Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 136

I NFOR M A T I O N A N D

C OMMU N I C A T I O N
F OR CA P A C I T Y -B U I L D I N G :
Critical Success Factors

PROCEEDINGS
OF THE WORLD
CONFERENCE
11-13 May 2005
UNESCO,
Paris, France

Harnessing the Potential of ICTs to Build Inclusive Knowledge Societies

Editors:
Raoul Weiler
Abdul Waheed Khan
Roland A. Burger
Thomas Schauer
Table of Content

FOREWORD 6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 8

WELCOME ADDRESSES Abdul Waheed Khan 12


Raoul Weiler 13

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 15

CHAPTER I. Setting the Frame 18

Chair:
Abdul Waheed Khan

On the Occassion of the World Conference


Koïchiro Matsuura 19
Statement by the President of the Republic of Lithuania
H.E. Valdas Adamkus 22
WSIS Thematic Conference ICT for Capacity-Building
Janis Karklins 25

CHAPTER II. Policy-Making 28

Chair:
Abdul Waheed Khan

Insertion and Capacity-Building through ICT, an Opportunity


Catherine Trautmann 29
Presentation at the UNESCO and Club of Rome Conference
Reidar Roll 34
Satellite Use for Communication, Information and Learning
Ferdinand Kayser 38

CHAPTER III. Technology Partnerships for Life-Long Learning in Developing Countries 39

Chairs:
Henrikas Yushkiavitshus, Special Advisor to the Director General
of UNESCO
Stephen Heppell, Director, Ultralab

Capacity-Building in a Network Format


Ingrid Volkmer 40
Innovating Education with ICT
Martina Roth 43
Technology Partnership for Life-Long Learning in Developing Countries
Didier Philippe 47
Satellite IP applications: A Solution to the Digital Divide
Jean-Christophe Honnorat 49
Building Capacity for the 21st Century not the 20th Century
Stephen Heppell 54
ICT Partnerships for Capacity-Building
Jean-Philippe Courtois 57

2
Table of Content

CHAPTER IV. Sustainability and Low-Cost Infrastructure 62

Chair: Raoul Weiler


Moderator: Christine Leurquin, SES Global
Panelist: Roland A. Burger, Club of Rome think tank 30
Panelist: Thomas Schauer, European Support Centre of The Club of Rome

Microfinance and IT - An Important Partnership


Jacques Attali, Marek Hudon 63
Digital Divide - Can India Overcome It, TeNeT
Ashok Jhunjhunwala 69
An Introduction to Satellite Radio
Pierre Casadebaig 71
Capacity-Building: The Role of Low Cost Satellite Communications
Pietro Lo Galbo 72
Demand, Utility and Impact of Low Cost Mobile Communications
in Developing Countries
Peter Johnston 74
One Laptop per Child (OLPC), An Overview
Nicolas Negroponte 76
Perspectives for Low-Cost Satellite Communications
Dirk Breynaert 82

CHAPTER V. GDLN Interactive Participations 88


Introduction 89

Latin America
Chair:
Tulio del Bono, Secretary of State for Science, Technology
and Productive Innovation, Argentina
Moderator: Tapio Varis, Global Universiy Initiative
Panelist: Maria de Nazaré, Researcher, Ministry of Science and
Technology, Brazil
Panelist: Andrea Anfossi, Director, National Informatics Program
for Primary, Fundación Omar Dengo, Costa Rica

Brazil:
ICTs in poor urban areas, in the Legislature and views of young
people
Heitor Gurgulino de Souza; Eda C. Barbosa; Filipe Rizzo Oliveira 90

Mexico:
E-Mexico - Building on Success, for Success
Terence Karran 93

Argentina:
Telework, New Work Methods and Local Job Development
Angélica Abdallah 97

Arab States
Chair:
Montassar Ouailio, Minister of Communication Technologies,
Tunisia
Moderator:
Tim Unwin, Professor of Geography, ICT4D collective,

3
Table of Content

Royal Holloway, University of London


Panelist: Raafat Radwan, Chairman of the Illiteracy Agency, Egypt
Panelist: Deema Bibi, CEO of INJAZ, Jordan

Kuwait:
ICT in Health & Education in Kuwait
Hameed El-Qaheri; Magdy El-Hussainy, Kuwait University 100
Jordan:
Jordan Education Initiative
Andreas Cox, Program Manager, Majied Qasem, Program Director 102
Egypt:
ICTs for the Visually-Impaired and Illiterate Readers
Sohair F. Wastawy, Chief Librarian, Alexandria Library 103

Africa

Chair:
Venancio Massingue, Minister of Science and Technology,
Mozambique

Moderator:
Henry Chasia, Chairman of the e-Africa Commission,
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)

Panelists:
Barry Boubakar, Director, Computer Center, Cheikh
Anta Diop University, Senegal
Lyndall Shope-Mafole, Chairperson, Presidential National
Commission on Information Society and Development, South Africa

Tanzania:
Developing ICT Skills and Tools for Empowerment Focusing on:
Youngsters, Women and Refugees, through the OneVillage Rural
Community Telecenter (Sanawari, Arusha)
Titus Tossy, Country Director of oneVillage Foundation 106
South Africa:
Computainer HIV Awareness Training Kiosks, South Africa
Mr. Marc Van der Merwe, Directors, CompuTainer Pty Ltd 108

Asia
Chair: Arief S. Sadiman, Universitas Terbuka, Indonesian
Open University
Moderator: Mr. HP Dikshit, Vice Chancellor, Indira Gandhi
National Open University, India
Panelists: Ms. Rinalia Abdul Rahim, Executive Director,
Global Knowledge Partnerships (GKP)
Mr. Wijayanand Jayaweera, Director of Communication, UNESCO

4
Table of Content

Afghanistan:
Reaching Rural Afghans with Information and Education by Satellite
Mustafa Babak and Abdullah Hashimi, Equal Access, Radio Danesh,
National Solidarity Program 109
India:
Namma Dhwani from the Programme: ‘ICT in the Hands of Poor’, 111
Ashish Sen, Voices, Savithri Subramanian, Program Director UNESCO
China:
Initial Exploration on the Transition of Rural Distance Education
Medium to Digital Approach
Zeng Yichum, President of Central Agricultural Broadcasting
and Television School (CABTS) 114

CHAPTER VI. Synthesis 116


Elizabeth Longworth 117

CHAPTER VII. Closing Address 121

Chairs:
Abdul Waheed Khan
Raoul Weiler

Closing Message:
HRH Prince El Hassan Bin Talal 122

ANNEXES Annex I - Astra Satellite Applications 124


Annex II - India Digital Divide 126
Annex III - The US$ 100 Laptop FAQ, Design Studies 129

ACRONYMS 133

SPONSORS 134

IMPRESSUM 136

5
FOREWORD

The purpose of the World Conference on ICT tent and applications for capacity-building
for Capacity-Building was to contribute to and learning in general, should be made
the second phase of the World Summit on available and embedded in the local habits
the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis in and languages, enabling a successful and
November 2005. The fast development of sustainable implementation.
the information and communication tech-
nologies (ICTs) within the last decades led to The availability of trainers and teachers is a
the necessity of a world summit in order to frequently underestimated challenge. It is
reflect and debate on the manifold of new imperative for success to response appropri-
issues coming fort from these overarching ately this objectives of ICT for capacity
technological breakthroughs. building and learning.

ICTs penetrate almost all domains of socie- Technically several complimentary tools
ty and human behavior, resulting in an have been considered at the Conference for
overall transformation of society with new informing, communicating, capacity-build-
concerns and challenges. In the present ing and learning. For example, the follow-
World Conference the focus was on non- ing tools have been discussed: satellite radio
formal education for development, in par- broadcasting, wireless telephone, devices
ticular, it addresses one of the major issues like PCs and laptops for schools and easier
of development, namely the use of ICTs for access to the Internet and to relevant appli-
capacity-building. cations and content. They all address, in a
different way, the needs and desires of the
Indeed, the new technologies offer tools, populations, and contribute to bridge the
unknown before, for learning and accessing gaps for acquiring more information and
information and knowledge without physi- sharing knowledge, for participating in new
cal borders anymore. However, the material- ways of learning processes.
ization of these potentialities into concrete
action plans can be realized neither without However, the successful acceleration of
appropriate means nor within short periods development requires solutions low-cost,
of time of months or a few years. solutions, warranting an equitable dissemi-
nation among the population groups: the
The Conference brought together experts young, the active and the women, the indi-
and grass root people. During the three day viduals and the communities. The real
conference, with the help of Global Devel- quantum jump for development by ICT will
opment Learning Network (GDLN) of the only be possible if hardware, software,
World Bank Institute using the video-con- access and applications are affordable for
ferencing facilities, the organizers succeed- the majority of the population. This includes
ed to include many regions of the world and end-user equipment and wireless networks
have the precious inputs and testimonies on the ground, satellite ground equipment
from remote places. on the ground and access of as well as low-
cost satellite infrastructure and operation.
The focus was put on critical success factors
for the introduction and implementation of With respect to the financial means, the
ICTs for capacity-building. To extract from World Conference addressed, besides the
the many projects and trials, criteria and low-cost dimension of required investments,
guidelines for further development was a the structural aspects of financing in partic-
major challenge. ular micro-credit and micro-finance. They
are widely used practices known for about
The day has come to install large scale two decades and are now available in most
infrastructure and equipment for daily use parts of the world. Micro-credits have
everywhere. But this is not enough, the con- helped millions of peoples and families to

6
Foreword

get out of the vicious circle of poverty and contributors. Perspectives of technological
extreme poverty. breakthroughs and progress open the future
to communities and individuals to catch up
Meanwhile, these instruments are applied with main stream development, overcoming
today for the provision of ICT infrastructure, ignorance and poverty, as well as getting in
for example for phone- and tele-centers. integrated in a larger community and
The World Conference underlined that the regaining human dignity. Without doubt,
application of micro-credit and micro- ICTs are powerful instruments, though not
finance is a most valuable means for capac- exclusive ones, which support and enhance
ity-building and for starting and supporting further steps towards the achievement of the
micro-enterprises at the local level. MDGs and the objectives of WSIS. „

Last but not least the reference to the Mil-


lennium Development Goals (MDGs) was
permanently present in the discourses of the

7
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

To the success of the conference is indebted Without the involvement of the enthusiastic
to a very large group of people, several in groups of people in rural, urban and remote
remote places for the preparation of their places, the conference could not have
participation longtime in advance. The use reached the intensity it succeeded to get.
of video-conferencing facilities allowed the They made the preparatory process function
conference to have an original and unique properly and expressed their needs and
profile about the use of ICTs for capacity- expectations for a better future. Sincere
building: grass roots testimonies, expertise thanks go all of them; indeed they share the
from different approaches, building of part- success of the initiative.
nerships, richness in diversity of applica-
tions and the like. The special thanks are addressed to all the
speakers, chairs, moderators and panelists
Special attention and particular thanks are who steered the conference process of a
due to the direction of UNESCO for hosting high loaded program. Their contributions
the conference, without their support and have set the tone for strategic and useable
leadership, this initiative would neither have content, prepared for the delivering addi-
had the dimension it became nor the quali- tional input the second phase of the World
ty of the content of the messages it pro- Summit on the Information Society.
duced. Special thanks go the manifold of Last but not least special thanks go to the
collaborators who faced the challenge to patrons of the conference, their support was
integrate new techniques in a conference indispensable for moving ahead with the
context. ambitious initiative. Grateful appreciations
are addressed to the sponsors who con-
Special thanks go to the technical staff who tributed financially as well as to the con-
managed so well the technical and organi- tent.
zational challenges of the three day confer-
ence, inclusive the “live” web broadcasting. The list below gives an overview of the per-
They are addressed explicitly to the col- sons who worked unceasingly for the suc-
leagues of the World Bank Institute in Paris cess of the conference. We apologize for
and in other places for their assistance, wise having overseen possibly some colleagues.
advise and technical expertise in the set up „
of the GDLN events.

