Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 63

G

ro
up
Eg
pe
t
Q&A
ASNT
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
BOOK

t
Third Edition

pe
Ultrasonic
Testing Method
EgLevels I, II and III Review Questions - Book C
up
ro
G

The American Society for


Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
t
pe
Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Nondestructive Testing.

Eg
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. (ASNT) is not responsible for the authenticity or accuracy of information
herein. Published opinions and statements do not necessarily reflect the opinion of ASNT. Products or services that are advertised
or mentioned do not carry the endorsement or recommendation of ASNT.

No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form, by means electronic or mechanical including photo-
copying, recording or otherwise, without the expressed prior written permission of The American Society for Nondestructive
Testing, Inc.

IRRSP, NDT Handbook, The NDT Technician and www.asnt.org are trademarks of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing,
Inc. ACCP, ASNT, Level III Study Guide, Materials Evaluation, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, Research in Nondestructive
Evaluation and RNDE are registered trademarks of The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
up
This book was previously published as Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Ultrasonic Testing Method,
first published in the 1980s. It is based on previous Q&A Book editions.

Third Edition
first printing 10/14
ebook /1

Errata, if available for this printing, may be obtained from ASNT’s website, www.asnt.org. Ebooks contain all corrections
and updates, including the latest errata.
ro

978-1-57117-343-0 (print)
978-1-57117-344-7 (ebook)

Printed in the United States of America

Published by:
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc.
1711 Arlingate Lane
Columbus, OH 43228-0518
G

www.asnt.org

Edited by: Cynthia M. Leeman, Educational Materials Supervisor


Assisted by: Bob Conklin, Educational Materials Editor
Joy Grimm, Production Manager
Tim Jones, Senior Manager of Publications

ASNT Mission Statement:


ASNT exists to create a safer world by promoting the profession and technologies of nondestructive testing.

ii
Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

t
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix

pe
Level I: Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Level II: Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Level III: Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

Eg
up
ro
G

iii
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

t
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. is grateful for the volunteer contributions, technical expertise,

pe
knowledge, and dedication of the following individuals who have helped make this work possible.

Technical Reviewers
John Chen – Schlumberger
Steve Johnson – OneSubsea
Karl Kraft – Kraft Technology Resources LLC
Bill Neyer – Advanced Consulting Solutions
Ralph Nicastro – Southern California Gas Company/EAC
Chinam Dwarikanath Patra – PSL Limited

Eg
Luis Payano – Port Authority of NY & NJ
Gerald Reams – Siemens Energy Inc.
Nathaniel Reveal – American Testing Services
Krutik Shah – Shri Vallabh NDT Services, Vadodara
Robert J. Woodward – URS Energy & Construction, Inc.

Publications Review Committee


Glenn M. Light, Chair – Southwest Research Institute
Martin T. Anderson – Alaska Technical Training
Joseph L. Mackin – Reel Group
up
ro
G

v
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
introduction
This book was previously published as Supplement to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A (Q&A Book): Ultrasonic Testing
Method. As with other books in the ASNT Questions & Answers series, this book is intended to provide candidates studying

t
for qualifying examinations with sample Level I, II, and III questions.

The main changes between the second and third editions is that the references have been updated, many questions have been

pe
updated, and every question is multiple choice with four unique answers to more closely match the ASNT exam format.

All figures are from ASNT sources unless otherwise indicated.

Eg
up
ro
G

vii
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
References

t
Recommended References Reference Codes

pe
The following references were used in formulating the Each question in this book is followed by letter(s) and page
questions in this book. number(s) indicating the specific recommended reference
where the answer may be found. For example:
Reference A
Workman, G.L. and D. Kishoni, technical eds., Patrick O.
Moore, ed. Nondestructive Testing Handbook, third edition: 1. The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave
Volume 7, Ultrasonic Testing. Columbus, OH: The American velocities is:
Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2007.
a. longitudinal waves.
Reference B

Eg
Marks, P. Ultrasonic Testing Classroom Training Book.
Columbus, OH: The American Society for Nondestructive
Testing, Inc. 2007.

Reference C
ASNT Level III Study Guide: Ultrasonic Testing Method, sec-
ond edition. Columbus, OH: The American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2014.
b.
c.
d.
shear waves.
transverse waves.
lamb waves.
B.13

In this example, the letter “B” refers to Reference B in the


list above and 13 is the specific page in Reference B where
the answer to the question is located.
up
Reference D Reference Usage
Spaulding, W. and G.C. Wheeler. ASNT Level II Study Guide:
Ultrasonic Testing Method, second edition. Columbus, OH: Reference A Total = 174 Reference E Total = 17
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Inc. 2002. Level I (75) Level I (11)
Level II (71) Level II (6)
Additional References Level III (28) Level III (0)

Reference E Reference B Total = 227 Reference F Total = 60


McGonnagle, W.J. Nondestructive Testing, second edition. Level I (111) Level I (17)
ro

New York: Gordon & Breach, Science Publishers, Inc. 1975. Level II (104) Level II (39)
Level III (12) Level III (4)
Reference F
Metals Handbook: ninth edition, Volume 17, Nondestructive Reference C Total = 23 Reference G Total = 20
Evaluation and Quality Control, ninth edition. Metals Park, Level I (9) Level I (5)
OH: ASM International. 1989. Level II (8) Level II (5)
Level III (6) Level III (10)
G

Reference G
Krautkramer, J. and H. Krautkramer. Ultrasonic Testing of Reference D Total = 8
Materials, fourth edition. New York: Springer-Verlag, Inc. Level I (1)
1990. Level II (7)
Level III (0)

ix
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
Level I
Review Questions

t
1. The indication on the instrument display that 5. Another name for a compressional wave is:

pe
represents the far boundary of the material being
tested is called: a. lamb wave.
b. shear wave.
a. grass or hash. c. longitudinal wave.
b. the initial pause. d. transverse wave.
c. the main bang. A.557; B.10
d. the back-surface reflection.
A.205; B.26 6. Another name for rayleigh waves is:

2.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
In immersion testing, the position of the transducer
is often varied by a manipulator to transmit sound
into the test part at various angles to the front
surface. Such a procedure is referred to as:

angulation.
dispersion.
reflection testing.
refraction.
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
shear waves.
longitudinal waves.
transverse waves.
surface waves.
A.43; B.10

A material used between the face of a transducer


and the test surface to permit or improve the
transmission of ultrasonic vibrations from the
A.267, 268, 413, 414; B.196 transducer to the material being tested is called:
up
3. The technical name for the cable that connects the a. a wetting agent.
ultrasonic instrument to the transducer is: b. a couplant.
c. an acoustic transmitter.
a. BX cable. d. a lubricant.
b. conduit. A.15; B.61
c. coaxial cable.
d. ultrasonic conductor cable-grade 20. 8. The piezoelectric material in a transducer that
A.79; B.45 vibrates to produce ultrasonic waves is called a:
ro

4. The process of standardizing an instrument or device a. backing material.


by using a reference standard is called: b. plastic wedge.
c. crystal.
a. angulation. d. couplant.
b. calibration. A.60; B.46
c. attenuation.
G

d. correlation.
A.557; B.37

1
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

9. Ultrasonic testing of material where the probe is in 12. The transducer that contains the thinnest
direct contact with the material being tested may be: piezoelectric crystal is a:

a. water jet. a. 1 MHz transducer.


b. immersion testing. b. 5 MHz transducer.
c. air coupled. c. 15 MHz transducer.
d. straight beam testing. d. 25 MHz transducer.

t
A.202; B.63 B.47

10. An advantage of using lithium sulfate in transducers

pe
is that it: 13. Penetration of ultrasonic waves in a material is
normally the function of test frequency used. The
a. is one of the most efficient generators of greatest depth of penetration is provided by a
ultrasonic energy. frequency of:
b. is one of the most efficient receivers of
ultrasonic energy. a. 1 MHz
c. is insoluble. b. 2.25 MHz
d. can withstand temperatures as high as c. 5 MHz
700 °C (1260 °F). d. 10 MHz

11.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The transducer shown in Figure 1 is used for:

surface wave testing.


angle beam testing.
immersion testing.
straight beam testing.
B.46

14. The amount of beam divergence from a crystal is


primarily dependent on the:

a.
b.
c.
d.
type of test.
tightness of crystal backing in the transducer.
frequency and crystal size.
pulse length.
D.47

B.55
A.211; B.49
up
15. When an ultrasonic beam passes through the
interface between two dissimilar materials at an
angle, a new angle of sound travel takes place in the
second material due to:

a. attenuation.
b. rarefaction.
c. compression.
ro

d. refraction.
A.38, 564; B.18-19
G

Figure 1.

2
Review Questions

(No sweep delay is being used)


0 1 2 3 4 5

152 mm (6 in.)

t
203 mm (8 in.)

pe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A B C D E

Figure 2.

16.
Eg
Figure 2 illustrates a contact test on a 203 mm
(8 in.) aluminum block. A discontinuity is located
152 mm (6 in.) from the front surface. The display
representation for this is shown to the right. What
does indication A represent?

a.
b.
The initial pulse or front-surface indication.
The first discontinuity indication.
19. In Figure 2, indication D represents the:

a.
b.
c.
d.
first discontinuity indication.
second indication of the discontinuity.
first back-surface reflection.
second back-surface reflection.
A.204; B.26

c. The first back-surface reflection. 20. In Figure 2, indication E represents the:


up
d. Baseline.
A.203, 204; B.26 a. first discontinuity indication.
b. second indication of the discontinuity.
17. In Figure 2, indication B represents: c. first back-surface reflection.
d. second back-surface reflection.
a. the initial pulse or front-surface indication. A.205; B.26
b. the first discontinuity indication.
c. the first back-surface reflection. 21. The velocity of longitudinal waves is approximately
d. baseline. ______ the velocity of shear waves in the same
ro

A.203, 204; B.26 material.

18. In Figure 2, indication C represents the: a. two times


b. four times
a. second back-surface reflection. c. 1/2
b. first discontinuity indication. d. 9/10
c. second indication of the discontinuity. B.12
G

d. first back-surface reflection.


A.205; B.26

3
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

22. Figure 3 illustrates an immersion test of a 76 mm


(3 in.) block of aluminum with a discontinuity
located 51 mm (2 in.) below the surface. The display
pattern is shown also. What does indication A 25 mm (1 in.)
represent? Assume no sweep delay is used. 51 mm
76 mm
(3 in.) (2 in.)
a. The first front-surface indication. Aluminum Water
b. The initial pulse.

t
A B C D
c. The first discontinuity indication.
d. The first back-surface reflection.

pe
B.17; F.245

23. In Figure 3, indication B represents the: Figure 3.

a. first front-surface indication.


b. initial pulse.
c. first back-surface reflection. 27. Under most circumstances, which of the following
d. first discontinuity reflection. frequencies would result in the best resolving power?
B.17; F.245

24.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
In Figure 3, indication C represents the:

first front-surface indication.


first discontinuity indication.
first back-surface reflection.
second front-surface indication.
B.17; F.245
28.
a.
b.
c.
d.
1 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
25 MHz

Which of the following materials of the same alloy is


most likely to produce the greatest amount of sound
attenuation over a given distance?
B.47

25. In Figure 3, indication D represents the:


up
a. A hand forging.
a. first discontinuity indication. b. A coarse-grained casting.
b. first back-surface reflection. c. An extrusion.
c. second front-surface indication. d. The attenuation is equal in all materials.
d. second discontinuity indication. B.164; E.221; F.238
B.17; F.245
29. In contact testing, the entry surface indication is
26. In Figure 3, the distance between indications A and B sometimes referred to as the:
represents the:
ro

a. initial pulse.
a. distance from the front surface of the aluminum b. back reflection.
block to the discontinuity. c. skip distance.
b. distance from the front surface of the aluminum d. scan path.
block to the back surface of the aluminum block. B.80
c. water distance from the transducer to the
aluminum block. 30. An ultrasonic instrument display pattern containing
G

d. 76 mm. a large number of low-level indications (often


B.17; F.245 referred to as grass or hash) could be caused by:

a. a crack.
b. a large inclusion.
c. coarse-grained material.
d. a gas pocket.
A.211; B.47, 195; E.221

4
Review Questions

31. A test method employing two separate transducers 36. The number “25 million cycles per second” can also
on opposite surfaces of the material being tested is be stated as:
called:
a. 25 kHz.
a. contact testing. b. 2500 kHz.
b. surface wave testing. c. 25 MHz.
c. through-transmission testing. d. 25 μHz.
d. lamb wave testing.

t
B.3
B.64-65
37. Moving a transducer over a test surface either

pe
32. The number of complete waves that pass a given manually or automatically is referred to as:
point in a given period of time (usually 1 s) is
referred to as the: a. scanning.
b. attenuating.
a. amplitude. c. angulating.
b. pulse length. d. resonating.
c. frequency. A.564; E.250
d. wavelength.
B.4-5, 195 38. A term used in ultrasonics to express the rate at which

33.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The boundary between two different materials that
are in contact with each other is called:

a rarefactor.
a refractor.
an interface.
a marker.
39.
sound waves pass through various substances is:

a.
b.
c.
d.
frequency.
velocity.
wavelength.
pulse length.

