the use of the
industrial wastes is to reduce the landfill problem and also to control the depletion of
the natural resources. For this purpose various industrial wastes such as copper slag,
fly ash, phosphogypsum, and sludge were selected and their physical and chemical
properties were studied. Various mixes with different proportions of these industrial
wastes were casted and tested as per the standards given in the Indian standards for
precast concrete blocks for paving (IS.15658:2006). These test results are then
compared with the results of the conventional paver blocks.[5]

6.Influence of Bacteria on Compressive Strength of Rubber Mould Paver Block


by Maulik Sharma, Dr. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. Digvijaysinh Rana-The
currently paver block is used in outdoor usefulness application and also it is used in
path road and other Construction places. Paver block has low maintenance cost and
without difficulty exchange with a newer one at the time of breakage. The quality of
concrete used to make paver block may be the major issue, so that the strength of
concrete paver block depends measuredly on quality of concrete. Thus an attempt
present Research study, work, Rubber Mould Paver Block (RMPB) of M30 grade of
60 mm thickness light traffic with varying concentration cell/ml of Bacteria culture
inclusion of Rubber Mould Paver Block (RMPB). There are lots of bacteria available,
and certain of it can be used in the construction industry for development of the
overall construction. Bacteria are used to increase compressive strength. So that type
of Rubber Mould Paver Block (RMPB) is cast and finding optimum bacteria
concentration cell/ml. To study the changes in compressive strength of Rubber Mould
Paver Block (RMPB)by the inclusion of bacterial Rubber Mould Paver Block
(RMPB) and without inclusion of bacterial Rubber Mould Paver Block (RMPB).[6]

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7. Development of sustainable construction material using construction and
demolition waste by V A Dakwalea & R V Ralegaonkar-Construction and
demolition of old structures generates large quantity of masonry waste in urban areas.
This waste is generally diverted towards landfill. In the present study, a sustainable
construction material (brick) using construction and demolition (C&D) waste is
developed. Cement and fly ash are used as binder and C&D waste is used as fine and
coarse aggregates. Construction and demolition waste bricks (eco-bricks) of size 230
mm × 90 mm × 90 mm are developed for the six different compositions (BR90-1 to
BR90-6). Physico-mechanical tests (block density, compressive strength and water
absorption) are carried out as per Indian standards and embodied energy for the
considered compositions is estimated. The test results are compared to commercially
available fly ash bricks. The eco-bricks that achieved the least embodied energy is
considered as the best combination of sustainable construction material. Amongst the
various trials carried out the brick BR90-6 with the ratio of binder, fine aggregate and
coarse aggregate as 1:2.75:2.25 exhibit compressive strength and water absorption
within the limits of Indian standards with minimum self weight and embodied energy.
The developed sustainable product can be practically implemented over any specific
location by the manufacturer which serves the purpose of solid waste management.[7]

8. Use of construction renovation and demolition waste in partial replacement of


coarse aggregate in M20 concrete by N. Saitrinath Kumar, Chavasiva-Concrete is
a pourable mix of cement, water, sand, and gravel that hardens into a super strong
building material. In the recent decades demolition of old buildings, renovation of
construction gave rise to gargantuan amounts of construction and demolition waste.
Even the waste produced by industries and households got amplified. So experiments
were carried out in the laboratory to scrutinize a concrete made of partial replacement
of coarse aggregate with construction and demolition waste materials like ceramic
tiles waste, plastic debris, crushed bricks. The resultant concrete thus produced was
tested on the following parameters like compressive strength, workability, flexural
strength. The results thus obtained are compared with a plain cement concrete. By
using low weight materials like plastic debris we got a light weight concrete. The
workability of concrete produced with construction waste when compared with plain
cement concrete is not reliable but it produced a considerable increase in the
compressive strength. So we have increased quantity of plastic debris and deducted
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some quantity of other waste, by this the workability standards are maintained .Hence
by using required quantities strength and workability are acquired. Economy plays a
imperative role in any construction, by partially replacing of coarse aggregate with
construction and demolition waste, plastic waste the cost of construction can be
reduced. These wastes can cause pollution that effects human health. Using these
wastes effectively in construction activities the rate of pollution can also be
controlled. Even the properties of concrete can also be improved.[8]

2.2 Findings from literature review

1. While replacing the coarse aggregate than that of fine aggregate, care is to be taken
into account because strength varies drastically. Hence more supervision is required.
2. Strength of pavers is inversely proportional to percentage of replacement material
used.
3. Water absorption is directly proportional to quantity of coarse aggregate to be used.
4. Compressive strength of paver block generally appears to be on much higher side
as compared to the designed compressive strength. The reason for this is the base
friction that is developed in the paver block.

Fig. no 2.1 Concept of base friction in paver block


[Source: Google]

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3. DETAIL METHODOLOGY AND INVESTIGATION

3.1 Introduction

This chapter is based on the testing of materials which are required for mix design.
Materials like cement, coarse aggregate and fine aggregates were tested for their
properties and qualities. The materials were tested in the laboratory and the
procedures adopted were as per the IS specifications. The results obtained are utilised
to design the concrete of M-30 grade.
Through this chapter the procedures and other details of following materials are
given:
1) Testing of coarse aggregate
2) Testing of fine aggregate.
3) Testing of cement.

