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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

Concrete is a composite material that consists of cement, fine aggregate, coarse


aggregate and water. The strength and fire resistance of concrete mainly depends on
coarse aggregate, which is facing a severe problem of scarcity due to several reasons.
Many investigations by researchers have been reported on the replacement of coarse
aggregate with recycled aggregates. The mechanical properties of such recycled
aggregate concrete at high temperatures are still being investigated. This chapter
presents a comprehensive review on the usage of recycled aggregate in concrete and its
performance when exposed to high temperatures.

2.2 BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AT ROOM


TEMPERATURE

Tam et al. (2005) attempted to improve the quality of recycled aggregate by Two Stage
Mixing Approach (TSMA) and analysed the micro structure of recycled aggregate
concrete produced from TSMA. The authors reported that the water absorption of
recycled coarse aggregate decreased with the increase in size of coarse aggregate which
contradictory to the water absorption of virgin aggregate. The higher water absorption
of 10mm than 20mm size recycled aggregate was attributed to the higher adhered
mortar. The authors compared the performance of concrete made with Normal Mixing
Approach (NMA) and TSMA by studying its compressive strength at 7, 14, 28 and 56
days. The virgin aggregate was replaced with recycled aggregate in percentages of 0,
10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. An increase in compressive strength was found by authors in case
of TSMA when compared to NMA. This improvement in strength might be attributed
to the premix process that fills up some of the pores resulting into a denser concrete.

Barra et al. (1996) studied the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete
by varying the degree of saturation of the aggregate. The recycled aggregate was used
in dry, semi-saturated and saturated conditions. The authors reported that the strength

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of recycled aggregate was almost same as that of conventional concrete. They
concluded that the semi saturated recycled aggregate performed better that the dry and
completely saturated aggregate. This higher performance of semi saturated recycled
aggregate concrete was more pronounced in flexural strength when compared to
compressive strength.

Amnon Katz et al. (2003) studied the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate
concrete by replacing 100% virgin aggregates with recycled aggregates. The recycled
aggregate was crushed at different ages to study their properties such as bulk specific
gravity, bulk density, absorption and adhered cement percentage. A comparative study
was made between the mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete and granite
aggregate concrete. The author reported that the properties of recycled aggregate were
independent of the crushing age. A compressive reduction of about 25% with ordinary
portland cement and a reduction of 30 to 40% with white portland cement was reported
at the same water cement ratio. The flexural strength, splitting strength, absorption and
drying shrinkage were not affected by the replacement. The author concluded that the
concrete made with recycled aggregate was inferior to granite aggregate concrete.

Poon et al. (2004) investigated the properties of fresh and hardened recycled aggregate
concretes in air dried (AD), oven dried (OD) and saturated surface dry (SSD)
conditions. The authors reported lesser values of bulk density & strength and higher
values of water absorption & porosity for recycled aggregate compared to granite
aggregate. The mechanical properties of three different mixes were also discussed with
the replacement ratios of 20%, 50% and 100%. These properties were compared with
100% crushed granite aggregate concrete. No significant loss in slump and compressive
strength was observed between the crushed granite aggregate concrete and recycled
aggregate concrete when aggregate were used in AD & SSD condition. The authors
concluded that the compressive strength of the recycled concrete with 50% replacement
of AD aggregate exhibited higher compressive strength than that of the OD & SSD
aggregate. This inferior performance of OD & SSD aggregate may be attributed to the
high water absorption of OD aggregate and bleeding of SSD aggregate.

Etxeberria et al. (2007) studied the mechanical properties such as compressive


strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of concrete with different percentage

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replacements of recycled aggregates. The original aggregates were replaced with
recycled aggregates in percentages of 25, 50, 75 and 100 and compressive strength was
measured. The authors found that the compressive strength at 100% replacement was
20-25% lesser than that of the conventional concrete. They concluded that the same
mechanical properties as that of conventional medium strength concrete were achieved
with the replacement of 25% recycled aggregate by maintaining the same effective
water/cement ratio. Beyond 25% replacement, a rapid decrease of strength was found.
The authors also suggested to increase the cement content by 5 to 10% to maintain the
same strength at replacement of recycled aggregate between 50 to 100%.

The mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete were also studied by Rahal
(2007) and the results obtained were compared with the normal aggregate concrete. The
concrete mixes were prepared to achieve the strengths of 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50Mpa.
The water absorption of recycled aggregate was 78.38% more and the specific gravity
was 16.43% less than that of the granite aggregate. The author reported that the
compressive strengths of recycled aggregate concrete was same for all the mixes except
for 40 and 50Mpa. The granite aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete
exhibited higher compressive strength of 3% and 5% respectively at 56 days compared
to 28 day compressive strength. The author concluded that the compressive strength
and indirect shear strength of recycled aggregate concrete retained about 90% of its
granite aggregate concrete strengths at the age of 28 days.

Padmini et al. (2009) investigated the properties of recycled aggregate concrete by


extracting these aggregates from three different grades (M15, M25, M35) of parent
concrete. The influence of the different parent concretes on the properties of recycled
aggregate concrete was discussed. Each grade of parent concrete was made with three
different sizes of aggregate such as 10mm, 20mm, and 40mm. The recycled aggregate
was prepared from these nine types of parent concrete and the same sized aggregate
were stacked together to use in the present study. The authors observed that the water
absorption of recycled aggregate increased with the increase in grade of parent concrete
and decreased with increase in size of recycled aggregate. The bulk density also
followed the same trend as that of water absorption. The authors concluded that a lower
water cement ratio and a higher cement content was required to achieve the same design
compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete as that of fresh granite concrete.