When an indication has reached the maximum signal


A.36-37

A. 561; B.75; E.216


height which can be displayed or viewed on the
up
34. When the motion of the particles of a medium is display of an ultrasonic instrument, the indication is
parallel to the direction of propagation, the wave said to have reached its:
being transmitted is called a:
a. distance amplitude height.
a. longitudinal wave. b. absorption level.
b. shear wave. c. vertical limit.
c. surface wave. d. limit of resolution.
d. lamb wave. A.566
B.10-11; E.210
ro

40. An ultrasonic testing technique in which the


35. When the motion of the particles of a medium is transducer element is not parallel to the test surface
transverse to the direction of propagation, the wave is called:
being transmitted is called a:
a. angle beam testing.
a. longitudinal wave. b. immersion testing.
b. shear wave. c. contact testing.
G

c. surface wave. d. through-transmission testing.


d. lamb wave. B.52
B.10-11; E.210

5
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

41. In Figure 4, angle 1 (θ1) is called the angle of: 45. In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal baseline
represents the:
a. incidence.
b. reflection. a. amount of reflected ultrasonic sound energy.
c. refraction. b. distance traveled by the transducer.
d. diffraction. c. elapsed time or distance.
B.18-20 d. signal amplitude.

t
A.179; B.26
42. In Figure 4, angle 2 (θ2) is called the angle of:
46. In an A-scan presentation, the amplitude of vertical

pe
a. incidence. indications on the display represents the:
b. reflection.
c. refraction. a. amount of ultrasonic sound energy returning to
d. diffraction. the transducer.
A.56 b. distance traveled by the transducer.
c. thickness of material being tested.
43. In Figure 4, angle 3 (θ3) is called the angle of: d. elapsed time since the ultrasonic pulse was
generated.
a. incidence. A.179; B.26
b.
c.
d. Eg
reflection.
refraction.
rarefaction.

θ1 θ2
B.18-20
47. Which of the following test frequencies would
generally provide the best penetration in a 305 mm
(12 in.) thick specimen of coarse-grained steel?

a.
b.
c.
d.
1 MHz
2.25 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
B.47
up
Water

48. In a basic ultrasonic test pattern (A-scan) for contact


testing (assuming no sweep delay is used), the initial
pulse is:

θ3 a. the high indication on the extreme left side of the


Metal display that represents the entry surface of the
inspected part.
b. the first pulse that occurs near the right side of
ro

Figure 4. the display and represents the opposite boundary


of the inspected part.
c. an indication that appears and disappears during
screening.
44. Most commercial ultrasonic testing is accomplished d. always the second pulse from the left on the
using frequencies between: viewing display.
B.26; F.242
G

a. 1 and 25 kHz.
b. 1 and 1000 kHz.
c. 0.2 and 25 MHz.
d. 15 and 100 MHz.
B.47

6
Review Questions

49. An ultrasonic test using a straight beam contact 52. During ultrasonic testing by the immersion method,
transducer is being conducted through the thickness it is frequently necessary to angulate the transducer
of a flat part such as a plate. This test should detect: when a discontinuity is located in order to:

a. laminar-type discontinuities with major a. avoid a large number of back reflections that
dimensions parallel to the rolled surface. could interfere with a normal test pattern.
b. transverse-type discontinuities with major b. obtain a maximum response if the discontinuity is
dimensions at right angles to the rolled surface. not originally oriented perpendicular to the

t
c. radial discontinuities with major dimensions ultrasonic beam.
along length but radially oriented to the rolled c. obtain the maximum number of entry surface

pe
surface. reflections.
d. rounded discontinuities such as porosity. d. obtain a discontinuity indication of the same
B.120-121; G.380 height as the indication from the flat-bottom hole
in a reference block.
50. In ultrasonic testing, a liquid coupling medium A.279, 289-292; B.67
between the crystal surface and the part surface is
necessary because: 53. All other factors being equal, the mode of vibration
that has the greatest velocity is the:
a. lubricant is required to minimize wear on the

Eg
crystal surface.
b. an air interface between the crystal surface and
the part surface would almost completely reflect
the ultrasonic vibrations.
c. the crystal will not vibrate if placed directly in
contact with the surface of the part being
inspected.
d. the liquid is necessary to complete the electrical
circuit in the transducer.
54.
a.
b.
c.
d.
shear wave.
transverse wave.
surface wave.
longitudinal wave.
B.11-13; G.37

On the area-amplitude ultrasonic standard test


blocks, the flat-bottom holes in the blocks are:

A.222-223 a. all of the same diameter.


up
b. different in diameter, increasing by 0.4 mm
51. Near-surface resolution is a characteristic of an (0.016 in.) increments from the No. 1 block to the
ultrasonic testing system that defines its ability to No. 8 block.
detect: c. largest in the No. 1 block and smallest in the
No. 8 block.
a. discontinuities oriented in a direction parallel to d. drilled to different depths from the front surface
the ultrasonic beam. of the test block.
b. discontinuities located in the center of a forging B.104
containing a fine metallurgic structure.
ro

c. minute surface scratches. 55. In immersion testing, verification that the transducer
d. discontinuities located just beneath the is normal to a flat entry surface is indicated by:
entry-surface in the part being tested.
B.56 a. maximum reflection from the entry surface.
b. elimination of water multiples.
c. proper wavelength.
d. maximum amplitude of the initial pulse.
G

A.279, 413

7
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

56. A piezoelectric material can: 61. In immersion testing, the most commonly used
couplant is:
a. convert a longitudinal beam to a shear wave.
b. convert a mechanical energy to electrical energy. a. water.
c. create ionization in a test specimen. b. oil.
d. produce sound waves in a coaxial cable. c. glycerine.
A.60; B.76 d. alcohol.

t
B.62; E.222
57. Sound waves of a frequency beyond the hearing
range of the human ear are referred to as ultrasonic 62. The piezoelectric material in the transducer:

pe
waves or vibrations, and the term embraces all
vibrational waves of frequency greater than a. converts electrical energy into sound.
approximately: b. converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
and mechanical energy into electrical energy.
a. 2 kHz c. eliminates the signal-to-noise energy.
b. 200 kHz d. produces high-speed electrons in metals.
c. 20 000 Hz A.60; B.76
d. 2 MHz
B.3; G.1 63. The shortest wavelength pulse is produced by a

58.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The velocity of sound waves is primarily dependent
on the:

pulse length.
angle of incidence.
material properties and wave type.
frequency.
64.
frequency of:

a.
b.
c.
d.
1 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
25 MHz

The angle of incidence is:


B.4-5

A.36-37; G.38
up
59. The primary purpose of reference blocks is to: a. greater than the angle of reflection.
b. less than the angle of reflection.
a. aid the operator in obtaining maximum back c. equal to the angle of reflection.
reflections. d. not related to the angle of reflection.
b. obtain the greatest sensitivity possible from an A.38
instrument.
c. obtain a common reproducible signal. 65. On many ultrasonic testing instruments, an operator
d. properly tune the transducer. conducting an immersion test can remove that
B.37 portion of the display presentation that represents
ro

water distance by adjusting a:


60. When testing by the surface wave method, patches of
oil or dirt on the surface may: a. pulse length control.
b. reject control.
a. block the progress of all sound. c. sweep delay control.
b. attenuate the sound. d. sweep length control.
c. have no effect on the test. A.183, 194, 262, 565
G

d. cause both an attenuation of sound and


indications on the screen.
G.34

8
Review Questions

66. What is another way to express 100 000 cycles per 69. Figure 7 is an illustration of a typical:
second?
a. A-scan presentation.
a. 0.1 kHz b. B-scan presentation.
b. 10 kHz c. C-scan presentation.
c. 100 kHz d. D-scan presentation.
d. 100 MHz B.82; C.19

t
A.31-32; B.3

67. Figure 5 is an illustration of a typical:

pe
a. A-scan presentation.
b. B-scan presentation.
c. C-scan presentation.
d. D-scan presentation.
A.264; B.26-27; C.19

Eg Figure 7.

70. A transducer with a frequency greater than 10 MHz


will most likely be used during:

a.
b.
a straight beam contact test of aluminum ingot.
an angle beam contact test of a steel pipe.
c. a surface wave contact test of a metallic plate.
up
Figure 5. d. an immersion test.
B.47

68. Figure 6 is an illustration of a typical: 71. The reference holes in standard aluminum
area-amplitude ultrasonic test blocks contain:
a. A-scan presentation.
b. B-scan presentation. a. flat-bottom holes.
c. C-scan presentation. b. concave-surface holes.
d. D-scan presentation. c. convex-surface holes.
ro

B.83; C.19 d. conical-shaped holes.


B.104

72. The gradual loss of sonic energy as the ultrasonic


vibrations travel through the material is referred to
as:
G

a. reflection.
b. refraction.
c. reproducibility.
d. attenuation.
A.39; B.15

Figure 6.

9
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

73. A term used to describe numerous small indications 78. The presence of a discontinuity will not produce a
on the instrument display resulting from test part specific discontinuity indication on the ultrasonic
structure, numerous small discontinuities, or both is instrument display when using the:
often referred to as:
a. straight beam testing method.
a. multiple back reflections. b. surface wave testing method.
b. multiple front reflections. c. angle beam testing method.
c. grass or hash. d. through-transmission testing method.

t
d. resonance. A.230; B.64-65
B.195

pe
79. The depth of a discontinuity cannot be determined
74. When testing a plate, increasing the frequency of an when using the:
ultrasonic longitudinal wave results in:
a. straight beam testing method.
a. an increase in its velocity. b. through-transmission testing method.
b. a decrease in its velocity. c. angle beam testing method.
c. no change in its velocity. d. immersion testing method.
d. a reversal in its velocity. A.230
E.214

75.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
Ultrasonic waves transmitted into and received from
the test material in the form of repetitive bursts of
acoustic energy is called:

a. pulse echo testing.


continuous wave testing.
resonance testing.
through-transmission testing.
80. When inspecting coarse-grained material, a sound
wave is most easily scattered by the grain structure by
a frequency of:

a.
b.
c.
d.
1 MHz
2.25 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
A.409; B.47
A.202; B.64
up
81. The thickest crystal is contained in a:
76. Metal blocks, which contain one or more drilled
holes or notches to simulate discontinuities, are a. 1 MHz transducer.
called: b. 5 MHz transducer.
c. 15 MHz transducer.
a. scrubbers. d. 25 MHz transducer.
b. crystal collimators. B.47
c. single-plane angulators.
d. reference blocks. 82. When performing a surface wave test, indications
ro

E.273; F.263 may result from:

77. If the major dimensions of a discontinuity in a a. improper frequency.


152 mm (6 in.) thick aluminum plate lie parallel to b. oil on the surface.
the entry surface at a depth of 76 mm (3 in.), it will c. a surface discontinuity.
be best detected by: d. the acoustical velocity of aluminum.
B.12-13
G

a. a straight beam test.


b. an angle beam test.
c. a surface wave test.
d. a lamb wave test.
B.91-92

10
Review Questions

83. Which of the following discontinuities located 152 87. A separate time baseline imposed on the viewing
mm (6 in.) from the entry surface results in the display of some ultrasonic testing instruments that
largest display indication if all factors except permits measurement of distances is often referred
discontinuity surface condition and orientation are to as:
the same?
a. an initial pulse.
a. 2 mm (0.08 in.) diameter flat-surfaced b. a time/distance line.
discontinuity whose major face is at an angle of c. an electronic gate.

t
75° from the direction of sound beam d. a sweep line.
propagation. A.180, 561

pe
b. 2 mm (0.08 in.) diameter rough-surfaced
discontinuity whose major face is at an angle of 88. A term used to describe the ability of an ultrasonic
75° from the direction of sound beam testing system to distinguish between the
propagation. entry-surface response and the response of
c. 2 mm (0.08 in.) diameter flat-surfaced discontinuities near the entry surface is:
discontinuity whose major face is perpendicular
to the direction of sound beam propagation. a. sensitivity.
d. 2 mm (0.08 in.) diameter rough-surfaced b. penetration.
discontinuity whose major face is parallel to the c. segregation.

84.
Eg
direction of sound beam propagation.

Transducers constructed with a plastic wedge or

piece are commonly used:

a.
b.
for angle beam contact testing.
for immersion testing.
B.148-149

standoff between the transducer element and the test


89.
d. resolution.

