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Undefined 1 (2009) 1–5 1

IOS Press

Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in


EQ–algebras
Mohammad Hamidi a,∗ , Arsham Borumand Saeid b and Florentin Smarandache c
a
Department of Mathematics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, Iran
b
Mahani Mathematical research center, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Pure Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman,
Kerman, Iran
E-mail: arsham@uk.ac.ir
c
Dept. of Math., University of New Mexico, Gallup, NM 87301, USA.
E-mail: smarand@unm.edu

Abstract. This paper introduces the concept of single–valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebras, single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
prefilters and single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters. We study some properties of single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters
and show how to construct single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters. Finally, the relationship between single–valued neutrosophic
EQ–filters and EQ–filters are studied.

Keywords: (hyper)Single–valued neutrosophic EQ–algebras, Single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters.

1. Introduction ical systems and genetic code of biology [2]. From the
point of view of logic, the main difference between
EQ-algebra as an alternative to residuated lattices is residuated lattices and EQ–algebras lies in the way
a special algebra that was presented for the first time the implication operation is obtained. While in resid-
by V. Novák [10,11]. Its original motivation comes uated lattices it is obtained from (strong) conjunction,
from fuzzy type theory, in which the main connective in EQ–algebras it is obtained from equivalence. Con-
is fuzzy equality and stems from the equational style sequently, the two kinds of algebras differ in several
of proof in logic [15]. EQ-algebras are intended to essential points despite their many similar or identical
become algebras of truth values for fuzzy type the- properties.
ory (FTT) where the main connective is a fuzzy equal- Filter theory plays an important role in studying var-
ity. Every EQ–algebra has three operations meet “∧”, ious logical algebras. From logical point of view, fil-
multiplication “⊗”, and fuzzy equality “∼” and a unit ters correspond to sets of provable formulae. Filters are
element, while the implication “→” is derived from very important in the proof of the completeness of var-
fuzzy equality “∼”. This basic structure in fuzzy logic ious logic algebras. Many researchers have studied the
is ordering, represented by ∧–semilattice, with max- filter theory of various logical algebras [3,4,5].
Neutrosophy, as a newlyâĂŞborn science, is a
imal element “1”. Further materials regarding EQ–
branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature
algebras are available in the literature too [6,7,9,12].
and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions
Algebras including EQ-algebras have played an im-
with different ideational spectra. It can be defined as
portant role in recent years and have had its compre-
the incidence of the application of a law, an axiom, an
hensive applications in many aspects including dynam-
idea, a conceptual accredited construction on an un-
clear, indeterminate phenomenon, contradictory to the
* Corresponding author. E-mail: m.hamidi@pnu.ac.ir. purpose of making it intelligible. Neutrosophic set and

0000-0000/09/$00.00
c 2009 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
2 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

neutrosophic logic are generalizations of the fuzzy set The binary operation “∧” is called meet (infimum),
and respectively fuzzy logic (especially of intuitionis- “⊗” is called multiplication and “∼” is called fuzzy
tic fuzzy set and respectively intuitionistic fuzzy logic) equality. (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) is called a separated EQ–
are tools for publications on advanced studies in neu- algebra if 1 = x ∼ y, implies that x = y.
trosophy. In neutrosophic logic, a proposition has a de-
gree of truth (T ), indeterminacy (I) and falsity (F ), Proposition 2.2. [8] Let E be an EQ–algebra, x →
where T , I, F are standard or non–standard subsets y := (x ∧ y) ∼ x and x̃ = x ∼ 1. Then for all
of ]− 0, 1+ [. In 1995, Smarandache talked for the first x, y, z ∈ E, the following properties hold:
time about neutrosophy and in 1999 and 2005 [14] he (i) x ⊗ y ≤ x, y, x ⊗ y ≤ x ∧ y;
initiated the theory of neutrosophic set as a new math- (ii) x ∼ y = y ∼ x;
ematical tool for handling problems involving impre- (iii) (x ∧ y) ∼ x ≤ (x ∧ y ∧ z) ∼ (x ∧ z);
cise, indeterminacy, and inconsistent data. Alkhazaleh (iv) x → x = 1;
et al. generalized the concept of fuzzy soft set to neu- (v) (x ∼ y) ⊗ (y ∼ z) ≤ x ∼ z;
trosophic soft set and they gave some applications of (vi) (x → y) ⊗ (y → z) ≤ x → z;
this concept in decision making and medical diagnosis (vii) x ≤ x̃, 1̃ = 1.
[1].
Regarding these points, this paper aims to intro- Proposition 2.3. [8] Let E be an EQ–algebra. Then
duce the notation of single–valued neutrosophic EQ– for all x, y, z ∈ E, the following properties hold:
subalgebras and single–valued neutrosophic EQ– (i) x ⊗ (x ∼ y) ≤ y;
filters. We investigate some properties of single– (ii) (z → (x ∧ y)) ⊗ (x ∼ t) ≤ z → (t ∧ y);
valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebras and single– (iii) (y → z) ⊗ (x → y) ≤ x → z;
valued neutrosophic EQ–filters and prove them. In- (iv) (x → y) ⊗ (y → x) ≤ x ∼ y;
deed show that how to construct single–valued neu- (v) if x ≤ y → z, then x ⊗ y ≤ z;
trosophic EQ–subalgebras and single–valued neutro- (vi) if x ≤ y ≤ z, then z ∼ x ≤ z ∼ y and
sophic EQ–filters. We applied the concept of ho- x ∼ z ≤ x ∼ y;
momorphisms in EQ–algebras and with this regard, (vi) x → (y → x) = 1.
new single–valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebras and
single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters are generated. Definition 2.4. [8] Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be a sepa-
rated EQ–algebra. A subset F of E is called an EQ–
filter of E if for all a, b, c ∈ E it holds that
2. Preliminaries (i) 1 ∈ F ,
(ii) if a, a → b ∈ F , then b ∈ F ,
In this section, we recall some definitions and results (iii) if a → b ∈ F , then a ⊗ c → b ⊗ c ∈ F and
are indispensable to our research paper. c ⊗ a → c ⊗ b ∈ F.
Definition 2.1. [8] An algebra E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) Theorem 2.5. [8] Let F be a prefilter of separated
of type (2, 2, 2, 0) is called an EQ–algebra, if for all EQ–algebra E. Then for all a, b, c ∈ E it holds that
x, y, z, t ∈ E:
(i) if a ∈ F and a ≤ b, then b ∈ F ;
(E1) (E, ∧, 1) is a commutative idempotent monoid (ii) if a, a ∼ b ∈ F , then b ∈ F ;
(i.e. ∧–semilattice with top element “1” ); (iii) If a, b ∈ F , then a ∧ b ∈ F ;
(E2) (E, ⊗, 1) is a monoid and ⊗ is isotone w.r.t. (iv) If a ∼ b ∈ F and b ∼ c ∈ F then a ∼ c ∈ F .
“≤” (where x ≤ y is defined as x ∧ y = x );
(E3) x ∼ x = 1; (reflexivity axiom) Definition 2.6. [17] Let E be an EQ–algebras. A fuzzy
(E4) ((x ∧ y) ∼ z) ⊗ (t ∼ x) ≤ z ∼ (t ∧ y); subset µ of E is called a fuzzy prefilter of E, if for all
(substitution axiom) x, y, z ∈ E:
(E5) (x ∼ y) ⊗ (z ∼ t) ≤ (x ∼ z) ∼ (y ∼ t);
(F H1) ν(1) ≥ ν(x);
(congruence axiom) 
(F H2) ν(y) ≥ ν (x ∧ y)∼y ∧ ν(x).
(E6) (x∧y ∧z) ∼ x ≤ (x∧y) ∼ x; (monotonicity
axiom) A fuzzy EQ–prefilter is called a fuzzy EQ–filter if it
(E7) x ⊗ y ≤ x ∼ y, (boundedness axiom). satisfies :
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 3

