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Engine Torque Control Variation Analysis

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SAE TECHNICAL

PAPER SERIES 2008-01-1016

Michael Livshiz, Minghui Kao and Anthony Will

Powertrain Engineering – General Motors Corporation

(SP-2159)

Detroit, Michigan

April 14-17, 2008

400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-0790 Web: www.sae.org

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By mandate of the Engineering Meetings Board, this paper has been approved for SAE publication upon

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2008-01-1016

Michael Livshiz, Minghui Kao and Anthony Will

Powertrain Engineering – General Motors Corporation

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

The growing complexity of engine control systems and Torque-based vehicle and powertrain control systems were

integration with transmission and vehicle dynamics controls introduced in [1, 2] where a hierarchical control strategy for

systems have lead to the use of torque-based engine control. powertrain functions was described. These two papers laid the

Torque-based control enables flexibility and expandability of foundation of the torque-based powertrain control. In the

the powertrain control system structure. It allows various torque-based powertrain systems the main control parameter is

engine actuation technologies (active fuel management (AFM), an engine or vehicle torque. The coordination between engine,

cam phasing, supercharger, etc.) to be easily incorporated, and transmission and brakes is done through this variable. The

to enable a simpler control structure than current production coordination between various engine and transmission

controls. Torque-based control structure is developed to actuators is also accomplished through this torque variable.

coordinate and achieve better engine, transmission, hybrid, and

vehicle dynamics controls. BOSCH ME7 engine control system was discussed in [3] as

new approach to the engine torque-based control at the time.

This paper describes the role of Engine Torque Control in a This system enables the separation of engine torque control

torque-based control system. It gives an overview of Engine from other vehicle control systems. It had centralized torque

Torque Control architecture with main elements, and discusses and air to fuel ratio management. It provided engine control

control system requirements. Engine Torque Control dealing with EGR, non EGR, cam phasing, and non cam

performance, defined by the engine torque transient response, phasing actuators. The control structure was expandable and

has direct impact on qualities of torque based control, such as flexible. The torque-based engine management system was

vehicle response, drivability and fuel economy. The engine also described in [4] where the authors considered the charge

torque transient response must be independent of control and ignition timing control, and some aspects of actuators

system, plant, and environmental variations. An accurate plant coordination. The powertrain management was described in [5,

model of a powertrain system has been developed, presented, 6], where authors introduced standards and interfaces for

and tuned with a development vehicle data. This model is used powertrain control. Coordinated powertrain torque control

to study the influence of parameter variation on the control became the standard for automotive industry nowadays. All

system. The Engine Torque Control algorithm model used for powertrain control suppliers develop solutions to provide

Rapid-Prototyping Controls is connected with the powertrain coordinated powertrain torque control in one form or another.

plant model through a control interface model.

Engine torque control is the main enabler of torque based

This paper characterizes an Engine Torque Control transient architecture. Engine torque control provides coordination of

response in terms of classical control theory metrics such as engine actuators (throttle position, spark advance, cam phaser

overshoot, steady state error, and response time. The influence positions and others) to achieve torque requested by driver or a

of both environmental and system parameters on the control vehicle subsystem. It is used both in torque control and in

system transient response characteristics is considered. The speed control operation modes. In speed control mode, torque

parameter variation and simulation Design of Experiment control system provides actuator controls to achieve requested

(DOE) runs were chosen by control design team and torque engine speed under coast down and steady state idle.

control experts. The torque response data collected on

development vehicle is used to verify integrity of the Engine torque control consists of feedforward and feedback

simulation results. This paper provides simulation results subsystems providing transient and steady state engine

illustrating how transient torque response performance is a performance controls. Feedforward engine torque control

function of system variations. provides us with calculation of desired actuator positions to

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produce requested torque value. Engine torque control with Figure 1 presents the block diagram of engine torque control

desired state calculation is described in [7], where architecture. It has two inputs: slow and fast torque requests

compressible flow equation is utilized to calculate desired (Treq_s and Treq_f). The outputs of the control system are

throttle position. The torque based calculations of desired throttle position (TPS), intake and exhaust cam positions

manifold pressure and desired air per cylinder are inputs into (ICAM and ECAM), boost actuator (Bp), and spark advance

compressible flow equation. Modern engine control may (S). Primarily, the throttle, intake cam, exhaust cam, and boost

utilize many different air induction devices such as mixture actuators (outputs) are used for slow torque requests, yet for

motion control, port deactivation, variable intake manifold fast torque requests, spark control is employed.

valves, cam phasers, and other devices. They all must be

coordinated to achieve requested engine torque. The

coordinated engine torque control structure is discussed in [8]. Throttle(TPS)

Supercharged and turbocharged engine torque control system

can utilize the same engine torque control structure with the Intake

Treq_s Slow Torque Control (ICAM)

minimum modifications. Engine torque feed-forward control

can employ desired manifold pressure to schedule boosted Exhaust

(ECAM)

supercharger and turbocharger actuators. One example of the Boost (Bp)

torque control structure to control supercharged engine is

shown in [9]. Feedback system corrects feed-forward Treq_f Spark (S)

Fast Torque Control

subsystem based on estimated torque. Mathematical

description of engine torque control structure will be shown in

the following section.

