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United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of processes, institutions, facilities and a service III.

Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines), G.A. delivery network aimed at reducing the motivation,
res. 45/112, annex, 45 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49A) at need and opportunity for, or conditions giving rise 9. Comprehensive prevention plans should be instituted at
201, U.N. Doc. A/45/49 (1990). to, the commission of infractions; every level of Government and include the following:

I. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES (c) Official intervention to be pursued primarily in (a) In-depth analyses of the problem and
the overall interest of the young person and inventories of programmes, services, facilities and
guided by fairness and equity; resources available;
1. The prevention of juvenile delinquency is an essential
part of crime prevention in society. By engaging in lawful,
socially useful activities and adopting a humanistic (d) Safeguarding the well-being, development, (b) Well-defined responsibilities for the qualified
orientation towards society and outlook on life, young rights and interests of all young persons; agencies, institutions and personnel involved in
persons can develop non-criminogenic attitudes. preventive efforts;
(e) Consideration that youthful behaviour or
2. The successful prevention of juvenile delinquency conduct that does not conform to overall social (c) Mechanisms for the appropriate co-ordination
requires efforts on the part of the entire society to ensure norms and values is often part of the maturation of prevention efforts between governmental and
the harmonious development of adolescents, with respect and growth process and tends to disappear non-governmental agencies;
for and promotion of their personality from early spontaneously in most individuals with the
childhood. transition to adulthood;
(d) Policies, programmes and strategies based on
prognostic studies to be continuously monitored
3. For the purposes of the interpretation of the present (f) Awareness that, in the predominant opinion of and carefully evaluated in the course of
Guidelines, a child-centred orientation should be pursued. experts, labelling a young person as "deviant'', implementation;
Young persons should have an active role and partnership "delinquent" or "pre-delinquent" often contributes
within society and should not be considered as mere to the development of a consistent pattern of
undesirable behaviour by young persons. (e) Methods for effectively reducing the
objects of socialization or control.
opportunity to commit delinquent acts;

4. In the implementation of the present Guidelines, in 6. Community-based services and programmes should be
developed for the prevention of juvenile delinquency, (f) Community involvement through a wide range
accordance with national legal systems, the well-being of
particularly where no agencies have yet been established. of services and programmes;
young persons from their early childhood should be the
focus of any preventive programme. Formal agencies of social control should only be utilized as
a means of last resort. (g) Close interdisciplinary co-operation between
national, State, provincial and local governments,
5. The need for and importance of progressive delinquency
II. SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES with the involvement of the private sector
prevention policies and the systematic study and the
representative citizens of the community to be
elaboration of measures should be recognized. These
served, and labour, child-care, health education,
should avoid criminalizing and penalizing a child for 7. The present Guidelines should be interpreted and social, law enforcement and judicial agencies in
behaviour that does not cause serious damage to the implemented within the broad framework of the Universal taking concerted action to prevent juvenile
development of the child or harm to others. Such policies Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant delinquency and youth crime;
and measures should involve: on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Declaration of
the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of (h) Youth participation in delinquency prevention
(a) The provision of opportunities, in particular
the Child, and in the context of the United Nations policies and processes, including recourse to
educational opportunities, to meet the varying
Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile community resources, youth self-help, and victim
needs of young persons and to serve as a
Justice (The Beijing Rules), as well as other instruments compensation and assistance programmes;
supportive framework for safeguarding the
personal development of all young persons, and norms relating to the rights, interests and well-being
particularly those who are demonstrably of all children and young persons. (i) Specialized personnel at all levels.