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They also concluded that the target strength increased with the increase in size of
aggregate.

Sami et al. (2009) investigated the effect of quality of recycled aggregate on strength
properties of recycled aggregate concrete. The recycled aggregate were collected from
two sources: i) crushed concrete cubes of strength 30Mpa and 50Mpa from laboratory
and ii) unknown source. The toughness, soundness, compressive strength and the
tensile strength were discussed. The authors reported that the toughness value was well
within the limits suitable for structural concrete irrespective of the origin of recycled
aggregate. They concluded that the compressive and tensile strengths of recycled
aggregate concrete made with aggregate derived from higher grade of concrete (50Mpa)
was comparable to the granite aggregate concrete.

Safiuddin et al. (2011) conducted experiments to emphasize the effects of recycled


coarse aggregate on fresh and hardened properties of high workability concrete. The
properties such as slump, slump flow, compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths,
and modulus of elasticity were studied. The specific gravity and bulk density of
recycled aggregate were lower and water absorption, moisture content, angularity
number and impact value were higher than that of natural aggregate. The natural
aggregate was substituted by recycled aggregate in percentages of 30, 50, 70 and 100%.
The authors reported that the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete was
comparable to that of the natural aggregate concrete at all replacement levels except for
100% replacement. The reduction in compressive strength at 28 days for 100%
replacement was reported as 12.2%. This lower strength loss of recycled aggregate
concrete may be attributed to the better interfacial bond due to the rough surface of
recycled aggregate and more angularity than natural aggregate. The flexural strength
loss of recycled aggregate concrete was also about 17.3% only when compared to
natural aggregate which may be attributed to the same reasons as that of compressive
strength. The splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity also were not affected
by replacement of recycled aggregate and were comparable to natural aggregate. The
authors concluded that the properties of recycled aggregate concrete were within the
acceptable limits and hence it can be can be used in producing concrete.

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Kwan et al. (2012) examined the influence of amount of replacement of recycled
aggregate on mechanical properties such as compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse
velocity (UPV), shrinkage, water absorption and intrinsic permeability. The natural
coarse aggregate was replaced with recycled aggregate in percentages of 15, 30, 60 and
80. The minimum strength loss was observed at 15% replacement level and the
maximum was observed at 80% replacement level. The authors reported that, even
though a reduction in strength occurred till 80% replacement, the strength reduction
was in acceptable limits when the DoE mix design method was adopted. The expansion
of recycled aggregate increases with the percentage replacement and with the age. The
highest expansion of 64.8% was observed at replacement of 80% at 56 days. The UPV
Value decreased with the increase in replacement level. The water absorption of
recycled aggregate concrete increased with the increase in replacement level. The
highest expansion, lowest UPV value and highest water absorption of recycled
aggregate concrete at 80% replacement may be attributed to the higher water absorption
of recycled aggregate. The authors concluded that the compressive strength decreases
with the increase in percentage replacement.

Akbarnezhad et al. (2013) reported the effect of the strength of the parent concrete,
size of the natural aggregates used in the parent concrete, and the number of crushing
stages on the properties of coarse recycled concrete aggregates. Three grades of parent
concrete M30, M60 and M90 were passed through two stages of crushing to obtain the
recycled aggregate. The authors found an increase in mortar content with an increase
in parent grade concrete irrespective of the size of recycled aggregate produced and
number of crushing stages. The authors concluded that the strength of recycled
aggregate concrete was not affected by the mortar content.

Nyok et al. (2013) investigated the usage of recycled aggregate in structural


applications. The compressive strength, elastic modulus, drying shrinkage of recycled
aggregate concrete were compared with natural aggregate concrete. The authors
reported that the higher water absorption of recycled aggregate may be attributed to the
higher attached mortar content. The compressive strength, elastic modulus, drying
shrinkage were studied by replacing the natural aggregate with recycled aggregate in
percentages of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100. The water cement ratios of 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, 0.53
and 0.67 were adopted at all the replacements. The authors found that the density of

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recycled aggregate concrete decreased with the increase in replacement level at all
water cement ratios and may be attributed to the lower density of recycled aggregate
relative to natural aggregate. The authors concluded that the compressive strength of
recycled aggregate concrete increased up to 40% replacement and the drying shrinkage
was increased for all replacements at all water cement ratios.

Casuccio et al. (2007) discussed the failure mechanism of recycled aggregate concrete
(RAC) by replacing the natural aggregate with two different types of recycled
aggregates prepared from a normal strength and high strength concretes .The failure
mechanism in RAC may be affected by the difference in the characteristics of interfacial
transition zone between cement paste and aggregate. The author concluded that the
elastic compatibility between concrete phases increased due to the increase in bond
strength and the reduction in stiffness when the natural coarse aggregate was replaced
by recycled aggregate.

Cui et al. (2014) conducted experimental work to study the influence of water
absorption of recycled coarse aggregate on the properties of recycled aggregate
concrete such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage and water
permeability. The recycled aggregate concretes were prepared with recycled coarse
aggregates having different 24 hour water absorptions of 5.67, 3.12, and 1.98%. The
surface of the recycled coarse aggregate was treated with low and high concentration
of alkaline organosilicon modifier to reduce the water absorption. The initial water
absorption of recycled aggregate concrete was reduced by surface modification method.
The coating of the recycled aggregate does not affect the properties of concrete. The
author concluded that the water absorption of recycled coarse aggregate was the main
factor influencing the properties of concrete and can be maintained by surface
modification. This method also reduced the slump loss in fresh concrete resulting in
consistent mix.