COLLECTION
MARKET LITERATURE TESTING OF
OF THE
SURVEY SURVEY MATERIALS
WASTE

ANALYSIS OF TESTING FOR


TESTING AT
RESULTS AND BASIC MIX DESIGN
MICRO LEVEL
CONCLUSION PROPORTION

Fig. no 3.1
Flow chart of methodology

Reference: IS: 2386 (part3): Method of test


3.2 Testing of coarse aggregate & fine aggregate
3.2.1 Tests on coarse aggregates
Theory:-
The specific gravity, density, water absorption of an aggregate is properties of vital
importance in the control of quality and strength of concrete. The specific gravity test
values used for making weight volume conversion and for calculating the voids
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content in compacted mixes. The specific gravity of an aggregate is generally required


for calculations connections with cement concrete design work for determination of
moisture content and for the calculations of volume yield of concrete. The specific
gravity also gives information of the quality and properties of aggregate. Stones
having low specific gravity are generally weaker than those with higher specific
gravity values. The specific gravity generally lies between 2.6 to 2.9.
The bulk density of an aggregate is used for judging its quality by comparison with
normal density for that type of aggregate. It is required for converting proportions by
weight into proportions by volume and is used in calculating the % of voices in the
aggregate. Water absorption gives an idea of strength of rock. Stones having more
water absorption are porous in nature and are generally considered unsuitable unless
they are found to be acceptable based on strength, impact and hardness test. Moisture
content of aggregates required for determining net water – cement ratio.

Apparatus and material:-


Weighing balance of accuracy 0.5gm, thermostatically controlled oven wire basket,
Container for filling water trays, Dry cloths, Coarse aggregate sample.

Procedure:-Specific gravity and water absorption


1. For water absorption, specific gravity more than 2 kg samples is required. Sample
shall be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust, drained and then
placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water with a cover of at least 5cm
of water above the top of the basket.
2. Immediately after immersion the entrapped air shall be removed from the sample
by lifting the basket containing it 25mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to
drop 25 times at the rate of about 1 drop /sec. The basket and aggregate shall remain
completely immersed during the operation and for a period of 24hrs afterwards.
3. The basket and the sample shall then jolted and weighed in water (Weight A1).
4. The basket and the aggregate shall then be removed from the water and allowed to
drain for a few minutes, after which the aggregate shall be gently emptied from the
basket on to one of the dry cloths, and the empty basket shall be returned to the water,
jolted 25 times and weighted in water (Weight A2).

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5. The aggregate placed on dry cloths shall be gently surfaced dried with the cloths,
transferring it to the second dry cloths when the first will remove no further moisture.
It shall then be spread out and least exposed to the atmosphere away from direct
sunlight or any other source of heat for not less than 10min or until it appears to be
completely surface dry. The SSD aggregate shall then e weighed (Weight B).
6. The aggregate shall then be placed in the oven in the shallow tray. It shall be
removed from the oven, cooled in the container and weighed (Weight C).
7. As per IS10262 water absorption shall be less than 6% by mass.

3.2.2 Specific gravity of fine aggregate

Apparatus:-

1. A balance of capacity not less than 3kg ,readable and accurate to 0.5 gm and of
such a type as to permit the weighing of the vessel containing the aggregate and water

2. A well ventilated oven to maintain a temperature of 100ºC to 110ºC.

3. Pycnometer of about 1 litre capacity having a metal conical screw top with a 6mm
hole at its apex. The screw top shall be water tight.

4. A means supplying a current warm air.

5. A tray of area not less than 32cm².

6. An air tight container large enough to take the sample.

7. Filter papers and funnel.

Procedure :-

1. Take about 500g of sample and place it in the pycnometer.

2. Pour distilled water into it until it is full.

3. Eliminate the entrapped air by rotating the pycnometer on its side, the hole in the
apex of the cone being covered with a finger.

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4. Wipe out the outer surface of pycnometer and weigh it (W).

5. Transfer the contents of the pycnometer into a tray, care being taken to ensure that
all the aggregate is transferred.

6. Refill the pycnometer with distilled water to the same level.

7. Find out the weight (W1)

8. Drink water from the sample through a filter paper.

9. Place the sample in oven in a tray at a temperature of 100ºC to 110º C for 24±0.5
hours, during which period, it is stirred occasionally to facilitate drying.

10. Cool the sample and weigh it (W2)

Procedure:- Moisture content


1. Take 5kg of coarse aggregate sample= W1.
2. Spread the sample in a pan uniformly.
3. Keep the sample in oven for 24hrs at 110 C
4. Take final weight W2 of sample after 24hrs.

3.2.3 Flakiness and elongation of coarse aggregate


Reference:-I.S. 2386(part 1): Method of test for aggregates
Theory:-
Aggregate are of four types of shape viz. rounded, angular and flaky. Rounded shape
is good for use in cement concrete as possible to provide more workable concrete with
comparatively less quantity of water. Angular particles are good for bituminous
pavement as they have better inter locking properties. Flaky particles are
comparatively thin as compared to their length.
The particles whose least dimension is less than(3/5) or 0.6 times their mean
dimension are termed as flaky particles while those particle with their greatest
dimension(length) more than (9/5) or 1.8 times their mean dimension is termed as

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elongated particles. Shaped particle is evaluated in terms of flakiness index elongation


index and angularity number.
Large % of flaky and elongated aggregate in not desired as they causes weakness with
possibility of breaking down under heavy loads and also is less workable. Thus
evaluation of shape of angular aggregates, specifically with respect to flakiness and
elongation is necessary. The mean size of aggregate is arithmetical mean of sieve
sizes through which aggregate is passing and retained on. The flakiness index is % by
weight of flaky aggregates whereas elongation index is % by weight of elongated
aggregates. Both flaky and elongated index are not applicable for aggregates size
smaller than 6.3 mm.
Apparatus and materials:-
I.S. sieves of size 40mm, 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, and 6.3mm
along with lid and pan, a weighing balance, flakiness gauge, elongation gauge.
Procedure:-Flakiness index
1. The test is not applicable for size smaller than 6.3mm. A sample of aggregate to be
tested is sieved through set of sieves and reported in to specialized size ranges. The
particle retained on each sieves are then made to pass through appropriate slot of
standard thickness gauge.
2. A minimum of 200 pieces of each fraction passing through 25mm and retained on
20mm sieve, passing through 20mm and retained on 16mm sieve and so on up to
passing through 10mm and retained on 6.3mm sieve are taken and their masses are
recorded.
3. All 200 pieces of each fraction are gauged individually through appropriate
thickness gauge and weight
of all the pieces passing through thickness gauge from that fraction is recorded. The
flaky material that has passed through appropriate slot of standard thickness gauge for
such size gauge of test aggregate added up & weighed.
4. Flakiness index is taken as the total weight of the material passing the various
thickness gauge expressed as a percentage of total weight of the sample taken.