Figure 1 - Engine Torque Control Architecture

There are many possible combinations of engine actuators

used in modern engine torque control. The goal of this paper is

to provide the readers with the methodology to analyze an One of key elements of the engine torque control is engine

engine (with any combination of actuators) torque transient torque estimation. There are many papers and patents

control behavior under variations of system parameters and describing torque estimation strategies [10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In

environmental conditions. In this paper, the requirements for [14], the authors used the crankshaft speed as the input of

engine torque control are specified based on vehicle torque observers which estimate torque. They considered several

response needs. The main parameters affecting requirements engine models with the different level of complexity. In [15]

are specified. Their influence on engine torque control the two other methods of torque estimation are considered.

transient behavior is analyzed using control simulation. It is The first method utilizes the measured engine block vibration

also very important to inform the readers of this paper that the to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure. The second method is

authors are merely showing a methodology used in developing based on the difference between the measurement of the

a torque based control system. This methodology includes a crankshaft velocity and model. However these methods are

model-based engine torque control architecture with a set of computationally intensive and require a powerful electronic

calibration tools. This common architecture is applicable to engine control module, not available for production-intended

conventional (fixed cam spark ignition, port fuel injected) automotive application in the near future. Besides, they do not

engines as well as the most complex engines (such as those consider cylinder air rate, spark advance and other important

with independent cam phasing, turbo or supercharging, direct variables as inputs needed for engine torque control. An

injection, and active fuel management). The most significant alternative to the above approaches using crankshaft speed

aspect of this approach is that the engine torque control reconstruction is a strategy utilizing main control parameters

architecture is common; hence it is independent of the engine affecting an engine torque.

complexity. A common calibration process and common

software are now possible with this particular control In Bosch control system [3], indicated torque calculation is

architecture which offers significant benefits in terms of based on the major variables such as relative cylinder charge,

production implementation. air to fuel ratio and ignition timing. The engine losses caused

by the gas exchange and friction are calculated separately. In

[10] the combination of physical and regression models are

ENGINE TORQUE CONTROL ARCHITECTURE used to compute an engine torque based on Wiebe function.

The regression method is used to approximate physical

In this section, the authors give an overview of the developed equations describing torque production [17] as a function of

engine torque control architecture to control an engine with system sensitivities in [11, 12, 13].

any combination of actuators. The detailed implementation of

engine torque control is not the subject of this paper. However, The torque based system has the following requirements for

references describing detailed implementation of engine torque the engine torque estimation model:

control with various engine configurations are provided. The

authors describe mathematically their method of estimating - Torque model must be invertible (i.e., for a given

and controlling engine torque. engine torque, control inputs such as the desired

cylinder air rate and spark advance can be computed).

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(2-4)

added with minimum changes in the software and bA ( R) * A + bs ( R) * S + bR ( R )

calibration process).

For this model, the coefficients (bA, b5, bR) are the torque

- Torque model must be accurate (i.e., it meets sensitivities corresponding to the change in cylinder air rate,

particular drivability and fuel economy requirements). spark advance, and offset, respectively.

The regression based model is easy to invert and expand. The Equations 2-3 and 2-4 are valid for any gas engine. Hence, any

right choice of model order is an enabler to satisfy the new actuator, any new actuator combination, or engine

accuracy requirements. Furthermore, the engine torque model operation mode (such as for ethanol fuel) may be included

calibration is directly obtained from the regression model easily in the engine torque control architecture. In general,

without additional development. with each additional actuator to an engine torque control

system (or changing an engine operation mode such as for

An engine torque model may be represented in the either of the ethanol fuel use) usually requires that a new sensitivity

following forms: function be computed. Further, an engine with ethanol fuel has

very different combustion properties as compared to a regular

gas engine. This drives the need for sensitivity functions which

° f A ( R, A, ICAM , ECAM , S , AF , E %, AFM , Toil , B) are specific to a given fuel type (E85 vs. conventional fuel).

°

Tbr = ® or For example, an engine with dual equal cam phasers, the

° f P ( R, P, ICAM , ECAM , S , AF , E %, AFM , Toil , B) relationship between cylinder air rate and spark advance is a

° function of cam position for a given speed and load. Equations

¯ 2-3 and 2-4 are still valid, and furthermore the sensitivity

(2-1) ( )

functions a p , as , aR , bA , bs , bR will be functions of RPM

In equation 2-1, Tbr is engine brake torque, R is engine RPM, and intake position (i.e., ap = f(R, ICAM)). In the case of dual

A is cylinder air rate, P is manifold pressure, AF is air to fuel independent cam phasers, the sensitivity functions will be

ratio, E% is percentage of ethanol in fuel, AFM is indicating functions of RPM, intake, and exhaust phaser positions (i.e., ap

= f(R, ICAM, ECAM)). The sensitivity function is increased by

cylinder deactivation mode, Toil is an engine oil temperature,

one degree of freedom.