CO-CHAIRS

Mr. Abdul Waheed Khan, Assistant Director-General for Communication and


Information, UNESCO
Mr. Raoul Weiler, President of the Brussels-EU Chapter, the Club of Rome; Member
of the Executive Committee of the Club of Rome

8
Acknowledgements

PATRONS
The patronage of the World Conference comprises leaders and decision makers from
governments, international organizations, industry and civil society, including:

H. E. Mr. Valdas Adamkus, President of the Republic of Lithuania


HRH Prince El Hassan bin Talal, President of the Club of Rome
Ms. Begum Khaleda Zia, Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
Ms. Lidia Brito, Former Minister of Higher Education, Science and Technology of
the Republic of Mozambique
Mr. Koïchiro Matsuura, Director General of UNESCO
Mr. Yoshio Utsumi, Secretary General of ITU
Mr. James D. Wolfensohn, Former President of the World Bank Group
H. E. Ambassador Janis Karklins, President of the WSIS Preparatory Committee
Ms. Viviane Reding, European Commissioner for Information Society and Media
Mr. Roberto D. Peccei, Vice Chancellor, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA),
The Club of Rome
Mr. Frank De Winne, Astronaut, European Astronaut Corps of ESA, and UNICEF
Belgium Good Will Ambassador

PROGRAM ADVISORS
Ms. Maha Ashour Abdalla,
Director, Center for Digital Innovation, University of California Los Angeles, US
Mr. Ruzena Bajcsy, Director, Center for Information Technology Research in the
Interest of Society, University of California at Berkeley, US
Mr. Indrajit Banerjee,
Secretary General, Asian Media information and Communication Center, Singapore
Ms. Vijoleta Braach Maksvytis,
Director of Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia
Mr. David Copeland,
Director of CWA New Media, New Zealand
Ms. Danielle Coosemans,
Telecommunication Manager, Belgian Science Policy Office, Belgium
Mr. Robert Day,
Researcher, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa
Mr. Pol T. Descamps,
Consultant, Brussels EU Chapter of the Club of Rome, Belgium
Mr. Kuzvinetsa Peter Dzvimbo,
Rector of African Virtual University, Kenya
Mr. Stuart Gannes,
Director, Digital Vision Program, Stanford University, Palo Alto, US
Mr. Jean Paul Hoffmann,
Vice President, SES Global, Grand Duchy of Luxemburg
Mr. Peter Johnston,
Head of Unit Evaluation and Monitoring, Europe and Information
Society Technology Policies Directorate, European Commission; The Club of Rome,
Belgium
Mr. Daniel Kakinda Lugudde,
Executive Director of School Net Uganda, Uganda
Mr. Milan Konecny,
President of International Cartographic Association, Republic of Czech
Mr. Bruno Lanvin,
Senior Advisor in E-¬Strategies, World Bank, US
Ms. Christine Leurquin,
European Programs Senior Manager, SES ASTRA, Belgium
Mr. Bernard Loing,

9
Acknowledgements

Rector, International Council for open and Distance Education, France


Mr. Sergio Lub,
Director, Friendly Favors, US
Mr. Yefim M. Malitikov,
Interstate Committee on Knowledge Promotion and Adult Education of Common-
wealth of Independent States, Russia
Mr. Franz Josef Radermacher,
Director of the Research Institute for Applied Knowledge Processing; The Club of
Rome, Germany
Mr. Alan J. Rossi,
Chief Executive Officer of Development Gateway Foundation
Mr. Daniel Schaubacher,
Consultant, Brussels EU Chapter of the Club of Rome, Belgium
Ms. Michelle Selinger,
Education Strategy Manager for Europe, Middle East and Africa, Cisco Systems
Ms. Elizabeth Stacey,
Vice Chair of Distance Learning, International Federation
for Information Processing, Australia
Mr. Tim Unwin,
Professor, ICT41) Collective, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK
Ms. Ingrid Volkmer,
Department of Communication Studies, University Otago, New Zealand
Ms. Verena Wiedemann,
Director of ARD Liaison Office, Brussels EU Chapter of the Club of Rome, Belgium
Mr. Anders Wijkman,
Member European Parliament; The Club of Rome, Sweden
Mr. Jim Wynn,
Schools Developments and Strategy Manager for Europe, Middle East and Africa,
Microsoft

LOCAL SITE FACILITATORS

Ms. Joy Tang,


Founder and Ambassador, Onevillage Foundation, US
Mr. Jeff Buderer,
Ecoliving Consultant, Onevillage Foundation, US
Mr. Michael Bosse,
Project Director, Equal Access, US
Mr. Heitor Gurgulino de Souza,
Vice-President, International Association of University Presidents; The Club of
Rome, Brazil
Ms. Susan Chacon,
Professor, Mexican Association of the Club of Rome, Mexico
Mr. Ricardo Toledo,
Engineer, Mexican Association of the Club of Rome, Mexico
Mr. Magdy S. El-Hussainy,
Engineer, ReDSOFT, Kuwait

GDLN INTERACTIVE PARTICIPATIONS

LATIN AMERICA Brazil: Eda C. Barbosa; Heitor Gurgulino de Souza; Filipe Rizzo Oliveira
Mexico: Terence Karran
Argentina: Angélica Abdallah

10
Acknowledgements

ARAB STATES Kuwait: Hameed El-Qaheri; Magdy El-Hussainy


Jordan: Andreas Cox; Majied Qasem
Egypt: Sohair F. Wastawy

AFRICA Tanzania: Titus Tossy


Senegal: Jean-Pierre Guingané
South Africa: Marc Van der Merve

ASIA Afghanistan: Mustafa Babak; Abdullah Faim


India: Ashish Sen
China: Zeng Yichum

ORGANIZERS

UNESCO, Ms. Elizabeth Longworth, Director


Communication and Information Mr. René Cluzel, Program Specialist
Society, Division of Information Mr. Jean-Claude Dauphin, Computer Systems Analyst
Society Ms. Armelle Arrou, Program Specialist
Mr. Igor Nuk, Web Master
Ms. Misako Ito, Assistant Program Specialist
Ms. Natalia Denissova, Web Assistant
Ms. Frédérique Schaeffer, Assistant
Ms. Tiina Gregglina-Jouini, Assistant

The Club of Rome Mr. Raoul Weiler, President of the Brussels-EU Chapter
Mr. Roland A. Burger, think tank 30
Mr. Thomas Schauer, European Support Centre

TECHNICAL COORDINATORS

World Bank Institute Mr. Laurent Porte, Program Officer


Mr. Nicolas Meyer, Learning Officer

UNESCO Mr. Jean Pierre Juchereau, Chief of Telecommunications Unit


Mr. Gyula Bognar, Chief of Networks Unit
Mr. Frank Williams, Networks Support Technician
Mr. Richard Cadiou, Web Editor
Mr. Claudio Bruno Monteiro, Video Technician
Mr. Alain Perry, Conference Clerk

11
WELCOME ADDRESSES
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

ABDUL WAHEED KHAN Votre Excellence Monsieur Adamkus, Prési- In the coming days, we will address the
Co-Chair of the World dent de la Lituanie Votre Excellence, Mon- challenge on how to accelerate progress on
Conference
Assistant Director-General sieur Karklins, Président du Comité prépara- achieving Millennium Development Goals
for Communication and Information toire du Sommet Mondial sur la Société de and poverty alleviation, with particular
l’information Monsieur Weiler, représentant focus on the use of ICT in non-formal edu-
du Club de Rome Monsieur le Directeur cation and learning. The conference is
général de l’UNESCO, Excellences, Mesda- structured into four substantial sessions
mes et Messieurs C’est pour moi un grand addressing the issues of “Policy making and
plaisir de vous souhaiter ce matin la bienve- critical success factors”, “Technology part-
nue à la conférence sur «Les téchnologies de nerships for life-long learning in developing
l’information et de la communication pour countries”, “Sustainable solutions for capa-
la formation au service du développement : city building” and “Low cost technology
les facteurs clés de succès”. Nous sommes solutions for capacity building”. It will
heureux de vous accueillir ici au siège de conclude with a session synthesizing your
l’UNESCO. Je salue tout particulièrement debates for the World Summit on the Infor-
tous ceux qui nous joindrons au cours de mation Society. Thank you „
trois prochains jours de partout dans le
monde par les moyens de vidéoconférence.
Permettez moi de rendre hommage aux per-
sonnalités qui ont bien voulu accepter d’oc-
troyer leur patronage à notre conférence,
comme leurs Excellences Messieurs Adam-
kus et Karklins, le Prince El Hassan bin
Talal, Président du Club de Rome ; Mme
Begum Khaleda Zia, Premier Ministre du
Bangladesh; Mme Lidia Brito, ancien Minis-
tre de l’Education du Mozambique; M.
Yoshio Utsumi, Secrétaire général de l’Union
Internationale des Télécommunications; M.
James D. Wolfensohn, ancien Président de
la Banque Mondiale; Mme Viviane Reding,
Membre de la Commission Européenne ; M.
Roberto D. Peccei, Vice-Chancelier à la
recherche de l’université de Californie, et M.
Frank De Winne, Astronaute de l’Agence
Spatiale Européenne et Ambassadeur de
bonne volonté de l’UNICEF. Ladies and Gen-
tlemen, The event, to which we have the
pleasure to welcome you today, is an official
“Thematic Meeting” of the World Summit
on the Information Society, and is organized
in cooperation with the Club of Rome. It
comes in a series of four meetings, which set
UNESCO’s frame for operationalizing its
concept of Knowledge Societies and for
implementing the Summit’s Plan of Action.

12
WELCOME ADDRESS TO THE
CLUB OF ROME AND UNESCO
WORLD CONFERENCE

RAOUL WEILER In the name of the Club of Rome I am For these reasons the organizers -Club of
Co-Chair of the World pleased and honored to welcome you to this Rome and UNESCO- have taken the chal-
Conference
President of the Brussels- World Conference, co-organized with lenge to set up this World Conference in
EU Chapter The Club of Rome UNESCO, and dealing with the non-formal order to contribute -in a substantive way- to
education and capacity-building processes the endeavors, especially to the future Plan
for development. The overall objectives, as of Action, of the 2nd phase WSIS in Tunis.
literacy and learning, human dignity, local
entrepreneurship, cultural diversity, and The fast development of new technologies
many others are related and positioned of information and communication -
within the frame of the World Summit on including satellites - are creating another
the Information Society in Geneva and epoch, modify profoundly human behavior
Tunis. and changing societies globally. Envision-
ing the emergence of information and
The Club of Rome is well known for the knowledge societies belongs to the near
famous report The Limits to Growth pub- future.
lished in 1972 and actualized very recently
in 2004. The report basically dealt with The developing world has to be integrated
availability of planetary resources, a topic in this global process. If this integration
which has retained the attention of the process would not succeed, our planet will
political world leadership since 30 years and not end up only with poor countries but
will do for the next decades. with poor and ignorant countries. This
would be the climax of irresponsibility for
However, the attention of the Club of Rome many of us all. No political leadership can
to education and learning has been manifest afford such an evolution.
from the very beginning of its existence. In
1978 appeared the report No limits to learn- Additionally we have to keep in mind that
ing. Bridging the human gap and has been by 2050 the total world population will
re-edited in 1998. In this report it is stated have attained about 8-9 billion people,
that: “without the eradication of poverty meaning that the today's problems will
and ignorance, there can be little doubt that increase dramatically if no appropriate
the same or greater proportion of our future actions are taken and Ways and Means are
children will be condemned to continue as made available.
in this fate.”
The Club of Rome is very grateful to wel-
It has become overwhelmingly clear that come such a large participation from all
sustainable societies cannot emerge as long parts of the world. It is particularly grateful
as large scale poverty -2/3 of humankind- to UNESCO for hosting this conference as
remains a dominant parameter in these well as for its dedicated personnel for the
societies on our planet. For the Club of organization of the event. Indeed, UNESCO
Rome the simplified equation of the World as the center of excellence of education and
Sustainability 'problématique' sounds: sciences has anticipated, since many years,
the emerging information and knowledge
education = fighting large scale poverty = society.
reaching sustainable societies

13
Welcome address

RAOUL WEILER minating point will be to present the results


Co-Chair of the World The Club of Rome is particularly grateful to as input to the WSIS in Tunis in November
Conference
President of the Brussels- the Patrons of this event and to all who con- 2005.
EU Chapter The Club of Rome tributed to its content, especially to the peo-
ple in remote places whose participation as Finally I wish to thank explicitly the spon-
been made possible via the GDLN network sors and maecenas from Europe and the US
of the World Bank Institute. as well as the NGOs and Foundations in
Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Middle-
The World Conference is the beginning of a East, who all made this event possible. „
large dissemination process through the
Internet web-casting “live” and continued
thereafter, Satellite and Radio Broadcasting
and in printed and electronic form. The cul-

14
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. FRAME AND KEY CONCEPTS development of applications. An extraordi-


nary opportunity emerges for embedding
The context of the World Conference was the local languages with immense diversity.
placed in the frame of the World Summit on New literacies resulting from the new tech-
the Information Society (WSIS), which nical environment, about information
resulted in a "call to action" by the world access and media emerge, as well as
leaders to use ICTs for development, in its increased assimilation of knowledge
the first phase in Geneva 2003. through non-formal channels.