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Elongation (length) index:-

1. The test is not applicable for size smaller than 6.3mm. Minimum no. of 200 pieces
of each fraction is also gauged individually on length gauge. Each fraction shall be
gauged individually for length on the metal gauge. Weight of all pieces retained on
length gauge from the fraction is recorded.
2. The elongation index is the total wt. of the material retained on the various length
gauges express as a % of the total weight of the sample gauged.
Procedure:-
1. The test is not applicable for size smaller than 6.3 mm. Minimum no. of 200 pieces
of each fraction is also gauged individually on length gauge. Each fraction shall be
gauged individually for length on the metal gauge .Weight of all pieces retained on
length gauge from that fraction is recorded. A particle while is larger than 25.6mm for
this particular range of size is termed as elongated particle of aggregate.
2. The elongation index is the total wt. of the material retained on the various length
gauges express as a % of the total weight of the sample gauged.

3.2.4. Fineness modulus and grading of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate
Reference: -IS: 383: Specification for Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate from
natural source.
IS: 2386-1963: method of test for aggregate in concrete
Procedure:-
Coarse aggregate
1. Take 2 kg of course aggregate from the sample by quartering.
2. Carry out sieving by hand, shake each sieve in order 25 mm,20 mm,16 mm,12.5
mm,10 mm,6.36 mm,4.75 mm and pan over a clean dry try for a period of not less
than 2 min.
3. The shaking is done with varied motion backward & forward, left to right , circular
clockwise & anticlockwise & with frequent jarring .
4. So that the material is kept to moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing
direction.
5. Find weight retained on each sieve taken in order.

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Fine aggregate
1. Take 1 kg of sand from the sample by quartering in clean dry plate.
2. Arrange the sieve in the order of 4.75 mm, 2.36mm, 1.18 mm, 600 microns, 300
microns,150 microns & pan at bottom.
3. Fix them in sieve shaking machine with the pan at bottom & cover at the top .
4. Keep the sand in top sieve 4.75 mm, carry out the sieving in the set of sieve &
arranged before for not less than 10 min.
5. Find the weight retained in each sieve. Calculate the fineness modules for both fine
&course aggregate.

3.3 Mix design

DATA REQUIRED AS FOLLOWS:-


1. Grade of material : M30
2. Type of cement : OPC 53 grade
3. Maximum nominal size of aggregate : 10mm
4. Exposure conditions : Severe
5. Method of concrete placing : Regular by hand
6. Source of aggregate : Crushed sand

TEST DATA FOR MATERIAL:-

I. Cement used : OPC 53 grade (ACC Cement)


II. Specific gravity of cement : 3.15
III. Specific gravity of good fine aggregate : 2.97
IV. Specific gravity of waste fine aggregate : 2.578
V. Specific gravity of coarse aggregate : 2.93
VI. Water absorption of good fine aggregate : 4.17%
VII. Water absorption of waste fine aggregate : 5.4%
VIII. Water absorption of coarse aggregate : 1.24%
IX. Volume of coarse aggregate per unit
volume of total aggregate for different zone of fine aggregate : 0.62

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Target strength for mix proportioning after 28 days:-


= + 1.65s
Where,
= Target average compressive strength at 28 days
= Characteristics average compressive strength at 28 days
s = Standard deviation
For M30 grade of concrete Standard deviation is 5 N/mm2 (I.S. 456:2000, page no.
23)
Hence target strength in N/mm2 = 30 + 1.65 5 = 38.25 N/mm2

Selection of water cement ratio :-


Ref. Table no.5 of IS 456,
For severe , maximum nominal size of aggregate 10mm and RC work,
Maximum free water cement ratio =0.5
Adopted water cement ratio =0.5<=0.5....... Ok

Selection of water content :-


Ref. Table no.2 of IS 456,
Maximum water content for maximum nominal size aggregate = 208 L
Water absorption correction for CA=(1.24/100x928.224)=11.5 kg
Water absorption correction for CA=(4.17/100x1019.304)=42.5 kg
Total water content = 262 kg.
(The required water content is increase by 3% additional for every 25mm slump
above 50mm slump).

Calculation for cement content:-


Water Cement Ratio =0.5
Cement content = (208/0.5)
= 416 kg/
From IS 456, minimum cement content for extreme condition =300 kg/
Hence, 416 kg/ > 300 kg/ ....ok

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Proportion of volume of coarse and fine aggregate content:-


Ref. Table no.-3 of IS 10262,
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to nominal maximum size of aggregate
10mm & fine aggregate of zone II = 0.48
Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate = 0.48
Volume of fine aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate=1-0.65= 0.52

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:-


A. Volume of concrete = 1 m3
B. Volume of cement = mass of cement /mass density
= 416 / (3.15 1000)
= 0.132 m3
C.Volume of water = mass of water / mass density

= 208 / (1 1000)
= 0.208

D. Volume of all in aggregate = A - (B + C)

= 1 - (0.132+0.208)
= 0.66
E. Mass of coarse aggregate = (volume of all in aggregate) (sp. Gravity of
coarse aggregate) (volumeof coarse aggregate) 1000

= 0.66 2.93 0.48 1000


= 928.224 kg

F. Mass of fine aggregate = (volume of all in aggregate) (sp. Gravity of fine


aggregate) (volumeof fine aggregate) 1000

= 0.66 2.97 0.52 1000


= 1019.3 kg

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Introduction of following tables:


The following table shows quantity of materials for different percentage of fine
aggregate as per mix design.