B is barometric pressure. The functions fA and fp are cylinder

air rate and manifold pressure based torque models, Each engine torque model is strategically used in the engine

respectively. torque control scheme. One is based on manifold pressure and

the other is based on cylinder air rate may be used for torque

For torque control derivation, one can assume that the engine security system. The main cylinder air rate based model is

operates under normal ambient pressure and temperature. compared with manifold pressure based model to determine if

Also, it is assumed that AFM is disabled and intake and abnormal torque requests or behaviors are present in the

exhaust cam phasing positions are fixed. The torque equations control system. Cylinder air rate based torque model is used to

can be reduced to: compute desired cylinder air rate (DA) based on desired slow

torque request as shown in the following equation.

f A (R, A, S )

° Treq _ s − bs * S − bR

Tbr = ® or (2-2) DA = f (Treq _ s , R, S ) = (2-5)

° f p ( R, P, S ) bA

¯

In particular, the manifold pressure based torque model may Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) module transforms desired

be presented: cylinder air rate into throttle position using compressible flow

. equation to compute desired throttle area.

Tbr = f p ( R , P, S ) =

(2-3)

DA ⋅ R ⋅ Rm * Tamb

a p ( R ) * P + a s ( R) * S + a R ( R ) Area = (2-6)

§P·

k ⋅ B ⋅ Φ¨ ¸

For this model, the coefficients (ap, aS, aR) are the torque ©B¹

sensitivities corresponding to changes in manifold pressure,

spark advance, and offset, respectively. In Equation (2-6),Rm and Tamb are universal gas constant

and ambient air temperature. Air density factor Φ is a

Cylinder air rate based torque model may be presented: function of pressure ratio across throttle plate. The coefficient

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k is depending on numbers of engine cylinders and unit The engine torque control with turbocharger does not require

conversion. Conversion of desired throttle area to desired any engine torque control structure or engine torque estimation

throttle position is non linear. The desired throttle area modifications. Effects of turbocharging are already included in

equation (2-6) has two internal feedbacks delaying engine the air estimation. The bypass is controlled based on the model

torque response – manifold pressure and engine speed. The of pre-throttle pressure defined by engine speed, desired air

manifold pressure rise will be defined by intake manifold per cylinder and desired manifold pressure. The engine torque

pressure time constant. Manifold pressure is a dominant factor control with turbocharging is described in [16] with details.

in delaying an engine torque response. Hence, desired

manifold pressure is used in engine torque control system The engine torque control with supercharger will require

instead of measured pressure. Desired manifold pressure (DP) changes of both torque estimation and control. The friction

can be computed [7] by using equation (2-3) which describing torque must include additional losses in supercharger. They

manifold pressure based torque model. may be calculated as a function of pressure drop across the

throttle and engine speed. In the compressible flow equation

Treq _ s − as * S − aR (2-6) desired manifold pressure must be replaced by desired

DP = f (Treq _ s , R, S ) = (2-7) pre-supercharged pressure, which may be calculated as a

aP function of desired manifold pressure, engine speed, measured

manifold and pre-throttle pressures. The control of super

Figure 2 shows the block diagram of slow engine torque charger bypass is calculated as a function of desired manifold

control system [8]. One of elements of this architecture is an pressure, desired air per cylinder and engine speed. The engine

inverse transformation of torque to desired pressure and torque control structure with supercharger is described in [9].

desired cylinder air rate. The first order polynomial torque

model presented here is readily invertible. Of course, the Some modern engines use AFM to optimize vehicle fuel

accuracy of this model can be improved by using second order economy. An engine with reduced number of cylinders has

polynomial model. The inverse of the second-order model is different MBT spark values. Hence, it also has different

more difficult to obtain because it involves solving a function relationship between cylinder air rate and spark advance for

with squared parameters in order to compute the desired given engine torque and speed. Using AFM does not require

manifold pressure and desired cylinder air rate. In this paper, a any modification of the engine torque control structure, but

first order model is presented for the sake of simplicity. different sensitivities in torque model are needed.

However, a second-order model is used in the control system

implementation. To compensate torque errors in the control system, a PI

controller for slow torque request is used. Torque

Manifold

RPM

Boost Bp

compensation or correction Tcorr can be presented as in

DP Control

Pressure Base

Treq_s Inverse Torque equation (2-10). The variables ( Test , k p , ki ) are the

+ PI +

- + Model

estimated engine torque, proportional gain and integral gain

Tcorr

Throttle TPS respectively.