ICT for Capacity-Building covers a range of 2. SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE IMPLE-
topics and the Conference addresses espe- MENTATION OF ICT FOR DEVELOPMENT
cially the part of the non-formal education.
The main objective was to compile and to 2.1. Societal and Pedagogical Factors
learn the critical success factors, in view of
improving of future actions and initiatives. The main objective of the implementation of
In fact it is contribution to reduce the "dig- technology and infrastructure has to be ori-
ital divide", which can also be characterized ented towards human needs and uses. The
as the "knowledge divide" between those focus lies on helping people to acquire new
who have access to information and learn- skills for improving their daily living condi-
ing tools of the 21st century and those who tions of poverty or extreme poverty.
do not.
To embed ICT initiatives in local communi-
The conference was structured around four ties, contributing and leading to local own-
strategic topics: policy-making and critical ership and participation. Telecenters, tele-
success factors in Chapters I & II, technolo- phone, e-health centers, etc. in communities
gy partnerships for Life-Long learning in and urban areas are essential for ownership
developing countries in Chapter III, Sustain- attitudes. The attraction of the young, the
able solutions for capacity-building and integration of the women and the involve-
Low-cost technology solutions for capacity- ment of the local authorities and NGOs, all
building in Chapter IV. In order to complete form the larger multi-stakeholder base for
the debates on the strategic topics, testi- success.
monies and experiences from all around the
world were incorporated in the Conference The Government, national and regional, has
with the use of the Global Development Net- to play a decisive role in creating indispen-
work (GDLN) of the World Bank Institute, sable conditions for deploying infrastruc-
with their resumes in Chapter V. ture requirements: like bandwidth, involv-
ing schools, electric power etc.
Key concepts for capacity-building were put
in the large context of the emergence of To initiate new perceptions and understand-
new technologies and applications. For ings for the importance of the use of net-
non-formal education as well as for educa- works in local communities, for mutual
tion in general, the main challenge fre- helping, for local farming conditions and
quently advanced was the need of sufficient food supply, medial assistance, in the
numbers of trainers of all sorts and teachers schools and many other occasions and
at all levels. Additionally, with the introduc- places.
tion of these technologies, substantial shifts
to new pedagogical paradigms as well as to Special attention in projects and initiatives
new forms of knowledge will take place. The should be paid to transfer information and
integration of local languages and local know how to the young, eager to learn and
practices and habits is required for grass to assimilate new techniques. They have to
root training activities but as well as for be seen as the continuity for further devel-

15
Executive Summary

opment. Their training, over longer periods One Laptop Per Child (OLPC), elaborated at
of time, warrants success in the continuity MIT and carried by the concept of the US$
of ICT implementation. 100 laptop. This new device, belonging in a
formal education context, will in the future,
Presently there are a lot of initiatives using due to its wide dissemination and contribu-
information technology for capacity-build- tion to the pedagogical paradigm shifts,
ing. There are successful ones and some that contribute significantly to reduce the ‘digi-
fail. Success and failure depend for example tal divide’. Satellite access is part of the con-
on the degree of integration of projects in cept and equipment on the ground for inter-
local networks on all levels. This starts from active communication will become available
user networks, includes local content at acceptable costs. Part of the OLPC con-
providers and includes also the governmen- cept is use of open software, tailored for
tal structures on different levels. If co-oper- minimum resources use, contributing to
ation one of these levels does not work lower the costs and to facilitate its operation
properly, it may be possible to create a proj- and maintenance. The availability of electri-
ect and to maintain it for a while, but after cal power is an additional requirement in
some time, usually when the external finan- regions without grids. It is critical for imple-
cial support ends, it will disappear. menting ICT that adapted power sources are
included.
2.2. Infrastructure and Tools
Large scale applicability of the above men-
At a first view, different technologies com- tioned technologies depends on the costs of
pete with each other and it is not yet visible, acquisition and operation. Their availability
which one will finally be the best solution is a critical factor for successful penetration
for a specific application. But a close look of ICT for development.
shows already that they will occupy differ-
ent segments of the market and may finally
be used in parallel. 2.3 Open Systems Are Needed

There is the hope that developing countries Development requires the possibility for the
need not to go through a "copper-age" but developing countries to learn from the
that they will directly start with wireless and industrialized ones and to use the knowl-
satellite based applications. edge to adapt technology to their local
needs and to follow subsequently their own
Satellite radio exists for many years and is development path. This learning and adapt-
easy in use and accessible anywhere. Infor- ing is only possible if the knowledge is
mation and education programs are provid- actually accessible and can be further
ed in the local languages and contribute sig- processed. The software problematique was
nificantly to the development of people. therefore discussed at the conference also
Satellite radio offers huge opportunities in from the viewpoint of users from develop-
the future. ing countries. There were claims for open
software because this is the prerequisite to
Wireless mobile phones are meanwhile eas- enable people from developing countries to
ily available, the advantage that its use is learn how the systems work and to develop
nowadays widespread and can be used by them further according to their needs. This
anyone. They play an important role in the contributes to the creation of specific
developing world in the areas of small and knowledge in developing countries and
local enterprises. increases their competitiveness.

A recent innovative education project con-


sists in providing young pupils a laptop:

16
Executive Summary

2.4. New Financing methods 3. PERSPECTIVES

Financing the reduction of the digital divide The World Conference on ICT for capacity-
remains a major challenge and is part of the building has given a wide overview of suc-
Plan of Action of the WSIS. Of course tech- cess factors from the human and technolog-
nology providers are interested in huge ical perspectives. Their simultaneous imple-
future markets. Partnerships are concluded mentation looks to be an absolute require-
for further development. Official Develop- ment to be sustainable and successful.
ment Aid (ODA) of the rich countries sup-
ports projects as well as do Intergovernmen- In view of WSIS, an estimation of the
tal Financial Institutions. amount of investment and ownership is
made possible by businesses and experts.
Attention was given to micro-credit and The perspectives of the announced low-
micro-financing for ICT implementation. costs equipment increase significantly the
Several examples in many parts of the number of people to be trained and educat-
world have proven that such methods are ed. The time frame in which considerable
applicable with success. Local and collective progress can be made for large scale ICT
financing of ICT projects, show large advan- implementation remains difficult. „
tages in terms of ownership, initiatives, etc.
Micro-credit exists since some years and it
can have a significant contribution to suc-
cessful implementation of ICT for develop-
ment.

17
Chapter I.
Setting the Frame
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

ON THE OCCASION
OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE
ICT FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING:
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

KOÏCHIRO MATSUURA Mr. Adamkus, President of the Republic of address the digital divide, a wide range of
Director General, UNESCO Lithuania, experts from civil society worldwide will be
Mr. Karklins, President of the Preparatory involved in this Conference. This includes
Committee of the World Summit on the NGOs, academia, industry and colleagues
Information Society, from other international agencies, all of
Mr. Weiler, President of the Brussels-EU whom are working on policies, partnerships
Chapter of the Club of Rome, and technology solutions to build human
Excellencies, capacity and accelerate development
Ladies and Gentlemen, through the use of ICT.

It is a great pleasure for me to open this Over the next three days, we will share
World Summit Thematic Meeting on "ICT ideas, experiences and know how with a
for Capacity Building: Critical Success Fac- global and diverse audience through a
tors". I would like to welcome all of you to unique feature of this event, namely, the
what promises to be a most interesting live discussion platform. Four regional
event. interactive sessions are scheduled to collect
live testimonies from 12 locations in Latin
This Conference is one of many ways that America, the Arab States, Africa and Asia.
UNESCO is engaging in the ongoing process UNESCO greatly appreciates the support of
of the World Summit on the Information the World Bank Institute which has made
Society (WSIS). I am delighted that available the satellite facilities of the GDLN
UNESCO, through technology, is bringing (Global Development Learning Network) for
together such a range of international stake- this Conference.
holders and experts to help UNESCO and its
partners in our combined efforts to translate Our objective with this global dialogue is to
the vision of the World Summit into action. address the key challenge of how to develop
We share a very strong resolve, illustrated the human capacities necessary for building
by the Declaration from the first phase of inclusive knowledge societies. Over the past
the WSIS in Geneva in December 2003, decade, ICT has triggered a revolution,
where it says in Principle 14: "We are res- affecting education, culture, society and
olute to empower the poor, particularly many other spheres of our lives, and this
those living in remote, rural and marginal- revolution is only just beginning. Access to
ized urban areas, to access information and information and knowledge facilitated by
to use ICT (Information and Communication ICT is increasingly determining patterns of
Technology) as a tool to support their efforts learning, cultural expression and social par-
to lift themselves out of poverty" ticipation. It also provides opportunities for
development, more effective poverty reduc-
This is a very special event, reflecting the tion and the preservation of peace. Indeed,
spirit of the World Summit in that it is truly knowledge is playing, and will continue to
multi stakeholder. In organizing this confer- play, a pivotal role as a principal force of
ence, UNESCO has partnered with the Club social transformation.
of Rome, and I wish to acknowledge and
thank it for its efforts. In keeping with the Knowledge societies depend on the capacity
recognition by the United Nations and the of people to use and apply ICT to facilitate
Summit of the need for new forms of soli- access to knowledge acquisition, transfer
darity, partnership and cooperation to and learning. Knowledge societies are soci-

19
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

KOÏCHIRO MATSUURA eties in which new paradigms of learning expertise from around the world on how ICT
Director General, UNESCO are emerging and exceptional investment, is being used to develop human capacities.
both intellectual and financial, in new To complement UNESCO's other efforts on
learning will be needed. Knowledge soci- education for sustainable development, we
eties are necessarily societies with strong have decided to reflect the emphasis of civil
learning imperatives and quality education society at the World Summit and to pay par-
for all is one of the building blocks of ticular attention to the marginalized and
knowledge societies. vulnerable, and those not easily reached by
classical education methods.
To put it very simply, we are striving for a
world of social inclusion without the daily As a process of progressive change from
grind of poverty. We know that knowledge, ignorance to knowledge, from inability to
through education and learning, is the key competence, and from indifference to
to improving prosperity and human securi- understanding, learning has never been so
ty. This was one of the core messages that crucial. The need for lifelong learning and
UNESCO took to the World Summit on the for education that is accessible, affordable
Information Society in Geneva 2003. For and of high quality presents a huge chal-
some years now, there has been enormous lenge. As this learning process becomes
global investment in the use of ICT as a increasingly complex and non linear, going
means of addressing critical development far beyond the acquisition of basic literacy
needs. This reflects what was acknowledged skills, old methods of learning are becoming
globally through the World Summit, that the insufficient and conventional methods of
appropriate use of technology can greatly limiting the learning process to the four
accelerate social and economic develop- walls of a classroom and a one¬time learn-
ment. ing experience become less relevant and
efficient.
The Declaration of Principles from the Sum-
mit places great emphasis on capacity New ways of teaching and learning may
building and in particular makes the link now be envisaged where ICT makes it possi-
between sustainable development and the ble for creating learning communities across
potential of using ICT in all stages of educa- age, class and status, language, skill, gender
tion, training, and human resource develop- and spatial boundaries. ICT can change the
ment. Now, through the Summit Plan of modes of learning as it provides open and
Action, all stakeholders are being called flexible solutions and can be highly cost
upon to focus and accelerate their efforts to effective and efficient in terms of reach and
build the necessary capacities to bridge the impact, This, let me add, does not mean that
digital divide and to ensure everyone can we can do without schools. But we need to
benefit fully from the Information Society. combine traditional and new methods.

This brings us to the key question of this In focusing on non formal education and on
Conference. How effective and sustainable the use of ICT for learning, we need to
is the strategy of using ICT for capacity understand the critical success factors of the
building? What needs to happen to ensure projects and policies designed to build
that the growing investment in ICT to sup- human capacities. Our challenge is to iden-
port learning can play its part in realizing tify what works and what does not. Given
the aims of the Millennium Development the complexity of learning environments
Goals (MDGs) and fulfill the responsibilities and of applying ICT for development poli-
under the World Summit Plan of Action? cies, programs and projects, this is not a
simple task. However, if we are serious
Over the next three days, therefore, this about being action oriented, and about ful-
Conference will draw on experiences and filling the various targets set by the MDGs

20
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

and the World Summit, we must focus on Club of Rome, is with us here today. I would
the difficult questions of effectiveness and also like to express my particular thanks to
sustainability. the World Bank Institute for making the
GDLN available, as well as all the partners
To understand what are the essential ele- who have supported the Conference: ReD-
ments for successful implementation and SOFT; SES Global; Intel Corporation;
the key lessons to be learned, we need to NEWTEC; European Space Agency; Hewlett
address a number of basic questions. What Packard; Alcatel Space; MCI; and Microsoft.
makes a project sustainable and cost effec-
tive? How do we define, monitor and eval- This support is a vivid demonstration of
uate its impact, particularly its educational civil society's strong engagement in this
and social impacts? How do we ensure the area and of our collective will to take up the
availability of human resources, local challenge of the World Summit. Your ideas
champions, and relevant content in local and conclusions will be carried forward to
languages? What partnering models are become an input to the second phase of the
most suitable? How do we satisfy infra- Summit in Tunis this November. Most
structure needs? How can we ensure that importantly, your deliberations will inform
technology solutions are appropriate to the us and guide us on how, collectively, we can
local conditions? And, what of the need to become more effective in our action agenda
ensure an integrated approach, including to build human capacities through ICT.
the weighting and interdependency of all of
these factors? This conference is a unique I wish you every success in addressing this
opportunity to explore these issues by draw- challenging agenda over the next three days
ing on those with first hand experience from of the Conference. To guide the delibera-
around the world. tions to come, we are particularly fortunate
to have with us today Mr. Valdus Adamkus,
Finally, let me conclude by extending my President of the Republic of Lithuania and, I
deep appreciation to the Club of Rome, am honored to add, UNESCO Goodwill
whose President His Royal Highness Ambassador for the Construction of Knowl-
Prince El Hassan bin Talal is a good and edge Societies; and Mr. Janis Karklins, Pres-
long standing friend of UNESCO. I am very ident of the Preparatory Committee of the
pleased that Mr. Raoul Weiler, President of World Summit on the Information Society.
the Brussels/European Union Chapter of the „

21
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

UNESCO AND THE CLUB OF ROME


WORLD CONFERENCE

Ladies and Gentlemen, a digital divide between the urban and rural
H.E. VALDAS ADAMKUS
President of the areas, between the affluent and the poor. I
Republic of Lithuania I am pleased and honored to speak at this know it first hand from the experience of
World Conference, organized by UNESCO my own country – Lithuania, which has
and the Club of Rome. numerous small towns and villages.