 
 ν (x∧y)∼y ≤ ν (x⊗z)∧(y⊗z) ∼(y⊗
(F H3) In a similar way IA (x) ≤ IA (y) and FA (x) ≥ FA (y)
z) . are obtained.
(v), (vi), (vii) By the previous items, for all x, y ∈
Definition 2.7. [16] Let X be a set. A single val- E, x ⊗ y ≤ x ∧ y implies that TA (x ⊗ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧
ued neutrosophic set A in X (SVN–S A) is a func- TA (y), IA (x ⊗ y) ≤ IA (x) ∧ IA (y) and FA (x ⊗ y) ≥
tion A : X → [0, 1] × [0, 1] × [0, 1] with the FA (x) ∨ FA (y).
form A = {(x, TA (x), IA (x), FA (x)) | x ∈ X} (viii), (ix), (x) Since (x ∼ y) ≤ (x → y), by the
where the functions TA , IA , FA define respectively previous items we get that TA (x → y) ≥ TA (x) ∧
the truth–membership function, an indeterminacy– TA (y), IA (x → y) ≥ IA (x) ∧ TA (y) and FA (x →
membership function, and a falsity–membership func- y) ≤ FA (x) ∨ FA (y).
tion of the element x ∈ X to the set A such that
0 ≤ TA (x) + IA (x) + FA (x) ≤ 3. Moreover, Example 3.3. Let E = {a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 }. Define
Supp(A) = {x | TA (x) 6= 0, IA (x) 6= 0, FA (x) 6= 0} operations “⊗, ∼” and “∧” on E as follows:
is a crisp set.
∧ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 ⊗ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1
3. Single–Valued Neutrosophic EQ–subalgebras a2 a1 a2 a2 a2 a2 a2 a2 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2
a3 a1 a2 a3 a3 a3 a3 , a3 a1 a1 a1 a1 a2 a3 and
In this section, we introduce the concept of single– a4 a1 a2 a3 a4 a4 a4 a4 a1 a1 a1 a2 a2 a4
valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebra and prove some a5 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a5 a5 a1 a1 a2 a2 a2 a5
their properties. a6 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a6 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6

Definition 3.1. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– ∼ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6


algebra. A map A in E, is called a single–valued neu-
trosophic EQ–subalgebra of E, if for all x, y ∈ E, a1 a6 a4 a3 a2 a1 a1
a2 a4 a6 a3 a2 a2 a2
(i) TA (x ∧ y) = TA (x) ∧ TA (y), IA (x ∧ y) = a3 a3 a3 a6 a3 a3 a3 .
IA (x) ∧ IA (y) and FA (x ∧ y) = FA (x) ∨ FA (y), a4 a2 a2 a3 a6 a4 a4
(ii) TA (x ∼ y) ≥ TA (x) ∧ TA (y), IA (x ∼ y) ≥ a5 a1 a2 a3 a4 a6 a5
IA (x)∧IA (y) and FA (x ∼ y) ≤ FA (x)∨FA (y). a6 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
From now on, when we say (E, A) is a single– Then E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, a6 ) is an EQ–algebra. Define
valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebra, means that E = a single valued neutrosophic set map A in E as fol-
(E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) is an EQ–algebra and A is a single– lows:
valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebra of E.
Theorem 3.2. Let (E, A) be a single–valued neutro- TA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
sophic EQ–subalgebra. Then for all x, y ∈ H, ,
0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77
(i) if x ≤ y, then TA (x) ≤ TA (y),
IA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
(ii) if x ≤ y, then IA (x) ≤ IA (y),
0.21 0.31 0.41 0.51 0.61 0.71
(iii) if x ≤ y, then FA (x) ≥ FA (y),
(iv) TA (x) ≤ TA (1), IA (x) ≤ IA (1) and FA (x) ≥ and
FA (1), FA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
(v) TA (x ⊗ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (y), 0.98 0.88 0.78 0.68 0.58 0.48
(vi) IA (x ⊗ y) ≤ IA (x) ∧ TA (y),
(vii) FA (x ⊗ y) ≥ FA (x) ∨ FA (y), Hence (A, E) is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
(viii) TA (x → y) ≥ TA (x) ∧ TA (y), subalgebra.
(ix) IA (x → y) ≥ IA (x) ∧ IA (y), Corollary 3.4. Let (E, A) be a single–valued neutro-
(x) FA (x → y) ≤ FA (x) ∨ FA (y). sophic EQ–subalgebra. Then for all x, y ∈ H,
Proof. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Let x, y ∈ E. Since x ≤ y, (i) if x ≤ y, then TA (y → x) = TA (x ∼ y),
we get that x ∧ y = x and so TA (x) ∧ TA (y) = (ii) if x ≤ y, then IA (y → x) = IA (x ∼ y),
TA (x ∧ y) = TA (x). It follows that TA (x) ≤ TA (y). (iii) if x ≤ y, then FA (y → x) = FA (x ∼ y).
4 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