For stage-I:
A:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 0%replacement of
C&D fine aggregates:-
Table No. 3.1
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 1019.304
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 0
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

B:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 20%replacement of


c&d fine aggregates:-
Table No. 3.2
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity
1. Cement 416 kg
2. Water 208 kg
3. Good Fine Aggregate 815.44 kg
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 176.95 kg
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224 kg
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

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C: Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 40%replacement


of c&d fine aggregates :-
Table No. 3.3
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 611.58
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 353.9
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

D:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 60%replacement of


C&D fine aggregates:-
Table No. 3.4
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 407.72
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 530.86
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

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E:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 80%replacement of


C&D fine aggregates :-
Table No. 3.5
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 203.86
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 707.81
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

For stage-II:

F:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 45 %replacement of


C&D fine aggregates :-
Table No. 3.6
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 203.86
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 707.81
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

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G:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 50% replacement
of C&D fine aggregates :-
Table No. 3.7
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 203.86
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 707.81
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

H:Mix proportion for conventional M30 grade concrete with 55% replacement
of C&D fine aggregates :-
Table No. 3.8
Sr. No Ingredients Quantity(kg)
1. Cement 416
2. Water 208
3. Good Fine Aggregate 203.86
4 Waste Fine Aggregate 707.81
5. Coarse Aggregate 928.224
6. W/C ratio 0.5
7. Mix Proportion 1:2.45:2.23

Various tests performed on paver blocks are:


1. Compressive strength test
2. Water absorption test
3. Abrasion resistance test
4. Tensile splitting test
5. Flexural strength test

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3.4 Procedure for determination of strength parameters

3.4.1. Compressive strength:

Compressive strength or compression strength is the capacity of a material or


structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength,
which withstands loads tending to elongate. In other words, compressive strength
resists compression, whereas tensile strength resists tension . In the study of strength
of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be
analysed independently.

Some materials fracture at their compressive strength limit; others deform


irreversibly, so a given amount of deformation may be considered as the limit for
compressive load. Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures.

Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing machine; these range


from very small table-top systems to ones with over 53 MN capacity. Measurements
of compressive strength are affected by the specific test method and conditions of
measurement. Compressive strengths are usually reported in relationship to a
specific technical standard.

When a specimen of material is loaded in such a way that it extends it is said to be


in tension. On the other hand, if the material compresses and shortens it is said to be
in compression.

On an atomic level, the molecules or atoms are forced apart when in tension whereas
in compression they are forced together. Since atoms in solids always try to find an
equilibrium position, and distance between other atoms, forces arise throughout the
entire material which oppose both tension and compression. The phenomena
prevailing on an atomic level are therefore similar.

The "strain" is the relative change in length under applied stress; positive strain
characterises an object under tension load which tends to lengthen it, and a
compressive stress that shortens an object gives negative strain. Tension tends to pull
small sideways deflections back into alignment, while compression tends to amplify
such deflection into buckling.

Compressive strength is measured on materials, components and structures.


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By definition, the ultimate compressive strength of a material is that value of


uniaxial compressive stress reached when the material fails completely. The
compressive strength is usually obtained experimentally by means of a compressive
test. The apparatus used for this experiment is the same as that used in a tensile test.
However, rather than applying a uniaxial tensile load, a uniaxial compressive load is
applied. As can be imagined, the specimen is shortened as well as spread laterally.

For designers, compressive strength is one of the most important engineering


properties of concrete. It is a standard industrial practice that the concrete is classified
based on grades. This grade is nothing but the Compressive Strength of the concrete
cube or cylinder. Cube or Cylinder samples are usually tested under a compression
testing machine to obtain the compressive strength of concrete. The test requisites
differ country to country based on the design code. As per Indian codes, compressive
strength of concrete is defined as,

The compressive strength of concrete is given in terms of the characteristic


compressive strength of 150 mm size cubes tested at 28 days. The characteristic
strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not more than 5% of
the test results are expected to fall.

For design purposes, this compressive strength value is restricted by dividing with a
factor of safety, whose value depends on the design philosophy used. Paver block
strength shall be specified in terms of 28 days compressive strength. In case the
compressive strength of paver blocks is determined for ages other than 28 days, the
actual age at testing shall be reported. The average 28 days compressive strength of
paver blocks shall meet the specified requirement. Individual paver block strength
shall not be less than 85% of the specified strength. In case blocks of age less than 28
days are permitted to be supplied, correlation between 28 days strength and the
strength at specified age for identified batch/mix of blocks shall be established.

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Fig no.3.2 Compression testing machine


[Source : self]

METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


APPARATUS:
Compression Testing Machine(CTM)
The apparatus shall comprise of compression testing machine which shall be equipped
with two steel bearing blocks for holding the specimen. It is desirable that the blocks
have a minimum hardness of 60 (HRC) and a minimum thickness of 25 mm. The
block on top through which load is transmitted to the specimen shall be spherically
seated. The block below on which the specimen is placed shall be rigidly fitted. When
the bearing area of the steel blocks is not sufficient to cover the bearing area of the
paver block specimen, two steel bearing plates meeting the requirements of Steel
Bearing Blocks and-Plates shall be placed between the steel plates fitted on the
machine and the specimen.
Steel Bearing Blocks and-Plates: The surfaces of the steel bearing blocks and plates
shall not depart from the plane by more than 0.025 mm in any 15mm dimension. The
centre of the sphere of the spherically seated upper bearing block shall coincide with
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the centre of the bearing surface. if bearing plate is used, the centre of the sphere of
the upper bearing block shall be on a line passing vertically through the centroid of
the specimen bearing face. The spherically seated block shall be held closely in its
seat, but shall be free to turn in any direction. The diameter of the face of the bearing
blocks shall be at least 150 mm. When steel plates are employed between the steel
bearing blocks and the specimen, the plates shall have a thickness equal to at least one
third the distance from the edge of the bearing block to the most distant corner of the
specimen. In no case shall the plate thickness be less than 12 mm.
Specimens:
The paver block specimens selected as per the sampling procedure in 8 and as per the
number of specimens mentioned in Table 4 shall be tested.
Capping of Specimens
The upper face of the specimens shall be capped by one of the methods described in
C-3.1 and C-3.2 of Annex C of 1S2185 (Part 1). Alternatively, 4 mm thick plywood
sheets of size larger than the specimens by a margin of at least 5 mm from all edges of
the specimen shall be used for capping the specimens. When specimen with surface
projections or surface relief features has to be tested, its upper face shall be made
plain by suitable capping, such as by using sulphur or gypsum, before testing.
Procedure:The dimensions and plan areas of the specimens shall be determined . The
blocks shall be stored for 24 * 4 h in water maintained at a temperature of 20 + 5“C.
The bearing plates of the testing machine shall be wiped clean. The specimens are
aligned with those of the bearing plates.The load shall be applied without shock and
increased continuously at a rate of 15 + 3 N/mm2/min until no greater load can
sustained by the specimen or delamination occurs. The maximum load applied to the
specimen shall be noted in N.