endangered or at social risk and are in need of
special care and protection; 8. The present Guidelines should also be implemented in IV. SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES
the context of the economic, social and cultural conditions
(b) Specialized philosophies and approaches for prevailing in each Member State. 10. Emphasis should be placed on preventive policies
delinquency prevention, on the basis of laws, facilitating the successful socialization and integration of
all children and young persons, in particular through the parental roles and obligations as regards child (d) Undertaking activities that foster a sense of
family, the community, peer groups, schools, vocational development and child care, promoting positive parent- identity with and of belonging to the school and
training and the world of work, as well as through child relationships, sensitizing parents to the problems of the community;
voluntary organizations. Due respect should be given to children and young persons and encouraging their
the proper personal development of children and young involvement in family and community-based activities. (e) Encouragement of young persons to
persons, and they should be accepted as full and equal understand and respect diverse views and
partners in socialization and integration processes. 17. Governments should take measures to promote family opinions, as well as cultural and other differences;
cohesion and harmony and to discourage the separation of
A. Family children from their parents, unless circumstances affecting (f) Provision of information and guidance regarding
the welfare and future of the child leave no viable vocational training, employment opportunities and
11. Every society should place a high priority on the needs alternative. career development;
and well-being of the family and of all its members.
18. It is important to emphasize the socialization function (g) Provision of positive emotional support to
12. Since the family is the central unit responsible for the of the family and extended family; it is also equally young persons and the avoidance of psychological
primary socialization of children, governmental and social important to recognize the future role, responsibilities, maltreatment;
efforts to preserve the integrity of the family, including the participation and partnership of young persons in society.
extended family, should be pursued. The society has a (h) Avoidance of harsh disciplinary measures,
responsibility to assist the family in providing care and 19. In ensuring the right of the child to proper socialization, particularly corporal punishment.
protection and in ensuring the physical and mental well- Governments and other agencies should rely on existing
being of children. Adequate arrangements including day- social and legal agencies, but, whenever traditional
care should be provided. institutions and customs are no longer effective, they 22. Educational systems should seek to work together with
should also provide and allow for innovative measures. parents, community organizations and agencies concerned
with the activities of young persons.
13. Governments should establish policies that are
conducive to the bringing up of children in stable and B. Education
settled family environments. Families in need of assistance 23. Young persons and their families should be informed
in the resolution of conditions of instability or conflict about the law and their rights and responsibilities under
20. Governments are under an obligation to make public the law, as well as the universal value system, including
should be provided with requisite services. education accessible to all young persons. United Nations instruments.
14. Where a stable and settled family environment is 21. Education systems should, in addition to their
lacking and when community efforts to assist parents in 24. Educational systems should extend particular care and
academic and vocational training activities, devote attention to young persons who are at social risk.
this regard have failed and the extended family cannot particular attention to the following:
fulfil this role, alternative placements, including foster care Specialized prevention programmes and educational
and adoption, should be considered. Such placements materials, curricula, approaches and tools should be
should replicate, to the extent possible, a stable and (a) Teaching of basic values and developing developed and fully utilized.
settled family environment, while, at the same time, respect for the child's own cultural identity and
establishing a sense of permanency for children, thus patterns, for the social values of the country in 25. Special attention should be given to comprehensive
avoiding problems associated with "foster drift". which the child is living, for civilizations different policies and strategies for the prevention of alcohol, drug
from the child's own and for human rights and and other substance abuse by young persons. Teachers
fundamental freedoms; and other professionals should be equipped and trained to
15. Special attention should be given to children of families
affected by problems brought about by rapid and uneven prevent and deal with these problems. Information on the
economic, social and cultural change, in particular the (b) Promotion and development of the personality, use and abuse of drugs, including alcohol, should be made
children of indigenous, migrant and refugee families. As talents and mental and physical abilities of young available to the student body.
