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Pendular Diagnosis: From Dowsing to Diagnostic Methodology?

Article  in  Seminars in Integrative Medicine · June 2005

DOI: 10.1016/j.sigm.2005.04.002


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Jarva Chow
Loyola University Medical Center


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Pendular Diagnosis:
From Dowsing to Diagnostic Methodology?
Jarva Chow, BA

T he diagnostic aspect of healthcare is perhaps one of the

most important in the healing process. Without a clear
idea of what caused the illness, the healthcare practitioner
previously mentioned techniques. The origins of “pendulum
(or pendular) diagnosis” can be traced to ancient times and
the fabled ability of man to find water through “divination.”1,a
will have difficulty developing an effective treatment. How- The idea of searching for water with a forked stick, or
ever, despite its significant role, there exist several differing dowsing, has been seen as typical of superstition, ignorance,
views of how to define “diagnosis.” Depending upon a prac- and witchcraft. It has even been called “water-witching” by
titioner’s understanding of health, disease can manifest in the skeptics. In its development, dowsing has had many different
human body in varying ways, giving different indications for names and many more definitions. According to Raymond
which to search. Willey in his book Modern Dowsing, dowsing is “. . . the ex-
In general, the biomedical model of diagnosis is based on ercise of a human faculty, which allows one to obtain infor-
objective testing against a predetermined health baseline for mation in a manner beyond the scope and power of the
foreign vectors that can be considered the source of disease. standard human physical senses of sight, sound,
Once deviations in the data are found, an appropriate treat- touch, . . . .”1 The American Society of Dowsers’ official def-
ment can be prescribed. On the other hand, among comple- inition is “. . . someone who communicates with the Universe
mentary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities, there is through the use of mind, body and tools. Tools are used as a
a more individualized view of health and disease expression significant method of increasing a person’s sensitivity to re-
in patients, relying on the practitioner’s ability to use intu- ceiving answers to questions that go beyond one’s three di-
ition to sense subjective illness qualities in each individual.1,2 mensional senses. Dowsing is the active and systematic expe-
For example, in Chinese medicine, pulse diagnosis is based riencing of intuition” (see Appendix for a list of dowsing
on the idea that there exists a pulse for each major organ and associations online). The broadest definition of dowsing
that assessing the location, rate, rhythm, and quality of each identified is from Christopher Bird, the author of The Divining
pulse will help to determine disease etiology.2 Similar to tra- Hand, who defined dowsing as “to search for anything.”1
ditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ayurvedic methods of exam- Therefore, dowsing can refer to any number of things. Today,
ination incorporate an inspection of the tongue for differences in water-dowsing is still considered controversial. However, the
color and coating to subjectively identify the disease.3 Tradi- fact that dowsing has managed to survive from ancient civi-
tional Japanese medicine uses a diagnostic technique called lizations to today on several different continents warrants
O-ring testing that has come to be known as the Bi-digital investigation into its efficacy.
O-Ring Test (BDORT). The efficacy of BDORT is based on an Dowsing has even been incorporated into more than one
energetic model of each individual.4 Often, in order to iden- medical modality as a diagnostic tool. The following is an
tify diseases on a case by case basis, such subjective diagnos- exploration of how “water-witching” may evolve over time to
tic techniques may be useful in improving current biomedi- become integrated into the field of CAM.
cal methods.
The idea of using a pendulum to diagnose illness is yet Early Dowsing
another CAM diagnostic technique that is not based on ob-
jective data and is perhaps considered less accepted than the Early Encounters
Dowsing, it seems, has been around as long as recorded his-
tory. From the Bible to ancient etchings found in both China
Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Complementary and Alternative
Medicine (CAM), Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
Address reprint requests to Jarva Chow, BA, 1557 Pine Lake Drive, Naper- adivination (n) ● Practice of discerning the hidden significance of events and
ville, IL 60564. E-mail: jarvachow@gmail.com foretelling the future.5