Calculation:
The apparent compressive strength of individual specimen shall be calculated by
dividing the maximum load (in N) by the plan area (in mm²). The corrected
compressive strength shall be calculated by multiplying the apparent compressive
strength by the appropriate correction factor from Table 5. The strength shall I be
expressed to the nearest 0.1 N/mm²

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Table no. 4 Correction Factors for calculation of


Compressive Strength in paver blocks (As per IS 15658-2006)
Sr.no Paver Block Plain Block Arrised/Chamfered
Thickness Block
(mm)
I 50 0.96 1.03
II 60 1 1.06
III 80 1.12 1.18
IV 100 1.18 1.24
V 120 1.28 1.34

For other thickness of paver blocks between 50 mm and 120 mm, linear extrapolation
of-concrete factor shall be made.

Fig. no.3.2 Testing of paver blocks under compression


[Source: self]

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3.4.2 Water absorption


One of the most important properties of a good quality concrete is low permeability,
especially one resistant to freezing and thawing. A concrete with low permeability
resists ingress of water and is not as susceptible to freezing and thawing. Water
enters pores in the cement paste and even in the aggregate. Absorption For concrete
pavers, the test procedure involves drying a specimen to a constant weight,
weighing it, immersing it in water for specified amount of time, and weighing it
again. The increase in weight as a percentage of the original weight is expressed as
its absorption (in percent). The average absorption of the test samples shall not be
greater than 5% with no individual unit greater than 7%.Water enters pores in the
cement paste and even in the aggregate. For concrete pavers, the test procedure
involves drying a specimen to a constant weight, weighing it, immersing it
in water for specified amount of time, and weighing it again.The water absorption,
being the average of three units, shall not be more than 6 percent by mass and in
individual samples; the water absorption should be restricted to 7-percent.

Method for determination of water absorption

Apparatus:
The balance used shall be sensitive to within 0.5 percent of the mass of the smallest
specimen tested.

Specimens:
The paver block specimens selected as per the sampling procedure and as per the
number of specimens mentioned shall be tested.

Procedure:
Saturation
The test specimen shall be completely immersed in water at room temperature for 24
* 2 h. The specimen then shall be removed from the water and allowed to drain for 1
min by placing them on a 10mm or coarser wire -mesh. ‘Visible water on the

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specimens shall be removed with a damp cloth. The specimen shall be immediately
weighed and the weight for each specimen noted in N to the nearest 0.01 N.

Drying
Subsequent to saturation, the specimens shall be dried in a ventilated oven at 107 +
7°C for not less than 24 hours and until two successive weighing at intervals of 2 h
show an increment of loss not greater than 0.2 percent of the previously determined
mass of the specimen. The dry weight of each specimen shall be recorded in N to the
nearest 0.01N.

Calculation
Percent Water Absorption (W %)
The percent water absorption shall be calculated as follows:

W percent = Ww– Wd x 100


Wd
Where :
Ww = Weight of wet paver block.
Wd = Weight of dry paver block.

3.4.3. Abrasion resistance test


When friction is the predominant factor causing deterioration of your materials,
abrasion and wear testing will give you data to compare materials or coatings and can
help you predict the lifetime of a material or coating. Abrasion testing is used
to test the abrasive resistance of solid materials.
The abrasion resistance of paver blocks should be determined as per the method given
below. It may be specified the limits to the test results, which should be complied
with by the manufacturer.

Method for determination of abrasion resistance:

Apparatus:
The abrasion testing machine shall be the same –as described in Annex F of IS 1237 .

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Specimens:
Square-shaped specimens measuring 71.0 * 0.5 mm shall be cut from the block
specimens selected as per the sampling procedure in 8 and as per the number of
specimens. The contact face and the opposite face of the specimen shall be parallel
and flat. For determining the reduction in thickness, the opposite face shall, if
appropriate, be ground parallel or otherwise machined so as to be parallel.
For testing dry specimens, the specimens shall be dried to constant mass at a
temperature of 105+ 5 ˚C.
For testing wet/saturated specimens; the specimens shall be immersed in water for 7
days and wiped with a damp artificial sponge prior to each weighing so that all
specimens appear equally damp.

Procedure:
The density of the specimen, PR shall be determined nearest to 0.1 g. The weight of
the specimen weight shall be noted to nearest 0.1 g both prior to the abrasion test and
after every four cycles . In the case of two-layer specimens, the density of specimens
taken separately from the wearing layer shall be determined.
The grinding path of the disc of the abrasion testing machine shall be evenly strewn
with 20 g of the standard abrasive powder as per F-3 of IS 1237. The specimen shall
be fixed in the holding device such that the testing surface faces the grinding disc. The
specimen shall be centrally loaded with 294+3 N.
The grinding disc shall be run at a speed of 30 rpm. The disc shall be stopped after
one cycle of 22 revolutions. The disc and contact face af the specimen shall be
cleaned of abrasive powder and debris.
The specimen shall be turned 90° in the clockwise direction and 20 g of abrasive
powder shall be evenly strewn on the testing track before starting the next cycle.
When testing wet/saturated specimens, prior to each cycle, the track shall be wiped
with a lightly damp artificial sponge and moistened before being strewn with the
abrasive powder. From the start of the test, arrangement shall be made for drip-
wetting of the central portion of the track, about 30 mm from the specimen (opposite
to the direction of motion of the disc), by supplying water drops at the rate of 180 to
200 drops (13ml) per minute. During this test, it should be ensured that the abrasive
powder continuously returns to the effective area of the track. The test cycle shall be
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repeated 16 times, the specimen being turned 90° in the clockwise direction and
spreading of 20 g of abrasive powder on the testing track after each cycle.