The phenomenon whereby an ultrasonic wave


changes direction when the wave crosses a boundary
B.56

between materials with different velocities is called:

a.
b.
refraction.
reflection.
c. to eliminate the need for a couplant. c. penetration.
up
d. to reduce the speed of electrons. d. rarefaction.
B.81-88, 92 E.216

85. Sound can be focused by special curved adapters 90. In a test where the transducer is not perpendicular
located in front of the transducer element. These to the inspection surface, the angle of incidence is
adapters are referred to as: equal to:

a. scrubbers. a. the angle of refraction.


b. acoustic lenses. b. the angle of reflection.
ro

c. angle beam adapters. c. the shear wave angle.


d. single plane adapters. d. half the shear wave angle.
A.95, 296-298 F.235-236

86. A test method in which the parts to be inspected are 91. The product of the acoustic velocity of sound in a
placed in a water bath or some other liquid couplant material and the density of the material is the
is called: factor that determines the amount of reflection or
G

transmission of ultrasonic energy when it reaches an


a. contact testing. interface. This is called:
b. immersion testing.
c. surface wave testing. a. acoustic impedance.
d. through-transmission testing. b. velocity.
A.262-263; B.66-68 c. wavelength.
d. penetration.
E.234

11
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

92. In transmitting energy into the part shown in 96. The formula used to calculate the angle of refraction
Figure 8, the ultrasonic beam will: within a material is called:

a. diverge (spread out) through the part. a. Fresnel’s law.


b. converge (focus in to a point) through the part. b. Fraunhofer’s law.
c. transmit straight through the part. c. Snell’s law.
d. not enter the part. d. Lamb’s law.

t
A.222 B.21-22; C.3

97. In a material with a given velocity, when frequency is

pe
Immersed increased, the wavelength will:
transducer
a. not be affected.
Convex Test b. increase.
surface specimen
c. decrease.
d. double.
B.5

98. Circuits that electronically amplify return signals

Figure 8.

93.
Eg
Ultrasonic waves that travel along the surface of a
material and whose particle motion is elliptical are
called:

a. shear waves.
from the receiving transducer and often modify the
signals into a form suitable for display are called:

a.
b.
c.
d.
pulser circuits.
marker circuits.
timer circuits.
receiver-amplifier circuits.
F.253

b. transverse waves. 99. The most common type of data display used for
up
c. longitudinal waves. ultrasonic examination of welds is:
d. rayleigh waves.
A.39-40; B.12-13 a. an A-scan display.
b. a B-scan display.
94. The interference field near the face of a transducer is c. a C-scan display.
often referred to as the: d. an X-Y plot display.
A. 182, 225, 264, 557
a. fresnel zone.
b. acoustic impedance. 100. The display that plots signal amplitude versus time is
ro

c. exponential field. called:


d. phasing zone.
B.23, 47-48; C.15-16 a. an A-scan display.
b. a B-scan display.
95. When the incident angle is chosen to be between the c. a C-scan display.
first and second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave d. a D-scan display.
mode within the part will be a: A.264; C.11-12
G

a. longitudinal wave.
b. shear wave.
c. surface wave.
d. lamb wave.
B.12, 21

12
Review Questions

101. A circuit that modifies the return signal from the 106. What type of ultrasonic examination uses wheel-type
receiving transducer into a form suitable for display transducers that eliminate the use of a tank?
on an oscilloscope or other output device is called a:
a. Through-transmission testing.
a. pulser. b. Contact testing.
b. receiver-amplifier. c. Resonance testing.
c. clock. d. Immersion testing.
d. sweep.

t
A.99; B.67, 69, 70
A.69, 104; F.253
107. In addition to other functions, a transducer

pe
102. A circuit that generates a burst of voltage that is manipulator in a mechanical immersion-scanning
applied to the sending transducer is called: unit permits:

a. a pulser. a. use of the through-transmission technique.


b. a receiver-amplifier. b. use of high scanning speeds.
c. damping. c. detection of obliquely oriented discontinuities.
d. a clock. d. utilization of less skilled operators.
A.69; F.252 A.267, 413

103.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
A circuit that coordinates electronic operation of the
entire ultrasonic instrument system is called:

damping.
a receiver-amplifier.
a clock.
a power supply.
A.244; B.30, 79
108. A type of data presentation most likely to be used
with a high-speed automatic scanning system is:

a.
b.
c.
d.
an A-scan presentation.
a velocity versus amplitude plot.
a C-scan presentation.
a plot of echo height versus depth.
A.264

104. A plan view display or recording of a part under 109. The component in a conventional immersion system
up
examination is called: that spans the width of the immersion tank is called:

a. a C-scan display. a. an articulator.


b. an A-scan display. b. a bridge.
c. an X-axis plot. c. a manipulator.
d. a strip chart recording. d. a search tube.
A.264; C.19 A.193

105. Ultrasonic data, which is presented in a form 110. The component in an ultrasonic immersion system
ro

representative of the cross section of the test that is used to adjust and maintain a known
specimen, is called: transducer angle is called:

a. an A-scan presentation. a. a carriage.


b. a B-scan presentation. b. a manipulator.
c. a C-scan presentation. c. a search tube.
d. an X-Y plot. d. an index system.
G

A.264; C.19 A.267, 413

13
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

111. An amplitude type gate is necessary for all: 116. Which material can only transmit longitudinal waves?

a. shear wave examinations. a. Machine oil.


b. longitudinal wave examinations. b. Aluminum.
c. automatic examinations. c. Ice.
d. manual examinations. d. Beryllium.
A.205 B.11

t
112. When a C-scan recording is used to produce a 117. If the velocity of a longitudinal mode wave in a given
permanent record of an ultrasonic test, the homogeneous material is 0.625 cm/μs at 13 mm

pe
information displayed is typically the discontinuity’s: (0.5 in.) below the surface, what is the velocity at
51 mm (2 in.) below the surface?
a. depth and size.
b. depth, orientation, and size. a. One-fourth the velocity at 13 mm (0.5 in.).
c. location and depth. b. One-half the velocity at 13 mm (0.5 in.).
d. location and size (plan view). c. The same as the velocity at 13 mm (0.5 in.).
A.264 d. Three-fourths the velocity at 13 mm (0.5 in.)
A.43
113. Rough entry surface conditions can result in:

114.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
an increase in echo amplitude from discontinuities.
a decrease in the width of the front-surface echo.
a loss of amplitude from discontinuities.
a loss of material velocity.
A.204, 278

As the grain size increases in a material, its principal


effect in ultrasonic testing is on the:
118. What effect will replacing a 2.25 MHz transducer
with a 5 MHz transducer have on the wavelength?

a.
b.
c.
d.
Make it longer.
Have no effect.
Make it shorter.
Increase it and the acousitc impedance.
B.48

119. What can cause nonrelevant indications on the


up
a. velocity of sound. A-scan display?
b. attenuation.
c. acoustic impedance. a. Rectangular-shaped test specimens.
d. angle of refraction. b. Setting a low pulse repetition rate.
A.211 c. Small grain structure of test specimens.
d. Edge effects.
115. In straight beam pulse echo testing, a discontinuity A.277, 278
with a rough reflecting surface perpendicular to the
incident wave has what effect on the detected signal 120. The proper interpretation and evaluation of the
ro

in comparison to a smooth flat-bottom hole of the presented discontinuity signals are essential to any
same size? nondestructive test. A common method for the
estimation of discontinuity size is the use of:
a. It increases the detected signal.
b. It decreases the detected signal. a. a double transducer test.
c. It has no effect on the detected signal. b. a piezoelectric standard.
d. It decreases the width of the pulse of the detected c. mode conversion.
G

signal. d. a reference standard.


A.195, 208 A. 206

14
Review Questions

121. Another name for fresnel zone is: 126. An A-scan display, which shows a signal both above
and below the sweep line, is called:
a. zone.
b. near field. a. a video display.
c. far field. b. an RF display.
d. torrid zone. c. an audio display.
B.23, 47; C.5, 15 d. a frequency modulated display.

t
A.87; B.81
122. Attenuation is a:
127. A B-scan display shows the relative:

pe
a. test display characteristic.
b. test material parameter. a. distance a discontinuity is from the transducer
c. transducer characteristic. and its through-dimension thickness.
d. form of testing. b. distance a discontinuity is from the transducer
B.15, 164 and its length in the direction of transducer
travel.
123. For discontinuity geometries other than flat, the echo c. cross-sectional area of a discontinuity above a
amplitude is usually _________ from that observed predetermined amplitude.
for a flat discontinuity, of similar orientation d. pulse height and time of arrival to produce a

124.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
perpendicular to the sound beam.

identical
increased
decreased
elongated
A.195, 309-310

To evaluate discontinuities that are oriented at an


128.
plan-view image.

block:
A.180-181; B.27-28

Surface (rayleigh) waves traveling on the top face of a

a. are not reflected from a sharp edge corner.


b. are reflected from a sharp edge corner.
c. travel through the sharp edge corner and are
angle to the entry surface so that the sound beam reflected from the lower edge.
up
strikes the plane of the discontinuity at right angles, d. are absorbed by a sharp edge corner.
the operator must: B.12-13

a. change the frequency. 129. Surface (rayleigh) waves are more highly attenuated
b. grind the surface. by a:
c. angulate the transducer.
d. increase the gain. a. curved surface.
B.52, 96 b. heavy couplant.
c. thin couplant.
ro

125. The pulser circuit in an ultrasonic instrument is used d. sharp corner.


to: B.12-13, 63

a. control the horizontal and vertical sweep. 130. The velocity of sound in a material is dependent
b. activate the transducer. upon the:
c. control transducer timing between transmit and
sweep. a. frequency of the wave.
G

d. generate markers that appear on horizontal b. wavelength.


sweep. c. material properties.
A.182; B.79 d. vibration cycle.
A.309

15
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

131. To vary or change the wavelength of sound being 136. Longitudinal wave velocity in water is approximately
used to test a part, change the: one-fourth the velocity in aluminum or steel.
Therefore, the minimum water path should be:
a. sound wave frequency.
b. diameter of the transducer. a. four times the test piece thickness.
c. electrical pulse voltage. b. one-half the test piece thickness.
d. pulse repetition rate. c. one-fourth the test piece thickness plus 6 mm
(0.25 in.).

t
B.5
d. one-half the test piece thickness plus 6 mm
132. Ultrasonic vibrations are commonly used to: (0.25 in.)

pe
A.262; F.258
a. support findings after visual inspection.
b. characterize grain structure. 137. In immersion testing, a wetting agent is added to the
c. detect discontinuities in multilayered structures water to:
having air gaps between layers.
d. perform volumetric examinations of ferrous and a. adjust the viscosity.
nonferrous materials. b. help eliminate the formation of air bubbles.
B.1, 2 c. prevent cloudiness.
d. aid in technician comfort.
133.

134
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
Which of the following has the longest fresnel zone?

13 mm (0.5 in.) diameter 1 MHz.


13 mm (0.5 in.) diameter 2.25 MHz.
28.5 mm (1.125 in.) diameter 1 MHz.
38 mm (1.5 in.) diameter 2 MHz.
A.210; B.47-48

When contact testing, if the ultrasonic instrument is


138. The formula used to determine the fundamental
resonant frequency is:

a.
b.
c.
d.
F = V/T.
F = V/2T.
F = T/V.
F = VT.
B.62

set with an excessively high pulse repetition A.478


up
frequency:
139. If frequency is increased, wavelength:
a. the screen trace becomes too light to see.
b. the time-baseline becomes distorted. a. decreases (becomes shorter).
c. the initial pulse disappears. b. increases (becomes longer).
d. UT signals may overlap with the multiples of the c. remains the same but velocity increases.
backwall echoes. d. remains the same but velocity decreases.
A.187 B.5
ro

135. The advantages of immersion testing include: 140. The variable in distance amplitude calibration block
construction is the:
a. portability.
b. reduced equipment needed. a. drilled hole size.
c. low equipment and maintenance costs. b. drilled hole point angle.
d. adaptability for automated scanning. c. metal distance above the drilled hole.
F.258 d. angle of the drilled hole to block longitudinal
G

axis.
B.39-40, 105-106; F.264

16
Review Questions

141. When setting up a distance amplitude correction 146. For a given incident angle, as the frequency of the
curve using three flat-bottom holes, sometimes the transducer increases, the refracted angle:
hole closest to the transducer gives less of a response
than one or both of the other two. This could be a. increases.
caused by: b. decreases.
c. stays the same.
a. a hole that is too large. d. cannot be determined.
b. near field effects.

t
B.18-20
c. impedance mismatch.
d. the acoustic velocity. 147. Both longitudinal and shear waves may be

pe
F.239, 263 simultaneously generated in a second medium when
the angle of incidence is:
142. Ferrous and nonferrous welds may be ultrasonically
tested using a frequency range of: a. between normal and the first critical angle.
b. between the first and second critical angles.
a. 25-100 kHz c. past the second critical angle.
b. 200-500 kHz d. only at the second critical angle.
c. 2-5 MHz B.21
d. 3-6 MHz

143.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
The product of the material density and the velocity
of sound within that material is referred to as:

a. acoustic impedance.
near field.
acoustic attenuation.
ultrasonic beam distribution.
A.226 148. Penetration of ultrasonic waves in a material is
normally the function of test frequency used. The
greatest depth of penetration is provided by a
frequency of:

a.
b.
c.
d.
1 MHz
2.25 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
B.15 B.47
up
144. A straight beam contact transducer consists of: 149. Refracted energy assumes a new direction of
propagation when the _________ is changed.
a. a case, a crystal, wear plate, and backing.
b. a case, a crystal, backing, and a plastic wedge. a. principal angle
c. a case, a crystal, backing, and acoustic lenses. b. reflected angle
d. a case, a crystal, a mount, backing, a plastic c. critical angle
wedge, and acoustic lenses. d. incident angle
B.45 B.19-21
ro

145. In immersion testing, to remove the second water 150. The loss of energy as it propagates through material
reflection from between the entry surface signal and is the result of beam:
the first back reflection, you should:
a. interference.
a. increase the repetition rate. b. attenuation.
b. decrease the frequency. c. absorption.
G

c. decrease the sweep length. d. reflection.