38 1543-1150/05/$-see front matter © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Historical perspective: Pendular diagnosis 39

and Egypt, the very first finding may be impossible to deter- century, supporters of water-dowsing asserted that a select
mine. Homer mentions Circe possessing a rhabdos or rod in few gifted individuals could sense something immeasurable
the Odyssey; this may be the origin of the term rhabdomancy, by the instruments of their time. This belief is reflected in
meaning “divining by a rod.” Some make a further conceptual the language, including the term Erdstrahlen, literally “earth
leap, connecting a separate Odyssey reference, of Hermes’ rays,” to describe whatever may have been the source of the
rod, the Caduceus, to a divining rod.1,5 The Caduceus, being dowser’s intuition, and Wünschelrute, meaning “wishing
the symbol of modern medicine, casts a more hallowed light rod.”7 Later, Georgius Agricola published De Re Metallica, or
on dowsing than the doubtful impression it usually leaves. On Metals, which described dowsing in the mining industry.
On the other hand, today’s physicians may find it disturbing However, even though he delayed publishing until a year
that the Caduceus was based on a divining rod. after his death to include illustrations of wood cuttings that
The discovery of stone etchings from 2200 BC depicting depicted dowsers mining, he expressed doubt as to the worth
Emperor Ta Yü with a forked divining rod indicates the pos- of trusting in an “enchanted twig.”1
sibility that dowsing originated simultaneously from geo- As published recordings of successful dowsers began to
graphically diverse sources such as Ancient China. The leg- appear, so did accounts of their exploitation. One of the most
end of Emperor Ta Yü alludes to his possessing a special infamous recorded punishments of dowsers occurred in 17th
affinity with water— enabling early Chinese land to be hab- century France, when Cardinal Richelieu imprisoned the
itable by not only making the water available, but also man- Baroness Beausoleil at Vincennes, separately from her hus-
ageable to the people.1,5 band, Baron Beausoleil, who was kept in the Bastille. The
Dowsing rods have developed from differing origins to motive was a report from the Baroness to the cardinal, The
result in the many derivations of instruments used today, Restitution of Pluto, describing her use of dowsing to locate
including pendulums. In Norse mythology, the belief that a numerous mines that would bring France countless riches.
giant ash tree supports the universe may underlie the fact that Both the Baron and Baroness died while still imprisoned.1
branches from the ash tree are most commonly used for Without a logical explanation for its efficacy, dowsers have
dowsing rods in modern Scandinavia. The people believe the always been suspected of duplicity. The origin of “water-
ash has inherent powers that allow dowsing to work. On the witches,” as dowsers are often referred, has been speculated
other hand, Herodotus, the Father of History, mentions the to have begun in the Dauphiné province of 17th century
use of willow divining rods in the 5th century BC, though, France. Those who could discover the source of water were
without mentioning the significance of using a willow. In called sourciers, or witches. The movement against dowsing
New Zealand, the Maori asked questions of mahoe wood was headed by Father Lebrun, who wrote numerous books
divining rods, thought to have a residing spirit within that and articles denouncing its use, including Critical History of
was the true source of their answers.1 Superstitious Practices Which Have Seduced Lay Persons and
Embarrassed Savants.1 He spent much of his life dedicated to
disproving the art and linking it with the works of the devil.
Possible Origins of Terminology
Ironically, dowsing was later brought back into favor by a few
The term “divining” most likely had its origin in references to prominent French clergymen.
mining. In 1758, William Borlase makes the first published Anecdotal stories of dowsers finding water veins and pre-
mention of virgula divinatoria, or “divining rod” in Latin. His cious metals were accumulating, yet skepticism persisted. As
account of mining describes the use of divining to comple- the popularity of dowsing increased, so has the number of
ment conventional methods of unearthing metals. Another scientists intent on finding either a plausible mechanism or
term used was dewsys rhodl, literally “goddess tree branch,” fully discrediting the practice. Perhaps the largest study ever
alluding to an innate power. The extensive usage of dowsers conducted on dowsing efficacy was the Scheunen (barn) Ex-
by the German government indicates a possibility that the periments, funded by the German government in 1987. The
term “dowsing” originated in Germany.6 Vernacular evidence results, unfortunately, became the subject of an intense de-
include the German words deuten, which can mean to inter- bate over how to interpret the data. The original conclusion
pret, indicate, or to explain, and the term rutenganger, mean- by the authors was that the data did not prove that self-
ing diviner or the art of divination. Rutenganger is loosely proclaimed dowsers could discover a water source better
translated as “one who . . . walks with the rod.”1 than by chance. However, a few individual dowsers were
reported to have had incredible results.7 Therefore, while the
group of dowsers as a whole did not perform better than had
Rediscovery and Conflict they guessed, the idea of dowsing could not be dismissed
No references to dowsing were identified between ancient entirely. About five years later, a rebuttal was published by
times and the 1300s, when Basil Valentine, the Benedictine J.T. Enright asserting that the data could not be interpreted
monk who discovered the element antimony, recorded his any way other than as a whole. Enright concluded that water
ability to discover various metals through the use of rods of dowsing was ineffectual and any anecdotal evidence should
numerous types, named the Fire, Burning, Springing, Strik- be dismissed as chance occurrence.7 The same year, Ertel
ing, Lifting, and Lower Rods.1 Nevertheless, Germany is gen- published a response to Enright, refuting his dismissal and
erally considered the official origin of dowsing, where today, offering the explanation that the dowsing environment
to some extent, it is accepted as a phenomenon.6 By the 16th caused the negative results. A diagram was included depict-
40 J. Chow