Calculation:
The abrasive wear of the specimen after 16 cycles of testing shall be calculated as the
mean loss in specimen volume, ΔV, from the equation:
ΔV = Δm
PR
Where:
ΔV = loss in volume after 16 cycle, in mm3;
Δm = loss in mass after 16 cycles, in g; and
PR = density of the specimen, or in the case of two-layer specimens, the density of the
wearing layer, in g/mm3.
The size of paver block is of 7.06cm x 7.06cm having specimen area as 50cm².

Fig. no. 3.3 Testing of cut sized paver block under abrasion
[Source: self]

3.4.4. Split tensile test:-


The tensile strength of concrete is one of the basic and important properties. Splitting
tensile strength test on concrete cylinder is a method to determine the tensile strength
of concrete.

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The concrete is very weak in tension due to its brittle nature and is not expected to
resist the direct tension. The concrete develops cracks when subjected to tensile
forces. Thus, it is necessary to determine the tensile strength of concrete to determine
the load at which the concrete members may crack.
The tensile strength of concrete is one of the basic and important properties. Splitting
tensile strength test on concrete cylinder is a method to determine the tensile strength
of concrete. The concrete is very weak in tension due to its brittle nature and is not
expected to resist the direct tension.The tensile splitting strength of paver blocks
should be determined as per the method given below. When required by the
purchaser, the test values for tensile splitting strength of paver blocks may be
specified by the manufacturer.

Method for determination of tensile splitting strength:

Apparatus:
The testing machine shall have a scale with an accuracy of 3 per cent over the range
of the anticipated test loads and be capable of increasing the load at specified rates.
The machine shall be equipped with a device composed of two rigid bearers whose
contact surface has a radius of 75 + 5 mm. The two bearers shall be held in the same
vertical plane with a tolerance of+ 1mm at the bearers’ end. The upper bearer shall be
able to rotate in its transverse axis. The two packing pieces shall be 15+ 1mm
wide ,4*1 mm thick at least 10mm longer than the anticipated fracture plane. The
packing pieces shall be made of a material that meets the hardness criterion.
When submitted to a punching test by means of a rod of circular cross-section, having
a diameter of 16 + 0.5 mm and applying a force at the rate of 48 + 3 kN/min, the
instantaneous penetration when the force of 20 + 5 kN is achieved shall be equal to
1.2* 0.4 mm.

Specimens:
The paver block specimens selected as per the sampling procedure in 8 and as per the
number of specimens shall be tested.

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Preparation:
Whole specimens shall be used and any burrs, high spots, etc, shall be removed. In
case a face is rough, textured or curved, it shall be prepared by grinding or capping.
The least amount of material shall be removed to obtain a flat face. The specimens
shall be immersed in water at 20 + 5˚Cfor 24 + 3 h, wiped dry and immediately tested.
Other methods of preparation may be used for routine testing, provided there is a
correlation between the two methods, for example, using ungrounded rough textured
or curved specimens instead of ground specimens.

Procedure:
The specimen shall be placed on the testing machine with the packing pieces on the
upper face and the bed face, in contact with the bearers. It shall be ensured that the
packing pieces and the axes of the bearers are in line with the splitting section .of the
specimen. The splitting section shall be chosen according to the following order of
priority:
a) The test is carried out along the longest splitting section of the specimen, parallel
and symmetrical to the edges, in such a way that the distance of the splitting section to
any side face is at least 0.5 times the thickness of the specimen over at least 75 present
of splitting section area.
b) If the condition in (a) cannot be met, the test is carried out along two splitting
sections, chosen in such a way that the distance from one splitting section to the other
splitting section or to any side face of the specimen is at least 0.5 times the thickness
of the specimen over at least 75 percent of the splitting section length considered.

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Fig. no.3.4 Tensile splitting test


[Source: self]

3.4.5. Flexural strength test


The flexural strength/breaking load of paver blocks should be determined as per the
method given in procedure. When required by the purchaser, the test values for
flexural strength breaking load of paver blocks may be specified by the manufacturer.
Flexural strength, also known as modulus of rupture, or bend strength, or transverse
rupture strength is a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before
it yields in a flexure test. The transverse bending test is most frequently employed, in
which a specimen having either a circular or rectangular cross-section is bent until
fracture or yielding using a three point flexural test technique. The flexural strength
represents the highest stress experienced within the material at its moment of yield. It
is measured in terms of stress.
When an object formed of a single material, like a wooden beam or a steel rod, is
bent, it experiences a range of stresses across its depth. At the edge of the object on
the inside of the bend (concave face) the stress will be at its maximum compressive
stress value. At the outside of the bend (convex face) the stress will be at its
maximum tensile value. These inner and outer edges of the beam or rod are known as
the 'extreme fibres'. Most materials generally fail under tensile stress before they fail
under compressive stress, so the maximum tensile stress value that can be sustained
before the beam or rod fails is its flexural strength.

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Method for determination of flexural strength/breaking load:

The apparatus for the test shall be the same as in 8 of IS 516, with the following
modifications:
a) The supporting and loading rollers shall have diameter in the range of 25 to 40 mm.
They shall extend on both sides beyond the dimensions of the specimens by at least
10 mm.
b) The distance from centre-to-centre of the two supporting rollers shall be adjustable
to the overall length of the specimen minus 50 mm; and
c) The loading roller shall be arranged for application of load from the top of the
specimen along the vertical centreline between the supporting rollers.