Test Control

Air Rate Base

Inverse Torque ICAM

Model DA

CAM Phaser (2-10)

Control

RPM

ECAM

RPM Spark Smax

A Control

Figure 2 – Slow Engine Torque Control Architecture + S

+

Treq_s Cylinder Air Rate dSt

based Inverse +

Cam phaser control system consists of two main functions. -

Torque Model

First main function is the steady state intake and exhaust cam

phaser schedules (equations 2-8 and 2-9: f I , f E ) designed

based on dynamometer torque data for engine performance Treq_f Cylinder Air Rate

and emission. The second function is intake and exhaust cam based Inverse

Torque Model

actuation. For engine torque control analysis, the actuation

may be represented as first order response model. Figure 3 – Fast Engine Torque Control Architecture

Figure 3 shows the block diagram of fast torque control. If

ECAM = f E ( R, DA) (2-9) Treq _ s , Treq _ f are equal, spark advance S is equal to

S max (close to MBT). The difference between slow and fast

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torque requests caused by torque request leads to torque wealth of many publications in powertrain modeling area with

management spark retard (dSt). The final spark is described in conventional spark ignition engines, there are special needs to

equation (2-11). accurately model engine air volumetric efficiency and torque

with modern engine actuators (cam phasing, variable valve

S = S max + dSt timing, AFM, Intake Manifold Tuning (IMTV), etc.).

dSt = f A−1 (Treq _ s , R, A) − f A−1 (Treq _ f , R, A) (2-11) In a modern electronic engine control system, an engine is

presented as a plant with these major inputs: Spark, electronic

As it was shown in this paper the relationships between main controlled throttle, cam phasing (dilution), fuel injection, and

engine parameters and torque control are very nonlinear. It is AFM. It has four fundamental outputs: manifold pressure

impossible to design such control system and to analyze its (MAP), mass air flow (MAF), torque and RPM. The models

performance without nonlinear physical powertrain plant described in these papers are nonlinear and physical based,

model. In the next section, we will consider a powertrain with mean value key engine behavioral characteristics. Engine

model that includes all essential nonlinear elements for torque has three major dynamics: manifold filling, torque production,

control system analysis. An engine with dual equal phaser is and crankshaft rotation. The manifold filling time delay is a

considered in this paper. However as it was shown above the function of geometry and other parameters of the engine,

same control structure may be used to control an engine with properties of throttle body, and ambient temperature and

any combination of actuators. pressure. The manifold pressure dynamics are influenced

mainly by incoming throttle flow and outgoing cylinder mass

air flow.

PLANT AND TORQUE CONTROL ALGORITHM Intake manifold filling dynamics (equation 3-1) is derived

based on Ideal Gas Law and First Law of Thermodynamics, as

SIMULATION APPROACH

first order manifold pressure differential equation. Mass air

flow into the cylinder is based on speed density calculation

In this section, the engine, transmission, and vehicle plant

[17, 29]. Physics-based and regression-based volumetric

models used for the simulation analysis are discussed. Plant

efficiency (Ve) models are developed internally to account for

and control interface models are created to translate plant

key actuator input influences (Intake Cam Phaser, Exhaust

outputs to ECM (Engine Control Module) equivalent

Cam Phaser, IMTV, AFM, etc.). These more elaborated Ve

variables. Key behavioral algorithms (spark controls, cam

model and equations are needed for accuracy as compared to

phaser controls, etc.) are modeled to provide proper inputs to

traditional table lookup or curve fitting approaches. Ve is

drive Torque Control algorithm. Descriptions of Engine

function of engine RPM and MAP in a conventional mean-

Torque Controls are given in the previous section. Production

value modeling approach.

intent Engine Torque Control Model created in Simulink is

used in this project. Outputs of the Torque Controls are used to

The engine air flows into the cylinders are important to model

drive plant model inputs through the interface model. Key

and predict engine torques and air-fuel ratio. Physics-based Ve

plant and algorithm ECM TCM (Transmission Control

is modeled as function of engine RPM, MAP, intake air

Module) variables are collected in Vehicle to verify the overall

temperature, exhaust back pressure, exhaust temperature,

integrated simulation model. Nominal simulation results with

coolant temperature, intake cam phasing angle, exhaust cam

key control variables are verified for key behavior, before

phasing angle. The equations are derived based on energy

running parameter variation and simulations.

conservation and heat transfer with some simplifications.