such changes may disrupt the social capacity of the family people to their fullest potential;
to secure the traditional rearing and nurturing of children, 26. Schools should serve as resource and referral centres
often as a result of role and culture conflict, innovative and (c) Involvement of young persons as active and for the provision of medical, counselling and other services
socially constructive modalities for the socialization of effective participants in, rather than mere objects to young persons, particularly those with special needs
children have to be designed. of, the educational process; and suffering from abuse, neglect, victimization and
16. Measures should be taken and programmes developed
to provide families with the opportunity to learn about
27. Through a variety of educational programmes, 35. A range of services and helping measures should be 44. The mass media should be aware of its extensive social
teachers and other adults and the student body should be provided to deal with the difficulties experienced by young role and responsibility, as well as its influence, in
sensitized to the problems, needs and perceptions of persons in the transition to adulthood. Such services communications relating to youthful drug and alcohol
young persons, particularly those belonging to should include special programmes for young drug abusers abuse. It should use its power for drug abuse prevention
underprivileged, disadvantaged, ethnic or other minority which emphasize care, counselling, assistance and by relaying consistent messages through a balanced
and low-income groups. therapy-oriented interventions. approach. Effective drug awareness campaigns at all levels
should be promoted.
28. School systems should attempt to meet and promote 36. Voluntary organizations providing services for young
the highest professional and educational standards with persons should be given financial and other support by V. SOCIAL POLICY
respect to curricula, teaching and learning methods and Governments and other institutions.
approaches, and the recruitment and training of qualified 45. Government agencies should give high priority to plans
teachers. Regular monitoring and assessment of 37. Youth organizations should be created or strengthened and programmes for young persons and should provide
performance by the appropriate professional organizations at the local level and given full participatory status in the sufficient funds and other resources for the effective
and authorities should be ensured. management of community affairs. These organizations delivery of services, facilities and staff for adequate
should encourage youth to organize collective and medical and mental health care, nutrition, housing and
29. School systems should plan, develop and implement voluntary projects, particularly projects aimed at helping other relevant services, including drug and alcohol abuse
extracurricular activities of interest to young persons, in young persons in need of assistance. prevention and treatment, ensuring that such resources
co-operation with community groups. reach and actually benefit young persons.
38. Government agencies should take special
30. Special assistance should be given to children and responsibility and provide necessary services for homeless 46. The institutionalization of young persons should be a
young persons who find it difficult to comply with or street children; information about local facilities, measure of last resort and for the minimum necessary
attendance codes, and to "drop-outs". accommodation, employment and other forms and sources period, and the best interests of the young person should
of help should be made readily available to young persons. be of paramount importance. Criteria authorizing formal
31. Schools should promote policies and rules that are fair intervention of this type should be strictly defined and
and just; students should be represented in bodies 39. A wide range of recreational facilities and services of limited to the following situations: (a) where the child or
formulating school policy, including policy on discipline, particular interest to young persons should be established young person has suffered harm that has been inflicted by
and decision-making. and made easily accessible to them. the parents or guardians; (b) where the child or young
person has been sexually, physically or emotionally
abused by the parents or guardians; (c) where the child or
C. Community D. Mass media young person has been neglected, abandoned or exploited
by the parents or guardians; (d) where the child or young
32. Community-based services and programmes which 40. The mass media should be encouraged to ensure that person is threatened by physical or moral danger due to
respond to the special needs, problems, interests and young persons have access to information and material the behaviour of the parents or guardians; and (e) where a
concerns of young persons and which offer appropriate from a diversity of national and international sources. serious physical or psychological danger to the child or
counselling and guidance to young persons and their young person has manifested itself in his or her own
families should be developed, or strengthened where they 41. The mass media should be encouraged to portray the behaviour and neither the parents, the guardians, the
exist. positive contribution of young persons to society. juvenile himself or herself nor non-residential community
services can meet the danger by means other than
33. Communities should provide, or strengthen where they institutionalization.
42. The mass media should be encouraged to disseminate
exist, a wide range of community-based support measures information on the existence of services, facilities and
for young persons, including community development opportunities for young persons in society. 47. Government agencies should provide young persons
centres, recreational facilities and services to respond to with the opportunity of continuing in full-time education,
the special problems of children who are at social risk. In funded by the State where parents or guardians are unable
providing these helping measures, respect for individual 43. The mass media generally, and the television and film to support the young persons, and of receiving work
rights should be ensured. media in particular, should be encouraged to minimize the experience.
level of pornography, drugs and violence portrayed and to
display violence and exploitation disfavourably, as well as
34. Special facilities should be set up to provide adequate to avoid demeaning and degrading presentations, 48. Programmes to prevent delinquency should be planned
shelter for young persons who are no longer able to live at especially of children, women and interpersonal relations, and developed on the basis of reliable, scientific research
home or who do not have homes to live in. and to promote egalitarian principles and roles. findings, and periodically monitored, evaluated and
adjusted accordingly.