Specimens:
The paver block specimens selected as per the sampling procedure is 8.

Capping of specimens:
The test specimens shall be capped by one of the methods described in D-3 of Annex
D in IS 15658-2006.
When specimen with surface projections or surface relief features has to be tested, its
upper face shall be made plain by suitable capping, such as by using sulphur or
gypsum before testing.

Procedure:
The test procedure shall be the sameasin8 of IS516, with the following modifications:
a) The load shall be applied from the top of the specimen in the form of a simple
beam loading through a roller placed midway between the supporting rollers.
b) The 10M shall be applied without shock and increased continuously at a uniform
rate of 6 kN/min.
c) The load shall be increased until the specimen fails, and the maximum load applied
shall
be recorded to the nearest N.

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Calculation:

The flexural strength of the specimen shall be calculated as follows:


Fb= 3PI
2bd²
Where:
Fb= flexural strength, in N/mm2;
P= maximum load, in M,
I=distance between central lines of supporting rollers, in mm;
b=average width of block, measured from both Faces of the specimen, in mm; and
d=average thickness, measured from both ends of the fracture line, in mm.
The maximum load P shall be reported as-the breaking load, nearest to 1 N.

Fig. no. 3.5 Flexural strength test


[Source: self]

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4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


4.1 Introduction
We performed (I) specific gravity test on CA, FA and C&D waste fine aggregate (II)
Water absorption test on CA, FA and C&D waste fine aggregate (III) Specific gravity
test on cement as per IS10262. The results obtained for the material tested are
summarized in this chapter.

4.2 Tests on coarse aggregates


Observations:-
Weight of saturated aggregates suspended in water with the basket = 2061.5gm
Weight oh empty basket suspended in water = 764.5gm
Wight of saturated in aggregate in water A= - = 1297gm
Weight of saturated surface dry (SSD) aggregate in air B = 1955gm
Weight of oven dried aggregate C = 1931gm
Calculation:-
1. Specific gravity = C/(B-A)= (1931) /(1955-1297)
= 2.93
2. Water absorption = {(B-C) 100}/C = {(1955-1931) 100}/(1931)
= 1.24%
According to IS 10262, water absorption shall be less than 6% by mass.

Fig. no 4.1 Weight of coarse aggregate taken


[Source: self]

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4.3 Flakiness and elongation of coarse aggregate


Observation table:-
Table No. 5

Size of Size of Wt. of Thinkess Wt. of pieces Elongation Wt. of pieces


aggregate aggregate pieces guage(0.6*mean passing guage retained on
passing retained retained size) through (1.8* mean elongation
through on on sieve (mm) thikness size) guage(gm)
(mm) (mm) (gm) guage(gm) ( mm)
20 16 1830 10.8 186 32.4 280
16 12.5 1135 8.55 170 25.6 385
12.5 10 - 6.75 - 20.2 -
10 6.3 - 4.89 - 14.7 -
Total 2965 356 665

Calculation:-
A) Flakiness index in percentage

= ∑

= 12 %

B) Elongation index in percentage



= ∑

= 22.42 %

Requirements: -As per IS 10262 the flakiness index of aggregate to be used in


construction should not exceed 40% and the elongation index should not exceed 15%
for good aggregate.

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4.4 Fineness modulus of fine aggregate


Observation table:-
1. Coarse aggregate:-
The following table shows the gradation of coarse aggregate.
Table No. 6
IS sieve size Wt. Retained Cumulative wt. Cumulative% Cumulative %
on sieve in gm Retained in gm wt. Retained in passing
gm
25 mm 0 0 0 100
20 mm 156 156 7.8 92.2
12.5 mm 1815 1971 98.59 1.41
10 mm 25 1996 99.84 0.16
6.36 mm 4 2000 100 0
4.75 mm 0 2000 100 0
Pan 0 2000 100 0
Total 2000 506.23

2. Fine aggregate
The following table shows the gradation of fine aggregate.
Table No. 7
IS sieve size Wt. Retained Cumulative wt. Cumulative% Cumulative %
on sieve in gm Retained in gm wt. Retained in passing
gm
4.75 mm 0 0 0 100
2.36 mm 28.5 28.5 2.85 97.15
1.18 mm 155 183.5 18.35 81.65
600 234.5 418 41.8 58.2
300 323 741 74.1 25.9
150 197.3 938.3 93.83 6.17
Pan 61.7 1000 100 0
Total 1000 329.93 369.07

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Calculation:-

Fineness modulus of coarse aggregates =

= 5.06 %


Fineness modulus of fine aggregates =

= 3.2 %
Requirements: - Fineness modulus for
Fine sand: 2.2-2.6
Medium sand: 2.6-2.9
Coarse sand: 2.9-3.2

Fig. No. 4.2 Arrangement of sieves for grading of coarse aggregate


[Source: self]

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4.5 Specific gravity of fine aggregate:-


Calculation:-

Apparent specific gravity =

=* ( )+

=* ( )+

= 2.6

Results obtained in detail:


As per IS 15658:2006,

4.6 Compressive strength for stage For stage I:


Table No. 8
%Replacement No. of samples Avg. load in KN Strength in N/mm2
tested
0% 3 1944.83 51.13

20% 3 1935.63 50.88


40% 3 1997.33 52.51
60% 3 1994.87 52.44

80% 3 1916.93 50.39

4.7 Compressive strength for stage For stage II:


Table No. 9
%Replacement No. of samples Avg. load obtained Strength in N/mm2
tested in KN
40% 3 1997.33 52.51
45% 3 1992.20 52.37
50% 3 2014.56 52.96
55% 3 2002.45 52.64
60% 3 1994.87 52.44

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4.8 Water absorption reading :


Table No. 10
Test performed Actual reading (%) Permissible limit (%)
Water absorption 5.3 7

4.9 Abrasion resistance reading:


Table No. 11 Standard specification for abrasion resistance
For traffic For non-traffic Wearing depth
2mm 3.5mm 2.3mm

For volume loss:


Table No. 12 Reading for volume loss
Actual reading Permissible limit
1cm³ 15cm³

4.10 Tensile splitting test reading:


Table No. 13 Tensile splitting test reading
Actual reading Permissible limit
3.8Mpa >3.6Mpa

4.11 Flexural test reading:


Table No. 14 Flexural test reading:
Actual reading Permissible limit
4.8MPa >4.5MPa

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4.12 Discussion

1. Result of flexural strength for concrete paving block was 4.8Mpa greater than
4.5Mpa, hence satisfied minimum requirement.