Revathi et al. (2015) compared the effect of chemical and mechanical treatments to
reduce the attached mortar of recycled aggregate. The concrete mixes were prepared
with chemically treated aggregate (using HCl solution and H2SO4 solution),
mechanically treated aggregate (using scrubbing treatment and scrubbing & heating
treatment), aggregate without any treatment and natural aggregate. The authors studied

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the physical and mechanical properties of these six types of aggregate and their
performance of recycled aggregate concrete. The authors reported that the physical and
mechanical properties of recycled aggregate were improved after chemical and
mechanical treatments. The concrete made out of these treated aggregates are able to
achieve strength and performance characteristics on par with natural aggregate. The
authors concluded that the concrete made with recycled aggregates treated with H2SO4
and heating and scrubbing treatment was performed as good as that of natural aggregate
concrete.

Liang et al. (2015) studied different pre-treatment methods to improve the strength of
the recycled aggregate concrete. Three different mixing approaches mortar mixing,
sand envelope mixing and two stage mixing, two surface pre-treatments such as cement
slurry coating and cement slurry & silica solution were adopted to improve the
compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete. The authors concluded that the
compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete can be improved by treating the
surface with cement slurry and silica solution. This can be achieved due to an existence
of better bond in this treatment between the cement paste and recycled aggregate.

Manuel et al. (2014) attempted to get acceptable quality of recycled aggregate


concrete, with the addition of different amounts of cement to reach control concrete
strengths. The natural aggregate was replaced with recycled aggregate at percentages
of 0, 20, 50 & 100 and two different water-cement ratios (0.5 & 0.6) were used for
every replacement. The authors reported that the compressive strength of recycled
aggregate concrete increased with the increase in cement content irrespective of water
cement ratios. The authors concluded that a higher cement content of 12% should be
added for the replacement of 100% recycled coarse aggregate. The author also
concluded that the durability was not affected by the addition of cement.

Abdulla (2014) investigated the effect of type of recycled coarse aggregate on


mechanical properties of concrete. Eight types of recycled aggregate namely, concrete,
ground tile, concrete block, stone, 10-hole perforated brick, kura brick, limestone and
marble were replaced totally with the natural aggregate to assess the mechanical
properties. The author reported that the crushed brick and limestone recycled aggregate
exhibited lower particle densities than all the other types of recycled aggregate and

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hence be used for light weight concrete applications. They concluded that the strength
of recycled aggregate concrete decreased with the decrease in strength and density of
recycled aggregate.

2.3 BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED BRICK AGGREGATE CONCRETE AT


ROOM TEMPERATURE

Akhtaruzzaman and Hasnat (1983) carried out some research using well burnt brick
as coarse aggregate in concrete. They found that it was possible to achieve high strength
concrete using crushed brick as coarse aggregate. Their research was namely aimed
towards determination of mechanical properties of brick aggregate concrete, rather than
the properties of brick aggregate itself. They reported concrete cube compressive
strengths between 22 and 42N/mm2 at 28 days for CCB concrete with w/c ratios
between 0.54 and 0.88.

Poon and Chan (2006) investigated the possibility of using recycled concrete
aggregate (RCA) and crushed clay brick (CCB) as aggregates in unbound sub base
materials. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values prepared with 100% RCA were
lower than those of natural materials and further decreases as the replacement level of
RCA by CCB was increased. This was mainly attributed to the lower particle density
and higher water absorption of crushed clay brick compared to RCA. The results
showed that the use of 100% RCA increased the optimum moisture content and
decreased the maximum dry density of sub base materials compared to natural sub base
material. It was feasible to blend RCA and CCB to produce a sub base with a soaked
CBR value of at 30%. The sulphate content of CCB was much higher than natural
aggregate and RCA.

Bazaz et al. (2006) examined the usage of clinker bricks from demolition waste in
concrete as crushed coarse aggregates and reproducing concrete bricks. Further
physical characteristics of crushed clinker bricks, compressive and tensile strength of
bricks concrete are investigated. To analyse the components of demolition wastes 50
samples of weight 25kg, from three different sites are collected. The analysed samples
retained over 25.4mm sieve contains 6-28% cement mortar, 0-7% gypsum, 0-5%
asphalt, 2-23% stone, 0-9% ceramic and 10-42% brick. Different combinations of brick

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(B) and cement (C) mortar/ concrete are prepared to investigate the strength, B85-C15,
B70-C30, B55-C45. The results indicate that the quality of recycled bricks and
compressive strength of recycled concrete was low when compared to original
products.

Khalaf et al. (2006) investigated the use of four different types of crushed new clay
bricks as coarse aggregates in concrete, and the results are compared with concrete
produced with natural aggregate. The concrete was made of portland cement with a 28
days compressive strength of 42N/mm2, fine aggregate, crushed clay brick aggregates
of fractions passing from 20mm sieve but retained on 14, 10 and 5mm sieve, single
sized natural aggregate of 20mm size and 5% of air entrained admixtures. For all mixes,
nine 100mm cubes for crushing at 7, 14 and 28 days are prepared. The authors
concluded that the optimum w/c ratio for brick aggregate concrete was found to be 0.55
to get the same compressive strength as that of natural aggregate. The flexural strength
of brick aggregate concrete was 8% less when compared to concrete with natural
aggregate with the same water/cement ratio.