ing the missed attempts of dowsers in a pattern inverted to A recognized water dowser, Abbé Alexis Bouly, was the
the actual location of water. Ertel hinges his argument in originator of “Radiesthésie.” He used a combination of the
favor of dowsing on the idea that the data should have in- Latin root for “radiation” and the Greek root for “perception”
cluded the positive and negative differences in distance be- to mean “radiating perception.” His ultimate goal was to give
tween the guessed location and actual location. Interestingly, dowsing credibility, first by separating it from its highly con-
once this is accomplished, the dowsers’ performance is sta- troversial past by giving it a new name, and later by scientific
tistically significant.8 The original authors also responded to testing. In 1929, Abbé Bouly founded the Society of Friends
Enright a couple months later, defending their statistical of Radiesthesia and began conducting scientific experiments
analysis as well as considering Ertel’s analysis to have some to uncover the mechanism by which dowsing could work. He
validity. They conclude that even anecdotal evidence should was purported to be able to identify different cell cultures
not be dismissed, because science cannot conclusively prove through the use of only a pendulum, verifying his results
or disprove everything.6 The exchange ends with a less than by microscope. He hypothesized that Radiesthesia worked
courteous reply by Enright that unfortunately the practice of through microscopically visible vibrations that could then be
dowsing will most likely not disappear despite the available sensed with the help of a pendulum. His experiments were
corpus of inconclusive evidence.9 repeated (by himself) in hospitals around France and Belgium
The same situation has been played out in North America, under the observation of physicians. He was later awarded the
as can be seen in the exchange between the newly formed French decoration, Chevalier de La Legion d’Honneur, in ac-
American Society of Dowsers (ASD) and the United States knowledgement of his contributions to society.1
Geological Survey (USGS), a branch of the US Department of Around this time, Father Jean-Louis Bourdoux was adminis-
Interior. In 1966, the USGS issued a brochure entitled Water tering to populations in Brazil when he contracted consumption
Witching, which discredited the practice. The ASD secretary, (tuberculosis) followed by a fever that lasted several weeks. After
Raymond Willey, began a discourse with the USGS Director, being treated for his illness by local parishioners using indig-
William Pecora. Ultimately, Willey succeeded and the USGS enous plants, Bourdoux took samples of the plants that saved
withdrew all publications in which the US government could his life for analysis in France. He believed there should be a
be inferred as qualified to determine the efficacy of dowsing. method for others to determine the health-preserving effects
However, in 1977, when Pecora was replaced, the USGS of unfamiliar plants if ever in his situation. Before meeting
published a new Water Dowsing pamphlet, which regarded Abbé Alexis Mermet, he could find no satisfactory answer to
the practice as unproven. The new brochure was not re- this question. However Mermet, a renowned dowser, intro-
tracted despite Willey’s efforts.1 The controversy over dows- duced Bourdoux to his novel derivation of dowsing, “pendu-
ing remains, as there are anecdotal accounts of the phenom- lar diagnosis.” He was convinced that, if dowsers had the
enon that cannot be explained within the accepted scientific ability to locate something hidden from sight, they could use
criteria of a causal relationship. the same ability to discover indiscernible medical conditions.
Father Bourdoux believed pendular diagnosis was his an-
swer, and, after extensive study and another visit to Brazil to
Evolution of Medical Dowsing reexamine his new technique, Bourdoux recorded his find-
ings in Practical Notions of Radiesthesia for Missionaries.1
One may object that many dowsers can commit every
However, the evolution of Radiesthésie into a medical di-
kind of error. But are not many doctors insufficiently
agnostic technique was not accomplished until Father Jean
prepared to practice their art, or engineers of markedly
Jurion became interested in using dowsing in his life pursuit
inferior quality? Likewise, there are dowsers and there
of helping the needy. Introduced to the technique by another
are dowsers.1
priest, Father Jurion only used pendulums half-heartedly, to
—Armand Viré in La Nature locate missing objects. Surprisingly positive results con-
vinced him enough of its merit that he began studying Radi-
If Germany can be considered the origin of modern dowsing, esthesia and Homeopathyb in an attempt to adapt his dows-
then France is the origin of medical dowsing. In 1913, a ing skill to help the hopelessly ill. Homeopathy was studied
French biologist, Armand Viré, set out to disprove the prac- in conjunction with Radiesthesia because of their similar
tice of dowsing by having volunteers attempt to map out foundations in an energetic basis of health.2,10 Jurion’s first
underground caves. Viré was so impressed by the results that, attempts at diagnosing illness were corroborated by physi-
instead of proclaiming the end of a superstition as he had set cians. He then progressed to prescribing homeopathic rem-
out to do, he published Comment Devenir Sourcier, Ce Que J’ai edies with the aid of Mermet’s pendular diagnosis to distin-
Vu, Ce Que J’ai Fait (How to Become a Dowser, What I’ve Seen guish which remedy would be most beneficial. After repeated
and What I’ve Done). In the volume, he expresses his initial success, he moved on to incurable patients, with improbable
contempt of a phenomenon that could not be objectively effectiveness. Reports of his healing proficiency combined
explained by science and his subsequent conversion.1 He
alludes to the advent of medical dowsing, which did not bHomeopathy is a method of self-healing assisted by small doses of medicinal
come until Father Jean Jurion, Abbé Alexis Bouly, Father substances (with the power to resonate with the illness as a whole) and
Jean-Louis Bourdoux, and Abbé Alexis Mermet became in- practiced by licensed physicians and other health care professionals
volved. throughout the world.2
Historical perspective: Pendular diagnosis 41