3.1. Single–Valued Neutrosophic EQ–prefilters (ii) ∧{TA (1), TA (1 → y)} = TA (y),


∨{IA (1), IA (1 → y)} = IA (y),
(iii) ∧{TA (y), TA (y → 1)} = TA (y),
In this section, we introduce the concept of single– ∨{IA (y), IA (y → 1)} = IA (y),
valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters and show how to (iv) ∧{TA (y), TA (y → y)} = TA (y),
construct of single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters. ∨{IA (y), IA (y → y)} = IA (y),
(v) TA (0) ≤ TA (1) and IA (1) ≤ IA (0),
Definition 3.5. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– (vi) TA (x) ≤ TA (y → x) and IA (x → y) ≥
algebra. A map A in E, is called a single–valued neu- IA (y),
trosophic EQ–prefilter of E, if for all x, y ∈ E, (vii) TA (x ⊗ y) ≤ TA (y ∼ x) and IA (x ⊗ y) ≥
(SV N F 1) TA (x) ≤ TA (1), IA (x) ≥ IA (1) and IA (y ∼ x).
FA (x) ≤ FA (1), Example 3.8. Let E = {a, b, c, d, 1}. Define opera-
(SV N F 2) ∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} ≤ TA (y), tions “⊗, ∼” and an operation “∧” on E as follows:
∨{IA (x), IA (x → y)} ≥ IA (y) and ∧{FA (x), FA
(x → y)} ≤ FA (y). ∧ab c d1 ⊗ab c d1 ∼abc d1
a aaaaa a aaaaa a 1baaa
In the following theorem, we will show that how to
b ab b b b , b a a a a b and b b 1b b b .
construct of single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters
c ab c c c c aaac c c ab1c c
in EQ–algebras.
d ab c dd d aaadd d abc 1d
Theorem 3.6. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– 1 ab c d1 1 ab c d1 1 abc d1
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
Then E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) is an EQ–algebra and ob-
prefilter of E and x, y ∈ E.
tain the operation “→” as follows: Define a single val-
(i) If x ≤ y, then ∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} = ued neutrosophic set map A in E as follows:
TA (x), →abcd1
(ii) If x ≤ y, then ∨{IA (x), IA (x → y)} = IA (x),
(iii) If x ≤ y, then ∧{FA (x), FA (x → y)} = a 11111
FA (x), b b 1111 .
(iv) If x ≤ y, then TA (x) ≤ TA (y) and FA (x) ≤ c ab111
FA (y), d abc11
(v) If x ≤ y, then IA (y) ≤ IA (x). 1 abcd1

Proof. (i), (ii), (iii) Since x ≤ y we get that x → y = TA a b c d 1


1, so by definition, ∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} = TA (x), ,
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
∨{IA (x), IA (x → y)} = IA (x) and
∧{FA (x), FA (x → y)} = FA (x). FA a b c d 1
(iv) Since x ≤ y, by (i) we have ∧{TA (x), TA (x → 0.55 0.45 0.35 0.25 0.15
y)} = TA (x). So by definition we get TA (x) =
∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} ≤ TA (y). In a similar way and
x ≤ y implies that FA (x) ≤ FA (x). IA a b c d 1
(v) Since x ≤ y, by (ii) we have ∨{IA (x), IA (x → 0.17 0.27 0.37 0.47 0.57
y)} = IA (x). Thus by definition we get IA (y) ≤
Hence A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilter
∨{IA (x), IA (x → y)} = IA (x) and it follows that
of E.
IA (x) ≥ IA (y).
Theorem 3.9. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
Corollary 3.7. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– prefilter of E and x, y ∈ E. Then
prefilter of E and 0 ∈ E. If for every y ∈ E, 0 ∧ y = 0,
(i) ∧{TA (x), TA (x ∼ y)} ≤ TA (y) and (IA (x) ∨
then
IA (x ∼ y)) ≥ IA (y),
(i) ∧{TA (0), TA (0 → y)} = TA (0), (ii) ∧{TA (x), TA (x ⊗ y)} ≤ TA (y) and (IA (x) ∨
∨{IA (0), IA (0 → y)} = IA (0), IA (x ⊗ y)) ≥ IA (y),
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 5

(iii) ∧{TA (x), TA (x ∧ y)} ≤ TA (y) and (IA (x) ∨ (iv) If x ≤ y, then IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∼ y) = IA (x) ∨
IA (x ∧ y)) ≥ IA (y), IA (y → x),
(iv) TA (x) ∧ TA (y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (x → y), (v) If x ≤ y, then IA (z) ∨ IA (z → x) = IA (x) ∨
(v) IA (x) ∨ IA (x → y) ≤ IA (x) ∨ IA (y), IA (z),
(vi) TA (x ⊗ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (x), (vi) If x ≤ y, then IA (x) ∨ IA (y → z) = IA (x) ∨
(vii) IA (x ⊗ y) ≥ IA (x) ∨ IA (x). IA (z).