Farid and Kenai et al. (2008) conducted a study on the use of coarse and fine crushed
clay bricks as aggregate in concrete. This paper examines the possibility of using
crushed brick as coarse and fine aggregate for new concrete. Either natural sand, coarse
aggregate or both were partially replaced (25, 50, 75 and 100%) with crushed brick
aggregates. Compressive and flexural strengths of RAC up to 90 days of curing were
compared with control mix. Based on the results they came to a conclusion that it was
possible to manufacture concrete containing crushed brick as aggregate with
characteristics similar to those of natural aggregate concrete up to 25% and 50%
replacement of coarse and fine aggregates respectively.

Akhtaruzzaman and Hasnat et al. (1986) extended the research by looking towards
the structural behaviour of concrete made with CCB as aggregate. Their study involved
testing of 48 reinforced concrete rectangular beams made with CCB aggregate and
containing no web reinforcement. Concrete beams containing natural aggregate was
also tested so as to compare the results. The beams were tested under two-point loading
to investigate shear and flexural strength, with the only variables beam concrete
strength and shear span to effective depth ratio. A load value of transitional span to

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effective depth between diagonal tension failure and flexural failure for brick aggregate
concrete beams was observed. This indicates the brick aggregate concrete beams have
a higher shear strength compared to concrete beams made with natural aggregate and
this difference (15-35%) was more pronounced when the concrete strength was low.
The increase in shear strength was due to higher tensile strength of the material. It was
found during the experimental work that the standard equations for normal weight
concrete should be used even for brick aggregate concrete while designing the beams
for flexural strength.

Rashid et al. (2008) also investigated the mechanical properties and to produce
concrete of high strength using crushed clay brick as an aggregate. During the
investigation they found that producing of high strength concrete was achievable,
whose strength was much higher than the parent uncrushed brick. They also found that
compressive strength of brick aggregate concrete can be increased by decreasing the
w/c Ratio.

Yang et al. (2011) studied on physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete
with high inclusion levels of recycled aggregate (RCA) and crushed clay brick (CCB).
Since, separating CCB from RCA presence an operational difficulty in practice and also
has huge cost implications. Therefore, it was important to study the effect of CCB with
various inclusion levels on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Four sets of
samples were constructed which contain 100% natural aggregate (NA-100), 20% CCB
and 80% RCA (RCB-80), 50% CCB and 50% RCA (RCB-50), 100% RCA (RA-100).
The strength was then calculated for 7 and 28 days and it was found that the effect of
inclusion level of CCB (0-50%) on physical and mechanical properties were crucial for
compressive and cylinder splitting strengths. But their effects were relatively limited
on flexural strength. It was also observed that up to 20% inclusion of CCB in RA,
produced very good level quality, but when the inclusion level increase to 50% the
quality falls under good level.

Poon and Chan (2006) explored the usage of blended recycled aggregate (RCA) and
crushed clay brick (CCB) as aggregates in the production of paving blocks. The mix
ratio between coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement, fly ash and water was
considered as 4:1:1 and 2:4:1. The mixture was prepared by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%

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by weight of RCA with CCB. The results indicated that the incorporation of CCB
reduced the density, compressive strength and tensile strength of the paving blocks.
This was due to the high water absorption of CCB particles, the water absorption of the
resulting paving blocks were higher than that of the paving blocks without CCB.
Furthermore, it was feasible to produce paving blocks prepared with 25% CCB that
satisfies the compressive strength required for paving blocks. Use of fly ash as a partial
replacement of aggregates reduce the skid resistance of paving blocks. Paving blocks
prepared with 50% CCB and 50% RCA meet the requirements for pedestrian areas. It
was found that the tensile strength of brick aggregate concrete was higher than that of
normal concrete by about 11% whereas the modulus of elasticity was 30% less.

Bektas et al. (2009) carried out investigation to study the effects of recycled clay brick
when used as a part of fine aggregate on mortar durability. During the study 10% and
20% replacement (by weight) of the fine aggregate was done for studying the mortar
flow, compressive strength, shrinkage, freeze-thaw resistance and alkali-silica reaction
potential. The experimental study showed that the brick aggregate negatively affected
the mortar flow. The 10% and 20% brick replacement has no negative effect on the
mortar compressive strength. When the brick replacement was 20% a reduction in free
shrinkage of the mortar was observed but when the replacement was 10% an increase
in free shrinkage mortar was observed when compared to the control mix. Further it
was observed that freeze-thaw resistance of mortar increased with the amount of brick
replacement.

Cachim et al. (2009) evaluated the mechanical properties of concrete made with
crushed bricks replacing natural aggregate. The properties investigated the workability
and density of fresh concrete, and the compressive strength, tensile splitting strength,
modulus of elasticity and stress-strain behaviour of hardened concrete. During the
investigation the replacement levels were 15% and 30% with w/c ratios of 0.45 and 0.5
respectively. Observed results indicated that bricks can be used as partial replacement
of natural aggregates without reduction of concrete properties for 15% replacement and
with reductions up to 20% for 30% replacement. The stress-strain relations were found
to be very similar for both types of concrete, even in softening branch, corroborating
the use of brick aggregate concrete in low demanding structural applications. Crushed
brick, when moderately used as natural aggregate substitutes, may act as self-curing

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agents for concrete when they are pre-saturated, because they can provide water for
cement hydration that done not affect the initial water/cement ratio. When the quantities
of crushed brick increases, this advantageous effect was overridden by the augment in
porosity of the bricks, leading to poor results.