It is emblematic that these two organiza- The gravitation of the cities and their
tions hold a meeting devoted to the second economies denies the village equal access to
phase of the World Summit on the Informa- the information highways. Not only does it
tion Society, which will take place in Tunis deprive rural population of active participa-
later this year. tion in society, but it also aggravates urban
problems.
Today, the term “Information Society” is
omnipresent. Communication is indispensa- Cities grow out of all proportions with
ble for successful development of all areas inevitable traffic jams, pollution and other
of our public life. Yet UNESCO and members problems, all because they still have the
of international community stress that our monopoly on the most attractive jobs. Many
ultimate goal must be the creation of a of these problems can be solved by connect-
global “Knowledge Society”. ing villages to the information highways,
injecting new partnerships and policies
Information is not yet knowledge, and the between the state and the business to com-
increase in the amount of information does pensate for this digital divide.
not guarantee a harmonious development of
the individual and society as a whole. Most of us have to admit that caught up in
short-term tasks and urgent problems we do
Information technology does not automati- not take time to design well thought strate-
cally create an information society, let alone gies and to reflect on their implications.
a knowledge society. Without education,
which is a guarantee of real access to infor- As a result, and as a rule, we build airports
mation, cultural diversity and freedom of that are too small, roads that are too narrow
expression, Knowledge Society is impossi- and information highways that are too slow.
ble. That is why this Summit deals with con-
tent and applications, and not pure technol- Without a vision, we cannot hope to build
ogy. the best possible future for our children by
simply adjusting and adapting to the
In spite of deep respect for new technolo- requirements of today. The change of
gies, we must have in mind that a lot of requirements is too fast for policy-makers
people are using such traditional media as who cannot follow all the zigzags of IT
TV and radio. Community radio and the development.
volume of information we are receiving
through them is still very important for civil That is why it is so important right now to
society and knowledge. Looking at the unite the efforts of UNESCO and The Club of
development of new technologies let’s not Rome. This coupling of their efforts can give
forget traditions which are still alive in our a fresh impetus to the second phase of the
societies – both in the cities and villages. World Summit on the Information Society.

Ladies and Gentleman, Ladies and Gentleman,

A lot is said about the digital divide between The key issue is that of freedom of expres-
the developed and the developing countries. sion and attempts to limit it in cyberspace.
But even in industrial countries there exists Very often, proposed restrictions are por-

22
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

trayed as protection against terrorism. How- conflicts.


ever, by limiting freedom of expression, we
play into the hands of terrorists for that it is As Herbert George Wells used to say, civi-
precisely what they try to achieve. lization is “a race between education and
catastrophe”.
It is very important that UNESCO has taken
a clear stand on this issue. Let me quote Interactive technologies are opening new
Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of possibilities for communication between
UNESCO, who said at a conference on free- students and teachers, both real and virtual,
dom of expression in cyberspace last Febru- but they can hardly change the essence of
ary: education.

“UNESCO stands firmly behind the principle Replacing education by training may well
of freedom of expression in this matter. The satisfy short-term industry needs, but it will
debate must not be locked into a discussion not fulfill the task of transmitting to the
about “good” or “bad” information. The dis- young people the real scale of human val-
cussion must focus on the core issue at stake ues. Education is more than a simple trans-
– the universal human right of freedom of fer of information.
expression”.
The statement that new technologies allow
This meeting must make its contribution to the developing countries to leapfrog in their
the ongoing debate by clearly identifying development is only true on one condition:
the challenges before the international com- you must have an educated society first.
munity as it progresses on the road towards This is difficult to accomplish in developing
the Knowledge Society based upon the uni- countries, where rural poverty and general
versal principle of freedom of expression. illiteracy are not diminishing, but growing.
Furthermore, we must make sure that the
conclusions of this meeting are presented We must, however, reverse the current trend
and heard at the Tunis Summit whereby two information worlds are being
created -- the first of them is well-off, edu-
Civil society was far from satisfied with the cated and technically equipped, able to
preparations for the first phase of the Sum- receive the latest information quickly and at
mit in Geneva, for it had limited possibilities low costs; and the second is poor, deprived
to contribute to the debate. of access to basic infrastructure, doomed to
be outdated, and paying a high price for
The Club of Rome can help to correct this information.
deficiency by bringing together those who
are convinced that the future of humankind Clearly, this second world has no chance of
is not determined once and for all and that catching up with the first one, if we are not
each human being can contribute to our ready to table and implement effective poli-
society. cies.

Ladies and Gentleman, Ladies and Gentleman,

At this conference, UNESCO and the Club of Talking about great opportunities that new
Rome will address the key challenge of communication technologies open up, we
developing human capacities necessary for must not close our eyes to dangers, associ-
building inclusive knowledge societies that ated with this process.
empower people. Education and a rational
use of new technologies can help us reduce Our children read less than we did at their
the existing inequalities and prevent many age. Since the days of Ancient Egypt, the

23
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

written word was at the basis of human


H.E. VALDAS ADAMKUS
President of the education. It must be honestly admitted that
Republic of Lithuania so far, the hopes vested in new technologies
with regard to education have only partly
come true.

Another dangerous trend is to review the


concept of scientific knowledge as public
good. The best example in this respect was
the attempt to patent the human genome
code.

So, there is no simple answer to the question


of whether the information revolution is
good or bad. It may be both. On the one
hand, it gives unlimited possibilities for
information exchange. On the other, it may
bring the danger of a new global “iron cur-
tain”, where the developing countries may
once again be the big losers.

Ladies and Gentleman,

Our times are complex and full of uncer-


tainties. To borrow a quote from the French
poet and thinker Paul Valéry: “The trouble
with our times is that the future is not what
it used to be”.

It is clear, however, that the technological


revolution alone will not lead us to a har-
monious global knowledge society.

We need participation, we need genuine


international solidarity and we need invest-
ment in human skills. But above all, we
need responsible political decisions, which
would ensure conditions for putting techno-
logical achievements at the service of every
man. „

24
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

WSIS THEMATIC CONFERENCE


ICT FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING

JANIS KARKLINS Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen: Looking closely at country's development
President Preparatory Committee trajectories, the fundamentals for sustain-
World Summit on the Information
Society, Tunis 2005 I would like to thank the Club of Rome and able growth and development are no longer
UNESCO for inviting me to the WSIS the- simply the traditional factors of production
matic conference to focus on human capac- - labor, capital and technology - as we
ity building, so necessary for building inclu- know them. Knowledge has increasingly
sive information and knowledge societies. become a very significant factor in the
In my talk, I will first describe the World development process. For a country to seize
Summit for the Information Society (WSIS) development opportunities in the 21st cen-
process, including the outcome of the Gene- tury, its economy must move progressively
va phase and where we stand today in the and vigorously towards emerging as a
Tunis phase of WSIS. I will then outline the knowledge-based economy. Developing
role of thematic meetings in the process. countries can benefit from the knowledge
revolution and make effective use of knowl-
Mr. Chairperson, edge in all sectors of their economies. How-
ever, if the digital divide is not addressed,
The digital era started not so long ago - we risk creating a knowledge divide whose
three or four decades back. Since then, tech- impact may be even larger.
nology has impacted all facets of life. How-
ever, development of this new type of soci- ICTs should be regarded as tools and not as
ety and life has not been even in different an end in themselves. Under favorable con-
parts of the world. ditions, these technologies can be a power-
ful instrument, increasing productivity, gen-
While the issues of information society have erating economic growth, job creation and
been addressed in various forums, the World employability and improving the quality of
Summit on the Information Society focuses life of all. They can also promote dialogue
comprehensively on the information society among people, nations and civilizations.
and bridging digital divide with the partici-
pation of governments, international organ-
izations, civil society and industry represen- THE WSIS PROCESS
tatives.
The UN World Summit of the Information
Addressing these issues is critical for reach- Society, or WSIS, is focused on promoting
ing the goals set out in the Millennium Dec- the Information Society at the national,
laration. If we succeed in harnessing the regional and international levels. The over-
immense potential offered by information all goal of the WSIS process is to advance
and communication technologies, and make the achievement of the internationally-
these technologies accessible to as many agreed development goals, including those
people as possible, then we will be in a in the Millennium Declaration, the Monter-
much better position to achieve the overar- rey Consensus, the Johannesburg Declara-
ching goals that have been enshrined in the tion and Plan of Implementation and the
Millennium Declaration, such as the eradi- Spirit of Sao Paulo (UNCTAD XI) by promot-
cation of extreme poverty and hunger, the ing the use of ICT-based products, networks,
containment of disease, the protection of services and applications, and to help coun-
the environment and the attainment of a tries overcome the digital divide. The WSIS
more peaceful, just and prosperous world. process provides an opportunity to address

25
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

ICT issues in all societies, developed and va of a voluntary digital solidarity fund, an
developing alike. Civil society and the pri- issue on which we were not able to agree
vate sector have key roles to play and both during the Geneva phase. This fund will
must stay fully involved in the process complement existing financial mechanisms
along with government. This is critical for a but will focus on exploring new sources of
successful outcome of the WSIS process. funding and will concentrate on pressing
needs on local level.
The unique nature of WSIS, structured in
two phases, provides an opportunity for In September, the third PrepCom will exam-
enhanced dialogue and partnership, ine the Report of the UN SG Working Group
enabling the international community to on Internet Governance and continue dis-
address questions about the information cussions on the implementation of the
society in a comprehensive and inclusive Geneva decisions as well as negotiate the
manner. Phase I of WSIS culminated with Political Chapeau of the Tunis Document.
the Summit in Geneva in December of 2003,
in which a Declaration of Principles and a Thematic meetings, such as this one, pro-
Plan of Action were finalized. vide intellectual laboratories in which new
and practical measures can be discussed and
The Second Phase of WSIS, which will take innovative solutions developed. Last week's
place in Tunis, will build on the Geneva consultations on implementation, which
agreements, which outline important infor- took place in the framework of ITU activi-
mation society issues and require imple- ties, clearly demonstrated the importance
mentation on national, regional and inter- member states attach to implementation of
national levels. The Tunis Phase has three WSIS decisions. I'll not be original by say-
main areas of focus; implementation of the ing that implementation first and foremost
Plan of Action developed in Geneva, should be organized in national countries
streamlining of financial mechanisms for by national governments and that process
bridging the digital divide and discussing should be supported by regional and inter-
questions of Internet governance. national co-operation. Thousands and mil-
lions of individuals stand behind the gov-
The Tunis Summit must go one step further ernments. We have to reach each of them.
and move from principles to actions. The We have to make their lives better by pro-
outcome of the Tunis Summit should be to viding education, health and social services.
translate the decisions made in Geneva into ICTs provide us with unprecedented tools
concrete actions and policy decisions. The and we should make the most of these
Tunis Summit should foster existing, and opportunities. I believe that this conference
create new, partnerships between govern- is exactly about these issues - how to
ments, the private sector and civil society. A empower a woman in Sub-Saharan Africa, a
sound implementation process of WSIS young man in the highlands of Bolivia or a
decisions is crucial to avoid a common out- girl in the Philippines, to benefit from the
come of many international gatherings in use of ICTs and how to make it possible.
which no follow up action is taken.
I hope that the outcome of this meeting
In February 2005, we successfully conclud- will provide guidance and practical pro-
ed the second preparatory meeting of the posals to policy makers regarding ways to
Tunis summit. Based on the report of the most efficiently provide access to educa-
Task Force on Financial Mechanisms, mem- tion by use of ICTs in order to ensure
ber states examined in depth existing finan- growth and economic development for all
cial facilities to bridge the digital divide and populations. The recommendations from
analyzed their efficiency. They also reached this conference will feed into the negotia-
an agreement on the establishment in Gene- tion process and will provide a valuable

26
Chapter I. Setting the Frame

source of ideas in the WSIS deliberations. governments, international organizations,


companies and civil society, working
The outcome of this meeting will be placed together to provide an improved environ-
on the WSIS website and the organizers will ment for the Information Society in both
be given the floor during the third PrepCom developing and developed countries around
to present the findings and conclusions of the world as well as within and between
the conference. populations of people.

There is no disagreement about the exis- I wish you all a very successful and produc-
tence of a digital divide. And there is a con- tive conference and look forward to hearing
sensus that, if urgent steps are not taken, the the report with the conclusions of the
divide will widen. More than lip service is meeting. „
needed. It will require a concerted effort by

27
Chapter II.
Policy-Making
Chapter II. Policy-Making

INSERTION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING


THROUGH ICT, AN OPPORTUNITY
FOR DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERIZED
BY SOLIDARITY, EQUITABILITY AND
CO-RESPONSIBILITY

CATHERINE TRAUTMANN First of all, I would like to thank the organ- ufacturing of moccasins, braid in an Indian
Former Minister, izers inviting me to participate at this con- manner, home- made, an activity which
European Parliamentarian
ference. I propose to express myself not became unfortunately obsolete, as a result
only as a European Parliamentarian in of competition. It was chosen to consider
charge of the report on WSIS, but as well ICTs at the same time as a tool and an
from my personal experience at the local object of training. The objective consisted
and national levels. In this way I con- in the creation of conditions for profession-
tributed at the elaboration of French gov- al re-insertion and valorization of new
ernmental plan for the information society acquired competencies, specifically for the
which looked for the development of the use orientation to tele-working.
of ICTs in all the domains of, creation,
industrial production and services, adminis- It was observed that this training has creat-
tration and education & research. ed a stimulating effect the personal level,
due to the acquisition of new usable knowl-
In this way, I observed that such an ambi- edge, but also for a personal and social
tious and global ICTs development plan, usage of ICTs. The re-adaptation to the
intended to fill our gaps at the national world of employment has been favored
level, is slow down in its effects by insuffi- through the opening of new forms of com-
ciency of training and available content. munication, allowing to these persons to be
I drew the simple conclusion: it is in the in sync, even at the edge, with the techno-
training, initial as well as continuous, that logical evolution of our society. Several
resides the key for success for creating among them expressed their desire to con-
access to ICTs for all. tinue for higher qualification.