Matlab based optimization tools are developed to find and

adjust physics-based coefficients with a user selected cost

PLANT MODEL DESCRIPTION

function (percentage errors or absolute errors). The modeled

Ve is compared with the engine test data in Matlab, and users

The plant models developed are Control-Oriented Models

can analyze modeling results with Matlab plots. In addition, a

targeted for embedded controls simulations (Hardware-in-the-

regression-based Ve model is created as extension of

Loop, Software-in-the-Loop, Algorithm Development, Control

conventional Ve curve fitting. The fitting coefficients are now

Variation Study, etc.). Details of the model equations are

multi-dimension table lookups. Matlab tools are developed

described by the authors in [17]. The engine model is a mean-

similar to Physics-based Ve model.

value engine model with modulated cylinder-by-cylinder

torque behavior. There were many papers describing the

engine models for powertrain control [18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23,

R ⋅T

24]. One of the first engine plant models for control design Pm = m m (m tps − m cyl ) (3-1)

was developed by Dobner [18]. Many papers [21, 25, 26, 27, Vm

28] describing transmission models including model of torque

converters, transmission mechanical system and drivetrain. In

Vd ⋅ηvol ⋅ Pm ⋅ N eng

[21] authors developed powertrain model consisting of engine, m cyl = (3-2)

transmission and drivetrain models, and different nonlinear 120 ⋅ Rm ⋅ Tm

elements of powertrain models were presented. Even with

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Once engine volumetric efficiency [29] is accurately modeled, (regression based) is used to determine load torque to the

the mass flow into the cylinder m cyl can be calculated using engine, and input turbine torque to the transmission geartrain.

In this paper, torque static bench spin test data (speed ratio,

the speed density calculation. The m tps is throttle mass flow torque ratio, etc.) are directly used in Simulink table lookup to

rate into the intake manifold which is calculated by using one calculate pump load torque and turbine input torque. Torque

dimensional compressible flow equation [29] as function of converter lockup clutch (TCC) is used in automatic

throttle position (effective throttle area) and pressure ratio transmission to bypass torque converter hydraulics to lower

across throttle plate. By using equations 3-1 and 3-2, MAP energy loss in the torque converter. Clutch torque is modeled

function of clutch pressure, clutch effective area, clutch

Pm and APC charge can be calculated.

friction coefficient, and clutch slip. Transmission ratios in the

model are determined based on commanded gear from shift

Torque production is a function of intake manifold pressure, control algorithm, with behavioral shift time delay and shift

air mass per cylinder, engine speed, spark advance, barometric time. Detailed of the transmission behavioral model is

pressure, fuel injection, cam phasing, AFM, and delays described in [17]. Vehicle model used is a one degree-of

associated with the combustion process. The friction torque freedom (DOF) vehicle dynamic model commonly used for

can be modeled as function of RPM, manifold pressure, and powertrain control development [17, 21, 25, 26, 27]. Detailed

AFM, assuming that the exhaust plenum pressure is small. vehicle dynamic model equations with higher DOF can be

The engine brake torque may be written in the following form: found in [30].

Tbr The engine and transmission plant models used for CTC

= Tind ( N eng , Pm , S , APC , ICAM , ECAM , AFM ) − T fr ( N eng , Pm , AFM ) variation analysis are parameterized for GM High-Value V6

= Tbr ( N eng , Pm , S , APC, ICAM , ECAM , AFM ) and four speed automatic transmission. The following figures

(3-3) are model simulation results compared with instrumented

ECM TCM data collected on a development vehicle. The

Engine brake torque can be modeled as regression-based vehicle data is collected with key maneuvers to cover wide

model with barometric pressure correction. Matlab tools for range of operations for torque control and plant model

getting regression coefficients can be obtained by using steady simulation verification. Vehicle data is also used to tune the

state dynamometer data. Again, similar to Ve model, Matlab overall vehicle model transient performance.

optimization scripts are developed to optimize torque accuracy

with a torque accuracy cost function defined by using GM The overall powertrain and vehicle Simulink model is

engine torque estimation specification. Engine crankshaft connected with the following input data streams in Matlab

inertia is assumed to be constant to simplify the simulation workspace.

equation. Crankshaft dynamic with varying inertia equation is Commanded Throttle Percent

available and discussed in [20]. Total engine inertia including Commanded Air Fuel Ratio

flywheel, damping element, torque converter pump, and Final Spark Advance

accessory are represented as lumped inertia. Engine net torque Inlet Air Temperature

can be calculated with engine brake torque, accessory load Commanded Cam Phaser Positions

torque, and torque converter load torque from transmission. By Commanded TCC Pressure

using Newton’s Law for the Engine Crankshaft Speed Transmission Line Pressure

Dynamics, engine RPM can be calculated by integrating Transmission Commanded Gear

engine acceleration (torque divided by inertia). Engine RPM is Vehicle Speed in KPH

used in other part of engine model, and input to transmission

torque converter model. The following key outputs are collected in Matlab workspace

after the simulation runs.