with the efforts of cured patients demanding compensation were constructed to measure these rates. Any deviations from
from insurance companies led to his inducing the wrath of the “perfect rate,” or the rate measured during normal func-
the French medical association, Ordre des Médecins (Order of tion, would indicate the presence of disease.10 Later these
Physicians). After investigating a series of cases to determine perfect rates were expanded upon by a prominent English
whether to compensate medical services offered by Father dowser, Malcom Rae, to include measurements for not only
Jurion, Robert Felsenhardt, the director of an insurance com- human organs, but for meridians,e chemicals, synthetic
pany, not only agreed to compensate the medical dowsing drugs, etc. Subsequent treatment included conveying the
efforts of Radiesthetists but also offered his legal services as perfect rate back to the patient to correct any deviations. After
protection from the French Medical Society. Today, medical promoting her “Radionic Broadcasting” ideas, or dowsing
dowsers have progressed, gaining official recognition by the from a distance, Drown became most known for the Drown
French Ministry of Labor as a professional group, Syndicat Trial of 1951f that made practicing Radionics in the United
des Radiesthetisistes, or the Union of Medical Dowsers (see States illegal.10
Appendix).1 A major alteration to the philosophical basis of Radionics
came when one of its biggest proponents, Alice Bailey, wrote
Esoteric Healing to describe a model of spiritual reality that
Adaptation from Radiesthésie incorporated seven planes of energy. She believed that health
The success of Radiesthesia in assimilating into an officially meant a continuous flow of energy through the seven planes
recognized medical group has lead to the development of and that any disturbances of the energy would manifest in
several modern-day medical modalities, some more closely mental, emotional, or physical symptoms. Radionic diagno-
related to Radiesthesia than others. Most modalities share sis would then be used to identify the energy disturbance and
with Radiesthesia and dowsing the theory that everything treat it accordingly.10 Today, the practice of radionics is a
emits some sort of inexplicable energy that can manifest in combination of the mechanistic approach introduced by
the body differently through such proposed mechanisms as Drown’s electrodiagnostic machine and a foundation in the
coherencec and entrainmentd.10 Consequently, a true diagno- belief of an energetic basis of reality. The use of the more
sis of the underlying disease etiology involves merely the subjective pendular diagnosis is incorporated into the prac-
ability to sense changes in this radiating energy and not nec- tice of those whom Bailey’s ideas resonate with. Those look-
essarily the use of an implement. Tools can be used, but the ing for more objective diagnostic methods favor Drown’s
more skilled dowsers require only their hands to sense the standardized measurements. It is believed that “gifted” indi-
subtle energy changes. Medical dowsers tend to use a form of viduals can sense such subtle differences of energy that they
pendular diagnosis to help in the determination of disease can identify bacterial pathogens without the use of an ampli-
because of its sensitivity and amplifying capabilities in con- fication tool or pendulum.12 However the diagnosis is deter-
trast with the traditional rod. mined, the results are used to either evaluate a homeopathic
remedy or to “broadcast” the correct frequency back to the
Radionics patient to restore energetic balance.
Radionics originated from Dr. Albert Abrams’ theory of en-
ergy medicine, “Electronic Reactions of Abrams” (ERA). An Psionic Medicine
American physician, Abrams believed the human nervous As with many other CAM modalities, Psionic medicine was
system reacted to the energy field of external elements. Using founded by a disillusioned orthodox physician. George Lau-
stomach reflex points for energy measurements, the change rence realized that, often, he had no idea why his patients
in energy resulted in a diagnosis and then the proper homeo- were ill and that his treatments were addressing only the
pathic remedy could be prescribed. Soon afterward, a chiro- symptoms rather than the cause of disease. After meeting an
practor, Ruth Drown, came up with improvements to the influential English dowser, Aubrey Westlake, Laurence in-
ERA diagnostic instruments that could standardize vibra- corporated his interpretation of the dowsing phenomenon
tional “rates” for the various manifestations of energy that into a new medical modality, Psionic medicine. In 1969,
were expressed by the pendulums. These rates represented Laurence founded the Psionic Medical Society with Westlake
an analysis of the substance’s energetic network in the form of as one of its most prominent members.1
a frequency. Machines called electrodiagnostic machines
eMeridians are “pathways” for the body’s vital energy, or “qi,” to flow as
cHerbert Frölich’s theory in 1960 that according to quantum physics, the described in TCM and acupuncture modalities. According to the philos-
body (living matrix) produces “coherent” or miniscule vibrations. The ophy of energy medicines, the meridians create an interconnected frame-
vibrations can occur at different frequencies and convey information work of energy flow that encompass all major body organs.2,10
through vibratory circuits to integrate processes. For each constituent of fAfter working in Illinois for several years and falsely advertising herself as a