In this way, ICTs can be suitable for every-


I. THE ROLE OF ICTS IN THE one, at condition of applying an adapted
INSERTION AND TRAINING FOR ALL training, enabling a potential professional
as well as a personal and private use by the
In my region, a very interesting experience persons to be re-inserted, allowing them to
has been set up, with the support of the be considered again as “performing” indi-
local elected representatives, in the begin- viduals. Even more, this experience has
ning of the nineties. This experience, which allowed observing that ICTs stimulate a re-
idea has been used again in the develop- mobilization of intellectual capacities and
ment of the cyber centers and in the elabo- a desire for additional training.
ration of the French national plan with the
implementation of the “cultural-multimedia This experience has also shown that success
spaces”, illustrates very well the role of ICTs factors reside in the “group effect”. It has
in the insertion and training for all. not only to do with bringing an individual
in contact with a technique, but to surpass
It concerned the return to employment of the barrier of ICTs training of many, for
the population hurt by the industrial re- ICTs are also a tool for communication,
conversion of shoe manufacturing. The bet which the acronym tends to oversee. Com-
consisted in the resort to ICTs for the train- munication in itself is part of the training
ing of the unemployed. It should be men- process and plays an essential role in it.
tioned that besides the traditional industrial Training through ICTs creates a link, as tes-
manufacturing existed also the artisan man- tifies the mutation of tele-learning, which

29
Chapter II. Policy-Making

evolved basically from an individual use difficulties to persons in situation of failures


with audio-cassettes, than to interactive CD or illiteracy. The learning of an additional
Rom and now to downloadable programs language to the mother language should not
from the Internet. be compulsory, very oft selective and dis-
suasive, for persons who desire to be trained
ICTs are also a means for combating schol- using ICTs. These individuals should be
ar failure or absence of initial training. accepted in their own language and use it to
This is what I observed in the work of teach- undertake their training allowing the build-
ers using multi-media for the re-designing ing of a relationship of confidence and
apprenticeships, through the use of images trust with the trainer.
or other forms of languages, and through
the appeal to game behavior. ICTs can as The question is thus to adapt the content of
well be outreaches as real pedagogical the training programs as well as the com-
resources for combating scholar failures or petence and the number of the trainers for
gaps in the training processes. the concerned peoples, and not to suppose
that, since it concerns technologies, it would
be sufficient in a certain way, to deliver a
II. THE EDUCATION COMMUNITY user manual. Being convinced about the
OR THE MOBILIZATION OF necessity to warrant, in the frame of the
A COMMUNICATION NETWORK. WSIS, a universal service of access and its
RENEWING EXISTING APPROACHES? gratuity, this does not imply imposing uni-
form contents. I believe on the contrary that
The training of ICTs through ICTs repre- it is essential to warrant plurality of
sents an advantage, namely the one of approaches and favoring international
thinking in terms of communication net- cooperation of networks among researchers
works, beyond courses and methods. It is and trainers.
possible to draw a parallel with the learning I want to take the practical example of the
of writing and the utilization of characters introduction in the schools of electronic
and words. The learning of ICTs refers in notebooks and schoolbags, of pedagogic
fact to intelligence, to reasoning and mem- material which supposes not only a perfect
orization, to curiosity, but above all it opens mastering by the teachers but an initiation
to a multiplicity of possibilities of contacts of the parents as well. There, where the rela-
with others. It is astonishing to see how tion between pupils, parents and teachers
many heavy physically handicapped per- has been taken into account, the operation
sons learn easily ICTs, escaping their isola- has been more successful compared to the
tion. situation where the teachers did not benefit
an accompanying and sufficient training or
ICTs change the approach to writing and where the parents have not been involved
allow a conquest of autonomy much faster enough. This example shows that an ade-
than with classical methods. Therefore is it quate training of the teachers and trainers is
not possible to renew the methods of required for an optimal use of the tools and
teaching? The same question of adaptation similarly that the setting up of educational
arises for teachers and trainers. community in the form of a communication
network results in an enhanced success.
At this stage, I would like to add a person-
al reflection and draw your on the impor- The information society has to be consid-
tance of cultural and linguistic diversity in ered as a communication society and the
ICTs. The communication through the training programs as a means to get
Internet is branded by a poor writing and acquainted without being alienated to it.
the supremacy of one language. These two
elements can contribute to supplementary

30
Chapter II. Policy-Making

III. ICT AS INSTRUMENT AND school system, with a global vision about
RESOURCE FOR DEVELOPMENT. training and education, shared by the actors
of the educational network, the citizens and
Concerning the developing countries, an the decision makers.
other question has to be taken into account:
the one of the cultural and social references In the perspective of sustainable develop-
which are the basis of their culture. As an ment, ICTs may not be considered as simple
example I may mention, fairy tales, which tools but as real instruments and resources.
are frequently related to the education of Instruments for knowledge and production;
the young, or evoke the place and respect of resources with a strong cultural value as
the elderly. It is suitable to do the same for well as economical, which exploitation
ICTs in searching for adequate training in requires imperatively the availability of
accordance with the expectations of the energy and infrastructure. As in the past,
young public, of men and women in age of the roads and railways and now ICTs design
being active, the elderly as well as for peo- and make entire regions viable. Their role is
ple being in an insertion process. All people polyvalent and the organizer of personal
must have the possibility to get acquaint- life, social and political as well as. Any
ed with the available content. training of ICTs must be thought by taking
into account the sense and the social place
This refers to the socialization of education, that ICTs can take. If the dematerialization
mirror of the degree of consideration a of the contents can to be considered as a
Government allocates to the education of loss, ICTs allow to keep a relation with oth-
its population. In Western countries, the ers, with life. The content of the training
model is more focused on the family nucle- must be respectful of cultures and local
us than on the enlarged collectivity or the know-how. ICTs represent a real engine for
enlarged family. In this frame, it is suitable growth (a quarter of the growth of the GDP
to make a difference between what are the of the European Union, and 40% of the pro-
initial acquisitions and what belongs to and ductivity), their role cannot only be macro-
is transmitted through the collectivity. economic by facilitating the access to the
international market by less advanced
This question is prior to the implementation economies, but must favor the emergence of
of the plan of action of the WSIS. Indeed, projects adapted to the populations and the
the development has not to be understood territories.
as the only improvement of competitive-
ness, even as the adaptability to the muta- After having known the historical phase of
tions of the economic world, but as a devel- the Internet users forming a collective
opment of the person, of the individual avant-garde, the today’s challenge consists
aptitude, depending on the different social in knowing how to succeed its massive dis-
and age categories. From this point of view, semination. The European Union knows a
the training serves a societal project as it quadruple digital gap, which it has to reduce
contributes to a project of development, (territorial, social, economic and cultural)
favorable to the creation of new enterprises but this gap is worsening in the southern
and activities. countries which don’t have neither suffi-
cient infrastructures nor massive access
Willing to reduce the digital divide requires facilities to these technologies, what means
strategic choices about individual and higher cost for them and inequitable time
group training, and not only about the delays, then longer compared to those in the
accessibility of services. Some are satisfied northern countries.
by advocating the sole training of the ICTs The action plan of the WSIS may not be a
as technology. According to me, one has to uniform one, but on the contrary rich in
think in a similar way as it was done for the multiple approaches: diversity, pluralistic,

31
Chapter II. Policy-Making

adaptable. It has to be equipped with suffi- Indeed, one of the objectives of WSIS should
cient means at a threat of rapid increasing be a better circulation of art works and not
disparities. the looting of cultural resources of those
countries where the conservation of their
Here two examples of successful experi- heritage has not been developed. The coun-
ences of massive access to ICTs. tries of the South know a rapid transition
Finland: the decision of massive ICTs learn- towards ICTs compared with the mutations
ing is a public decision, implicating every- of Western countries. Europeans may not
body. Making it a national challenge has impose their concepts to others. The princi-
led to the success of this policy. ple of reciprocity has to animate the rela-
Canada: chose a creative and educational tions of partnership as the basis of the plan
approach through training of ICTs (new of action. The idea of co-development is
reflections on the spaces, tools and appren- here fundamental. This can help us to carry
ticeship, systematization of the digitizing out our own mutation simultaneously. At
cultural industries). It concerned thus a way that level, there is to be noted the concor-
for qualifying the people and an expression dance of the agendas of the Lisbon strategy
of a very entrepreneurial vision, in order to and the second phase of WSIS, as well as of
resist to the US and to promote own cre- concordance of the contents (e-programs).
ators. Fore these two countries, education
and training have reinforced the competi- The constitution of a universal cultural
tiveness and the creation of new services. heritage promoted by UNESCO is a shared
obligation of countries involved in WSIS.
Examples as the Universal Library and the
IV. THE ACTION PLAN OF WSIS: European Library show that cultural proj-
AN OBJECTIVE FOR CO-DEVELOPMENT. ects can constitute real driving engines.
The most flexible level for initiating projects
In conclusion, the WSIS should be, ideally, remains the local one and it is possible to
synonymous with gain of autonomy, liberty, note the very positive implication of territo-
knowledge, performance, capacity to become rial collectiveties, underlining the impor-
integrated in a global world. It is there that tance to look for a partnership adapted to
ICTs play a determining role for democracy. the size, the agenda and the financing of the
ICTs are necessary for reducing inequalities projects. This is the reason why, I think, that
and the promotion of dignity of individuals, WSIS should be the frame for a develop-
as well as a means for assuring the freedom ment of an innovative engineering of
of expression, information, pluralism of opin- multi-partnership. Collectiveties, political
ions and participation of citizens. Democracy, or private institutions like the NGOs, the
solidarity and prosperity are intimately linked enterprises, should have their place in the
in the search for the reduction of poverty of process.
the MDGs, being a part of the plan of action. The European Union must be implicated and
The reduction of the poverty passes through share its experience in the domains of train-
the improvement of the material means of ing, for example by supporting the associa-
life, but concerns also the access to “e-serv- tion of research teams in other countries
ices”, be it education, health care, commerce with their existing focal points.
or administration. However, it should be care- The quality of the partnership for the real-
fully watched that the pursued objective of ization of the plan of action will be essen-
WSIS is well understood as an objective of tial to favor the positive impacts of ICTs and
cultural enrichment. Therefore, the less for giving a human content to information
advanced countries should have at their dis- society. WSIS has confronted us with an
posal the capacity of production in order to immense challenge, the one of conceiving a
valorize their creations and their cultural her- world society which places technologies at
itage. the service of human progress. Will we be

32
Chapter II. Policy-Making

able, in matters related to the governance of lenge. I formulate, as a way of ending, the
the Internet as well as to its daily use, to deal hope that WSIS contributes to the emergence
with ICTs “in conscience”, which is to say of a world civilization centered on respect of
with lucidity about the limits and risks built- the peoples and their cultures by favoring a
in in these technologies? When training and development characterized by solidarity and
education are really indispensable, then equity, in one word, co-responsibility.
without them, we are sure the miss the chal- „

33
Chapter II. Policy-Making

PRESENTATION AT THE UNESCO AND


CLUB OF ROME WORLD CONFERENCE

REIDAR ROLL I regard myself as privileged in being asked the power of electricity is either not
Secretary General of ICDE to address you here today on behalf of the available at all or available only on an
International Council for Open and Distance intermittent basis
Learning (ICDE). And I bring greetings to
you from the Executive Committee of ICDE • The fifth is the economic survival gap
along with their hopes that the deliberations in which the existence of food and clean
of this Conference will be fruitful. water, the basic sustenance of life, is
threatened.
ICDE's presence on this panel is as a repre-
sentative of the education sector and, with- There is no doubt that all these challenges
in that sector, the voice of Open and Dis- exist. But if we begin to consider and meas-
tance Learning, which now fully embraces ure, by whatever means, the enormity of
within its diverse methodologies, Informa- any one of the challenges represented by
tion and Communication Technology. ICDE these gaps, we simply become paralysed by
was established in 1938. It is now formally the scale of what is needed. Nevertheless,
approved and recognised by UNESCO as the we set goals for removing these gaps
leading Global Membership Organisation in although, in reality, we are aware that we
Open and Distance Learning. Consequently must inevitably fail to achieve these goals
ICDE has been very active in the organisa- since they are so difficult to accomplish.
tion of UNESCO's World Summit on the And we tend to judge our progress on the
Information Society (WSIS). And of course basis of our failure to achieve the goals
ICDE membership extends throughout the rather than our limited success. And so we
world, bringing together the major institu- end in despair.
tions engaged in this activity both in devel-
oping and developed countries. But that is not - so I believe - how we
should be approaching any of these chal-
We are here to consider the use of ICT in the lenges. The English have a saying (perhaps
context of capacity building and it has it exists in other cultures also) that “There is
become customary to begin discussions on only one way to eat an elephant - and that
this topic with a number of caveats. is to cut it up into small pieces”. The enor-
mity of the problem that is faced in eating
• The first of these is the technology gap an elephant is such that anyone attempting
or technological divide between the such a task is immediately paralysed by the
developing and the developed countries. scale. But we should be measuring our
progress not on whether the elephant is
• The second is the literacy gap in which eaten but rather on how much of the ele-
basic reading and writing skills are lack- phant is eaten or indeed whether any parts
ing. of it are eaten at all.