Khalaf and Devenny (2005) evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of new
and recycled crushed clay brick as aggregate for use in Portland cement concrete.
Properties of eight different types of aggregates were found out and compared with the
limits of British standards and also with concrete made out of natural granite aggregate.
The results showed that most of the crushed clay brick aggregates tested can be used
for producing concrete for low level civil engineering applications and also sometimes
can be used for producing high quality concrete depending upon the physical and
mechanical properties of the brick aggregate.

Jankovic et al. (2011) studied the possibility of using crushed bricks in the production
of concrete elements for the pedestrian zone. In this study concrete paving blocks and
flags were prepared and their properties were evaluated in terms of weather resistance,
tensile splitting strength for blocks, bending strength for flags and abrasion resistance
and compared to the European Standards. The results showed that the compressive and
tensile splitting strength of concrete blocks and bending strength of paving flags
decreased as percent of replacement increased. Concrete with 100% replacement has
12% higher water absorption than concrete with 25% replacement but satisfied freeze-
thaw test which indicates good durability performance of concrete. Water absorption of
paving blocks and flags exceeded the limit of 6% and varied between 8.6% and 20.4%
depending upon the replacement percentage and the abrasion resistance of paving
elements decreased (satisfying the minimum requirements) with the increase in
percentage of replacement. Replacing up to 32.5% of natural aggregate with crushed
brick aggregates produces concrete blocks and up to 65% of it produces concrete paving
flags, which meet the requirements.

Bazaz et al. (2012) investigated the properties of crushed clay bricks taken from
demolished site and experimentally evaluated the strength and durability characteristics
of the concrete. 30 samples are prepared for the evaluation whose compressive strength
was between 3-7N/mm2 and specific gravity was in the in range of 1.9-2.0. The

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evaluation states that the compressive strength of the concrete made with recycled
aggregate was low when compared to ordinary concrete, but in spite of very low quality
and strength of crushed brick, the compressive strength of concrete produced with
crushed brick aggregate was approximately 21.5N/mm2, which was acceptable and can
be used in non-structural purpose. In spite of high permeability of crushed brick
aggregate, the permeability of concrete made with crushed brick was very low.

2.4 BEHAVIOUR OF CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE AT HIGH


TEMPERATURES

Mohamedbhai et al. (1986) studied the effect of exposure time and rates of heating
and cooling on residual strength of heated concrete. The tests are carried out on 100mm
cubes heated to temperature range of 200 to 800ºC. The variables, heating and cooling
were found to have a significant effect on compressive strength concrete heated to the
lower range of temperatures but their effect became less pronounced at high
temperatures. Almost all the loss of compressive strength occurred within two hours of
exposure to the maximum temperature. Pulse velocity measurements did not predict the
residual strengths accurately and appeared to be more indicative of the levels of
temperature to which the concrete had been exposed.

Ghandehari et al. (2010) studied the effect of high temperatures on the mechanical
properties of high-strength concretes. Concrete mixes are prepared with water to
cementitious material ratios of 0.40, 0.35, and 0.30 containing silica fume at 0, 6 and
10% cement replacement. After heating to 100, 200, 300 and 600ºC the compressive
strength, the splitting tensile strength, and the corresponding ultrasonic pulse velocity
were measured. A substantial loss of strength was observed for all compositions at
600ºC, particularly the silica fume concretes in spite of the superior mechanical
properties provided by silica fume at room temperature. The average residual
compressive and splitting tensile strengths of the concretes at 600ºC were 30 and 25%
of the room-temperature strengths respectively. It was found that the rate of the splitting
tensile strength loss was higher than the rate of the compressive strength loss at elevated
temperatures and that the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements slightly
underestimates the residual strength of the high-strength concretes after exposure to
temperature over 200ºC.

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Luo et al. (2000) performed experiments programs to study compressive strength and
microstructure of high performance concrete (HPC) subjected to high temperature
compared with normal strength concrete (NSC). After the concrete specimens were
exposed to a peak temperature of 800ºC, the compressive strength was tested. Changes
of porosity and pore size distribution of the concrete were measured by using mercury
intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Test results show that high performance concrete had
higher residual strength although the strength of high performance concrete
degenerated much more than the normal strength concrete after high temperature
exposed. Variations in pore structure of high performance concrete after high
temperature indicated the degradation of the mechanical properties.

Chan et al. (2000) investigated the behaviour of high performance concrete (HPC),
compared with normal strength concrete (NSC), after subject to different high
temperatures (800 and 1100ºC) and cooling regimes (gradual and rapid cooling).
Deterioration of compressive strength of the concrete was measured. The results
obtained showed that the strength of both the HPC and NSC specimens reduced sharply
after their exposure to high temperatures. Due to thermal shock experienced by rapid
cooling exhibited more deterioration in strength than in the case of gradual cooling
without thermal shock. However, thermal shock did not significantly increase the
spalling of HPC.

Khoury et al. (1988) of imperial college from his studies concluded that concrete loses
considerable strength at about 300oC. From the studies it was clear that many factors
combined to influence the strength of concrete during first heating such that
measurement of compressive strength at 100oC can yield results ranging from as low
as 30% to as high as 120% of the original cold strength.