d. increase the water path. B.15
B.68

17
Ultrasonic Testing Method l Level i

151. In selecting a suitable couplant, which of the 156. A device that transforms electrical pulses into
following characteristics would not affect the mechanical and vice versa utilizes:
selection?
a. Snell’s law.
a. Mode of propagation desired. b. piezoelectric principles.
b. Material surface finish and temperature. c. mode conversion principles.
c. Operating frequency of the transducer. d. particle motion principles.
d. Chemical properties of the couplant.

t
B.45
B.61
157. Whenever an ultrasonic incident angle is set at 5°

pe
152. Excessive surface roughness of the material being from normal in water:
tested can cause:
a. the refracted wave is mode converted.
a. a loss of echo amplitude from discontinuities b. the refracted wave is the same mode as the
within the material. incident wave.
b. reduced acoustic velocity. c. the refracted wave in steel has two components,
c. increased acoustic velocity. one of which will be the same mode as the
d. increased back-surface response. incident wave.
B.54 d. it is impossible to determine mode(s) of a

153.
Eg
Reference or calibration standards are used for:

a. determining phase shift analysis.


b. providing a method for standardizing the test
system.
c. determining tensile strength.
d. measuring vibrations.
158.
refracted wave without more information.

region of a sound beam:

a. the larger the discontinuity, the larger the


amplitude of the reflected signal.
b. the closer to the surface the discontinuity is
B.19

If a discontinuity is located in the fresnel or near-field

B.37, 101
located, the larger will be the amplitude of the
up
154. The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when reflected signal.
it passes from one material to another material in c. in immersion testing, the amplitude of the signal
which elasticity and density differ is called: increases as the water path decreases.
d. in immersion testing, the amplitude of the
a. reflection. reflected signal may increase or decrease as the
b. rarefaction. water path decreases.
c. angulation. F.239, 263
d. refraction.
B.18 159. If a transducer is vibrating at a frequency and
ro

injecting ultrasonic energy through water into a steel


155. If a discontinuity is oriented at an angle other than specimen:
90° to the sound beam, the results may be a:
a. the sound wavelength is the same in both the
a. loss of signal linearity. water and the steel.
b. loss or lack of signal reflected from the b. the sound frequency in the water is less than the
discontinuity. sound frequency in steel.
G

c. focusing of the sound beam. c. the sound wavelength is not the same in both the
d. loss of interference phenomena. water and the steel.
B.148-149 d. the sound frequency in the water is greater than
the sound frequency in steel.
A.43

18
Review Questions

160. When a longitudinal sound wave strikes a water-


steel interface at an angle of incidence of 15° 15°
(see Figure 9):

a. all the sound energy is reflected back into the


water at an angle of 15°.
b. part of the sound energy is reflected at 15° and
part is refracted into the steel at an angle of less

t
than 15°.
c. part of the sound energy is reflected at 15° and

pe
part is refracted along the water-steel interface.
d. part of the sound energy is reflected at 15° and
part is refracted into the steel at an angle greater Figure 9.
than 15°.
B.19-20

Eg
up
ro

Answers
1d 2a 3c 4b 5c 6d 7b 8c 9d 10b 11d 12d 13a 14c
15d 16a 17b 18d 19b 20d 21a 22b 23a 24b 25b 26c 27d 28b
29a 30c 31c 32c 33c 34a 35b 36c 37a 38b 39c 40a 41a 42b
43c 44c 45c 46a 47a 48a 49a 50b 51d 52b 53d 54b 55a 56b
57c 58c 59c 60d 61a 62b 63d 64c 65c 66c 67a 68c 69b 70d
71a 72d 73c 74c 75a 76d 77a 78d 79b 80d 81a 82c 83c 84a
G

85b 86b 87c 88d 89a 90b 91a 92a 93d 94a 95b 96c 97c 98d
99a 100a 101b 102a 103c 104a 105b 106d 107c 108c 109b 110b 111c 112d
113c 114b 115b 116a 117c 118c 119d 120d 121b 122b 123c 124c 125b 126b
127b 128b 129b 130c 131a 132d 133d 134d 135d 136c 137b 138b 139a 140c
141b 142c 143a 144a 145d 146c 147a 148a 149d 150b 151c 152a 153b 154d
155b 156b 157c 158d 159c 160d

19
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
LEVEL II
Review Questions

t
1. The wave mode that has multiple or varying wave 5. When angle beam contact testing a test piece,
velocities is: increasing the incident angle until the second critical

pe
angle is reached may result in:
a. longitudinal waves.
b. shear waves. a. total reflection of a surface wave.
c. transverse waves. b. 45° refraction of the shear wave.
d. lamb waves. c. production of a surface wave.
B.13; C.2 d. a 90° angle of refraction for the wave.
B.21
2. Which of the following would be considered
application(s) of ultrasonic techniques? 6. Acoustic energy propagates in different modes.

Eg
a. Determination of a material’s coefficient of
expansion.
b. Study of a material’s metallurgical structure.
c. Determination of a material’s chemical
composition.
d. Evaluation of surface tension through capillary
action.
Which of the following represents a mode?

a.
b.
c.
d.
High-frequency ultrasonic waves.
A shear wave.
The dissipation factor.
The wave movement in the direction from the
point where the energy was introduced.
B.10
A.13
7. The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of
up
3. The only significant sound wave mode that travels water appears disjointed at the water surface
through a liquid is a: illustrates the phenomenon of:

a. shear wave. a. reflection.


b. longitudinal wave. b. magnification.
c. surface wave. c. refraction.
d. rayleigh wave. d. diffraction.
B.11 F.232
ro

4. The acoustic impedance of a material is used to 8. The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are
determine the: related. The thinner the crystal:

a. angle of refraction at an interface. a. the lower the frequency.


b. attenuation within the material. b. the higher the frequency.
c. relative amounts of sound energy coupled c. there is no appreciable effect.
through and reflected at an interface. d. the lower the attenuation.
G

d. beam spread within the material. B.47


B.16

21
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

9. The random distribution of crystallographic 14. In Figure 1, assuming a uniform beam pattern, what
direction in alloys with large crystalline structures relationship would you expect to exist between the
is a factor in determining: amplitudes of the reflected laminar signals at
positions A and B?
a. the body-centered cubic crystal system.
b. the angle of refraction. a. 12 dB difference.
c. scattering of sound. b. Equal amplitudes.
d. material thickness. c. 2 to 1.

t
B.164 d. 3 to 1.
A.206; B.99

pe
10. The length of the zone adjacent to a transducer in
which fluctuations in sound pressure occur is mostly
affected by the:
A B
a. frequency of the transducer.
b. the sound beam exit point.
c. length of transducer cable.
Plate
d. diameter of the transducer.
B.48

11.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
The differences in signals received from identical
reflectors at different material distances from a
transducer may be caused by:

a. material composition.
beam divergence.
acoustic impedance.
the piezoelectric effect.
Figure 1.

15.
Laminar reflector

In the far field of a uniform ultrasonic beam, sound


intensity is ____________ the beam centerline.

A.211 a. minimum at
up
b. maximum at
12. It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than the c. maximum throughout twice the angle
transducer to produce indications of fluctuating
amplitude as the transducer is moved laterally if ⎛ C⎞
testing is being performed in the: ⎜⎝ sin γ = Df ⎟⎠

a. fraunhofer zone. where C is acoustic velocity, D is crystal diameter,


b. near field. and f is frequency at
c. snell field. d. not related to orientation of
ro

d. shadow zone. B.56


A.210; B.48
16. Which of the following may result in a long, narrow
13. In immersion testing, the near-field effects of a rod if the beam divergence results in a reflection
transducer may be eliminated by: from a side of the test piece before the sound wave
reaches the back surface?
a. increasing transducer frequency.
G

b. using a larger diameter transducer. a. Multiple indications before the first back
c. using an appropriate water path. reflection.
d. using a focused transducer. b. Indications from multiple surface reflections.
B.68 c. Conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear
mode at the perimeter of the beam.
d. Loss of front-surface indications.
B.143, 161

22
Review Questions

17. Where does beam divergence occur? 22. Rayleigh waves are influenced most by
discontinuities located:
a. Near field.
b. Far field. a. close to or on the surface.
c. At the crystal. b. 1 wavelength below the surface.
d. At the interface. c. 3 wavelengths below the surface.
A.211; B.49 d. 6 wavelengths below the surface.

t
A.39
18. As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle
of beam divergence of a given diameter crystal: 23. The ultrasonic testing technique in which finger

pe
damping is most effective in locating a discontinuity
a. decreases. is the:
b. remains unchanged.
c. increases. a. shear wave technique.
d. varies uniformly through each wavelength. b. longitudinal wave technique.
A.211; B.49 c. surface wave technique.
d. compressional wave technique.
19. As the radius of curvature of a curved lens is B.143
increased, the focal length of the lens:

20.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
increases.
decreases.
remains the same.
cannot be determined unless the frequency is
known.
A.96-97

When examining materials for planar flaws oriented


24. Lamb waves can be used to detect:

a. laminar-type discontinuities near the surface of a


thin material.
b. lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment.
c. internal voids in diffusion bonds.
d. thickness changes in heavy plate material.
A.100

parallel to the part surface, what testing method is 25. The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared
up
most often used? to that for aluminum or steel is approximately:

a. Angle beam. a. 1:8.


b. Through-transmission. b. 1:4.
c. Straight beam. c. 1:3.
d. Dual crystal. d. 1:2.
B.149 A.43, 262

21. If a contact angle beam transducer produces a 45° 26. Which of the following scanning methods could be
ro

shear wave in steel, the angle produced by the same classified as an immersion-type test?
transducer in an aluminum specimen would be:
(Vsteel = 0.323 cm/μs; VAL = 0.310 cm/μs) a. Contact angle beam testing.
b. Surface wave technique with a plastic transducer
a. less than 45°. wedge.
b. greater than 45°. c. Scanning with a wheel-type transducer with the
c. 45°. transducer inside a liquid-filled tire.
G

d. unknown; more information is required. d. Through-transmission technique with shear


A.53; B.19 waves.
A.267-269; B.67

23
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

27. In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, 31. When using focused transducers, nonsymmetry in a
the water distance appears on the display as a fairly propagated sound beam may be caused by:
wide space between the initial pulse and the
front-surface reflection because of: a. backing material variations.
b. mode conversion.
a. reduced velocity of sound in water as compared c. diffraction characteristics.
to the test specimen. d. irregular sound beam exit point.
b. increased velocity of sound in water as compared

t
B.175
to the test specimen.
c. temperature of the water. 32. Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the

pe
d. viscosity of the water. following types of examination?
B.66; F.245
a. Contact testing of aluminum plates.
28. Using the immersion method, a distance-amplitude b. Through-transmission testing of impeller shafts.
curve (DAC) for a 19 mm (0.75 in.) diameter, 5 MHz c. Longitudinal wave and/or shear wave examination.
transducer shows the high point of the DAC at the d. Angle beam testing on beam-to-column T-joint
B/51 mm (2 in.) block. One day later, the high point complete penetration welds.
of the DAC for the same transducer is at the A.269; B.69
J/102 mm (4 in.) block. Assuming that calibration has

29.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
not changed, this would indicate that the transducer:

is improving in resolution.
is becoming defective.
has the beam of a contact testing transducer.
has a better definition.
A.196-197; B.105

What law can be used to calculate the angle of


33. During straight beam testing, test specimens with
nonparallel front and back surfaces can cause:

a.
b.
c.
d.
partial or total loss of back reflection.
no loss in back reflection.
a widened (broad) back-reflection indication.
a focused (narrow) back-reflection indication.
A.205

refraction within a metal for both longitudinal and 34. In the immersion technique, the distance between
up
shear waves? the face of the transducer and the test surface (water
path) is usually adjusted so that the time required to
a. Poisson’s ratio law. send the sound beam through the water is:
b. Snell’s law.
c. Fresnel’s field law. a. equal to the time required for the sound to travel
d. Charles’ law. through the test piece.
A.52-53; B.19-20 b. greater than the time required for the sound to
travel through the test piece.
30. At an interface between two different materials, an c. less than the time required for the sound to travel
ro

impedance difference results in: through the test piece.


d. greater or less than the time required for the
a. reflection of the entire incident energy at the sound to travel through the test piece depending
interface. on water temperature and wave characteristics.
b. absorption of sound. A.262
c. division of sound energy into transmitted and
reflected modes.
G

d. refraction of the entire incident energy at the


interface.
A.52

24
Review Questions

35. In a B-scan display, the length of a screen indication 40. In immersion testing in a small tank, a manually
from a discontinuity is related to: operated manipulator is used to:

a. a discontinuity’s thickness as measured parallel to a. manipulate the pulser/receiver unit and the
the ultrasonic beam. display.
b. the discontinuity’s length in the direction of the b. set the proper transducer angle.
transducer travel. c. set the proper index function.
c. the horizontal baseline elapsed time from left to d. set the proper bridge distance.

t
right. A.413-414
d. the vertical and horizontal directions representing

pe
the area over which the transducer was scanned. 41. In straight (normal) beam contact testing, which of
B.27 the following would NOT result in a reduction in the
back-surface reflection amplitude?
36. Which circuit triggers the pulser and sweep circuits
in an A-scan display? a. the usage of a high-viscosity couplant.
b. a discontinuity that is normal to the beam.
a. Receiver-amplifier. c. a near-surface discontinuity that cannot be
b. Power supply. resolved from the main bang (initial pulse).
c. Clock. d. a coarse-grain material.