49. Scientific information should be disseminated to the designated would also supervise the implementation of the youth crime and juvenile delinquency prevention and the
professional community and to the public at large about Riyadh Guidelines, the Beijing Rules and the Rules for the findings of such research should be widely disseminated
the sort of behaviour or situation which indicates or may Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty. The and evaluated.
result in physical and psychological victimization, harm ombudsman or other organ would, at regular intervals,
and abuse, as well as exploitation, of young persons. publish a report on the progress made and on the 65. Appropriate United Nations bodies, institutes, agencies
difficulties encountered in the implementation of the and offices should pursue close collaboration and co-
50. Generally, participation in plans and programmes instrument. Child advocacy services should also be ordination on various questions related to children juvenile
should be voluntary. Young persons themselves should be established. justice and youth crime and juvenile delinquency
involved in their formulation, development and prevention.
implementation. 58. Law enforcement and other relevant personnel, of both
sexes, should be trained to respond to the special needs of 66. On the basis of the present Guidelines, the United
51. Government should begin or continue to explore, young persons and should be familiar with and use, to the Nations Secretariat, in co-operation with interested
develop and implement policies, measures and strategies maximum extent possible, programmes and referral institutions, should play an active role in the conduct of
within and outside the criminal justice system to prevent possibilities for the diversion of young persons from the research, scientific collaboration, the formulation of policy
domestic violence against and affecting young persons justice system. options and the review and monitoring of their
and to ensure fair treatment to these victims of domestic implementation, and should serve as a source of reliable
violence. 59. Legislation should be enacted and strictly enforced to information on effective modalities for delinquency
protect children and young persons from drug abuse and prevention.
52. Governments should enact and enforce specific laws ORDINATION
and procedures to promote and protect the rights and
well-being of all young persons. 60. Efforts should be made and appropriate mechanisms
established to promote, on both a multidisciplinary and an
53. Legislation preventing the victimization, abuse, intradisciplinary basis, interaction and co-ordination
exploitation and the use for criminal activities of children between economic, social, education and health agencies
and young persons should be enacted and enforced. and services, the justice system, youth, community and
development agencies and other relevant institutions.
54. No child or young person should be subjected to harsh
or degrading correction or punishment measures at home, 61. The exchange of information, experience and expertise
in schools or in any other institutions. gained through projects, programmes, practices and
initiatives relating to youth crime, delinquency prevention
and juvenile justice should be intensified at the national,
55. Legislation and enforcement aimed at restricting and regional and international levels.
controlling accessibility of weapons of any sort to children
and young persons should be pursued.
62. Regional and international co-operation on matters of
youth crime, delinquency prevention and juvenile justice
56. In order to prevent further stigmatization, victimization involving practitioners, experts and decision makers
and criminalization of young persons, legislation should be should be further developed and strengthened.
enacted to ensure that any conduct not considered an
offence or not penalized if committed by an adult is not
considered an offence and not penalized if committed by a 63. Technical and scientific co-operation on practical and
young person. policy-related matters, particularly in training, pilot and
demonstration projects, and on specific issues concerning
the prevention of youth crime and juvenile delinquency
57. Consideration should be given to the establishment of should be strongly supported by all Governments, the
an office of ombudsman or similar independent organ, United Nations system and other concerned organizations.
which would ensure that the status, rights and interests of
young persons are upheld and that proper referral to
available services is made. The ombudsman or other organ 64. Collaboration should be encouraged in undertaking
scientific research with respect to effective modalities for