Chan et al. (1999) studied two normal strength concretes and three high strength
concretes, with 28-day compressive strengths of 28, 47, 76, 79 and 94MPa respectively,
were used to compare the effect of high temperatures on high strength concrete and
normal strength concrete. After being heated to a series of maximum temperatures at
400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200°C, and maintained for 1 hour, their compressive strengths
and tensile splitting strengths were determined. The pore size distribution of hardened
cement paste in high strength concrete and normal strength concrete was also

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investigated. Results show that high strength concrete lost its mechanical strength in a
manner similar to or slightly better than that of NSC. The range between 400 and 800°C
was critical to the strength loss of concrete with a large percentage of loss of strength.
Microstructural study carried out revealed that high temperatures have a coarsening
effect on the microstructure of both of high strength concrete and normal strength
concrete.

Omer et al. (2007) studied the effect of temperature on concrete when concrete
material in structures was likely exposed to high temperatures during fire. The relative
properties of concrete after such an exposure are of great importance in terms of the
serviceability of buildings. The research work investigates the effects of elevated
temperatures on the physical and mechanical properties of various concrete mixtures
prepared by ordinary Portland cement, crushed limestone and river gravel. Test samples
were subjected to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 1200ºC. After exposure,
weight losses were determined and then compressive strength test was conducted. Test
results indicated that weight of the specimen significantly reduced with an increase in
temperature. This reduction was very sharp beyond 800ºC. The effects of water/cement
(w/c) ratio and type of aggregate on losses in weight were not found to be significant.
The results also revealed that the relative strength of concrete decreased as the exposure
temperature increased. The effect of high temperatures on the strength of concrete was
more pronounced for concrete mixtures produced by river gravel aggregate. The results
of the physical and mechanical tests were also combined with those obtained from
differential thermal analysis, and colour image analysis.

Srinivasa Rao et al. (2007) carried out experiments on compressive strength of heated
high-strength concrete to study the variation of compressive strength of High Strength
Concrete with age. HSC of M 60 was used for the investigation for both Portland
pozzolana cement and ordinary portland cement. Cubes of 100mm×100mm×100mm
were cast and cured. The specimens were heated at different temperatures of 50, 100,
150, 200 and 250oC for three different exposure durations of 1, 2 and 3 hours at each
temperature. The rate of heating was maintained as per wasO: 834 – 1975 [84]
temperature-time curve for standard fire. After the heat treatment the specimens were
tested for compressive strengths. From this it was concluded that PPC performed better
than OPC.

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Bingol et al. (2009) made comparative study on the effect of cooling regimes on
compressive strength of normal strength concrete exposed to elevated temperatures
about 700ºC at an interval of 50ºC with exposure duration 3 hours. The grades generated
are M20 and M30 using river sand as fine aggregate and Portland cement. The concrete
specimens after heating cooled to room temperature either gradually (in laboratory) or
rapidly in water. By using uniaxial compression test, residual strength was determined
by following ASTM and Turkish Standards. Along with compressive strength weight
loss was also studied. It was concluded that properties of concrete deteriorated at
elevated temperatures. It was also observed that there was a small increase in strength
from 50 to 100ºC. Loss in strength was more significant on rapidly cooled specimens
in water. Both M20 and M 30 have shown significant loss in their initial strength at
temperature 700ºC.

Bishr et al. (2008) investigated the effect of elevated temperature on the residual
compressive strength of concrete made with available ordinary Portland cement,
crushed basalt aggregate, sand and silica fume added in the form of a dry powder as a
percentage of the cementitious material. In this study concrete was exposed to
temperatures 20, 150, 300, 500, 700 and 900ºC by varying different Silica fume
contents 0%, 5%, 7% and 15%. The test samples are 100 x 100 x 100mm cubes cast
cured for a period of 28 days before heating. The specimens are exposed to respective
temperatures for 4 hours duration and cool to the room temperatures for 20 hours in the
oven and tested under compression with the rate of loading 3kN/s. From this study it
was concluded that the compressive strength increased up to 300ºC after exposing
specimen for 4 hours. The range of residual compressive strength was in between 62 –
81% of the original unheated specimen at 900ºC.

Xu et al. (2001) studied the residual properties of pulverized fly ash concrete subjected
to elevated temperatures. The parameters considered are both mechanical and durability
properties of concrete. The water to binder ratios and percentage of fly ash was varied
in the concrete. The pore structure and hardness value of the cement paste of high
performance concrete are determined using microscopic techniques. The test results
revealed that there was a deterioration in concrete when exposure to high temperatures
during rapid chloride diffusion tests. But this deterioration was lower than the
deterioration of compressive strength. After exposure to 250ºC it was observed that

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there was a rise in compressive strength. The reason might be the hardened cementitious
material due to drying was further hydrated. The concurrent loss of durability may be
because of weakened transition zone between aggregate and paste which resulted in
simultaneous coarsening of pore structure in high performance concrete. PFA improved
fire resistance as characterized by the residual compressive strength and this
improvement reflected maximum in temperatures 450ºC and 650ºC when compared to
non PFA concrete.

Saad et al. (1996) investigated the effect of temperature on physical and mechanical
properties of concrete. The concrete was made with ordinary Portland cement partially
replaced with silica fume. The temperature ranging from 100 to 600ºC, at an interval of
100ºC maintained for three hours. The physical and mechanical properties are
compared during heat treatment. After casting all specimens were moist-cured for 28
days. The specimens are cooled in air slowly to room temperature. Results concluded
that the replacement of ordinary Portland cement by 10% silica fume, improved the
compressive strength by about 64.6%. The 20 and 30% replacement of ordinary
Portland cement by silica fume improved only 28% of the compressive strength at
600ºC. This could be attributed to the additional tobermerite gel (C-S-H phase) which
formed due to the reaction of silica fume with Ca (OH)2.