• The third is the curriculum gap in In the short time available today, it is not
which there is seen to be a lack of cours- possible to deal with all five “gaps” which I
es, either in the appropriate language, at have identified; nor is it possible to address
the appropriate depth or at the required even a single one in the detail it deserves.
level. But I would like to offer a few comments on
the first three - technology, literacy and the
• The fourth is the energy gap in which curriculum - since they are within the ambit

34
Chapter II. Policy-Making

of special interest for the educational world concept of the digital divide, providing an
which I represent here today. answer to the technology gap to which I
referred earlier.
In July 2004 in New Delhi a nation-wide
initiative was launched, the purpose of And ICT is an enticing and often addictive
which was to facilitate the creation of medium whose participants learn peripheral
knowledge centres in each of India's vil- skills as they go along in order to satisfy
lages by 2007. The initiative has been called their inherent human curiosity. Generations
Mission 2007 and ties in with the 60th of students who have not obtained the basic
anniversary of India's Independence. It skills of four function arithmetic in the
aims to bring the various on-going ICT course of their traditional schooling do
activities in India into a national strategy manage to attain very considerable mathe-
and to do so by taking the benefits of this matical skills after they have left formal
technology to every village. It envisages education through playing games such as
broadband connectivity at low and afford- darts, snooker, dominoes and various play-
able costs with integrated applications ing card games in their leisure time. All of
which are applicable and relevant to the these games can now be played at any time
ordinary lives of those living in rural India. of the day or night on a Personal Computer.
The initiative is startlingly ambitious when But of course the Personal Computer also
we consider that there are some 600,000 vil- allows an individual to communicate with
lages in India, almost all of which could be other players locally or globally. However,
seen to suffer from almost all of the five to do so you need literacy. The hobby or
gaps I have enumerated. pastime pursued electronically encourages
the literacy and numeracy skills which
But the initiative is feasible when it is bro- seemed so difficult and so boring in the tra-
ken down into its various constituent parts. ditional school context.
It has the singular advantage of being
visionary in its conception. And so it cap- We may shortly see that Mission 2007 in
tures the imagination of the private sector, India is something much greater than an
academics, a whole range of various soci- attempt to bridge the digital divide, impor-
eties and organisations which exist within tant though that is, and much more a major
India - indeed, everyone who hears of it. step in achieving universal numeracy and
literacy in India in the regional and nation-
Some 44 years ago President John F. al languages and thus going a long way
Kennedy announced that the USA would set towards universal primary education,
a man on the moon by the end of the achieving for India the second of The Unit-
decade. Much of the technology required ed Nations Millennium Development Goals.
for that adventure was not available at that
time. It was not simply the case that it had I could make reference to other examples,
not been invented. Rather nobody had even albeit not so extensive, in a range of devel-
begun to imagine what it might be. But it oping countries in Africa and other parts of
was a vision which ultimately came to the world but I would like to conclude with
fruition because it caught the imagination a few words about the curriculum gap.
of the general public and had the support of
public and private sector organisations
throughout that country.
My experience, as Secretary General of
I would not be at all surprised if India's Mis- ICDE, leads me to believe that the idea of a
sion 2007 falls into the same category. If it curriculum gap, a lack of courses, either in
does, or rather as I myself believe, when it the appropriate language, at the appropriate
does, it will at the same time challenge the depth or at the required level, is widely

35
Chapter II. Policy-Making

REIDAR ROLL exaggerated. Courses in Open and Distance in which the term “Creative Commons
Secretary General of ICDE Learning have been developed in what now Licensing” is regularly used. The need for
amounts to thousands of institutions access to high quality material has given
throughout the world. But institutions tend rise to a number of innovative strategies
to suffer from a syndrome known as “not- which include the concept of Open Educa-
invented-here” (NIH). They expend consid- tional Resources (OER). And UNESCO has
erable resource on developing their own promoted interest in this in the last three
courses because they persuade themselves years and particularly at the Second Global
that other similar courses do not fit their Forum on International Quality Assurance,
own requirements to the last detail. This is Accreditation and the Recognition of Quali-
a provider led view since in many cases the fications in Higher Education here in Paris
students would find other existing courses last June.
perfectly ample for their needs.
Perhaps the most notable development, at
But it is not just the NIH syndrome which is least in terms of media attention, has been
a barrier to the use of courses, adapted the OpenCourseWare initiative at the Mass-
where necessary, across a range of institu- achusetts Institute of Technology whereby
tions and countries. Almost all creative MIT have made material from over 900 of
works - and courses are creative works - are their courses available on the web. So far
protected under a legislative regime that the institutions involved in such develop-
requires users to obtain a license from the ments have been almost all within the Unit-
copyright owner before any use can be ed States and in Higher Education. But the
made of the work. It would, in general, be Bodleian Library, in Oxford, has recently
true to say that creative works such as come to an arrangement with the Internet
course materials cannot be used unless the search engine Google to make an estimated
copyright holder says that they can. Copy- 1 million books from its collection available
right law is based upon the premise that all on the web
acts are restricted unless the copyright hold-
er explicitly grants approval. “Open licensing” is now addressing the tra-
ditional barriers of copyright by reversing
The obligation to obtain copyright approval the copyright licensing model so that all
is a significant barrier for users who do not acts are permitted, the only exceptions
have expertise in obtaining clearance or - being those explicitly withheld by the hold-
and this is more generally the case - er of the rights. It does so through a range
resources to purchase the right to use the of licensing models which have a number of
material. And nowadays it is made even common characteristics which deal with the
more frustrating because technology can so right to modify a piece of work, offering
easily make these materials available. back what has been modified to the commu-
nity for further modification, crediting the
But times are changing. Many of you will original author and non-commercial
be aware that The Open Source movement exploitation.
has for many years promoted the open
availability of the source code of computer The rate of development of what some are
software on the web as a means of pooling now calling Open Content has been rapid
knowledge to encourage innovation. “Open and there is now a very wide range of activ-
Source” is a term which has sprung from ity including -
and is still largely associated with the pro-
duction and distribution of computer soft- > Carnegie Mellon University Open Learning
ware. But it is beginning to be applied in a Initiative www.cmu.edu/oli
wider sense to legal rights in relation to > Utah State University Open Content for
materials which are published electronically Education www.oslo.edu/projects/oce

36
Chapter II. Policy-Making

Rice University Connexions www.cnx.rice.edu The provision of ICT technology to a widely


and, in terms of support service the OSLO distributed population requires a national
Group (alas nothing to do with my own vision, such as has been created in India.
country but rather the Open Sustainable Such a vision shows how the elephant, which
Learning Opportunities based at Utah State none believed could be eaten, can in fact be
University which offers an Open Learning easily consumed if it is cut up into manage-
Support service to 'wrap around' collections able parts. And that vision energises the
of Open access educational materials. public and private sectors, industry and com-
merce towards the accomplishment of this
We are at the beginning of new develop- widely agreed goal. Such visions require
ments which, if carefully nurtured can: resources in equipment and know-how and
in many cases that means aid from interna-
offer the best courses for institutions to tional donor bodies. But that sort of aid is of
use throughout the world; no use without a sound feasibility analysis of
allow institutions to modify these cours- how the vision might come to fruition in
es to target more specifically the precise practice, taking into account local infrastruc-
local needs; tures etc.
make the originals and the modifications
available throughout the world thus cre- The provision of materials is a more global
ating perpetual evolution; concept. The Open Source movement began
reduce by an order of magnitude the total in a highly competitive industry and has sub-
costs of course production. verted many of the assumptions of how intel-
lectual products are created and protected by
We are here today to examine the potential copyright. As it is now being employed in
of ICT for Capacity Building. The building of education, it begins to remove what was pre-
capacity requires two things: viously “the control of knowledge” which
excluded from that knowledge those who
• a means of distribution could not afford to pay for it. And it replaces
• something appropriate to distribute. that negative control by a more positive con-
trol which credits the original author and
Neither of these is of any use whatsoever goes a long way to guaranteeing the mainte-
without the other. The history of open and nance of quality in adaptations which are
distance education from the earliest days of made.
satellite technology is littered with grandiose
ideas and experiments which have failed UNESCO has already taken an interest in
because they concentrated on one while this development as I have mentioned in
assuming that the other was already in place my presentation. ICDE's members
or could be put in place very easily. throughout the world have a unique
knowledge and experience which is essen-
Mission 2007 in India provides us with a ster- tial if this development is to move forward.
ling example of how new technology can be UNESCO, together with ICDE as the NGO
made to reach throughout a vast population with Formal Consultative Relations in dis-
whose needs, for all sorts of reasons, cannot tance and online education, need to work
be met by traditional means of education. together formally so that none of the most
The Open Content movement can open attractive possibilities of Open Content are
access to the immeasurably rich resources lost. UNESCO and ICDE need together to
which have been built up in recent years, provide a framework for the creation of
allowing those resources to be translated and some overarching global direction and I
modified to fit local or regional needs and hope that work can commence on this fol-
thus to be available at no cost to all those lowing this Conference here in Paris.
who can make use of them. „

37
Chapter II. Policy-Making

SATELLITE USE FOR COMMUNICATION,


INFORMATION AND LEARNING

The progress of satellite technologies


FERDINAND KAYSER
President and CEO SES ASTRA, undeniable and contributes to the
Member of the Executive Committee integration and several communication and
SES GLOBAL
information technologies. Radio and
telephone technologies have their origins in
the late nineteenth century, television in the
middle and data processing in the second
half of the twentieth century.

Technological innovation progresses


towards digitalizing and integrating all of
them. Satellite infrastructure around the
planet offers new, realistic and frequently
already available perspectives, allowing
access to inhabitants of regions and remote
places to the Internet and other applica-
tions.
Satellites systems are at the edge of new
opportunities for development, fighting
illiteracy and the reduction of poverty
through capacity-building and learning.

See further in Annex I.

38
Chapter III.
Technology Partnerships for Life-Long
Learning in Developing Countries
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

CAPACITY-BUILDING
IN A NETWORK FORMAT -
THE MODEL OF THE UNIVERSITY
OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC

INGRID VOLKMER Capacity building through the use of tech- National-Product equivalent of a US middle
University of Otago, nology in educational environments has class household.
School of Social Science,
Dept. Communication Studies become a complex process. This is because
Dunedin, New Zealand technologies not only 'distribute' (e.g. deliv- These Pacific Island countries are disadvan-
Ingrid.Volkmer@stonebow.otago.ac.nz er 'content' from a to b) or 'connect' (e.g. taged in multiple ways:
provide a feedback mode), but also create • Local economies suffer from isolation:
new multi-dimensional communication net- the distances between these countries
works within the symbolic territory or are tremendous, and travel is only pos-
'space' of the global network society. sible by plane (which is expensive for
the average earner).
Sustained educational capacity building • More than one thousand languages
through ICT means in today's advanced are spoken.
globalization process and communication
infrastructure to integrate sustained 'local' This brief list alone reveals not only the
capacity into a 'global' educational environ- peripheral location of this region in geo-
ment. Key components of 'sustainability' graphic terms but also in terms of conven-
within this globalized framework are not tional capacity-building strategies.
only 'access' to global communication Furthermore, due to the low population
flows, but the creation of 'active nodes': density and the low rank on the global pol-
communication hubs as integral elements of icy agenda, technological aid programs by
global educational networks. worldwide co-operations bypass this region.

In my paper, I will briefly discuss satellite It is not all surprising that these South
platforms in their roles of providing such an Pacific countries are - from a 'global' view-
'active node' in the context of the Universi- point - faced with various communication
ty of the South Pacific (USP), which is still divides (without reference to the
today one of the most unique university telephone/fax divide).
networks in the world, in utilizing the coop-
eration of satellite and telecommunication (a) Digital Divide: in most of the twelve
organizations to provide tertiary education Pacific Island countries, the Internet pene-
to a student population which is dispersed tration percentage is in most of the coun-
across the South Pacific ocean. tries less than 1% and some do not have
access to the Internet at all (such as Nauru,
The University of the South Pacific (USP) Niue, Tokelau, Tuvalu)
was founded in 1968 by governments of
twelve island nations in the South Pacific. (b) Satellite Divide: in terms of satellite
These island nations are: Cook Islands, Fiji availability, the South Pacific is almost a
Islands, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, nowhere land, located right between the
Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, large scale satellite footprints of Asia/Aus-
Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu. Of these island tralia, which barely reach New Zealand in
nations, Fiji is the largest with a population the west and South America in the east. The
of 800,000 and Tokelau the smallest (popu- whole area is mainly covered by two C-band
lation of 1400). The member nations stretch satellites: one Intelsat and one Panamsat
across an ocean territory as large as Central satellite (PANAMSAT 2) as a satellite alter-
Africa, five time zones and the internation- native, covering only the western part of the
al dateline. Some islands have a Gross- region (in the New Zealand area). Both

40
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

require not only large but expensive receiv- of satellite integration into an educational
ing equipment (a 6-7 m dish), which only environment.
large-scale institutions can afford (i.e. to Phase 1:
purchase and maintain), such as USP. Satellite and HF radio: Distribution
USPNet was founded three years after the
The overall objective of the University of the university had been established. This first
South Pacific was to create an educational USPNet was an experimental satellite-based
infrastructure as a common platform for distance education system utilizing satellite
sustained economic development, driven by links for the provision of audio-conferenc-
twofold goals: ing and was only available from the main
campus in Suva/Fiji. Within this first model,
• to educate and Fiji served as a centre inside this closed
• to train professionals within the local network. The satellite was used to
region and reduce the migration of the transmit from a to b, i.e. to other peripheral
professional workforce to other world USP members, which could not send them-
regions, both relevant capacity building selves, only receive.
factors.
Satellite transmission was provided on a
Given the dispersed geographical location of voluntary basis by NASA's ATS-1 satellite.
the twelve member countries, it is obvious In addition, High Frequency (HF) radio was
that communication networks represent not used to complement the satellite network in
just add-ons to otherwise solid on-site uni- order to reach all USPNet-members.
versity programs (as it is the case in many This experimental network was only partial-
Western world regions). Communication ly successful, the radio transmission quality
platforms are the crucial component of this was low and the project was automatically
unique tertiary education system of the halted at the end of the lifespan of the ATS-
Pacific Island countries. 1 satellite.