37.
d.

Eg
Damping.

a. distance contained within the near field.


b. area outside the beam spread.
F.242

On an A-scan display, the dead zone, refers to the:

c. distance covered by the front-surface pulse width


and recovery time.
42. A 152 mm (6 in.) diameter rod is being inspected for
centerline cracks. The A-scan presentation for one
complete path through the rod is as shown in Figure
2. The alarm gate should:

a.
b.
be used between points A and E.
be used at point D only.
A.205

d. area between the near field and the far field. c. be used between points B and D.
up
F.267 d. not be used for this application.
B.36-37
38. On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of
a reflected beam?

a. Echo pulse width. 0 1 2 3 4 5


b. Horizontal screen location.
c. Signal brightness.
d. Signal amplitude. dB
ro

A.179

39. Of the following scan types, which one can be used to


produce a recording of discontinuitiy areas
superimposed over a plan view of the test piece?

a. A-scan. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
G

b. B-scan. A B C D E
c. C-scan.
d. D-scan.
Figure 2.
C.19

25
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

43. In an automatic scanning immersion unit, the bridge 47. A primary purpose of a reference standard is to:
or carriage serves to:
a. provide a guide for adjusting instrument controls
a. support the manipulator and scanner tube and to to reveal discontinuities that are considered
move it about transversely and longitudinally. harmful to the end use of the product.
b. control the angular and transverse positioning of b. give the technician a tool for determining exact
the scanner tube. discontinuity size.
c. control the vertical and angular positioning of the c. provide assurance that all discontinuities smaller

t
scanner tube. than a certain specified reference reflector are
d. raise and lower the transducer. capable of being detected by the test.

pe
A.413-414 d. provide a standard reflector, which exactly
simulates natural discontinuities of a critical size.
44. When adjusting the discontinuity-locating rule for a C.34
shear wave weld inspection, the zero point on the
rule must coincide with the: 48. Compensation for the variation in echo height related
to variations in discontinuity depth in the test
a. sound beam exit point of the wedge. material is known as:
b. point directly over the discontinuity.
c. wheel transducer. a. transfer.

45.
d.

Eg
circular scanner.

A special scanning device with the transducer


B.98, 111

mounted in a tire-like container filled with couplant


is commonly called:

a.
b.
a rotating scanner.
an axial scanner.
49.
b.
c.
d.
attenuation.
distance-amplitude correction.
interpretation.

not dependent on beam angle?

a. A flat-bottom hole.
F.265

Which of the following is a reference reflector that is

c. a wheel transducer. b. A V-notch.


up
d. a circular scanner. c. A side-drilled hole which is parallel to the plate
B.69 surface and perpendicular to the sound path.
d. A disk-shaped laminar reflector.
46. Which best describes a typical display of a crack B.107
whose major surface is perpendicular to the
ultrasonic beam? 50. During a straight beam ultrasonic test, a
discontinuity indication is detected that is small in
a. A broad indication. amplitude compared to the loss in amplitude of back
b. A sharp indication. reflection. The orientation of this discontinuity is
ro

c. The indication will not show due to improper probably:


orientation.
d. A broad indication with high amplitude. a. parallel to the test surface.
B.136-137 b. perpendicular to the sound beam.
c. parallel to the sound beam.
d. at an angle to the test surface.
A.204-205
G

26
Review Questions

51. A discontinuity is located having an orientation such 55. Using a pulse echo technique, if the major plane of a
that its long axis is parallel to the sound beam. The flat discontinuity is oriented at some angle other than
indication from such a discontinuity will be: perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation,
the result may be:
a. large in proportion to the length of the
discontinuity. a. loss of signal linearity.
b. small in proportion to the length of the b. loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo.
discontinuity. c. focusing of the sound beam.

t
c. representative of the length of the discontinuity. d. loss of interference phenomena.
d. such that complete loss of back reflection will B.64, 157-158

pe
result.
B.157 56. As transducer diameter decreases, the beam spread:

52. Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat disks or other a. decreases.


shapes parallel to the surface by: b. remains the same.
c. increases.
a. rolling. d. becomes conical in shape.
b. machining. B.49
c. casting.

53.
d.

Eg
welding.

In which zone does the amplitude of an indication

the distance increases?

a.
b.
Far-field zone.
Near-field zone.
B.120

from a given discontinuity diminish exponentially as


57. A set of standard reference blocks with the same
geometrical configuration and dimensions other than
the size of the calibration reflectors, for example,
flat-bottom holes, is called a set of:

a.
b.
c.
d.
distance-amplitude standards.
area-amplitude standards.
variable frequency blocks.
beam spread measuring blocks.
c. Dead zone. B.38, 104-105
up
d. Fresnel zone.
B.49 58. The angle at which 90° refraction of a longitudinal
sound wave is reached is called the:
54. A smooth, flat discontinuity whose major plane is not
perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation a. angle of incidence.
may be indicated by: b. first critical angle.
c. angle of maximum reflection.
a. an echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to d. second critical angle.
the back-surface reflection, as well as complete B.21
ro

loss of the back-surface reflection.


b. an echo whose amplitude is steady across the 59. The control of voltage supplied to the vertical
discontinuity surface. deflection plates of the instrument display in an
c. an increase in backwall with no response from A-scan UT setup is performed by the:
discontinuity.
d. the absence of an indication. a. sweep generator.
B.157 b. pulser.
G

c. amplifier circuit.
d. clock timer.
E.238

27
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

60. Attenuation is a difficult quantity to measure 65. Acoustical lenses are commonly used for contour
accurately, particularly in solid materials, at the test correction. When scanning the inside of a pipe
frequencies normally used. The overall result usually section by the immersion method, use a:
observed includes other loss mechanisms, such as:
a. focused cup lens.
a. temperature. b. convex lens.
b. scan rate. c. concave lens.
c. fine grain structure. d. variable pitch lens.

t
d. beam spread. A.277-278; B.53
B.15, 164

pe
66. In Figure 3, transducer A is being used to establish:
61. The most commonly used method of producing
shear waves in a flat test part when inspecting by the a. verification of wedge angle.
immersion method is by: b. sensitivity calibration.
c. resolution.
a. transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in a d. an index point.
direction perpendicular to its front surface. F.266
b. using two crystals vibrating at different
frequencies. 67. In Figure 3, transducer C is being used to check:

62.
in:
Eg
c. angulating the search tube or manipulator to the
proper angle.
d. using Y-cut quartz crystal.

a. scatter, which becomes less pronounced as grain


B.67

Large grains in a metallic test specimen usually result

68.
a.
b.
c.
d.
distance calibration.
resolution.
sensitivity calibration.
verification of wedge angle.

In Figure 3, transducer D is being used to check:


F.267

size approaches wavelength. a. sensitivity calibration.


up
b. increased penetration. b. distance calibration.
c. have no effect if a higher frequency is used. c. resolution.
d. large grass or hash or noise indications. d. verification of wedge angle.
B.129, 164 F.266

63. The total energy losses occurring in all materials is


called:
A D
a. attenuation.
ro

b. scatter.
c. beam spread.
d. interface. A
B.15

64. Delay-tip (stand-off) type contact transducers are


primarily used for:
G

C
a. discontinuity detection.
b. sound wave characterization.
c. thickness measurement or discontinuity detection Figure 3.
in thin materials.
d. attenuation measurements.
B.152-153; F.258

28
Review Questions

69. When the incident angle is chosen to be between the 72. In a water immersion test, ultrasonic energy is
first and second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave transmitted into steel at an incident angle of 14°.
generated within the part will be: What is the angle of the refracted shear wave within
the material?
a. longitudinal.
b. shear. VS = 3.2 × 105 cm/s
c. surface.
d. lamb. VW = 1.5 × 105 cm/s

t
B.21
(Trigonometry Tables Required)

pe
70. In Figure 4, transducer B is being used to check:
a. 45°
a. the verification of wedge angle. b. 23°
b. resolution. c. 31°
c. sensitivity calibration. d. 13°
d. distance calibration. B.21-22
F.266
73. If you were requested to design a plastic shoe to
generate a rayleigh wave in aluminum, what would

Eg B
B
D
be the incident angle of the ultrasonic energy?

VA = 3.1 × 105 cm/s

VP = 2.6 × 105 cm/s

(Trigonometry Tables Required)

a. 37°
b. 57°
up
C c. 75°
d. 48°
B.21-22
Figure 4.
74. Compute the wavelength of ultrasonic energy in lead
at 1 MHz.

71. The angle at which 90° refraction of the shear wave VL = 2.1 × 105 cm/s
mode occurs is called the:
ro

V=λ×F
a. first critical angle.
b. second critical angle. a. 0.21 cm
c. third critical angle. b. 21 cm
d. angle of reflection. c. 0.48 cm
B.21 d. 4.8 × 105 cm
B.5
G

29
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

75. For aluminum and steel, the longitudinal velocity is 79. In inspecting a 102 mm (4 in.) diameter threaded
approximately _____ the shear velocity. steel cylinder for radial cracks extending from the
root of the threads, it would be preferable to transmit:
a. equal to
b. twice a. shear waves at an angle to the threads.
c. half of b. longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder
d. four times and perpendicular to the direction of the thread
roots.

t
B.22
c. surface waves perpendicular to the thread roots.
76. Water travel distance for immersion inspections d. shear waves around the circumference of the

pe
should be: cylinder.
G.347
a. such that the second front reflection does not
appear between the first front and back 80. In an immersion inspection of raw steel material, the
reflections. water travel distance should be:
b. exactly 76 mm (3 in.).
c. less than 76 mm (3 in.). a. exactly 76 mm (3 in.).
d. always equal to the thickness of the material b. equal to 76 mm (3 in.) ±13 mm (±0.5 in.).
being inspected. c. greater than one-fourth the thickness of the part.

77. Eg B.149-150

The electronic circuitry that allows selection and


processing of only those signals relating to
discontinuities that occur in specific zones of a part
is called:

a.
b.
an electronic gate.
an electronic attenuator.
81.
d. equal to the thickness of a material.

The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters


a medium of different velocity than the one from
which it came and a line drawn perpendicular to the
A.262

interface between the two media is called the angle of:

a. incidence.
c. a distance amplitude correction circuit. b. refraction.
up
d. a fixed marker. c. rarefaction.
B.151-152 d. reflection.
B.18-19
78. When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the grass
or irregular signals that appear in the screen display 82. The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a
of the area being inspected could be caused by: reference standard is referred to as:

a. fine grains in the structure. a. angulation.


b. dirt in the water couplant. b. scanning.
ro

c. coarse grains in the structure. c. correcting for distance-amplitude variations.


d. a thick but tapered back surface. d. calibration.
A.211-212 B.37

83. A grouping of a number of crystals in one transducer,


with all contact surfaces in the same plane and
vibrating in phase with each other to act as a single
G

transducer is called a:

a. focusing crystal.
b. crystal mosaic.
c. scrubber.
d. single-plane manipulator.
B.51

30
Review Questions

84. The angle of reflection is: 89. The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when
it passes from one medium to another whose velocity
a. equal to the angle of incidence. differs from that of the first medium is called:
b. dependent on the couplant used.
c. dependent on the frequency used. a. refraction.
d. equal to the angle of refraction. b. rarefaction.
E.215 c. angulation.
d. reflection.

t
85. The angular position of the reflecting surface of a C.3; G.23
planar discontinuity with respect to the entry surface

pe
is referred to as: 90. Which of the following modes of vibration exhibits
the shortest wavelength at a given frequency and in a
a. the angle of incidence. given material?
b. the angle of refraction.
c. the orientation of the discontinuity. a. A longitudinal wave.
d. angle of reflection. b. A compression wave.
B.149 c. A shear wave.
d. A surface wave.
86. A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called: E.210; F.233

87.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
a continuous wave.
a peaked DC voltage.
an ultrasonic wave.
a pulse.

In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the


transmitted pulse is referred to as the:
A.182
91. In general, shear waves are more sensitive to small
discontinuities than longitudinal waves for a given
frequency and in a given material because:

a. the wavelength of shear waves is shorter than the


wavelength of longitudinal waves.
b. shear waves are not as easily dispersed in the
material.
c. the direction of particle vibration for shear waves
up
a. pulse length or pulse width. is more sensitive to discontinuities.
b. pulse amplitude. d. the wavelength of shear waves is longer than the
c. pulse shape. wavelength of longitudinal waves.
d. pulse distortion. G.296-304
A.183; B.81, 197
92. In general, which of the following modes of vibration
88. The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a would have the greatest penetrating power in a
boundary and changes the direction of its coarse-grained material if the frequency of the waves
propagation within the same medium is referred to is the same?
ro

as:
a. Longitudinal waves.
a. divergence. b. Shear waves.
b. impedance. c. Transverse waves.
c. angulation. d. Rayleigh waves.
d. reflection. D.3, 23
C.2; E.215
G

31
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

93. A testing technique in which the crystal or 98. Mechanical and electrical stability, insolubility in
transducer is parallel to the test surface and liquids, and resistance to aging are three advantages
ultrasonic waves enter the material being tested in a of transducers made of:
direction perpendicular to the test surface is:
a. lithium sulfate.
a. straight beam testing. b. barium titanate.
b. angle beam testing. c. quartz.
c. surface wave testing. d. rochelle salts.

t
d. lamb wave. F.254
B.91

pe
94. The distance from a given point on an ultrasonic sin θ1 sin θ2
99. The = formula is referred to as:
wave to the next corresponding point is referred V1 V2
to as:

a. frequency. a. the acoustical impedance ratio formula.


b. wavelength. b. the phase conversion formula.
c. velocity. c. the fresnel zone formula.
d. pulse length. d. Snell’s law.