The transmission model is based on [17]. Transmission MAF, g/sec

gearbox and corresponding clutch activation hydraulics for MAP, kPa

gear shifts can be modeled as in [21, 25, 26, 27, 28]. Usually Engine RPM

the transmission mechanical can be modeled as lever diagram Engine Torque, Nm

[26, 27]. Dynamic equations for different operational gears Engine APC, mg

and during gear shifts can be derived. Hydraulic network for Transmission Input Speed, RPM

clutch engagement can be modeled as one-dimension hydraulic Transmission Output Speed, RPM

flow equations and clutch pressure to clutch torque

relationship. The model complexity needs depend on the target

Figures 4, 5, and 6 show good agreements between data

of the analysis. For the Engine Torque Control development, it

collected on development vehicle and plant model simulations.

is determined that the behavioral transmission models like in

[17, 21] are suitable.

torque converter. In [17], Kotwicki torque converter model

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300

E CM To rq ue

250

subsystems: engine torque estimation and engine torque

control. The engine torque estimation is used because engine

200

torque sensors are not available in production intended

vehicle. Engine torque estimate is calibrated by engine torque

150

calibration engineers, and accuracy is within the engine torque

Nm

100

achieved torque, and used to calculate torque errors in

50

reference to desired torque commands. The algorithm

Simulink model is provided by engine torque control algorithm

0

development engineer. The production ECM calibrations are

converted to Matlab format to be used in Simulink. The

50 100 150 2 00 250 algorithm model functionality and key test behavior are similar

Time (S ec ond )

to the model used to autocoded production C code. Vehicle

Figure 4 – Engine Brake Torque Comparison transient tests are conducted to verify torque control algorithm

functionality in PC simulation environment. For the targeted

engine torque variation study, some of the algorithm model

inputs are constant through out the maneuver. These inputs are

M AF g/sec

assigned constant values based on ECM variables collected in

90

P lan t Sim

development vehicle. There are key inputs from other part of

80

E CM MA F

ECM controls: Fuel Controls, Spark Controls, Cam Phaser

Controls, Mass Air Flow and Air Per Cylinder Estimation,

70

Driver Torque Request Controls, etc. Key outputs are desired

60 throttle area to ETC controls, final spark command to Spark

Controls, engine managed (actual torque), and engine

50

unmanaged torque (engine air flow torque without torque

g/se c

40 reduction).

30

Torque Control key variables are collected in the development

20 vehicle similar to the data in plant model section. Several

10

torque request step responses are commanded for generating

test data to verify simulation algorithm model. Figure 7 shows

0

50 100 150 2 00 250 results of a 150 Nm torque request, engine managed torque

Time (S ec ond )

and engine unmanaged torque. During this specific vehicle

Figure 5 – Engine Mass Air Flow Comparison test, transmission gear shifts occur at about 6.5 and 8.5

seconds. The engine torque reductions are requested by TCM

during the gear shifts. Several key closed-loop related torque

control variables within the algorithm model are collected to

MAP kP a

generate plots to compare with vehicle data. Simulation

1 00

P lan t Sim

engineer, algorithm development engineer, and torque control

E CM MA P specialist are working together to make sure torque control

90

algorithm model is functioning correctly, and satisfactory for

80

variation study.

70

kPa

60

50

40

30

20

50 100 150 2 00 2 50

Time (S e c ond )

Downloaded from SAE International by Univ of Nottingham - Kings Meadow Campus, Thursday, August 09, 2018

180

algorithm models are included to provide appropriate inputs to

160 torque control algorithm. Cam phaser schedules and dynamics,

engine RPM and MAP processing, cylinder air estimation to

140

generate APCs, shift schedules, and ETC models are also

120

included in interface model.

Nm

100

Requeste d To rqu e

Mana ged Tor que from signal delivery sub-system (SDSS) analysis [31] team.

80 Unmana ged Tor que

These behavioral models derived from SDSS detailed plants

60

are suitable for variation study, and the parameter variations

are added in related model blocks. The key plant model

40 parameter variations and algorithm parameter variations are

chosen, and inserted as percentage or absolute variations to

20

2 3 4 5 6

Time (S e c ond )

7 8 9 10 nominal values in overall simulation model. Potentially, there

are thousands simulation runs required for a particular DOE

Figure 7 – Engine Torque Control Outputs simulation for the study. This drives the requirement that the

overall model shall run on a PC at speeds at least as fast as

real-time.

maf

AF_Ratio 180

maf_tps_gps AFR command

af_command MAF_g/s Spark

Final_Spark_Advance TPS Area

[ctc_throttle] maf_cyl_gps 160

throttle_percent SparkLimitMin

Spark_Minimum

spark_advanceMAF_cyl_g/s map_plant Spark_Unmanaged SpkAdvNoRtds

140

spark_final Trq Req, Nm

map SparkAsCalUnmng

Baro, kPa Spark_Run M ng Trq , Nm

-C- engine_rpm SparkFinal

SparkRun 120

Patm, kPa MAP rpm MAP M AF , g/sec

Tamb

-C- apc_plant MAP M AP , kP a

Engine_RPM trq_unmng 100

Tatm, DegC icam Engine RPM

RPM 50 Driver_Pedal Oil_Temp EngTrqUnmng

ecam TPS Position 80

pedal Baro

final_spark2plant EngOil T

Brake01 trq_brake ICAM

apc

brake Baro 60

grade kph_plant ECAM trq_mng

0 EngTrqActual

ICAM

prtccsig kPa brake_torque apc_desired APC 40

Grade

0 ECAM

IAT

prline kPa prndl DesiredEngTrqFinal

TCC_Pr -C- 20

gear APC_Desired

900 desired gear kph Drive APC

ctc_tps_area ETC_PCT_TPS

Line Pr 0

IAT 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

Plant Model Torque Control Model Time (S e c ond )