Already in its first year in 1968, the Univer- Phase 2:


sity created a so called 'university exten- Limited Satellite Capacity: Connectivity
sion' division. Many USP students found it Around 1995, USP obtained a number of
difficult to travel and live away from their leased circuits on a former meteorological
homes, while it was equally difficult for the satellite at reduced charges not only to dis-
university to send teachers to isolated loca- tribute audio conferencing from Fiji to other
tions. The University Extension provided the USP members, but to connect four centres
same distance education to each member who have also received discounted telecom-
country through so called 'USP Centres' munication facilities: Cook Islands, Tonga,
through print media. Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The others
continued to rely on the postal mail system
to send audio, video and printed materials
IMPLEMENTATION to students in remote areas.
OF SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY
Phase 3:
The implementation of communication USPNet 2000: Network
technology took place in a three-phase A multi-government initiative by Australia,
process and began in the early seventies. Japan, and New Zealand finally inaugurat-
USP is considered to be the first university ed a new USPNet network model in 1998.
worldwide to include satellite technology as Each government provided grants to specif-
a key component of distance learning. Each ic member countries and has helped to build
of the following phases of satellite technol- the network capacity of today's USPNet,
ogy implementation represents one model linking all twelve centres by satellite.

41
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

INGRID VOLKMER The use of satellites in this network is not (2) Technological Framework for Global
University of Otago, longer restricted to an a-to-b distribution or Connections
School of Social Science,
Dept. Communication Studies simply to connect its centers. The new USP- Given the key role of technology (in partic-
Dunedin, New Zealand Net constitutes a closed satellite communi- ular in the USPNet region), state-of-the-art
Ingrid.Volkmer@stonebow.otago.ac.nz cation network, used exclusively by USP for technology is required for integration into
distance education. It uses the bandwidth of global frameworks. As pointed out in the
Intelsat 702. Intelsat provides engineering introductory paragraph, not only 'connec-
support, such as antenna verification, sup- tivity', but 'active hubs' represent capacity
port of voice data transmission and video- building goals in the media infrastructure of
conferencing. the 21st century. In this sense, only multi-
level technological frameworks allow shar-
The network consists of twelve earth sta- ing in global resources and encourage
tions, each of which is located at each USP active participation in a globalized educa-
Campus. These twelve earth stations are tional framework.
classified into hub stations, mini-hub sta-
tions and remote stations. (3) High-Tech Hub in Low-Tech Environ-
ment
Preliminary and foundation courses are The USPNet represents a high-tech hub in a
offered entirely by the distance mode low-tech environment reserved by agree-
through which USPNet provides multime- ment with supporting governments and
dia, satellite tutorials and discussions. Due telecommunication industry to be exclu-
to Intelsat's multiplatform architecture, sively used by USP. In order to build capac-
USPNet has the ability to utilize the satellite ity through 'active nodes', it is important in
platform not only for video transmission particular for low-tech environments to
but also for Broadband Internet access. This share high-tech hubs with other local com-
component allows the creation of online munities, such as businesses. In order to
courses which supplement video transmis- facilitate local businesses and circumvene
sion. The latest segment of USPNet is the the cooperation arrangement with the
cooperation with AARNET (Australian Aca- telecommunication industry, USP has
demic Research Network). Based on this formed a consulting agency, called USPSo-
access, other services are possible, such as lutions.
IP-Video, which allows USP to participate in
collaborative teaching and research with In this sense, educational networks can be
other Australian universities. perceived as hubs for triggering and sup-
porting transformation processes of low-
tech environments.
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Cooperation with the satellite industry
requires a conceptual change from pure
Reviewing this model, the following critical educational concepts, to creating 'active
success factors can be identified. nodes' in otherwise low-tech regions.

(1) Extra-regional support, intraregional Technologies (and satellite) are crucial fac-
cooperation tors, not only for the creation of a global
Satellite transponder lease requires external knowledge society, but for building commu-
funds, such as from extra-regional govern- nication frameworks in order to make 'reflec-
ments. Intraregional cooperation requires tion' and 'discourse' substantial elements of
organizational models for the management global education in the 21st century.
of shared resources. „

42
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

INNOVATING EDUCATION
WITH ICT

MARTINA ROTH As the Director of Education in Europe,


Director Education Europe, Middle East and Africa I would like to talk
Middle East and Africa,
Intel EMEA to you about Intel's commitment to educa- EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
tion. We believe that quality education is
crucial in developing the citizens and lead- Developing human capital has become one of
ers of tomorrow. the greatest priorities of nations worldwide.
This is hardly surprising, given that knowl-
Information and communication technolo- edge levels determine productivity, competi-
gies are a major factor in shaping the new tiveness and prosperity. Knowledge and
global economy and producing rapid information increasingly determine new pat-
changes in society. Within the past decade, tern of national development and wealth cre-
new ICT tools have fundamentally changed ation. The key words in the educational sys-
the way people communicate and do busi- tem of the future are: production of knowl-
ness. They have produced significant trans- edge, geographical and temporal independ-
formations in industry, agriculture, medi- ence, pedagogic and structural innovation.
cine, business, engineering and other fields. The level of technological development is
They also have the potential to transform indicative nowadays not only of the econom-
the nature of education - where and how ic power and living standards of a particular
learning takes place and the roles of stu- country, but also of the place and role of this
dents and teachers in the learning process. country in the global community, the scope
and prospects of its economic and political
Education is the essential ingredient that integration with the rest of the world. At the
prepares us all for a changing future. As the same time, the level of development and uti-
social philosopher Eric Hoffer wrote, lization of modern technologies in different
“In times of change learners inherit the countries is determined not only by their
earth; while the learned find themselves resources, but, to a large extend, by the
beautifully equipped to deal with a world degree of society's ability to produce, absorb
that no longer exists.” and apply new knowledge. These achieve-
ments in turn, are tightly linked with the level
New technologies will continue to transform of education.
the world in ways we cannot yet imagine.
To survive and thrive in this knowledge-
based economy, tomorrow's citizens, THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY
employees and customers must be equipped IN EDUCATION
with 21st century skills.
• Intel is committed to improving edu- Intel works with governments around the
cation today so that students will be world to inspire innovation and enable the
able to thrive tomorrow. effective use of technology in education.
• Intel is committed to playing a posi- This is not because technology is an end in
tive role in preparing our youth for the itself but because it is the means to facilitate a
demands of tomorrow through the more interactive style of learning. Problem
'Intel® Innovation in Education' initia- solving, reasoning, communication, creativity,
tive. decision making and collaboration: these are
• Intel is committed to collaborate in the skills that will allow students to adapt to
public, private partnerships with gov- an ever-changing world, and meet the chal-
ernments and NGOs all over the world lenges of tomorrow. We applaud our partner

43
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

MARTINA ROTH governments for recognizing the need for this INTEL® TEACH TO THE FUTURE
Director Education Europe, new kind of education, one that empowers
Middle East and Africa,
Intel EMEA students to think and reason at a high level Intel® Teach to the Future is an effort to
and to harness technology to help them solve help both experienced and pre-service
increasingly complex problems. teachers integrate technology into their
teaching and enhance student learning. Par-
The Intel® Innovation in Education initiative is ticipating teachers receive extensive train-
a long-term, sustained effort designed to: ing and resources to promote effective use
• Increase the effective and innovative use of technology in the classroom
of technology in teaching and learning;
• Celebrate and promote success in National and local governments have part-
teaching and learning science, mathe- nered with Intel Innovation in Education to
matics and engineering; implement the Intel Teach to the Future
• Accelerate the advancement of univer- professional program. The curriculum is
sity curricula; adapted to meet the needs of each partner
• Promote research in strategic technol- country. In addition to language transla-
ogy areas; tion, the curriculum is localized to address
• Improve technical fluency and prob- cultural issues along with local terminolo-
lem-solving skills among under-served gy, pedagogy, and country-specific content
youth through effective community- (such as Web site resources). Depending on
based education; their assessment of teachers' learning
• Increase the number of young women needs, countries have also provided addi-
and under-represented youth pursuing tional software resources or basic comput-
successful careers in high technology. er skills training.

We collaborate with leaders from education, Within the EMEA region, this program was
governments, industry, academia and launched in the year 2000 and is active in
research organizations to design and deliver 19 countries: Austria, Czech Republic,
programs in more than 50 countries across Estonia, Germany, Italy, Ireland, Israel,
six continents. Our programs are cus- Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,
tomized to meet the needs of each commu- UAE, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Switzer-
nity. land, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine.

In Germany, 2003 saw the introduction of


INTEL'S PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION “Intel® Teach to the Future - online train-
ing and collaborative learning”. The new
Since its founding in 1968, Intel has been curriculum is a blended learning concept -
committed to improving education in order it combines face-to-face and online train-
to prepare students around the world for the ing to provide new training experience that
knowledge-based economy. We recognize aims at collaboration and mentorship. The
that educators are the key to this. We work program utilizes the highest level of tech-
closely with governments and the education nological, pedagogical,
community to create localized curricula, methodological and subject competency to
tools and training programs to enhance stu- create a program that meets the demands
dent learning. To this end, Intel invests more of the EU Commission regarding online
than $100 million a year in education under training.
the auspices of the Intel® Innovation in
Education initiative. Furthermore, in 2004 the program was
awarded the D21 Award, celebrating its
status as a model in public-private partner-
ship.

44
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

“Intel® Teach to the future - online training INTEL INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE


and collaborative learning” took first prize AND ENGINEERING FAIR (ISEF)
at the “Public Private Partnership Awards” FOR STUDENTS
organized by Initiative D21, an event
which carries prize money of 5,000. Their More than One Million High School Stu-
aim is to give exposure to exemplary part- dents Compete in Science Fairs Each Year
nerships between public and private insti- The Intel International Science and Engi-
tutions, as well as to the current “Best neering Fair (ISEF) is the world's only
Practices” implemented in Germany. international science fair representing all
“Intel® Teach to the Future - online train- life sciences for students. Every year, more
ing and collaborative learning”, the profes- than one million students in grades 9-12
sional development initiative for teachers, compete in regional science fairs and near-
strengthens both team spirit and the use of ly 500 Intel ISEF-affiliated fairs held
new media in lessons. The project is sup- around the world. More than 1,400 stu-
ported by numerous Intel Partners made up dents from over 40 countries win the
of ministries of culture, the scientific com- chance to compete for more than US$3
munity and private companies from the million in scholarships and prizes at the
entire German-speaking area. Intel ISEF finals in 14 scientific categories
What convinced the jury about the project and a team project category.
was mainly the usefulness for the target
audience, the broad reach and the lasting 71 local winners from EMEA participated
effect, as well as the transferable skills in the 2004 international final in Portland,
developed by both the foundation and Oregon. From these, 21 students won a
basic courses. total of 38 awards, including the top award
for one German student which included a
INTEL® HIGHER EDUCATION PROGRAM US$50,000 scholarship.

The Intel® Higher Education Program is


part of the Intel® Innovation in Education INTEL COMPUTER CLUBHOUSE
initiative. The program focuses on advanc-
ing innovation in key areas of technology, The Intel Computer Clubhouse Network is
as well as developing a pipeline of world- an after-school community-based technol-
class technical talent for Intel's future ogy learning program. Intel Computer
workforce and the global knowledge based Clubhouses enable youth in underserved
economy. communities to acquire tools necessary for
To achieve this goal, Intel collaborates with personal and professional success. A Com-
over 50 top universities throughout EMEA puter Clubhouse is more than just a safe
to accelerate the advancement of research, environment for youth; it is also a creative
to expand university curricula develop- place where a "community of learners;"
ment, engage in focused research, and to young people, mentors and staff, use tech-
meet the challenges of rapid technological nology as a tool for learning and creative
progress. The technical areas include semi- expression. The philosophy of the Intel
conductor technology, high volume manu- Computer Clubhouse is "beyond access," a
facturing, micro architecture/circuits, com- place where young people use professional
puting platforms, software, networking and software to create computer-based projects
communication. inspired by their own ideas. The Computer
Research projects and curriculum develop- Clubhouse provides a supportive learning
ment projects funded by Intel look beyond environment where youth build skills and
current technology, advancing the commu- self-confidence, as well as a future, work-
nication and information industries at ing together with adult mentors who pro-
large. vide inspiration and serve as role models.