95.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The speed with which ultrasonic waves travel
through a material is known as:

velocity.
pulse repetition rate.
pulse recovery rate.
ultrasonic response.
B.4-5

100. The

a.
b.
sin θ1 sin θ2
V1
=
V2

angular relationships.
phase velocities.
A.52-53; B.19-20

formula is used to determine:

B.5 c. amount of reflected sound energy.


up
d. acoustic impedance.
96. A substance that reduces the surface tension of a B.15-16
liquid is referred to as:
101. The amount of energy reflected from a discontinuity
a. a couplant. is not dependent on the:
b. an ultrasonic dampener.
c. a wetting agent. a. size of the discontinuity.
d. a solvent. b. orientation of the discontinuity.
B.62 c. type of discontinuity.
ro

d. filter setting.
97. The ultrasonic transducers most commonly used for B.15-16
discontinuity testing utilize:
102. If an ultrasonic wave is transmitted through an
a. magnetostriction principles. interface of two materials in which the first material
b. piezoelectric principles. has a higher acoustic impedance value but the same
c. mode conversion principles. velocity value as the second material, the angle of
G

d. relative dialectric principles. refraction will be:


A.60; G.117
a. greater than the angle of incidence.
b. less than the angle of incidence.
c. the same as the angle of incidence.
d. beyond the critical angle.
A.38-39; B.21-22

32
Review Questions

103. Which one of the following frequencies would 108. During immersion testing of an ASTM Ultrasonic
probably result in the greatest ultrasonic attenuation Standard Reference Block, a B-scan presentation
losses? system will show a:

a. 1 MHz a. plan view of the block, showing the area and


b. 2.25 MHz position of the hole bottom as seen from the
c. 10 MHz entry surface.
d. 25 MHz b. basic test pattern showing the height of an

t
B.47 indication from the hold bottom and its location
in depth from the entry surface.

pe
104. The product of the sound velocity and the density of c. cross section of the reference block, showing the
a material is known as the: top and bottom surfaces of the block and the
location of the hole bottom in the block.
a. refraction value of the material. d. cross-sectional view presentation with a vertical
b. acoustic impedance of the material. signal representing the hole bottom and the
c. elastic constant of the material. horizontal position representing its depth
d. Poisson’s ratio of the material. position.
B.15-16; F.234 A.180-181; B.27-28

105.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
The amplifier range over which the unsaturated
signal response increases in amplitude in proportion
to the discontinuity surface area is the:

a. sensitivity range.
vertical linearity range.
selectivity range.
horizontal linearity range.
109. Properties of shear or transverse waves used for
ultrasonic testing include:

a. particle motion normal to propagation direction,


and a propagation velocity that is about one-half
the longitudinal wave velocity in the same
material.
b. exceptionally high sensitivity due to low
attenuation resulting from longer wavelengths
A.195
when propagating through water.
up
106. What kind of waves travel at a velocity slightly less c. high coupling efficiency because shear waves are
than shear waves and their mode of propagation is less sensitive to surface variables when traveling
both longitudinal and transverse with respect to the from a coupling liquid to the part.
surface? d. high sensitivity as a result of having a greater
wave velocity than longitudinal waves in the same
a. Rayleigh waves. material.
b. Transverse waves. B.12; F.233
c. L-waves.
d. Longitudinal waves. 110. One of the most common applications of ultrasonic
ro

A.43-45; B.12-13 tests employing shear waves is for the:

107. Which ultrasonic test frequency would probably a. detection of discontinuities in welds,
provide the best penetration in a 30 cm (12 in.) thick tube and pipe.
specimen of coarse-grained steel? b. determination of elastic properties of
metallic products.
a. 1 MHz c. detection of laminar discontinuities in
G

b. 2.25 MHz heavy plate.


c. 5 MHz d. measurement of thickness of thin plate.
d. 10 MHz B.65
B.47

33
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

111. Significant errors in ultrasonic thickness 116. In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses
measurement can occur if: produced by an instrument in a given period of time
is known as the:
a. the test frequency is varying at a constant rate.
b. the velocity of propagation deviates substantially a. pulse length of the instrument.
from an assumed constant value for a given b. pulse recovery time.
material. c. frequency.
c. water is employed as a couplant between the d. pulse repetition frequency.

t
transducer and the part being measured. A.187; F.252
d. the echo-to-echo mode is used.

pe
A.496 117. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the
component that coordinates the action and timing of
112. Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for other components is called a:
detecting discontinuities oriented along the fusion
zone in a welded plate is: a. display unit.
b. receiver.
a. an angle beam contact method using surface c. marker circuit or range marker circuit.
waves. d. timing section.
b. a contact test using a straight longitudinal wave. A.186-187

113.
Eg
c. an immersion test using surface waves.
d. an angle beam method using shear waves.
B.92-95

An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses


representing the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as
a function of time or depth of metal is said to
contain:
118. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the
component that produces the voltage that activates
the transducer is called:

a.
b.
c.
d.
an amplifier.
a receiver.
a pulser.
a synchronizer.
a. a continuous wave. A.182; B.30
up
b. an A-scan presentation.
c. a B-scan presentation. 119. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the
d. a C-scan presentation. component that produces the time baseline is called
A.179-180; B.26-27, 80-81; C.11-12 a:

114. At a water-steel interface, the angle of incidence in a. sweep circuit.


water is 7°. The principal mode of vibration that b. receiver.
exists in the steel is: c. pulser.
d. synchronizer.
ro

a. longitudinal. A.187, 565


b. shear.
c. lamb. 120. In a basic pulse echo ultrasonic instrument, the
d. surface. component that produces visible signals on the
B.22 screen which are used to measure distance is called a:

115. In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that a. sweep circuit.
G

can exist is: b. marker circuit.


c. receiver circuit.
a. longitudinal. d. synchronizer.
b. shear. A.180, 182, 561
c. lamb.
d. surface.
B.11

34
Review Questions

121. Most basic pulse echo ultrasonic instruments use: 126. The motion of particles in a shear wave is:

a. automatic readout equipment. a. parallel to the direction of propagation of the


b. an A-scan presentation. ultrasonic beam.
c. a B-scan presentation. b. transverse to the direction of beam propagation.
d. a C-scan presentation. c. limited to the material surface and elliptical in
A.179; F.241 motion.
d. polarized in a plane at 45° to the direction of

t
122. The instrument displays a plan view of the part beam propagation.
outline and discontinuities when using: A.36, 39

pe
a. automatic readout equipment. 127. An ultrasonic longitudinal wave travels in aluminum
b. an A-scan presentation. with a velocity of 635 000 cm/s and has a frequency
c. a B-scan presentation. of 1 MHz. The wavelength of this ultrasonic wave is:
d. a C-scan presentation.
A.181; C.19 a. 6.35 mm (0.25 in.).
b. 78 mm (3.1 in.).
123. The incident angles at which 90° refraction of c. 1.9 m (6.35 ft).
longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called the: d. 30 000 Å.

124.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
normal angles of incidence.
critical angles.
angles of maximum reflection.
mode angles.
B.21; C.4

Compression waves whose particle displacement is


parallel to the direction of propagation are called:
128.

other than normal to the interface is primarily a


function of the:

a.
b.
impedance ratio (r = ZWZM) of water to metal.
A.37

The refraction angle of longitudinal ultrasonic waves


passing from water into a metallic material at angles

relative velocities of sound in water and metal.


c. frequency of the ultrasonic beam.
up
a. longitudinal waves. d. density ratio of water to metal.
b. shear waves. A.46, 52-53
c. lamb waves.
d. rayleigh waves. 129. In contact testing, shear waves can be induced in the
B.10 test material by:

125. The mode of vibration that is quickly damped out a. placing an X-cut crystal directly on the surface of
when testing by the immersion method is: the materials and coupling through a film of oil.
b. using two transducers on opposite sides of the
ro

a. longitudinal waves. test specimen.


b. shear waves. c. placing a spherical acoustic lens on the face of the
c. transverse waves. transducer.
d. surface waves. d. using a transducer mounted on a plastic wedge so
A.46 that sound enters the part at an angle.
A.217
G

35
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

130. As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle 135. In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in:
of beam divergence of a given diameter crystal:
a. longitudinal waves.
a. decreases. b. shear waves.
b. remains unchanged. c. surface waves.
c. increases. d. lamb waves.
d. varies uniformly through each wavelength. A.43

t
A.96, 211
136. The acoustic impedance is:
131. Which of the following is not an advantage of contact

pe
ultrasonic transducers (probes) adapted with plastic a. used to calculate the angle of reflection.
shoes? b. the product of the density of the material and the
velocity of sound in the material.
a. Most of the crystal wear is eliminated. c. found by Snell’s law.
b. Adaptation to curved surfaces is permitted. d. used to determine resonance values.
c. Sensitivity is increased. A.96, 98, 556
d. Ultrasound is allowed to enter a part’s surface at
oblique angles. 137. Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave
A.74-75 directed normal to the surface by observing the:

132.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The velocity of sound is the lowest in:

air.
water.
aluminum.
plastic.
A.43; F.235 138.
a.
b.
c.
d.
amplitude of the front-surface reflection.
multiple reflection pattern.
attenuation rate.
ratio of shear and longitudinal velocities.

A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or


B.154-155

sections are shown by geometric figures and the path


133. A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from of the signal or energy by lines and/or arrows is
up
water into steel at an angle of 5° from the normal. called a:
In such a case, the refracted angle of the transverse
wave is: a. schematic diagram.
b. blueprint.
a. less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal c. block diagram.
wave. d. circuit layout.
b. equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal A.85, 157
wave.
c. greater than the refracted angle of the 139. A void caused by gas entrapped in a casting is called:
ro

longitudinal wave.
d. not present at all. a. a burst.
A.46, 52-53 b. a cold shut.
c. flaking.
134. The velocity of longitudinal waves is the highest in: d. a blowhole.
B.128
a. water.
G

b. air.
c. aluminum.
d. plastic.
A.43; F.236

36
Review Questions

140. A discontinuity that occurs during the casting of 144. When setting up for an ultrasonic inspection, the
molten metal which may be caused by the splashing, pulse repetition rate of the instrument must be:
surging, interrupted pouring, or the meeting of two
streams of metal coming from different directions is a. low enough so that transmitted waves will not
called: interfere with reflected signals.
b. immaterial as the pulse repetition rate does not
a. a burst. affect the ability to detect indications regardless of
b. a cold shut. size.

t
c. flaking. c. slow enough to allow the instrument display to
d. a blowhole. refresh with each pulse.

pe
B.128 d. fast enough for the operator to be able to rely on
the discontinuity alarm instead of constantly
141. The ratio between the wave speed in one material watching the screen.
and the wave speed in a second material is called: A.187

a. the acoustic impedance of the interface. 145. The factor that determines the amount of reflection
b. Young’s modulus. at the interface of two dissimilar materials is:
c. Poisson’s ratio.
d. refractive index. a. the index of rarefaction.

142. Eg
The expansion and contraction of a magnetic
material under the influence of a changing magnetic
field is referred to as:

a.
b.
c.
piezoelectricity.
refraction.
magnetostriction.
A.564

146.
b.
c.
d.
the frequency of the ultrasonic wave.
Young’s modulus.
the acoustic impedance.
A.262, 556

A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel


to the Z and Y axes and perpendicular to the X axis is
called:

d. rarefaction. a. a Y-cut crystal.


up
A.116 b. an X-cut crystal.
c. a Z-cut crystal.
143. The ratio of stress to strain in a material within the d. a ZY-cut crystal.
elastic limit is called: A.558

a. Young’s modulus. 147. The equation describing wavelength in terms of


b. the impedance ratio. velocity and frequency is:
c. Poisson’s ratio.
d. refractive index. a. wavelength = velocity × frequency.
ro

A.319, 482 b. wavelength = z (frequency × velocity).


c. wavelength = velocity ÷ frequency.
d. wavelength = frequency + velocity.
A.37; D.2

148. When an ultrasonic beam reaches the interface of


two dissimilar materials, it can be:
G

a. 100% reflected.
b. 100% absorbed.
c. partially reflected and refracted, but not absorbed.
d. partially reflected, refracted, and transmitted.
A.54, 221, 237 Fig.7

37
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

149. When inspecting aluminum by the immersion 153. Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of
method using water for a couplant, the following the crystal and the wavelength of the beam
information is known: transmitted through a medium, and it:
velocity of sound in water = 1.49 × 105 cm/s,
velocity of longitudinal waves in aluminum = a. increases if the frequency or crystal diameter
6.32 × 105 cm/s, and angle of incidence = 5°. decreases.
The angle of refraction for longitudinal waves is b. decreases if the frequency or crystal diameter
approximately: decreases.

t
c. increases if the frequency increases and crystal
a. 22° diameter decreases.

pe
b. 18° d. decreases if the frequency increases and crystal
c. 26° diameter decreases.
d. 16° B.47, 49
A.46, 52-53; D.6
154. The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is:
150. Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most
efficient sound transmitter is: a. directly proportional to velocity and frequency.
b. directly proportional to velocity and inversely
a. lithium sulfate. proportional to frequency.