the living matrix (ie, each molecule, cell, tissue), there is an ideal reso- doctor and chiropractor, the failure of “healing from a distance” a patient
nant frequency to maintain optimal function.10 with cancer caused her to undergo several trials. One conducted at the
dEntrainment refers to a coupling of electrical and mechanical rhythms that University of Chicago showed complete inability to diagnose or treat
have similar frequencies. Energetic healing modalities hypothesize an illness while the second was a suit brought by the FDA against her “Radio
“entrainment” relationship between the Schumann resonance (the geo- Therapeutic Instrument” where she was found guilty of misbranding.
magnetic field), brain waves (pineal gland as a magnetoreceptor), and While careful to minimize continued distribution of her device, she died
energetic healers (through projected biomagnetic fields).10 still treating patients.11
42 J. Chow

Psionic medicine is based on the idea that vibrations are sistent. In a literature review, four attempts to repeat the trial
present on a miniscule scale everywhere. Dowsers can use resulted in only one that was also statistically significant and
their ability as a diagnostic skill by sensing changes in these that one was among those not conducted as a double-blinded
vibrations and amplifying them through the movement of trial. Physiologic studies, while also inconclusive, seem to
tools such as a pendulum.12 As with Radionics, the explana- agree that certain physiologic effects are experienced by
tion for how a diagnosis can be made is that different disease dowsers in the process of dowsing and that nondowsers (or
states will have different vibrational patterns.10 Many believe inexperienced ones) do not experience these effects. Physio-
that the ability of a dowser to sense vibrations in various logic effects observed in the experiments include changed
substances is the reason these modalities tend to incorporate skin potential, signifying a change in electric resistance be-
homeopathic remedies.13 While Psionic medicine is fairly tween the hands of a dowser versus that of a nondowser
obscure, some research has been published, primarily in the (measured using a galvanometer), increased respiration, in-
veterinary literature. creased pulse pressure, increased pulse rate, and increased
heart rate.14,15 This evidence is in accordance with the pre-
Applied Kinesiology liminary finding that athletes in “the zone” emit certain
Founded by Dr. George Goodheart, applied kinesiology is electromagnetic activity.10 However, no conclusions can
based on the belief that there is an energetic relationship be offered without further research into the proposed rela-
between each large muscle to a body organ and that weakness tionship.
in the muscle is the manifestation of an inherent problem As is the case in conducting studies for many CAM modal-
with the organ’s energy. Aside from this shared philosophy, ities, the data from any clinical trial of an individual-based
the practice of applied kinesiology has evolved to be almost skill or test cannot reliably be extrapolated to the general
unrecognizable from its beginnings in medical dowsing— population. There are too many factors that need to be con-
although it is incorporated in other energetic modalities. In- trolled for in order to test the specified skill. For example,
stead, it has become accepted as a branch of chiropractic care studies of whether the dowsing instrument moves first or
by attributing the connection between muscle weakness and whether the instrument amplifies muscular movement do
organ function to subluxations.g Treatment involves a rever- not address the question of whether an outside force affects
sal of the relationship so that strengthening the muscle phys- either movement. In 1970, a member of the ASD built a tool