Proof. (i), (ii), (iii) Let x, y ∈ E. Since x ∼ y ≤ Proof. (i) Let x, y ∈ E. Then x ≤ y follows that x ∼
x → y and TA ia a monotone map, we get that TA (x ∼ y = y → x and so TA (x) ∧ TA (x ∼ y) = TA (x) ∧
y) ≤ TA (x → y). Hence TA (y → x).
∧{TA (x), TA (x ∼ y)} ≤ ∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} (ii) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Since z → x ≤ z → y, we
get that TA (z → x) ≤ TA (z → y) and so TA (z) ∧
≤ TA (y). TA (z → x) ≤ TA (z) ∧ TA (z → y) ≤ TA (y).
In addition, since IA is an antimonotone map, x ∼ y ≤ (iii) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Since y → z ≤ x → z,
x → y concludes that IA (x ∼ y) ≥ IA (x → y). we get that TA (y → z) ≤ TA (x → z) and so
Hence ∨{IA (x), IA (x ∼ y)} ≥ ∨{IA (x), IA (x → TA (x) ∧ TA (y → z) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (x → z) ≤ TA (z).
y)} ≥ IA (y). In a similar way x ∧ y ≤ y and x ⊗ y ≤ Moreover, z ≤ y → z implies that TA (z) ≤ TA (y →
x → y, imply that ∧{TA (x), TA (x ⊗ y)} ≤ TA (y), z), hence TA (z) ∧ TA (x) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (y → z) ≤
∧{TA (x), TA (x∧y)} ≤ TA (y), (IA (x)∨IA (x⊗y)) ≥ TA (z) ∧ TA (x) and so TA (x) ∧ TA (y → z) = TA (z) ∧
IA (y) and (IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∧ y)) ≥ IA (y). TA (x).
(iv), (v) Let x, y ∈ E. Since y ≤ (x → y), we get (v) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Since z → x ≤ z → y, we get
that that IA (z → y) ≤ IA (z → x) and so IA (z) ∨ IA (z →
y) ≤ IA (z) ∨ IA (z → x). Moreover, x ≤ y implies
(TA (x) ∧ TA (y)) ≤ (TA (x) ∧ TA (x → y)) ≤ TA (y). that IA (x) ∨ IA (y) = IA (x), hence by Theorem 3.9,
IA (z) ∨ IA (x) ∨ IA (y) ≤ IA (z) ∨ IA (z → x) ≤
In a similar way we conclude that IA (y) ≤ (IA (x) ∨ TA (x) ∨ IA (z) and so TA (z) ∧ IA (z → x) = IA (z) ∨
IA (x → y)) ≤ IA (x) ∨ IA (y). IA (x).
(vi), (vii) Since x ⊗ y ≤ (x ∧ y) and TA is a mono- (iv) and (vi) in a similar way are obtained.
tone map, then we get that TA (x ⊗ y) ≤ TA (x ∧ y) ≤
TA (x) ∧ TA (y). In a similar way since IA is an anti- Corollary 3.12. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
monotone map, then we get that IA (x ⊗ y) ≥ TA (x ∧ algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
y) ≥ IA (x) ∨ IA (y). prefilter of E and x, y, z ∈ E.
(i) If x ≤ y, then FA (x) ∧ FA (x ∼ y) = FA (x) ∧
Corollary 3.10. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– FA (y → x),
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
(ii) If x ≤ y, then FA (z) ∧ FA (z → x) = FA (x) ∧
prefilter of E and x, y ∈ E. Then
FA (z),
(i) ∧{FA (x), FA (x ∼ y)} ≤ FA (y), (iii) If x ≤ y, then FA (x)∧FA (y → z) = FA (x)∧
(ii) ∧{FA (x), FA (x ⊗ y)} ≤ FA (y), FA (z).
(iii) ∧{FA (x), FA (x ∧ y)} ≤ FA (y),
Theorem 3.13. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
(iv) FA (x) ∧ FA (y) ≤ FA (x) ∧ FA (x → y),
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
(v) FA (x ⊗ y) ≤ FA (x) ∧ FA (x).
prefilter of E and x, y, z ∈ E. Then
Theorem 3.11. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
(i) TA (x ∧ y) = TA (x) ∧ TA (y),
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
(ii) TA (x) ∧ TA (x ∼ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (y),
prefilter of E and x, y, z ∈ E.
(i) If x ≤ y, then TA (x) ∧ TA (x ∼ y) = TA (x) ∧ Proof. (i) Since TA is a monotone map, x ∧ y ≤ x and
TA (y → x), x ∧ y ≤ y, we obtain TA (x ∧ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (y). In
(ii) If x ≤ y, then TA (z) ∧ TA (z → x) ≤ TA (y), addition from y ≤ x → (x ∧ y) and Theorem 3.9, we
(iii) If x ≤ y, then TA (x)∧TA (y → z) = TA (x)∧ conclude that TA (x)∧TA (y) ≤ (TA (x)∧TA (x → (x∧
TA (z), y))) ≤ TA (x∧y). Hence TA (x∧y) = TA (x)∧TA (y).
6 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

(ii) Let x, y ∈ E. Then by Theorem 3.9, TA (x) ∧ (SV N F 1) TA (x) ≤ TA (1), IA (x) ≥ IA (1) and
TA (x ∼ y) ≤ TA (y). Since x ∼ y = y ∼ x, we obtain FA (x) ≤ FA (1),
TA (x) ∧ TA (x ∼ y) = TA (x) ∧ TA (y ∼ x) ≤ TA (x). (SV N F 2) ∧{TA (x), TA (x → y)} ≤ TA (y),
So TA (x) ∧ TA (x ∼ y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (y). ∨ {IA (x), IA (x → y)} ≥ IA (y) and
∧{FA (x), FA (x → y)} ≤ FA (y),
(SV N F 3) TA (x → y) ≤ TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗
Corollary 3.14. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– z)), IA (x → y) ≥ IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)), and
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– FA (x → y) ≤ FA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)).
prefilter of E and x, y, z ∈ E. Then
In the following theorem, we will show that how to
(i) FA (x ∧ y) = FA (x) ∧ FA (y), construct of single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters
(ii) FA (x) ∧ FA (x ∼ y) ≤ FA (x) ∧ FA (y), in EQ–algebras.
Theorem 3.15. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– Theorem 4.2. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
prefilter of E and x, y ∈ E. Then of E and x, y ∈ E.
(i) IA (x ∧ y) = IA (x) ∨ IA (y), (i) If TA (x → y) = TA (1), then for every z ∈ E,
(ii) IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∼ y) ≥ IA (x ∧ y), TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) = TA (x → y).
(ii) If x ≤ y, then for every z ∈ E, TA ((x ⊗ z) →
Proof. (i) Since IA is an antimonotone map, x∧y ≤ x (y ⊗ z)) = TA (x → y).
and x ∧ y ≤ y, we obtain IA (x ∧ y) ≥ IA (x) ∨ IA (y). (iii) If TA (x → y) = TA (0), then for every z ∈ E,
In addition from y ≤ x → (x ∧ y), we conclude that TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≥ TA (x → y).
(iv) If IA (x → y) = IA (1), then for every z ∈ E,
IA (x)∨IA (y) ≥ (IA (x)∨IA (x → (x∧y))) ≥ IA (x∧y). IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) = IA (x → y).
(v) If x ≤ y, then for every z ∈ E, IA ((x ⊗ z) →
Hence IA (x ∧ y) = IA (x) ∨ IA (y). (y ⊗ z)) = IA (x → y).
(ii) Let x, y ∈ E. Then, IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∼ y) ≥ (vi) If IA (x → y) = IA (0), then for every z ∈ E,
IA (y). Since x ∼ y = y ∼ x, we obtain IA (x) ∨ IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≤ IA (x → y).
IA (x ∼ y) = IA (x)∨IA (y ∼ x) ≥ IA (x). So IA (x)∨
IA (x ∼ y) ≥ IA (x) ∨ IA (y). Proof. (i), (iii), (iv) and (vi) by definition are ob-
tained.
(ii) Since x ≤ y we get that x → y = 1 and by
Corollary 3.16. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– definition x ⊗ z ≤ y ⊗ z. Hence by item (i), we have
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) = TA (x → y).
prefilter of E and x, y ∈ E. Then x = y, implies that (v) It is similar to the item (ii).
IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∼ y) = IA (x ∧ y).
In Example 3.8, for x = a and y = d, we have
IA (x) ∨ IA (x ∼ y) = IA (x ∧ y), while x 6= y. Corollary 4.3. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
prefilter of E and 0, x, y, z ∈ E. If for every y ∈
E, 0 ∧ y = 0, Then
4. Single–Valued Neutrosophic EQ–filters
(i) TA (0 → y) = TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)),
(ii) TA (x → x) = TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)),
In this section, we introduce the concept of single– (iii) TA (x → 1) = TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)),
valued neutrosophic EQ–filters as generalization of (iv) IA (0 → y) = IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)),
single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters and prove (v) IA (x → x) = IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)),
some their properties. (vi) IA (x → 1) = IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)).
Definition 4.1. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– Corollary 4.4. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
algebra. A map A in E, is called a single–valued neu- algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
trosophic EQ–filter of E, if for all x, y, z ∈ E, of E and x, y ∈ E.
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 7