151.
b.
c.
d. Eg
quartz.
barium titanate.
silver oxide.

efficient sound receiver is:

a. lithium sulfate.
B.46; F.255

Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most 155.


c. inversely proportional to velocity and directly
proportional to frequency.
d. equal to the product of velocity and frequency.

The fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal


is primarily a function of the:

a. length of the applied voltage pulse.


D.2

b. quartz. b. amplifying characteristics of the pulse amplifier in


up
c. barium titanate. the instrument.
d. silver oxide. c. thickness of the crystal.
F.255 d. material testing.
B.47; E.223
152. The most commonly used method of producing
shear waves in a test part when inspecting by the 156. Acoustic velocities of materials are primarily due to
immersion method is by: the material’s:

a. transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in a a. density and elasticity.


ro

direction perpendicular to its front surface. b. material thickness.


b. using two crystals vibrating at different c. temperature.
frequencies. d. acoustic impedance.
c. using a Y-cut quartz crystal. D.2; G.13
d. angulating the search tube to the proper angle.
F.258 157. Inspection of castings is often impractical because of:
G

a. extremely small grain structure.


b. coarse grain structure.
c. uniform flow lines.
d. uniform velocity of sound.
B.129; F.190

38
Review Questions

158. Lamb waves may be used to inspect: 163. The primary requirement of a paintbrush transducer
is that:
a. forgings.
b. bar stock. a. all crystals be mounted equidistant from each
c. ingots. other.
d. thin sheet. b. the intensity of the beam pattern not vary greatly
B.14 over the entire length of the transducer.
c. the fundamental frequency of the crystals not

t
159. The formula used to determine the angle of beam vary more than 0.01%.
divergence of a quartz crystal is: d. the overall length not exceed 76 mm (3 in.).

pe
F.258
a. sin θ = diameter r 1/2 × wavelength.
b. sin θ diameter = frequency × wavelength. 164. Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis,
c. sin θ = frequency × wavelength. and scattering are four different mechanisms that
d. sin θ/2 = 1.22 × wavelength/diameter. lead to:
B.49
a. attenuation.
160. The resolving power of a transducer is directly b. refraction.
proportional to its: c. beam spreading.

161.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
diameter.
bandwidth.
pulse repetition.
Poisson’s ratio.

Acoustic lens elements with which of the following


F.255

permit focusing the sound energy to enter cylindrical


165.
d. saturation.

Because the velocity of sound in aluminum is


approximately 245 000 in./s, for sound to travel
through 25 mm (1 in.) of aluminum, it takes:

a.
b.
1/8 s
4 μs
F.238

surfaces normally or along a line focus? c. 4 ms


up
d. 1/4 ×104 s
a. Cylindrical curvatures. F.233
b. Spherical lens curvatures.
c. Convex shapes. 166. When testing a part with a rough surface, it is
d. Concave shapes. generally advisable to use a:
F.259
a. lower frequency transducer and a more viscous
162. In the basic pulse echo instrument, the synchronizer, couplant than is used on parts with a smooth
clock or timer circuit determines the: surface.
ro

b. higher frequency transducer and a more viscous


a. pulse length. couplant than is used on parts with a smooth
b. gain. surface.
c. pulse repetition rate. c. higher frequency transducer and a less viscous
d. sweep length. couplant than is used on parts with a smooth
F.242 surface.
d. lower frequency transducer and a less viscous
G

couplant than is used on parts with a smooth


surface.
B.62

39
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

167. Reflection indications from a weld area being 172. To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after
inspected by the angle beam technique may scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is
represent: generally necessary to use a:

a. porosity. a. transducer with a smaller crystal.


b. backwall. b. scrubber.
c. initial pulse. c. grid map.
d. hot tears. d. crystal collimator.

t
B.134-142 B.51

pe
168. During a test using A-scan equipment, strong 173. An ultrasonic instrument has been calibrated to
indications that move at varying rates across the obtain an 80% FSH indication from a 2 mm (0.08 in.)
screen in the horizontal direction appear. It is diameter flat-bottom hole located 76 mm (3 in.) from
impossible to repeat a particular screen pattern by the front surface of an aluminum reference block.
scanning the same area. A possible cause of these When testing an aluminum forging, an 80% FSH
indications is: indication is obtained from a discontinuity located
76 mm (3 in.) from the entry surface. The reflective
a. porosity in the test part. area of this discontinuity is probably:
b. an irregularly shaped crack.

169.
c.
d.
Eg
a blowhole.
electrical interference.

In an A-scan presentation, position along the


horizontal baseline indicates:

a.
b.
a square wave pattern.
a sweep line.
F.246
a. the same as the area of the 2 mm (0.08 in.)
flat-bottom hole.
b. greater than the area of the 2 mm (0.08 in.)
flat-bottom hole.
c. slightly less than the area of the 2 mm (0.08 in.)
flat-bottom hole.
d. about one-half the area of the 2 mm (0.08 in.)
flat-bottom hole.
F.262
c. a marker pattern.
up
d. elapsed time. 174. As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials
B.26 increases, the percentage of sound coupled through
an interface of such materials:
170. The greatest amount of attenuation losses take place
at: a. decreases.
b. increases.
a. 1 MHz c. is not changed.
b. 2.25 MHz d. may increase or decrease.
c. 5 MHz F.234
ro

d. 10 MHz
B.15 175. Lower frequency sound waves are not generally used
for pulse echo testing of thinner materials because of:
171. Waves that travel around gradual curves with little or
no reflection from the curve are called: a. the rapid attenuation of low frequency sound.
b. incompatible wavelengths.
a. transverse waves. c. poor near-surface resolution.
G

b. surface waves. d. fraunhofer field effects.


c. shear waves. F.234
d. longitudinal waves.
B.12-13

40
Review Questions

176. In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to 181. Which of the following is more likely to limit the
which the search cable and the transducer are maximum scanning speed in immersion testing?
attached is called a:
a. The frequency of the transducer.
a. crystal collimator. b. Viscous drag problems.
b. scrubber. c. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument.
c. jet-stream unit. d. The persistency of the ultrasonic instrument
d. search tube or scanning tube. display.

t
B.123 A.403

pe
177. In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend 182. The property of certain materials to transform
to be oriented: electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa
is called:
a. randomly.
b. in the direction of grain flow. a. mode conversion.
c. at right angles to the entry surface. b. piezoelectric effect.
d. at right angles to the grain flow. c. refraction.
B.126 d. impedance matching.
A.60; B.45
178.

Eg
In immersion testing of round bars, the back surface
contour may result in:

a. loss of back reflection.


b. additional indications following the direct back
surface reflection.
c. inability to distinguish the actual distance to the
back-surface reflection.
d. false indications of discontinuities near the back
183. Surface waves energy levels are concentrated at what
depth below the surface?

a.
b.
c.
d.
25 mm (1 in.).
102 mm (4 in.).
1 wavelength.
4 wavelengths.
A.39
surface.
up
A.275, 277-278 184. To prevent the appearance of the second front surface
indication before the first back reflection when
179. In contact testing, discontinuities near the entry inspecting aluminum by the immersion method
surface cannot always be detected because of: (water is used as a couplant), it is necessary to have a
minimum of at least 25 mm (1 in.) of water for every
a. the far-field effect. _____ of aluminum.
b. attenuation.
c. the dead zone. a. 51 mm (2 in.)
d. refraction. b. 102 mm (4 in.)
ro

A.204; B.58 c. 152 mm (6 in.)


d. 203 mm (8 in.)
180. In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected F.258
is smaller than the diameter of the transducer, what
can be used to confine the sound beam to the proper 185. Increasing the length of the pulse used to activate the
range of angles? transducer will:
G

a. A scrubber. a. increase the strength of the ultrasound but


b. A collimator. decrease the resolving power of the instrument.
c. An angle plane angulator. b. increase the resolving power of the instrument.
d. A jet-stream unit. c. have no effect on the test.
A.290-291 d. decrease the penetration of the sound wave.
B.36

41
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level ii

186. The lack of parallelism between the entry surface and 191. In a plate, skip distance can be calculated from which
the back surface: of the following formulas where (t = plate thickness,
θ = angle of sound beam refraction, and V = sound
a. may result in a screen pattern that does not velocity):
contain back reflection indications.
b. makes it difficult to locate discontinuities that lie a. S = (2 × t)/tan θ.
parallel to the entry surface. b. S = 2 × t × sin θ.
c. usually indicates that a porous condition exists in c. S = 2 × t × tan θ.

t
the metal. d. S = 2 ×V × sin θ.
d. decreases the penetrating power of the test. F.266

pe
B.148-151
192. The technique of examining an ultrasonic reflector
187. A discontinuity with a concave surface will: from different directions might be used to enable the
technician to:
a. diffuse the sound energy throughout the part.
b. cause the reflected beam to focus at a point a. distinguish between different types of
determined by the curvature of the discontinuity. discontinuities.
c. cause mode reinforcement of the ultrasonic wave. b. predict the useful service life of the test specimen.
d. propagate due to sound energy. c. distinguish between discontinuity indications and

188.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
Rayleigh waves:

a. are generated at the first critical angle.


are generated at the second critical angle.
are generated at either critical angle.
travel only in a liquid.
B.140

193.
spurious or false indications.
d. accept an indication that appeared to be rejectable
from the first test direction.

Attenuation is the loss of the ultrasonic wave energy


during the course of propagation in the material due
to:
F.247

F.236, 257
a. reflection and refraction.
up
189. Angle beam testing of plate will often miss: b. dispersion and diffraction.
c. absorption and scattering.
a. cracks that are perpendicular to the sound wave. d. composition and shape.
b. inclusions that are randomly oriented. B.15
c. laminations that are parallel to the front surface.
d. a series of small discontinuities. 194. In immersion shear wave testing, waves are normally
F.270 generated by angulating the transducer beyond the
first critical angle. What is the direction of the
190. Reducing the extent of the dead zone of a transducer material’s particle motion?
ro

by using a delay tip results in:


a. The same as the wave propagation.
a. improved distance-amplitude correction in the b. Normal to the material surface.
near field. c. Parallel to the direction of wave propagation.
b. reduced frequency of the primary ultrasonic d. Perpendicular to the direction of wave
beam. propagation.
c. reduced ability to detect discontinuities in the F.233
G

near field.
d. improved accuracy in thickness measurement of
thin plate and sheet.
F.258

42
Review Questions

195. Which of the following modes of vibration are 197 A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel
quickly dampened out when testing by the to the Z and Y axes and perpendicular to the X axis is
immersion method? called:

a. Longitudinal waves. a. a Y-cut crystal.


b. Shear waves. b. an X-cut crystal.
c. Transverse waves. c. a Z-cut crystal.
d. Surface waves. d. a ZY-cut crystal.

t
B.157 A.558

pe
196. Which ultrasonic test frequency would probably
provide the best penetration in a 30 cm (12 in.) thick
specimen of coarse-grained steel?

a. 1 MHz
b. 2.25 MHz
c. 5 MHz
d. 10 MHz
B.47

Eg
up
Answers

1d 2b 3b 4c 5c 6b 7c 8b 9c 10d 11b 12b 13c 14c


15b 16c 17b 18a 19a 20c 21a 22a 23c 24a 25b 26c 27a 28b
ro

29b 30c 31a 32c 33a 34b 35b 36c 37c 38d 39c 40b 41a 42c
43a 44a 45c 46b 47a 48c 49c 50d 51b 52a 53a 54a 55b 56c
57b 58b 59c 60d 61c 62d 63a 64c 65b 66d 67c 68d 69b 70b
71b 72c 73b 74a 75b 76a 77a 78c 79b 80c 81b 82d 83b 84a
85c 86d 87a 88d 89a 90d 91a 92a 93a 94b 95a 96c 97b 98c
99d 100a 101d 102c 103d 104b 105b 106a 107a 108c 109a 110a 111b 112d
113b 114a 115a 116d 117d 118c 119a 120b 121b 122d 123b 124a 125d 126b
G

127a 128b 129d 130a 131c 132a 133a 134c 135a 136b 137b 138c 139d 140b
141d 142c 143a 144a 145d 146b 147c 148d 149a 150c 151a 152d 153a 154b
155c 156a 157b 158d 159d 160b 161a 162c 163b 164a 165b 166a 167a 168d
169d 170d 171b 172a 173b 174a 175c 176d 177b 178a 179c 180b 181c 182b
183c 184b 185a 186a 187b 188b 189c 190d 191c 192a 193c 194d 195d 196a
197b