ically results in a beneficial effect on the organ’s function.2 that would objectively measure the temporal relationship in
Dr. John Diamond had a background as a psychiatrist be- question and concluded that the muscle movement came
fore studying under Goodheart. From Dr. Goodheart’s theory first. From this conclusion he proposed that skilled dowsers
of applied kinesiology, Diamond extended the theory to in- could train themselves to recognize the muscle changes with-
clude a connection between the body’s immune system and out requiring a pendulum at all. While this study was cor-
the mind and that there would be an energetic reflection in roborated in further studies, it was also refuted by studies
the individual. Similar to applied kinesiology, Diamond used that found the exact opposite. Ineffective study design is a
muscular strength testing but with the addition of having the possible cause of these conflicting results.1
patient “think” about various supplements. Therefore, using Despite the prevalence of anecdotal accounts of dowsing’s
applied kinesiology while the patient thought about specific efficacy, scientific evidence is lacking. For instance, the Ger-
supplements would determine which would be most benefi- man government has reported ⬎80% success rates for the
cial to the patient. use of dowsing for locating water sources with no explana-
tion as to how this feat was accomplished.6 Many studies of
diagnostic dowsing mention afterward that problems with
Contemporary the trials include amplification of minute body movements,
Studies and Evaluation the subjective nature of diagnosis, and studies were not re-
producible because the results hinged on too many factors to
Dowsing has had an interesting history steeped in contro-
adequately control for. One such study was a double-blinded
versy. Whether there is any plausibility still remains to be
RCT of six dowsers and their ability to sense the difference in
determined. The studies regarding dowsing are inconclusive.
energy from homeopathic remedies versus sham homeo-
Findings in dowsing research have not been all negative. In
pathic remedies. The study found the dowsers’ ability to de-
a study of whether dowsers could sense the presence of water
termine which vials held the remedy no different from
(similar to the Scheunen experiments), further analysis of the
chance (p ⬎⬎ 0.05).13 It has also been argued that the efficacy
data showed that the dowsers guessed along a path of elec-
of dowsing should be assessed in a similar fashion as musical
tromagnetic energy—and later—when an iron bar was bur-
competitions where, in place of a binomial positive or nega-
ied in place of water, the dowsing ability notably improved.14
tive result, a continuum of skill ranges is used to assess the
Unfortunately, later efforts to repeat the study were not con-
subjective nature of outcomes. Groups of dowsers, like mu-
sicians, have different ranges in ability. Therefore, when
gSubluxations refer to the bones in the spine being out of place. According to
studied as a whole, it is difficult to find conclusive results.1
the chiropractic “one cause, one cure” theory of disease, subluxations in Malcom Rae, the English dowser who had a substantial role
the spine are the cause of all disease—-therefore chiropractic treatment in the development of Radionics, expresses the frustrations
of subluxations can cure all disease.2 dowsers have with the biomedical community in that the
Historical perspective: Pendular diagnosis 43

objective rating of something requires a comparison to a sim- ● www.anamspirit.com The Irish Society of Diviners (Ire-
ilar standard. He concludes that there will always be unquan- land), 1958
tified data that require a subjective analysis where objective ● www.slagruta.org. Swedish Society of Dowsers, 1982
data could not be found.1
The field of energetic medicine is still very foreign. The References
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