(i) If FA (x → y) = FA (1), then for every z ∈ E, (vi) IA (x ∼ y) ≥ IA (y → x),


FA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) = FA (x → y), (vii) IA (z) ∨ IA (y) ≥ IA (x → z),
(ii) If x ≤ y, then for every z ∈ E, FA ((x ⊗ z) → (viii) IA (x ∼ y) ∨ IA (y ∼ z) ≥ IA (x ∼ z).
(y ⊗ z)) = FA (x → y).
(iii) If FA (x → y) = FA (0), then for every z ∈ E, Proof. (i) Let x, y ∈ E. Since A is a single–valued
FA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≥ FA (x → y). neutrosophic EQ–filter of E, we get that

Example 4.5. Let E = {0, a, b, c, 1}. Define opera- TA (1 → y) ≤ TA ((1 ⊗ x) → (y ⊗ x))


tions “⊗, ∼” and an operation “∧” on E as follows: = TA (x → (y ⊗ x)).
∧0ab c 1 ⊗0abc 1 ∼0ab c 1 In addition by the item (SV N F 2), we have
0 000 0 0 0 00000 0 10000
a 0aa a a , a 0 0 0 a a and a 01aaa . TA (x) ∧ TA (x → (y ⊗ x)) ≤ TA (y ⊗ x).
b 0ab −b b 0abab b 0a1ab
c 0a−c c c 000c c c 0aa1c Hence
1 0ab c 1 1 0abc 1 1 0ab c 1
TA (x) ∧ TA (y) ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (1 → y) ≤ TA (y ⊗ x).
Then E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) is an EQ–algebra, where b
and c are non-comparable. Now, obtain the operation We apply Theorem 3.9 and obtain TA (x) ∧ TA (y) =
“→” as follows: TA (y ⊗ x).
(ii) Let x, y ∈ E. By item (SV N F 2), we have
→0abc1
0 11111 IA (1 → y) ≥ IA (1 ⊗ x) → (y ⊗ x).
a 01111 .
b 0a1c1 Then IA (x) ∨ IA (1 → y) ≥ IA (x) ∨ IA (x → (y ⊗
c 0ab11 x)) ≥ IA (y ⊗ x). It follows that IA (x) ∨ IA (y) ≥
1 0abc1 IA (x) ∨ IA (1 → y) ≥ IA (y ⊗ x). Therefore, Theorem
3.9 implies that IA (x) ∨ IA (y) = IA (y ⊗ x).
Define a single valued neutrosophic set map A in E as (iii) Let x, y ∈ E. Then x ∼ y ≤ (x → y) ∧ (y →
follows: x) implies that TA (x ∼ y) ≤ TA (y → x).
(iv) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Since (x → y) ⊗ (y → z) ≤
(x → z), by item (i), we get that
TA 0 a b c 1
, TA (y) ∧ TA (z) ≤ TA (x → y) ∧ TA (y → z)
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5
= TA ((x → y) ⊗ (y → z))
IA 0 a b c 1
≤ TA (x → z).
0.62 0.62 0.62 0.62 0.11
(v) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Since (x ∼ y)⊗(y ∼ z) ≤ x ∼
and
z, we get that TA ((x ∼ y) ⊗ (y ∼ z)) ≤ TA (x ∼ z).
FA 0 a b c 1 Now by item (i), we get that TA (x ∼ y) ∧ TA (y ∼
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.6 z) = TA ((x ∼ y)⊗(y ∼ z)) ≤ TA (x ∼ z). (vi), (vii)
Hence A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of and (viii) in a similar way are obtained.
E.
Example 4.7. Consider the EQ–algebra and the
Theorem 4.6. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilter A of E which
algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter are defined in Example 3.8. Since 0.1 = TA (a) =
of E and x, y ∈ E. Then TA (d ⊗ c) 6= 0.3 = 0.4 ∧ 0.3 = TA (d) ∧ TA (c), we
conclude that A is not a single–valued neutrosophic
(i) TA (x ⊗ y) = TA (x) ∧ TA (y),
EQ–filter A of E.
(ii) IA (x ⊗ y) = IA (x) ∨ IA (y),
(iii) TA (x ∼ y) ≤ TA (y → x), Corollary 4.8. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
(iv) TA (z) ∧ TA (y) ≤ TA (x → z), algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
(v) TA (x ∼ y) ∧ TA (y ∼ z) ≤ TA (x ∼ z), of E and x, y, z ∈ E. Then
8 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

(i) F (x ⊗ y) = FA (x) ∧ FA (y), Let x, y, z ∈ E. Then


(ii) FA (x ∼ y) ≤ FA (y → x), \ ^
( TAi )(x → y) = TAi (x → y)
(iii) FA (z) ∧ FA (y) ≤ FA (x → z),
i∈I i∈I
(iv) FA (x ∼ y) ∧ FA (y ∼ z) ≤ FA (x ∼ z). ^
≤ TAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)
i∈I
4.1. Special single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters
\
= TAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z),
i∈I

In this section, we apply the concept of homomor-


\ ^
( FAi )(x → y) = FAi (x → y)
phisms and (α, β, γ)–level sets to construct of single– i∈I i∈I
valued neutrosophic EQ–filters. ^
≤ FAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)
Theorem 4.9. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– i∈I

algebra and {Ai = (TAi , FAi , IAi )}i∈I be a family


\
= IAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z) and
\single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filters of E. Then
of i∈I
Ai is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E. \ ^
i∈I ( IAi )(x → y) = IAi (x → y)
i∈I i∈I
^
Proof. Let x ∈ E, then for any i ∈ I, TAi (x) ≤ ≤ IAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)
i∈I
T\ ≤ FAi (1), IAi (x) ≥ \
Ai (1), FAi (x) ^ IAi (1) and so
\
( TAi )(x) = TAi (x) ≤ TAi (1), ( FAi )(x) = = IAi (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z).
i∈I i∈I i∈I i∈I
^ \ ^
FAi (x) ≤ FAi (1) and ( IAi )(x) = IAi (x) ≥ \
Thus Ai is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
i∈I i∈I i∈I
IAi (1). Let x, y ∈ E. Then i∈I
of E.

