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Functional Food (FF) in a Nutshell

Yosfi Rahmi Jurusan Gizi FKUB Malang


Objectives
Background
Definition of FF
Definition of bioactive compound
FF n Health
FF products
Interest of Industry in FF

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Background

consumer needs

Weight loss
Reduction in simple
carbohydrate intake Food w/
Diabetes (glucose management) Health
Bowel/gut health
(gastrointestinal health) Benefits
Heart/circulatory health
Sodium levels
(FF)
Nutrition/Diet/General Wellness

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FF: Definition

International Food Information


Council (IFIC):
“Foods or dietary components that
may provide a health benefit beyond
basic nutritional function.”

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FF: Definition cont…
Health Canada 1998:
similar in appearance to conventional foods
consumed as a part of a normal diet
And has demonstrated physiological benefits and/or
reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond basic
nutritional function

FAO 2007:
Generally considered as those foods which are intended
to be consumed as part of the normal diet and that
contain biologically active components which offer the
potensial of enhanced or reduced risk of disease
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FUNCTIONAL FOOD:
Food + bioactive compound
FOOD

Examples:
Whole food: Fresh tomato slices – lycopene
Formulated food: Tomato sauce – lycopene
from tomatoes
Fortified food: Fruit juice with added lycopene

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Example of FF:

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Bioactive Compounds
: Substance that has an effect on living tissue

Essential micronutrients at greater than RDI


E.g. Vitamin C & E – antioxidants
For adequate nutrition: Vitamin C RDI = 60mg/day
Bioactive effect = Up to 1000mg/day

Macronutrients with specific physiological effects e.g.


resistant starch, protein
Non-essential nutrients e.g. oligosaccharides
Non-nutritive e.g. bacteria or phytochemical

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Bioactive compounds

May have both adverse and beneficial effects


- Dose dependant
- Adverse in excess, beneficial at lower levels

Adverse effect = ANTINUTRIENT or TOXIN


Manipulation to allow beneficial advantage
Care must be taken in formulation of foods to
consider both sides of the equation!!!

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Bioactive compounds

• RDI???
• Still need evidence
• Risks?
• Synergistic/buffering effects?
• Health claims?
• Whole food versus formulated food?
• Interactions in processing???????

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Functional Components of Food
Component Food Source Benefit
Lycopene tomatoes and processed may contribute to
tomato products, maintenance of
watermelon, red/pink prostate health
grapefruit
Inulin, Fructo- whole grains, onions, Improves GI tract
oligosaccharides some fruits, garlic, health
(FOS), Polydextrose honey, leeks, fortified
foods and Beverages
Flavanols -Catechins, tea, cocoa, chocolate, may contribute to
Epicatechins, apples, grapes maintenance of
Epigallocatechin, heart health
Procyanidins
Sulforaphane Broccoli, etc May contribute as
antioxidant
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Functional Components of Food
Component Food Source Benefit
PUFAs - salmon, tuna, marine, may reduce risk of CHD;
Omega-3 and other fish oils may contribute to
fatty acids— maintenance of mental
DHA/EPA and visual function
Stanols/ stanol ester dietary Reduce risk of heart
Sterol esters supplements, fortified disease
foods and beverages,
including table spreads
Isoflavones Soy May contribute to
maintance Bone health;
menopausal health
Soy Protein soybeans and soy- may reduce risk of CHD
based foods
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Scientific Evidence of Bioactive Compounds
Bioactive Health Benefit Strength of RDI
compound Science
Plant sterol & Reduce total and LDLc Very strong 1.3 g/d
stanol esters cholesterol 1.7 g/d
Soluble fiber Reduce total and LDLc Very strong 1 g/d
cholesterol
Protein Reduce total and LDLc Very strong 25 g/d
(specific) cholesterol
Β-glucan Reduce total and LDLc Very strong 3 g/d
cholesterol
N-3 fatty acids Reduce TG, reduce Strong to very 2 fatty fish
heart disease cardiac strong meals per
deaths week;0.5-1.8 g
EPA +DHA
Source: IFT 2006
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Functional Foods and Health

Colonic functional foods


Coronary hearth disease

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Colonic Functional Foods

L  most metabolically active organ


A
R
 plays a key role in nutrition and health
G
E

INTESTINE
Dietary Components

NEEDS
antimicrobial intake
BALANCE stress
UNBALANCE
MICROBIOTA poor diet MICROBIOTA
living conditions

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Colonic Functional Foods

Probiotic
Prebiotic
Synbiotic

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Probiotic
"Probiotic" = “for life”
a live microbial food ingredient that is beneficial to
health

Common microorganism:
lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci,
enterococci, lactococci, bifidobacteria) but also
Bacillus spp. and fungi such as Saccharomyces spp.
and Aspergillus spp

Probiotic RDI?
Estimated daily dose 109-1010 for measurable effect.
FSANZ – to be called yoghurt it must have 106 cfu/g at
consumption
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Selection criteria for probiotics

Must exert a beneficial effect on the


consumer
Non-pathogenic and non-toxic
Contain a large number of viable cells
Survive in the gastrointestinal tract
Good sensory properties
Preferably be isolated from the same
species as the intended use

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Prebiotic

“A non-digestible food ingredient that affects the


host by selectively stimulating the
growth/activity of one or more bacteria in the
colon, that have the potential to improve host
health” (Gibson & Roberfroid 1995)
Includes oligosaccharides, polysaccharides,
and associated CHO substances
Subgroup of dietary fibre

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Prebiotics

Health Benefits of Prebiotics:


Reduced risk of colon cancer
Reduced serum lipids and cholesterol
Improved bone mineral
Fewer intestinal infections

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Synbiotics

Combining the effects of probiotics and prebiotics


to produce health-enhancing functional food
ingredients (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995)
Elivae is an example of a synbiotic = Inulin + LAB
probiotics
Beneficially affects host by:
Improve survival and implantation of probiotic species in GIT
Cholesterol lowering effect
SYNERGISM

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Functional Food Products

Conventional product marketed with new


information
Oats soluble fiber claim
Conventional product with added or enhanced
ingredient
Spread w/ added plant sterols
Chocolate with enhanced flavanols
“New” product to deliver functional ingredient
Beverages– functional teas, water
Removing negative functionality
Oils with heart-healthy profile

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Industry Interest in FF

Exploit niche market demand for particular


characteristics
Eg., high markup for spreads w/ sterols
Add value or market share to existing product
or product ingredient
Eg., soy protein branding for addition to cereals,
beverages
Create new market for innovative products
Eg., new beverages

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SELAMAT BELAJAR…

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