Plant+Algo Interface

gear kph

[ctc_throttle]

trq_demand

Figure 9 – Torque Control Simulation Results for a 170

1

0.004s+1

Nm Torque Request

Step

Figure 8 – Overall Simulation Model for Variation Study overall simulation. Matlab scripts are developed to run the

overall Simulink model (Figure 8) in batch mode. Key

variables are connected to Matlab Workspace blocks to keep

CONTROL INTERFACE AND OVERALL SIMULATION simulation results after each runs. The simulation results are

MODEL FOR VARIATION STUDY saved with variation names and values, key plant model

outputs, and key torque control algorithm variables. The

With plant and algorithm models discussed, an interface model simulation plots are also generated by the scripts and saved as

is needed to complete the overall simulation model. This picture files in corresponding variation analysis folders. By

interface model contains other neighboring engine subsystem using this approach, thousands of simulation runs can be

control algorithms, and translation of plant variables to and executed within just a couple of hours, and results are ready

from torque controls. Figure 8 shows top level of the overall for further transient torque response characterization.

integrated simulations.

Plant Model receives inputs (Fuel, Throttle Percent, Spark, RESPONSE EVALUATION CRITERIA

Intake Cam Phasing Angle, and Exhaust Cam Phasing Angle)

from interface model, and generates closed-loop responses The validated simulation model with its integrated control

(MAF, MAP, RPM, APC, Vehicle Speed) for interface system and plant model is the virtual test bed used in the

algorithm models. Figure 8 shows these key interactions variation studies. A set of key model parameters (complete

among plant, interface, and algorithm models. In interface their tolerance band) were identified by our torque control

Downloaded from SAE International by Univ of Nottingham - Kings Meadow Campus, Thursday, August 09, 2018

experts as the most significant sources of system variation with the torque response characteristics (overshoot, rise time, and

respect to system response. Namely, those parameters are: steady-state error).

temperature, spark, cam phasing angle, throttle position,

volumetric efficiency, air-fuel ratio, air per cylinder and As previously mentioned, step responses to the overall system

barometric pressure. The impact on system performance of model were conducted. The initial torque value is in the

four parameters is presented here: variation due to cam neighborhood of 30 Nm which corresponds to the vehicle

position, barometric pressure, throttle position, and air per under idle operation. The simulation study consists of three

cylinder. The barometric pressure variation in kPa is added to torque step inputs of 100, 170 and 250 Nm. These steps in

plant model input. For cam phaser cam position, the variation torque represent a small, medium and large engine torque

in degree cam angle is added to the plant model. Flow request, respectively. In each of these cases, the barometric

variation in g/sec is added to throttle flow equation in the (atmospheric) pressure is varied ± 20 kPa from the nominal

engine model. Air per cylinder is a calculated value based on barometric pressure of 80 kPa. In this work, nominal does not

mass air flow measurement, and the variation in percent of this mean normal operating region, but it represents the analytical

estimate is added in the algorithm model. mid-point around which the variation is evaluated. Sweeping

the barometric pressure over this particular range does not

correspond to normal vehicle operation. Yet, the system

developers wanted this wide range for specific analytical

considerations not discussed in this paper (other barometric

variation ranges centered at 64 kPa and 100 kPa were

considered). The system response, for the three distinct torque

steps, to this variation is captured in Figures 11 – 13. Notice

that there is a family of responses curves shown on each

figure. Each trace represents a particular barometric pressure.

140

120

Commanded BARO = 100 kPa

Torque

100

Torque (Nm)

BARO = 80 kPa

80

BARO = 60 kPa

60

Figure 10 – Torque Response Characteristic for Damped

Response Case 40

20

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

on the torque error response to a step input (in desired torque). Figure 11 – Torque Response 100 Nm with Barometric

At this stage of system development, neither drivability nor pressure swept ± 20 kPa from 80 kPa nominal

any other human factor related metrics is considered in

assessing the torque response. In particular, the responses were

evaluated only using metrics used in classical control systems Figure 11 represents a small step response in engine torque.

evaluation for second order systems: steady-state error, rise With increasing barometric pressure, the less damped is the

time, and over-shoot. These response characteristics are system response. Consequently, with increasing barometric

illustrated in Figure 10. The rise time, overshoot and steady- pressure, over shoot increases and rise time decreases.