Definition 4.10. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–


\ \
( TAi )(x) ∧ ( TAi )(x → y)
i∈I i∈I algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
^ ^ ^ of E and α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1]. Consider TAα = {x ∈
= TAi (x) ∧ TAi (x → y) ≤ TAi (y) E | TA (x) ≥ α}, FAβ = {x ∈ E | FA (x) ≥ β},
γ
i∈I i∈I i∈I IA = {x ∈ E | TA (x) ≤ γ} and define A(α,β,γ) =
{x ∈ E | TA (x) ≥ α, FA (x) ≥ β, IA (x) ≤ γ}.
\
= TAi (y),
i∈I
For any α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1] the set A(α,β,γ) is called an
\ \ (α, β, γ)-level set.
( FAi )(x) ∧ ( FAi )(x → y)
Example 4.11. Consider the EQ–algebra E = (E, ∧,
i∈I i∈I
^ ^ ^ ⊗, ∼, 1), single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter A of E
= FAi (x) ∧ FAi (x → y) ≤ FAi (y) which are defind in Example 4.5. If α = 0.3, β = 0.4
i∈I i∈I i∈I and γ = 0.5, then TAα = E, FAβ = {1}, IAγ
= {1} and
(α,β,γ)
\ A = {1}.
= FAi (y) and
i∈I Theorem 4.12. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
\ \ algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
( IAi )(x) ∨ ( IAi )(x → y) of E and α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1]. Then
i∈I i∈I
β
^ ^ ^ (i) A(α,β,γ) = TAα ∩ IA ∩ FAγ ,
= IAi (x) ∨ IAi (x → y) ≥ IAi (y) (ii) if ∅ 6= A(α,β,γ) , then A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter
i∈I i∈I i∈I
of E,
(ii) if A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter of E, then A is a
\
= IAi (y).
i∈I single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter in E.
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 9

Proof. (i) It is obtained by definition. and IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≥ γx→y = IA (x → y).


(ii) ∅ 6= A(α,β,γ) , implies that there exists x ∈ It follows that A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–
(α,β,γ) filter E.
A . By Theorem 3.6, we conclude that α ≤
TA (x) ≤ TA (1), β ≤ FA (x) ≤ FA (1) and γ ≥
IA (x) ≥ IA (1). Therefore, 1 ∈ A(α,β,γ) . Corollary 4.13. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
Let x ∈ A(α,β,γ) and x ≤ y. Since TA and FA are algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
monotone maps and IA is an antimonotone map, we 6 A(α,β,γ) .
of E, α, β, γ ∈ [0, 1] and ∅ =
get that α ≤ TA (x) ≤ TA (y), β ≤ FA (x) ≤ FA (y) (i) A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter of E if and only if A is
and γ ≥ IA (x) ≥ IA (y). Hence y ∈ A(α,β,γ) . a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter in E.
Let x ∈ A(α,β,γ) and x → y ∈ A(α,β,γ) . Since (ii) If GA = {x ∈ E | TA (1) = FA (1) =
A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E, by 1, IA (0) = 1}, then GA is an EQ–filter in E
definition we get that α ≤ TA (x) ∧ TA (x → y) ≤
Let A = (TA , FA , IA ) be a single–valued neutro-
TA (y), β ≤ FA (x) ∧ FA (x → y) ≤ FA (y) and γ ≥
sophic EQ–filter in E, α, α0 , β, β 0 , γ, γ 0 ∈ [0, 1] and
IA (x) ∨ IA (x → y) ≥ IA (y). So y ∈ A(α,β,γ) .
∅=6 H ⊆ E. ( Consider
Let x → y ∈ A(α,β,γ) and z ∈ E. Since A is a (
0
[α,α ] α if x ∈ H, [α,α0 ] β ifx ∈ H
single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E, by defini- TA,H = FA,H =
0
tion we get that α ≤ TA (x → y) ≤ TA ((x ⊗ z) → α otherwise, β 0 o.w,
(
(y ⊗ z)), γ ≥ IA (x → y) ≥ IA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) [α,α0 ] γ if x ∈ H,
and β ≤ FA (x → y) ≤ FA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)). and IA,H = Then we have the
γ 0 otherwise.
It follows that (x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z) ∈ A(α,β,γ) and so following corollary.
A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter of E.
(iii) Let x, y, z ∈ E. Consider αx = TA (x), βx = Corollary 4.14. Let A = (TA , FA , IA ) be a single–
FA (x) and γx = IA (x). Since A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter valued neutrosophic EQ–filter in E. Then
of E, then 1 ∈ A(α,β,γ) implies that [α,α0 ] [α,α0 ] [α,α0 ]
(i) TA,H , FA,G and IA,G are fuzzy subsets,
[α,α0 ]
TA (1) ≥ αx = TA (x), FA (1) ≥ βx = FA (x), (ii) TA,H is a fuzzy filter in E if and only if G is
an EQ–filter of E,
[α,α0 ]
IA (1) ≤ γx = IA (x). (iii) FA,H is a fuzzy filter in E if and only if G is
Let αx→y = TA (x → y), βx→y = FA (x → y), an EQ–filter of E,
[α,α0 ]
γx→y = IA (x → y), α = αx ∧ αx→y , β = βx ∧ βx→y (iv) IA,H is a fuzzy filter in E if and only if G is
and γ = γx ∨ γx→y . We have TA (x) = αx ≥ an EQ–filter of E.
α, TA (x → y) = αx→y ≥ α, FA (x) = βx ≥ Definition 4.15. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ–
β, FA (x → y) = βx→y ≥ β and IA (x) = γx ≤ algebra, A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
γ, IA (x → y) = γx→y ≤ γ, so x, x → y ∈ of E. Then A is said to be a normal single–valued neu-
A(α,β,γ) . Since A(α,β,γ) is an EQ–filter of E we get trosophic EQ–filter of E if there exists x, y, z ∈ E
y ∈ A(α,β,γ) . Thus we conclude that such that TA (x) = 1, IA (y) = 1 and FA (z) = 1.
TA (y) ≥ α = αx ∧ αx→y = TA (x) ∧ TA (x → y), Example 4.16. Consider the EQ–algebra E = (E, ∧,
⊗, ∼, 1), which is defind in Example 4.5. If Define a
FA (y) ≥ β = βx ∧ βx→y = FA (x) ∧ FA (x → y) single valued neutrosophic set map A in E as follows:
and IA (y) ≤ γ = γx ∨ γx→y = IA (x) ∨ IA (x → y).
We have TA (x → y) = αx→y ≥ αx→y , FA (x →
TA 0 a b c 1
y) = βx→y ≥ βx→y and IA (x → y) = γx→y ≤ ,
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 1
γx→y , so x → y ∈ A(αx→y ,βx→y ,γx→y ) . Since
A(αx→y ,βx→y ,γx→y ) is an EQ–filter of E we get x ⊗
z → y ⊗ z ∈ A(αx→y ,βx→y ,γx→y ) . Thus we conclude IA 0 a b c 1
that 1 1 1 1 0.11
and
TA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≥ αx→y = TA (x → y),
FA 0 a b c 1
FA ((x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) ≥ βx→y = FA (x → y) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1
10 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