Ahmed et al. (1992) conducted a study on the residual compressive and bond strengths
of lime stone aggregate concrete subjected to elevated temperatures. In this study the
influence of high temperatures (100-600ºC) on the residual compressive and bond
strengths of concrete lime stone aggregates was experimentally investigated. The main
test parameters involved were maximum temperature, method of cooling, the age of
concrete at the testing date, and the cement content. It has been concluded that there
was a sharp decline in compressive strength of about 15% at 150ºC and at 600ºC it was
nearly 50%.The colour of the concrete did not change up to 200ºC. At 400ºC the colour
of the concrete became light pink and, at 600ºC dull grey. Surface cracks started to
appear at 400ºC and visible at 600ºC. The increase in cement content resulted in a better
performance up to 400ºC. Water cooled specimens showed slightly higher values when
compared to air cooed specimens. Results showed that there was a noticeable reduction
in strength when lime stone aggregate concretes exposed to fire.

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Khoury Gabriel. (1992) carried out a reassessment of the compressive strength of
unsealed concrete subjected to elevated temperatures. The parameters considered in this
study were material type of aggregate and cement blend, temperature-load-moisture
regime which influences the strength of concrete during the heating cycle and after
cooling. All the above mentioned parameters may not result in strength loss. It was
mentioned that many factors combine to influence the strength of concrete during first
heating. In the study it was reported that the compressive strength at 150ºC can yield
results ranging from as low as 30% to as high as 120%, of the original cold strength.
Further the first criterion to be considered when selecting an aggregate for concrete at
high temperatures was its thermal stability, both physically and chemically. The
aggregate should be able to produce a strong temperature-resistant bond with the
cement paste, and be thermally compatible with it whenever possible. All materials
possess upper temperature limits for their structural usefulness, and concrete was no
exception. It appears that in its hydraulic state of binding the critical temperature for
Portland cement concrete was about 600ºC. Even when the surface was exposed to
temperature exceeding 600ºC, as in fire, the bulk of the structure would be at lower
temperatures.

Phan et al. (2000) recommended Code Provisions for High Strength Concrete strength-
temperature relationship at elevated temperatures. Experiments are conducted by NIST
to correlate compressive strength at elevated temperatures. The compressive strength
was investigated on concrete cylinder made with ASTM type I ordinary Portland
cement with silica fume as admixture and water cement ratio as low as 0.22 to 0.57
with uniaxial compression test. The test was conducted on specimens exposed to
temperatures 100 to 900ºC at an interval of 100ºC with and without polypropylene
fibres. Strength was determine on both unstressed and stressed conditions with preload
of 40% of ultimate load along which are exposed elevated temperatures at a rate of 5ºC/
minutes where steady state temperature was achieved in and around 5 hours. Based on
the observations recommendations are made to several exiting codes. It was also
concluded that several parameters like size of specimen, curing conditions, testing
methodology may affect the test results. It was also recommended to have standardized
and uniform protocol of testing methodology to avoid differences in test methods as
recommended by RILEM Technical Committee 129-MHT.

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Phan et al. (2001) conducted experiments that describes the results of NIST’s
investigations on the effects of elevated temperature exposure on heating
characteristics, spalling and residual mechanical properties of high performance
concrete (HPC). Investigations are made by heating the 102 x 204mm cylinders to
steady state thermal conditions at a target temperature up to a maximum of 450ºC at a
rate of 5ºC/ minutes and loading them to failure after the specimens had cooled to room
temperature. The test specimens were made of four HPC mixtures with w/cm ratio
ranging from 0.22 to 0.57 and room-temperature compressive strength at testing ranges
from 51 to 93N/mm2. Two of the four mixtures contained silica fume. It was concluded
that high performance concrete with lower w/cm ratio and higher original compressive
strength sustained lower strength loss at high temperatures. Concretes with similar
w/cm and strength, the presence of silica fume appeared to result in lower strength loss
up to a temperature of 200ºC. The specimens with silica fume and lower water cement
ratios shown increase in explosive spalling due to more a more restrictive process of
capillary pore and chemically bound water loss than those which did not experience
spalling.

Metin Husem et al. (2006) studied the effect of high temperature on concrete exposed
elevated temperatures. For the study two grades of concrete are taken into consideration
from which one was ordinary concrete 34N/mm2 and high performance micro concrete
71N/mm2. These concretes are exposed to temperatures 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ºC
at an age of 28 days. The compressive strength of specimens are investigated after they
are cooled to room temperature by different cooling methods. The study concludes that
ordinary concrete lost more strength than high performance concrete as the temperature
raised. Also as the temperature increased the compressive strength decreased. Further
it was concluded more strength loss was observed for specimens that cooled in water
than in air.

Carlos et al. (1987) investigated the effect of transient temperature on high strength
concrete (55N/mm2) and normal strength concrete (20N/mm2) made with ordinary
portland cement of type-I with ASTM type-F super plasticizer. Concrete was exposed
to temperatures 100 to 900ºC at an interval of 100ºC. The specimens are exposed

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elevated temperatures for 5 to 10 minutes at a rate of 7 to 8ºC/min. The compressive
strength was investigated on unstressed specimens and stressed specimens with preload
of 40% of ultimate load along with the effect of size of specimen. From this study it
was concluded that unstressed specimens show higher strength loss to that of normal
strength specimens. The compressive strength decreased by 15 to 20% up to 300ºC.
The strength loss was more for high strength concrete when compared to normal
strength concrete.