2. Result of split tensile strength for concrete paving block was 3.8 Mpa greater than
3.6 Mpa, hence satisfied minimum requirement.
3. Result of abrasion test for concrete paving block was 2.3mm which is less than 3.5
mm, hence satisfied maximum wearing depth criteria.
4. Result of water absorption for concrete paving block was 5.7% which is less than
7%, hence satisfied minimum requirement.

4.13 Laboratory test reports:

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Test report displayed for 50% replacement of fine aggregate is shown in figure
no. 4.3

Fig. no.4.3 Constrologix report[Source: self]

5. CONCLUSION

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1) As per the IS15658-2006, the grade of concrete used for paver block shall be
in the range of M30 to M55 based on the utilisation of the paver blocks. We
have done market survey and concluded that most of the quantity of paver
blocks manufactured is using M30 grade. So we decided to continue with the
same grade.

2) We have performed compression test on various shapes of paver block (Fig


1.3), based on test results of paver blocks of various shapes we decided the
shape of paver block (round dumble) which gives maximum compressive
strength.

3) The shape of paver block is chosen in accordance with less necking


formation. As one of the shape has a problem of neck formation due to less
surface area at a particular section. Less surface area makes that section
critical. Hence, shape of paver block is chosen according to it.

4) As the fineness modulus of fine aggregate is 3.2%.Hence, fine aggregate is


classified in Zone II.

5) As the fineness modulus of C&D waste fine aggregate is 3.79%.Hence, fine


aggregate is classified in Zone II.

6) In Stage I, it was observed that the maximum compressive strength was


achieved between 40-60% replacements of FA with C&D waste FA.

7) In Stage II, it was observed that the maximum compressive strength was
achieved for 50% replacement of FA with C&D waste FA.

8) All materials & specimens were tested and results are found to be within
permissible limits as per IS10262 & IS15658-2006.

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6. FUTURE SCOPE

1) Use of C&D waste in structural concrete.

2) Various techniques for on-site sorting of C&D waste.

3) Use of sustainable Paving Block for traffic roads.

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7. REFERENCES

1. C.S.Poon, Ann T.W. Yu, L.H.Ng ‘On-Site sorting of construction and


demolition waste in Hong Kong.’ Resource, Conversation and Recycling
32(2001)157-172

2. Osmans Gencela, Cengiz Ozelb, Fuat Koksalc, Ertugrul Erdogmusd,


on alo Mart ne -Barrerae, Witold Brostowf, ‘Properties of concrete paving
blocks made with waste marble.’ Journal of Cleaner Production 21 (2012) 62-
70

3. D .wattanasiriwech, A. saiton, S. wattanasiriwech : ‘Paving blocks from


ceramic tile production waste‘

4. Marios N. Soutsos , Kangkang Tang , Stephen G. Millard The use of recycled


demolition aggregate in precast concrete products – Phase III: Concrete
pavement. Construction and building materials 36(2012)674-680.

5. K. Tang, M.N Soutsos & S.G.Millard Concrete paving products made with
recycled demolition aggregates. Department of Engineering, University of
Liverpool, L69 3GQ, UK.

6. Shyam prakash kognati,kommineni hemanthraja, satish sajja: ‘ Replacement


of fine aggregate by using recyclable materials in paving blocks.’

7. M.Praveen Kumar, S.Ramesh kumar, A.Ranjith Kumar, S.Saravana Kumar,


M.Yeswanth : ‘Experimental investigation on ggbs paver block with addition
of polyster triangular fibre.’ Issn : 2348-2079 Volume-5 Issue-1

8. Properties of Paver Blocks with Groundnut Husk Ash as Fine Aggregates by


S.Revathi, Dr.R.Kumutha, Dr.K.Vijai. International Research Journal of
Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

9. Dinesh w. gawatre, rohit s. chhajed, prashik b. panpatil, shubham s. desarda,


chetan s. waghchaure, nikhil s. agrawal, ‘manufacture of paver block using

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blocks

partial replacement of construction and demolition concrete waste’IJPRET,


2016; Volume 4 (9): 11-18

10. Development of Paver Blocks from Industrial Wastes, Kalingarani.K1,


Harikrishna Devudu.P2 ,Jegan Ram.M2, Sriramkumar.V2, IOSR Journal of
Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-ISSN: 2278-1684, p-
ISSN: 2320-334X. PP 12-17.

11. Influence of Bacteria on Compressive Strength of Rubber Mould Paver Block


by Maulik Sharma, Dr. Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. Digvijaysinh Rana,
International Journal of Constructive Research in Civil Engineering
(IJCRCE) Volume 3, Issue 1, 2017, PP 11-18 ISSN 2454-8693.

12. M.C.Nataraja and Lelin Das: ‘A study on the strength properties of paver
blocks made from unconventional materials. IOSR-JMCU, pp. 1-5.
13. N.Sai Trinath Kumar and Chava Siva:Use of construction renovation and
demolition waste in partial replacement of coarse aggregate in M20 concrete.
14. Vishal kumar and Dr. A.K. Mishra: ‘Utili ation of waste material in concrete
paver blocks.

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