43
G
ro
up
Eg
pe
t
LEVEL III
Review Questions

t
pe
1. In an ultrasonic test system where signal 4. The transmitted pulse at the output of the pulser
amplitudes are displayed, an advantage of a usually has a voltage of 100 to 1000 V, whereas the
frequency-independent attenuator over a voltages of the echoes at the input of the amplifier are
continuously variable gain control is that the: on the order of:

a. pulse shape distortion is less. a. 0.001-1 V


b. signal amplitude measured using the attenuator b. 1-5 V
is independent of frequency. c. 10 V

2.
Eg
c. dynamic range of the system is decreased.
d. effect of amplification threshold is avoided.

An amplifier in which received echo pulses must


exceed a certain threshold voltage before they can be
indicated might be used to:

a. suppress amplifier noise, unimportant scatter


A.86
5.
d. 50 V

attenuator of an ultrasonic instrument is to:

a.
b.
c.
control transducer damping.
G.174-176

The intended purpose of the adjustable calibrated

increase the dynamic range of the instrument.


broaden the frequency range.
echoes, or small discontinuity echoes that are of d. attenuate the voltage applied to the transducer.
up
no consequence. A.86
b. provide a display with nearly ideal vertical
linearity characteristics. 6. Which of the following might result in increased
c. compensate for the unavoidable effects of material transmission of ultrasound within a coarse-grained
attenuation losses. material?
d. provide distance-amplitude correction
automatically. a. Perform the examination with a smaller diameter
G.176 transducer.
b. Perform the examination after a grain-refining
ro

3. The output voltage from a saturated amplifier is: heat treatment.


c. Change from a contact examination to an
a. 180° out of phase from the input voltage. immersion examination.
b. lower than the input voltage. d. Change from a longitudinal to a transverse wave.
c. nonlinear with respect to the input voltage. B.129
d. below saturation.
G.176, 182
G

45
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level iii

7. The term that is used to determine the relative 11. The sensitivity of an ultrasonic test system:
transmittance and reflectance of ultrasonic energy at
an interface is called: a. depends on the transducer, pulser, and amplifier
used.
a. acoustic attenuation. b. decreases as the frequency is increased.
b. interface refraction. c. increases as the resolution increases.
c. acoustic impedance ratio. d. is not related to mechanical damping or the
d. acoustic frequency. transducer.

t
B.16 B.46-47, 56

pe
8. In a forging, discontinuities associated with 12. The ability of a test system to separate the back
nonmetallic inclusions can most accurately be surface echo and the echo from a small discontinuity
described as being: just above this back surface:

a. oriented parallel to the major axis. a. depends primarily upon the pulse length
b. parallel to the minor axis. generated from the instrument.
c. aligned with forging flow lines. b. is not related to the surface roughness of the part
d. oriented at approximately 45° to the forging under inspection.
direction. c. is primarily related to the thickness of the part

9. Eg
The preferred method of ultrasonically inspecting a
complex-shaped forging:

a. is an automated immersion test of the finished


forging using an instrument containing a
calibrated attenuator in conjunction with a
C-scan recorder.
G.340

13.
under inspection.
d. is usually improved by using a larger diameter
transducer.

Transducer sensitivity is most often determined by:

a. calculations based on frequency and thickness of


the piezoelectric element.
A.183

b. combines thorough inspection of the billet prior b. the amplitude of the response from an artificial
up
to forging with a careful inspection of the finished discontinuity.
part in all areas where the shape permits. c. comparing it to a similar transducer made by the
c. is a manual contact test of the finished part. same manufacturer.
d. is an automated immersion test of the billet prior d. determining the ringing time of the transducer.
to forging. B.102-104, 106
F.504
14. Side-drilled holes are frequently used as reference
10. When maximum sensitivity is required from a reflectors for:
transducer:
ro

a. distance-amplitude calibration for shear waves.


a. a straight beam unit should be used. b. area-amplitude calibration.
b. large-diameter crystals are required. c. thickness calibration of plate.
c. the piezoelectric element should be driven at its d. determining near-surface solutions.
fundamental resonant frequency. A.194-198
d. the bandwidth of the transducer should be as
large as possible.
G

A.61-62

46
15. Notches provide good reference discontinuities when 19. The rate generator in B-scan equipment will
a UT examination is conducted to primarily detect invariably be directly connected to the:
discontinuities such as:
a. display intensity circuit.
a. porosity in rolled plate. b. pulser circuit.
b. inadequate penetration at the root of a weld. c. RF amplifier circuit.
c. weld porosity. d. horizontal sweep circuit.
d. internal inclusions.

t
B.3, 79-82
A.197-198
20. In A-scan equipment, the RF pulser output voltage is

pe
16. The difference between a compression and shear normally in the range of:
wave is:
a. 1-10 V.
a. quantitative measure. b. 10-100 V.
b. relative particle vibration direction. c. 100-1000 V.
c. qualitative measure. d. 1000-3000 V.
d. amplitude. B.79
B.10-12; G.7
21. When contact testing, an increase in tightness of a
17.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
The particle motion for rayleigh waves is usually
described as:

sinusoidal.
circular.
elliptical.
shear.
A.45; B.66; C.1-2
shrink fit to a hollow shaft will cause the ratio of the
back reflection to the metal-to-metal interface
reflection to:

a.
b.
c.
d.
increase.
decrease.
remain unchanged.
not be predicted as the response is
material-dependent.
18. Based upon wave theory and ignoring attenuation G.475
up
losses, the echo amplitude of a finite reflector is:
22. The frequency that can best distinguish the difference
a. directly proportional to the distance to the between a large planar discontinuity and four stacked
reflector. (multiple-layered) laminations in rolled plate is:
b. inversely proportional to the distance to the
reflector. a. 0.5 MHz
c. directly proportional to the square of the b. 1 MHz
diameter of the circular reflector. c. 2.25 MHz
d. inversely proportional to the square of the d. 5 MHz
ro

diameter of the circular reflector. B.85


G.97
G

47
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level iii

23. During immersion examination, when evaluating the 27. The time from the start of the ultrasonic pulse until
response from a contoured surface of a part, the reverberations completely decay limits the
irrelevant indications due to the contour are most maximum usable:
likely to appear as:
a. pulse time-discontinuity rate.
a. sharp, spiked signal indications. b. pulser/receiver rate.
b. irregular signal indications. c. pulse repetition rate.
c. broad-based signal indications. d. modified pulse-time rate.

t
d. grass or hash. A.71-76
A.278

pe
28. Rough surfaces can cause undesirable effects, which
24. The pulse applied to the electrodes of the ultrasonic are noticeable when parts are tested ultrasonically,
transducer is: including:

a. electrical. a. annular maxima rings.


b. mechanical. b. an increase in the width of front face echo and
c. electromechanical. consequent loss of resolving power.
d. piezoelectrical. c. acoustical mismatch.
A.78 d. asymmetrical modes.

25.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
In calibrating an ultrasonic test instrument using the
responses from each of the area-amplitude type
reference blocks, the determination of the:

a. vertical range is obtained.


pulse range is obtained.
resolving range is obtained.
horizontal range is obtained.
29.

b.
c.
d.
increase.
decrease.
not change.
change frequency.
A.224; C.41-42

Rough surfaces cause the echo amplitude from


discontinuities within the part to:

a.

A.195-196 A.202
up
26. Test sensitivity corrections for metal distance and 30. The resonant frequency of a 2 cm (0.79 in.) thick
discontinuity area responses are accomplished by plate of naval brass (V = 4.43 × 105 cm/s) is:
using:
a. 0.903 MHz.
a. an area-amplitude set of blocks. b. 0.443 MHz.
b. a distance-amplitude and an area-amplitude set of c. 0.222 MHz.
blocks. d. 0.111 MHz.
c. a distance-amplitude set of blocks. G.128, 233
ro

d. steel balls of varying diameter.


A.195-196 31. Resonance testing equipment generally uses:

a. pulsed longitudinal waves.


b. continuous longitudinal waves.
c. pulsed shear waves.
d. continuous shear waves.
G

A.478, 505

48
Review Questions

32. To eliminate the decrease of sensitivity close to a wall 37. In angle beam shear wave testing, skip distance will
that is parallel to the beam direction, the transducer __________ as the thickness of the test specimen is
used should be: increased.

a. as small as possible. a. decrease


b. of as low frequency as possible. b. not change
c. large and with a frequency as small as possible. c. increase
d. large and with a frequency as high as possible. d. decrease by half with double thickness

t
A.15 G.299-303

pe
33. Which of the following transducer materials makes 38. The thickness range of UT resonance thickness gages
the best transmitter? can be increased by:

a. Quartz. a. using large transducers.


b. Lithium sulfate. b. operating at the fundamental frequency.
c. Barium titanate. c. operating at a harmonic frequency.
d. Lead titanate. d. increasing the voltage.
B.46; F.255 A.185-186

34.

a.
b.
c.
d.
Eg
Of the transducer materials listed below, the most
efficient receiver is:

quartz.
lithium sulfate.
barium titanate.
lead metaniobate.
B.46; F.255
39. The ability of transducers to detect echoes from small
discontinuities is a definition for:

a.
b.
c.
d.
resolution.
sensitivity.
definition.
gain.
A.564

35. The concentration of energy in the far field of a 40. The length of the near field for a 2.5 cm (1 in.)
up
transducer beam is: diameter, 5 MHz transducer placed in oil
(V = 1.4 × 105 cm/s) is approximately:
a. greatest at the outer edges of the beam.
b. greatest at the center of the beam. a. 0.028 cm (0.01 in.).
c. the same at the outer edges as in the center of the b. 6.25 cm (2.5 in.).
beam. c. 22.3 cm (8.8 in.).
d. directly proportional to beam width. d. 55.8 cm (22 in.).
A.99, 211 A.210
ro

36. An extensive application of shear waves in ultrasonic


testing is the inspection of:

a. welds.
b. plate.
c. pipe and tubing.
d. castings.
G

A.219

49
Ultrasonic Testing Method l level iii

41. From the equation for the length of the near field, it 45. What would be the wavelength of the energy in lead
can be determined that the near field can be (V = 2.1 × 105 cm/s) if it is tested with a 25 MHz
minimized by: transducer?

a. decreasing water travel distance. a. 119 cm (47 in.)


b. increasing transducer diameter. b. 0.525 cm (0.21 in.)
c. decreasing the size of reference targets. c. 0.0119 cm (0.005 in.)
d. decreasing test frequency. d. 0.0084 cm (0.003 in.)

t
A.210 A.37

pe
42. In a water (VL = 1.5 × 105 cm/s) immersion test, 46. What is the transducer half-angle beam spread of a
ultrasonic energy is transmitted into steel (VT = 3.2 × 1.25 cm diameter, 2.25 MHz transducer in water
105 cm/s) at an incident angle of 14°. What is the (V = 1.5 × 105 cm/s)?
refracted shear wave within the material?
a. 2.5°
a. 13° b. 3.75°
b. 35° c. 37.5°
c. 31° d. 40.5°
d. 53° A.211

43.

b.
c.
d.
Eg
The acoustic impedance for brass (V = 4.43 ×
105 cm/s, p = 8.42 gm/cm3) is:

a. 0.53 × 105 gm/cm2s


1.9 × 105 gm/cm2s
9.4 × 105 gm/cm2s
37 × 105 gm/cm2s
A.52-53
47. Wavelength may be defined as:

a. frequency divided by velocity.


b. the distance along a wavetrain from peak to
trough.
c. the distance from one point to the next identical
point along the waveform.
d. the distance along a wavetrain from an area of
A.556 high particle motion to one of low particle
up
motion.
44. The principal attributes that determine the A.567; C.1
differences in ultrasonic velocities among materials
are:

a. frequency and wavelength.


b. thickness and travel time.
c. elasticity and density.
d. chemistry and permeability.
ro

B.10
G

50
48. Velocity measurements in a material revealed that the 50. The difference between through-transmission and
velocity decreased as frequency increased. This pitch-catch techniques is that:
material is called:
a. the transducers in through-transmission face each
a. dissipated. other, while in pitch-catch the transducers are
b. discontinuous. often side by side in the same housing.
c. dispersive. b. the transducers in through-transmission are side
d. degenerative. by side, while in pitch-catch the transducers are

t
C.2; G.14 facing each other.
c. the transducers in

pe
49. The sound beam emanating from a continuous wave through-transmission are always angle beam.
sound source has two zones. These are called the: d. in through-transmission the depth of the
discontinuity is easily determined.
a. fresnel and fraunhofer zones. A.230; C.25
b. fresnel and near fields.
c. fraunhofer and far fields.
d. focused and unfocused zones.
C.15; F.239

Eg
up
ro
G

Answers
1b 2a 3c 4a 5b 6b 7c 8c 9b 10c 11a 12a 13b 14a
15b 16b 17c 18c 19b 20c 21a 22d 23c 24a 25a 26b 27c 28b
29b 30d 31b 32d 33c 34b 35b 36a 37c 38c 39b 40d 41d 42c
43d 44c 45d 46b 47c 48c 49a 50a

51
t
pe
Eg
up
ro
G

The American Society for Catalog Number: 2028


Nondestructive Testing, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-57117-343-0