Sarshar et al. (1993) investigated the influence of material and environmental factors
on the residual compressive strengths of unsealed cement paste made with silica fume,
Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) along
with the affect of cooling after cyclic heating. In the study other parameters considered
are method of cooling, duration of exposure and range of temperature up to 600ºC.
From the study it was concluded that concrete with 100% OPC lost its strength
significantly. Further it was also concluded that pastes containing PFA or slag
performed better (that was retained higher residual strengths) than pastes that contain
silica fume or OPC. From the study it was also concluded that at temperature 100ºC the
seven days concrete shown increase in residual strength. Further it was reported that
the effect of duration has least effect on residual compressive strength at high
temperatures. The reduction in residual strength was approximately 5-15% more than
the reduction in hot strength.

2.5 BEHAVIOUR OF RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AT HIGH


TEMPERATURES

Arundeb Gupta et al. (2012) studied the mechanical and micro structural properties
of uncoated geo polymer / cement coated recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) after
exposed to elevate temperature. The test specimen were exposed to temperatures of
400, 600 & 800ºC for a period of 6 hours. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) tests were also conducted to study the pore
diameter and micro structural changes respectively. The authors concluded that at
elevated temperatures the recycled aggregate concrete coated with Geo polymer
showed higher compressive strength than uncoated and cement coated recycled
aggregate concretes.

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Xiao et al. (2013) investigated the residual compressive and residual flexural strengths
of recycled concrete with 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100% replacements of recycled coarse
aggregate subjected to elevated temperatures. The mixes were designated as NC,
RAC-30, RAC-50, RAC-70 and RAC-100. The cube specimen were exposed to
temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800ºC to assess the compressive
strength and the prisms were exposed to temperatures of 200, 400, 600 and 800ºC to
assess its flexural strength for a period of 2 hours. The authors concluded that the
compressive strength and flexural strength of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) at
elevated temperatures was better compared to natural aggregate concrete (NAC). No
explosive spalling was observed occurred at elevated temperatures in case of RAC.

Sahrat et al. (2013) conducted an experimental investigation to study the residual


compressive and tensile strength, moduli of elasticity, and failure patterns of the
concrete made with recycled concrete aggregate(RCA). Recycled concrete aggregate,
river gravel (RG 0, and crushed limestone (CL) aggregates were used to prepare
different concrete mixes for the present study. Six different concrete mixes were
prepared, namely, Mix-1 (100% RG, 0% RCA), Mix-2 (75% RG, 25% RCA), Mix-3
(50% RG, 50% RCA), Mix-4 (25% RG, 75% RCA), Mix-5 (0% RG, 100% RCA), and
Mix-6 (100% CL, 0%RCA). The concrete specimen were exposed to temperatures of
250,500,750ºC for one hour duration. In this investigation 100% river gravel concrete
mix has taken as reference mix. The authors concluded that the residual compressive
and tensile strengths of 100% RCA concrete were greater compared to all the RG mixes
and no spalling was observed when exposed to high temperatures. It was also concluded
that the residual mechanical properties of RCA concrete were higher than that of river
gravel concrete when the replacement of RCA ratio was equal to or greater than 50%.

Xiao et al. (2013) studied the properties of partition wall concrete blocks made with
recycled clay brick aggregate. The recycled clay bricks were collected from
construction and demolition waste streams. The fine aggregate was replaced with fine
brick aggregate (FBA) and coarse aggregate was replaced with recycled aggregate
(RCA) and crushed clay brick (CCB). Three series were prepared to conduct the present
study. The coarse aggregate was replaced with 75% RCA and 25% CBA in series-1 and
50% RCA and 50% CBA in series-2. In series-3 the coarse aggregate was replaced with
RCA in percentages of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% while remaining was CBA, and fine

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aggregate was replaced with 50% FBA. The compressive and flexural strength of
concrete were determined after exposing to temperatures of 300, 500 and 800ºC. The
authors concluded that the concretes retained about 48 to 91% of their original
compressive strength and 8 to 41% of their initial flexural strength. In view of
compressive strength the optimum replacement levels of sand at elevated temperatures
were determined to be 25-50%, 50-75% for series 1and series 2 respectively. It was
also concluded that the effect of crushed clay brick aggregate on flexural strength was
much more favourable than compressive strength.

Khalaf et al. (2004) investigated the properties of crushed clay brick concrete subjected
to elevated temperatures. The results were compared with natural granite aggregate
concrete. The physical properties of bricks like uniaxial compressive strength,
aggregate impact value, aggregate relative density, brick and aggregate water
absorption, aggregate porosity, concrete density were determined before using them in
concrete. Medium strength concrete and a high strength concrete with a characteristic
strength of 30N/mm2, 50N/mm2 respectively and also an air entrained concrete with a
characteristic strength of 30N/mm2 were produced. All the concretes were exposed to
temperatures of 200, 400, 600 and 800ºC for a period of 2 hrs. The strength of natural
granite aggregate concrete and crushed clay brick concrete were determined before and
after exposure to temperatures. The authors concluded that the crushed clay brick can
be used as coarse aggregate to produce normal and high strength concrete. The strength
of concrete will influenced by strength of the original bricks that are crushed. The
stronger the original bricks, the stronger the concrete produced with that particular brick
aggregate type. Since the crushed brick aggregate concrete produces a low density
concrete, it can be used where the self-weight was a problem. The authors also
concluded that the fire resistance of crushed clay brick aggregate concrete was as good
as that of natural aggregate concrete. The bond between the brick aggregate and the
cement paste were also found good after breaking the specimen to crush.

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