state error are computed relative to the steady-state linearity Comparing this response with the other higher torque

specification. commands, the system behavior is less damped overall.

shown in Figure 12. The system response for this command

RESULTS OF VARIATION STUDY differs from the previous case. Notice that when the barometric

pressure is lowest, i.e. in the neighborhood of 60 kPa that the

The four parameters referenced in the previous section were engine and control system cannot generate the commanded

systematically varied and torque response performance was 170 Nm. However, when the barometric pressure approaches

evaluated in a DOE based simulation study. A set of the other extreme value of 100 kPa, the system generates an

MATLAB scripts were developed to post-process the engine torque in excess of the commanded value. The effect of

simulation results. These scripts produced plots which show the barometric pressure on the steady-state error, percent

overshoot and rise time is depicted in the plots in Figure 13 for

Downloaded from SAE International by Univ of Nottingham - Kings Meadow Campus, Thursday, August 09, 2018

250 Nm torque request. The plots show that the rise time pressure ratio, the closer the engine is to saturation with

decreases and overshoot increases, as the barometric pressure respect to power generation.

is swept ±20 kPa from nominal (80 kPa).

Torque Step = 170 Nm with BARO variation

SS error [Nm]

60

170 Nm with BARO = 80 kPA ± 20 kPa

250

BARO = 100 kPa 40

20

200

Commanded 0

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Torque

100

Torque (Nm)

150

50

BARO = 80 kPa

BARO = 60 kPa 0

100

-50

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

50 0.2

0.15

0

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Seconds

0.1

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20

Baromometer [kPa]

Figure 12 – Torque Response 170 Nm with Barometric

pressure swept ± 20 kPa from 80 kPa nominal

Figure 14 – Torque Response Characteristics as functions

of barometric pressure – 170 Nm case

250 Nm with BARO = 80 kPA ± 20 kPa

300

Commanded

characteristics for a barometric pressure sweep of ± 20 kPa

250

Torque

200

starting from 80 kPa. Note that the minimum and maximum

values for the steady-state error, rise time and overshoot can

Torque (Nm)

BARO = 80 kPa

are summarized for the 170 Nm case and found in Table 1.0.

100 The entries to this table were obtained from a simulation study

BARO = 60 kPa

where the barometric pressure (BARO), air per cylinder

50

(APC), cam phaser position (CAM) and throttle flow (TPS)

were swept over a particular range of interest. As before, the

0

2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 barometric pressure range was ± 20 kPa from the 80 kPa

Seconds

nominal value. The APC range was ±10% of the nominal

value. The CAM phaser range was ± 8° of the nominal cam

Figure 13 – Torque Response 250 Nm with Barometric phaser position. Finally, the TPS range was ±5g/sec of the

pressure swept ± 20 kPa from 80 kPa nominal nominal throttle flow. These parameter variation ranges were

selected to be representative of the actual tolerance band. This

summary contains just the affect of applying the variation

However for a commanded torque of 250 Nm and the same separately. Combinations of variation were evaluated, but not

barometric pressure variation, the response differs significantly presented here.

from the others. Note that the lighter damping present in the

other two cases is not present here. In fact the response TABLE 1 System Response 170 Nm

appears much more damped and has a response characteristic

that resembles a 1st order system. As in the 170 Nm case, for System Response Characteristic (170 Nm Step)

lower values of barometric pressure, the system can not Steady-State

generate the commanded torque. Similarly, for the larger Variation % Overshoot Rise Time (s) Error (Nm)

values of barometric pressure, the system produces min max min max min max

significantly more torque than the commanded torque. BARO -19.576 56.413 0.106 0.18125 2.660 48.311

Overall, the step responses for the 100, 170 and 250 Nm APC -0.403 8.031 0.250 0.444 4.080 8.709

torque commands produce very different responses when

subject to changes in barometric pressure. As the commanded CAM 6.144 14.900 0.181 0.313 2.596 5.174

torque value increases, the system response is - in general -

more damped. Larger torque request requires a larger desired

TPS 6.067 19.23578 0.163 0.513 2.979 5.902

pressure ratio which in turn requires larger desired throttle

opening. The closer the engine operates to the maximum

Downloaded from SAE International by Univ of Nottingham - Kings Meadow Campus, Thursday, August 09, 2018

From the table, there are several conclusions which can be model development, the authors would like to thank Dr. Rong

drawn. A few are given below: Zhang and Dr. Raymond Turin (GM R&D) in deriving

physics-based air flow volumetric efficiency model and

1. Among all the sources of variation, overshoot, settling time scripts. Finally, model calibration help from Dr. YoungJoo

and rise time are impacted most significantly by barometric Lee and Myrna Sultan are appreciated.

pressure variation.

throttle position input. REFERENCES

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