Hence A is a normal single–valued neutrosophic EQ– sume that x, y ∈ E. Using (SV N F 2), we get that
filter of E.
Theorem 4.17. Let E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) be an EQ– 1
TA+p (x) ∧ TA+p (x → y) = (p + TA (x) − TA (1))
algebra and A be a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– p
filter of E. Then A is a normal single–valued neu- 1
trosophic EQ–filter of E if and only if TA (1) = ∧ (p + TA (x → y) − TA (1))
p
1, FA (1) = 1 and IA (0) = 1.
1
= (p + TA (x) − TA (1))
Proof. By Corollary 3.7, it is straightforward. p

∧ (p + TA (x → y) − TA (1))
Corollary 4.18. Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single– 1
= ((p ∧ p) + (TA (x) ∧ TA (x → y))
valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E. Then p

(i) A is a normal single–valued neutrosophic EQ– − (TA (1) ∧ TA (1))
filter of E if and only if TA , FA and IA are normal 1
fuzzy subset. ≤ (p + TA (y) − TA (1)) = TA+p (y).
p
(ii) If there exists a sequence {(xn , yn , zn )}∞n=1 of
elements E in such a way that
Suppose that x, y, z ∈ E. Using (SV N F 3), we get
{(TA (xn ), IA (yn ), FA (zn ))} → (1, 1, 1), that

then A(1, 0, 1) = (1, 1, 1). 1


TA+p (x → y) = (p + TA (x → y) − TA (1))
Corollary 4.19. Let {Ai = (TAi , FAi , IAi )}i∈I be p
a family of normal \ single–valued neutrosophic EQ– 1
≤ (p + TA (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)
filters of E. Then Ai is a normal single–valued neu- p
i∈I
trosophic EQ–filter of E. − TA (1)) = TA+p (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z).

Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single–valued neutro-


sophic EQ–filter of E, x ∈ E and p ∈ [1, +∞). Con- Thus TA+p is an EQ–filter of E. In addition the equality
1 1
sider TA+p (x) = (p + TA (x) − TA (1)), TA+p (1) = (p + TA (1) − TA (1)) = 1, implies that
p p
1 TA+p is a normal EQ–filter of E.
FA+p (x) = (p + FA (x) − FA (1)) and IA +p
(x) =
p (ii) Let x ∈ E. Since IA (x) ≤ IA (0) we get
1 1
(p + IA (x) − IA (0)). that IA+p
(x) = (p + IA (x) − IA (0)) ≤ 1. Items
p p
Theorem 4.20. Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single– (SV N F 2) and (SV N F 3) are obtained similar to the
valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E. Then item (i).
(iii) Assume that x ∈ E. Then
(i) TA+p is a normal EQ–filter of E,
+p
(ii) IA is a normal EQ–filter of E,
(iii) (TA+p )+p = TA+p if and only if p = 1, 1
(TA+p )+p (x) = [ (p + TA (x) − TA (1))]+p
(iv) (IA+p +p
) = IA +p
if and only if p = 1, p
+p +p
(v) (TA ) = TA if and only if TA is normal 1 1
= [p + (p + TA (x) − TA (1))
EQ–filter, p p
+p +p
(vi) (IA ) = IA if and only if IA (0) = 1. 1
− (p + TA (1) − TA (1))]
p
Proof. (i) Let x ∈ E. Because TA (x) ≤ TA (1), then
1 1 1
we have TA+p (x) = (p + TA (x) − TA (1)) ≤ 1. As- = (p + (TA (x) − TA (1))).
p p p
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 11

So Hence A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilter


of E. Consider p = 3, then we obtain a single–valued
(TA+p )+p (x) = TA+p (x)
neutrosophic EQ–prefilter A+3 in E as follows:
1 1
⇐⇒ (p + (TA (x) − TA (1)))
p p
1 TA+3 0 a b c 1
= (p + TA (x) − TA (1)) ,
p 0.97 0.973 0.977 0.98 1
⇐⇒ p = 1. +3
IA 0 a b c 1
(iv) It is similar to (iii). 1 0.977 0.973 0.99 0.987
(v) Let x ∈ E. (TA+p )+p = TA if and only if
and
1 1
(p + (TA (x) − TA (1))) = TA (x) FA+3 0 a b c 1
p p .
0.987 0.99 0.993 0.997 1
⇐⇒ TA (1) = (1 − p2 )TA (x) + p2
Corollary 4.22. Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single–
⇐⇒ p = 1 ⇐⇒ TA (1) = 1. valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E. Then
(vi) It is similar to (v). (i) FA+p is a normal EQ–filter of E,
(ii) (FA+p )+p = FA+p if and only if p = 1,
Example 4.21. Let E = {0, a, b, c, 1}. Define opera-
(iii) (FA+p )+p = FA if and only if FA is normal
tions “⊗, ∼” and an operation “∧” on E as follows:
EQ–filter.
∧0ab c 1 ⊗0abc 1 ∼0abc 1
Corollary 4.23. Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single–
0 00000 0 00000 0 1c ba0 valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E. Then
a 0aaaa , a 0 0 0 0 a and a c1cba .
b 0ab b b b 000ab b b c 1c b (i) A+p = (TA+p , IA +p
, FA+p ) is a normal single–
c 0ab c c c 000ac c ab c1c valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E,
1 0ab c 1 1 0abc 1 1 0abc 1 (ii) (A+p )+p = A+p if and only if p = 1,
(ii) (A+p )+p = A if and only if A is a normal
Then E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, 1) is an EQ–algebra, where b single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter.
and c are non-comparable. Now, obtain the operation
“→” as follows: Proof. It is trivial by Theorem 4.20 and Corollary 4.22.
→0abc1
0 11111 Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single–valued neu-
a c 1111 . trosophic EQ–filter of E and g be an endomor-
b b c 111 phism on E. Now we define Ag = (TAg , IA g
, FAg )
g g
c ab c11 by TA (x) = TA (g(x)), FA (x) = FA (g(x)) and
g
1 0abc1 IA (x) = IA (g(x)).
Define a single valued neutrosophic set map A in E as Theorem 4.24. Let A = (TA , IA , FA ) be a single–
follows: valued neutrosophic EQ–filter of E and x, y ∈ E.
Then

TA 0 a b c 1 (i) if x ≤ y, then TAg (x) ≤ TAg (y), FAg (x) ≤ FAg (y)
, and IA g
(x) ≥ IAg
(y),
0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.5
g
(ii) A is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ–filter
of E,
IA 0 a b c 1 1
0.69 0.68 0.67 0.66 0.65 (iii) TA0 (x) = (TAg (x) + TA (x)) is a fuzzy filter
2
and in E,
1
FA 0 a b c 1 (iv) FA0 (x) = (FAg (x) + FA (x)) is a fuzzy filter
2
0.21 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 in E,
12 M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras

(v) A0g = (TA0 , IA


0
, FA0 ) is a single–valued neutro- E. Then we have
sophic EQ–filter of E.
TA0 (x) ∧ TA0 (x → y)
1
Proof. (i) Let x, y ∈ E. If x ≤ y, then g(x) ≤ g(y). It = (TAg (x) + TA (x))
2
follows that TAg (x) = TA (g(x)) ≤ TA (g(y)), FAg (x) = 1
FA (g(x)) ≤ FA (g(y)) and IA g
(x) = IA (g(x)) ≥ ∧ (TAg (x → y) + TA (x → y))
2
IA (g(y)).
1
(ii) Since g(x → y) = g(x) → g(y), we get that = (TAg (x) ∧ TAg (x → y))
2
1
TAg (x) ∧ TAg (x → y) + (TA (x) + TA (x → y))
2
= TA (g(x)) ∧ TA (g(x) → g(y)) 1
≤ (TAg (y) + TA (y)) = TA0 (y).
≤ TA (g(y)) = TAg (y), FAg (x) ∧ FAg (x → y) 2
We can show that FA0 (x) ∧ FA0 (x → y) ≤ FA0 (y) and
= FA (g(x)) ∧ FA (g(x) → g(y)) 0
IA 0
(x) ∨ IA (x → y) ≥ IA0
(y). Let x, y, z ∈ E. Then
≤ FA (g(y)) = FAg (y) 1 g
TA0 (x → y) = (T (x → y) + TA (x → y))
2 A
g g
and IA (x) ∨ IA (x → y) = IA (g(x)) ∨ IA (g(x) → 1
g(y)) ≤ IA (g(y)) = IAg
(y). = (TA (g(x → y)) + TA (x → y))
2
Let z ∈ E. Since g(x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z) = g(x ⊗ z) → 1
g(y ⊗ z), we get that ≤ (TA (g(x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)) + TA (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z))
2
1 g
TAg (x → y) = TA (g(x) → g(y)) = (TA ((x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)) + TA (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z))
2
≤ TA (g(x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)) = TA0 (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z).
= TA (g(x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) In a similar way can see that FA0 (x → y) ≤ FA0 (x ⊗
0 0
z → y ⊗ z) and IA (x → y) ≥ IA (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z).
= TAg (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z),
(v) It is obtained from previous items.
FAg (x → y) = FA (g(x) → g(y))
≤ FA (g(x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)) Example 4.25. Let E = {a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 }. De-
= FA (g(x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) fine operations “⊗, ∼” and “∧” on E as follows:

= FAg (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z), ∧ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 ⊗ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
g a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1
IA (x → y) = IA (g(x) → g(y))
a2 a1 a2 a2 a2 a2 a2 a2 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1
≥ IA (g(x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z)) a3 a1 a2 a3 a3 a3 a3 , a3 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 and
a4 a1 a2 a3 a4 a4 a4 a4 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1 a1
= IA (g(x ⊗ z) → (y ⊗ z)) a5 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a5 a5 a1 a1 a1 a1 a5 a5
g a6 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a6 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
= IA (x ⊗ z → y ⊗ z).

So by the item (i), Ag is a single–valued neutrosophic ∼ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6


EQ–filter of E. a1 a6 a6 a1 a1 a1 a1
(iii), (iv) Let x ∈ E. Since g(1) = 1, so TA (x) + a2 a6 a6 a1 a1 a1 a1
1 a3 a1 a1 a6 a4 a4 a4 .
TA (g(x)) ≤ 2 implies that TA0 (x) = (TAg (x) +
2 a4 a1 a1 a4 a6 a4 a4
TA (x)) ≤ TA0 (1). In a similar way FA0 (x) ≤ FA0 (1) a5 a1 a1 a4 a4 a6 a5
0 0
and IA (x) ≥ IA (1) are obtained. Suppose that x, y ∈ a6 a1 a1 a4 a4 a5 a6
M. Hamidi, A. Borumand Saeid and F. Smarandache / Single–Valued Neutrosophic Filters in EQ–algebras 13

Now, we obtain the operation “→” as follows: and


0g
→ a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 IA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
.
a1 a6 a6 a6 a6 a6 a6 0.61 0.565 0.52 0.475 0.25 0.16
a2 a6 a6 a6 a6 a6 a6
a3 a1 a1 a6 a6 a6 a6 .
a4 a1 a1 a4 a6 a6 a6 5. Conclusion
a5 a1 a1 a4 a4 a6 a6
a6 a1 a1 a4 a4 a5 a6 The current paper considered the concept of single–
valued neutrosophic EQ–algebras and introduce the
Then E = (E, ∧, ⊗, ∼, a6 ) is an EQ–algebra. Let g ∈ concepts single–valued neutrosophic EQ–subalgebras,
End(E). Clearly g(a6 ) = a6 . Since for any 1 ≤ i ≤ single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters and single–
4, 1 ≤ j ≤ 6, g(a1 ) = g(ai ⊗ aj ) = g(ai ) ⊗ g(aj ). valued neutrosophic EQ–filters.
So a1 = g(a1 ) = g(a5 ∼ a2 ) = g(a5 ) ∼ g(a2 ) =
g(a5 ) ∼ a1 = a1 implies that g(a5 ) = a1 . Hence (i) It is showed that single–valued neutrosophic
define a single valued neutrosophic set map A in E EQ–subalgebras preserve some binary relation
and a map g on E as follows: on EQ–algebras under some conditions.
(ii) Using the some properties of single–valued
neutrosophic EQ–prefilters, we construct new
TA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters.
,
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 (iii) We considered that single–valued neutrosophic
EQ–filters as generalisation of single–valued
FA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
, neutrosophic EQ–prefilters and constructed them.
0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16
(iv) We connected the concept of EQ–prefilters
to single–valued neutrosophic EQ–prefilters and
IA a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6
the concept of EQ–filters to single–valued neu-
0.61 0.52 0.43 0.34 0.25 0.16 trosophic EQ–filters, so we obtained such struc-
and tures from this connection.
g a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 Acknowledgments The authors would like to express
.
a1 a1 a1 a1 a5 a6 their gratitude to anonymous referees for their com-
Hence (A, E) is a single–valued neutrosophic EQ– ments and suggestions which improved the paper.
prefilter. Now, we obtain a single valued neutrosophic
EQ–prefilter Ag in E follows:
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