45
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

MARTINA ROTH Intel supports the establishment of Com- INTEL® LEARN PROGRAM
Director Education Europe, puter Clubhouses in underserved commu-
Middle East and Africa,
Intel EMEA nities around the world. The objectives of In 2004 Intel has launched a new program
the Intel Computer Clubhouse Network are called the Intel® Learn Program. The pro-
to proliferate the learning model that was gram was created to build technological lit-
created by the Museum of Science, Boston eracy and 21st century learning skills for
and the MIT Media Lab, establish it as a young people from under-served communi-
replicable model for technology learning, ties, with little or no access to technology at
and support the success of individual Com- home or in school. The goal is to help bridge
puter Clubhouses. the digital divide and help young people in
emerging markets acquire the skills needed
In the five years since the program began, to compete in a knowledge-based economy.
the Intel Computer Clubhouse Network has
reached more than 50,000 young people
across almost 100 Clubhouses. Intel operates
this program in alliance with both the CONCLUSION
Museum of Science in Boston and the MIT
Media Lab, who offer ongoing support and Intel would like to thank all our partners for
program guidance for the global network of their dedication, and we look forward to
Clubhouses. continuing our collaboration in innovation
Within EMEA there are currently 10 club- in education.
houses, in South Africa, Palestine, Israel and „
Ireland.

46
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

TECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP
FOR LIFE-LONG LEARNING
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

DIDIER PHILIPPE ABSTRACT mitment of key individuals (most of them


Director, Philanthropy volunteering), including the head master of
Education and Social Investments.
Hewlett-Packard The real case of the Digital Community Cen- the adjacent public school.
Europe, Middle-East and Africa ter in RSA was presented from it starts in
October 2001 in Dikhatole (within the Ger-
miston district) as a one site School estab- INITIAL PROJECT
lished as a Philanthropic initiative to its sus-
tainable phase. South Africa, Dikhatole (Johannesburg
neighborhood)
The success was in growing up from what Project run by ORT (NGO) to address cycle of
could have been a Technology initiative to a poverty and unemployment of one of the
sustained Solution Center embedded within poorest communities on the East Rand. To
the community. The school was originally train community members in employability,
targeted for out-of-school kids and has small business skills, IT literacy and specific
grown as a center for young adults, empow- skills required by potential employers. Also
ering entrepreneurships and women job build capacity of teachers to introduce basic
development. IT skills at primary and secondary schools

Four Elements were critical in this success: The project was to set up an HP Digital Com-
• The Community and Local authority munity Center (DCC). A DCC is a centre
drive all along, from the initial proposal where the information and communication
submitted to HP. infrastructures are strategically deployed to
• The quality and commitment of the encourage the participation of all appropri-
leading NGO in charge of the project ate parties in the economic and social devel-
development (ORT). opment that technology enables and
• The broad set of partners cooperating enhances.
on the Digital Community Centers,
including local organizations. The project was about 50 student seats, with
• HP's framework and management server and adequate printers and rich media
commitment to foster resources, initiate products.
project, foster resources, provide sub-
stantial initial grant for equipment and
project management. PROCESS OF MANAGEMENT
AND DEVELOPMENT
A fifth element must be added as critical:
time. Up front, the project was set by HP as Since the beginning a Management Commit-
a three year initiative, with clear understand- tee under the leadership of the Community
ing from all that the project should continue was established.
as self sustained afterwards. From day one, Contend, teachers, TOT, and daily manage-
every one was working in making the proj- ment was under the leadership of ORT.
ect sustainable over this time frame, and the
time was long enough to allow the correct ORT was also in charge of driving the devel-
development. opment and fund raising.

On the operation side, the critical success Quarterly progress reports were provided to
factor was to benefit from outstanding com- all by ORT.

47
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

DIDIER PHILIPPE Initial effort was on Capacity building and merce is planning for entrepreneur-ships
Director, Philanthropy Teacher training programs and leaderships for youth of
Education and Social Investments.
Hewlett-Packard Dikhatole.
Europe, Middle-East and Africa Rapidly, training were extended out of the
initial base of Kids to multiple initiatives Solution empowerment, supported by Tech-
requested by the environment and the com- nology, helps Dikhatole Community to
munity (life-skills training of trainers by red move up from a “disaster area status” to a
Cross, Dikhatole women's group, Women “partner area status” within its greater com-
Entrepreneur development…). munity.

PROOF OF SUCCESS LEARNING

Not only the center is sustainable, but the HP expertise combined with Community
original Scholl place moved into multiple and NGO expertises have set the base for a
sites embedded in the Community areas. It duplicable process for local community
was extended from Kids to Young adults development. 12 DCC's have been estab-
and Life-Long learning. lished by HP in EMEA alone. The common
learning has been in the need to help com-
As a result, the Department of Labor is dis- munities in terms of Entrepreneurship,
cussing the possibilities for leaderships and micro business development and SME's. The
placement for graduates from Dikhatole expertise gained by HP is a useful comple-
community. ment to help this.
The Greater Germiston Chamber of Com- „

48
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

SATELLITE IP APPLICATIONS:
A SOLUTION TO DIGITAL DIVIDE

JEAN-CHRISTOPHE 1. GENERAL OVERVIEW people's life and according to their spe-


HONNORAT cific needs or situation
Project Manager on distance ICT and the Digital Divide: > e-Health
training for health,
Alcatel Space • Many regions in the world suffer from Includes Medical Training, Medical
a lack of connectivity, especially in Tele-Assistance, Tele-Diagnostic [Tele-
Developing countries: isolation of pop- Staff (between radiologist, anesthetist,
ulation, low growth, no communication ...), Second Opinion (Tele-expertise)],
means, no commercial or cultural Home Services and prevention: as it
exchange…. allows medical expertise being shared
• Those concerned regions, on the other and accessible from anywhere at any-
hand, have a very young population time, allows saving redundant costs and
which needs to be educated, cured, ensures a better quality of care
informed and trained to better partici- > e-Risk
pate in their country's development Includes e-security and all phases of
• Infrastructures and skills ( teachers, Crisis management: warning/alert,
universities, hospitals, administrations response, Mitigation: offering new
…) are not sufficient nor easily accessi- working tools, optimized efficiency for
ble for most of people, as territories are the organization of the rescue and its
very large, with sometimes quite a low follow-up
density, and a weak financial invest-
ment power • The Services and Applications which
are the real targets to be studied for a
ICT for Capacity building: a Huge potential long-term development and use: defini-
• ICT and satellite solutions provide a tion of needed functions and interface
unique answer to this problematic, as it • The Actors and their respective roles:
offers performing and reliable commu- from requirements up to daily usage
nication means that can support most • The Technologies including Telecom
of the activities of the population, the Satellites
institutions and the governments. We will focus on Non Formal Education
• A strong effort shall be put on the set- and gained experience in this domain
ting up of pilots and demonstration to
raise awareness on the huge richness
and potential of development brought 2. INTEREST OF SATELLITES
by ICT's advanced applications, com-
bined with satellite technologies • Satellite main characteristics :
> Wide coverage ... with 1 or more
satellites…up to worldwide connectivity
This problematic shall be addressed consid- > High bandwidth => high volumes and
ering various aspects as follows: best quality of the content, better inter-
• The Applications Domains / Themat- action => optimised Usage
ic and Departmental fields: Most of the > Quality of Services and Security
activities at local, regional , national > Satellite eases the “test & deploy
and international scales can be effi- approach” : Small pilots, once success-
ciently enhanced and supported by fully connected and active, can easily be
advanced applications offered by ICT: extended to a significant number of
> e-Community additional sites
Includes e-Education, e-Government, • Satellite homogenises connectivity
e-Inclusion, e-Economy: as it meets the and interoperability : It offers a unique
same categories of concerns: to inform, answer to communicate from anywhere
communicate, educate, train, sensibly with anyone, as it allows combining
citizens, at any skill level, all along the satellite systems with heterogeneous

49
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

JEAN-CHRISTOPHE existing facilities and networks: which can be accessed at anytime from
HONNORAT > In the same working session, users anywhere
Project Manager on distance with different technologies may interact > Autonomy: The learner shall enter in
training for health,
Alcatel Space the one with the others: the live session when he wants, when he
2-ways satellite + 1-way satellite with can, ... without disturbing the others
terrestrial return link + only 1-way > Top Quality & Performance: As a lot
satellite + only Terrestrial= one unique of practical training teachers/students
live session are filmed in real conditions, it is essen-
• Satellite can provide a wide range of tial to see and hear in a very high qual-
Applications, ity what is done and said by the
> Content distribution expert/teacher for practical training
> Web based working/learning (surgery, car-repair, how to make a bend
> From low to High-Quality Streaming for firemen….)
(Live or Recorded) > Interactivity: The teacher and the
> Videoconferencing learners sometimes have a crucial need
> Virtual classrooms and Collaborative to dialogue or to get an immediate feed-
Work back or evaluation

3. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION'S 4. RETURN ON EXPERIENCE


SPECIFICITY
E-Training Specific roles and profiles': The
• Characteristics : organisation, management and related
> Community Users: Users do not have responsibilities for e-Training rely on many
technical skills or awareness but need to complementary actors:
use ICT for their activities • Tight collaboration and collective
> Need for High Performance, Integrity decision-taking between:
and Quality: Users rely on these solu- > key actors on user side (deciders,
tions to benefit from a concrete knowl- actors, technicians, Information Systems
edge and training to be used in real managers ...) ….and
cases (firemen, doctors, ...) > key actors on the global solution
> The solution must offer flexibility provider side (skills and experience in
because people have a professional line with the actors' needs, constraints ...)
activity that cannot always match with • Involved actors and related roles:
the constraints imposed by the existing > Teacher - expert
face-to-face training system. Many > Learner - being a student or a profes-
workers cannot exclusively go to dedi- sional
cated learning centres at fixed time, but > Moderator or tutor
prefer accessing the courses from home > Technical team on the premises
or office, at the most convenient time • Actors have to be aware that e-activi-
> Vocational Training all along the life ties can bring a huge added-value but
can be mandatory for some activities, requires to adopt new working ways,
to maintain and up-date professional supports and methods and new organi-
expertise sation's schemes:
> Vocational Training mainly addresses > Requires a good information of the
specific communities of users with spe- actors to raise awareness on its added-
cific usage and needs, but which can be value and proposed adapted models to
spread in many regions interesting other be followed
users > Requires a real will to evolve and a
• Required basic Features: strong motivation to implement such a
> Ubiquity: Distribution of contents change in the activity's global organisa-

50
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

tion ported by pertinent and compliant contents'


> Each user's type has to be supported production
in its daily utilisation to be brought to
full autonomy E-Training addresses Communities of
> Each actor needs a specific dedicated users: Common field of activity but het-
training to implement and use e-train- erogeneous situations to be studied on a
ing and ICT solution , according to its case-by-case basis:
role and its profile • Large and uneven geographical spread
• The solution has to be global, “end- of users over territories
to-end” to ensure a long-term accepta- • Disparity of technical means and skills
tion by users and easy to deploy, to use, on end-users sides ( PC, network, tech-
to manage, to administrate and to main- nical support ...)
tain… • Variety of cultures, knowledge,
acceptance levels, requirements…
E-Training Specific Requirements in terms • Different kind of profiles (actors), pro-
of contents: tocols (medical protocols) and different
• Contents which will be used have to be related contents ...
clearly identified:
> Nature & Formats: still pictures, data- For example, various types of Information
bases, documents, videos…. /Training needs around Healthcare:
> Quality: Existing quality of the con- • Doctors, nurses, medical staff, admin-
tents and evaluation of the quality nec- istration, have to be trained to acquire
essary to support the activity new skills and up-to-date information
> Destination of use, targeted audi- • A medical Practitioner has to be
ence... trained to master a wide range of skills
> Volume to run its activity and manage its office:
• Contents labelling can be interesting Accounting, project management, law,
to maintain an homogenised quality: etc ...
> Contents can be problematic in terms • A young student need to access data-
of culture, mentality, centres of inter- bases and resources to be trained in
est, pedagogical differences and need to Health , to get a job, and required skills
be adapted in Medicine
> Contents often need regular up-date • Citizens has to be informed in Health ,
to avoid being obsolete within a short for a better prevention, information, fol-
time-limit low-up of care, to better understand the
> Some contents can be a way to spread diseases , to better react in case of trou-
wrong information : shall be labelled to bles, etc..
guide users on its origin and authors, • Citizens suffering from a specific dis-
and to avoid excess and maintain ease need to be to be informed, to better
quality understand the disease, for a better com-
> Label ensures that the content's nature fort, follow-up, care and quality of life.
is compatible with deployed facilities • Long-term hospitalised children can-
and harmless for the network: interop- not be incorporated in the regular edu-
erability, security, integrity cational system, but still need to be edu-
cated
Such an identification and characterisation
of the contents is crucial at short-term, for The priorities of vocational training
technical reasons- dimensioning of the solu- depend on the regions, the countries, the
tion for the present activities and future culture, the governments.
evolution - and long-term, for a long-lasting
implementation, as usage needs to be sup-

51
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

JEAN-CHRISTOPHE 5. VARIOUS TYPES OF APPLICATIONS • Vision-conference


HONNORAT • Internet access • Collaborative work
Project Manager on distance • Telephony • Portal
training for health,
Alcatel Space • TV content -distribution • E-education off-line and on-line
• E-learning, e-education, e-training
• E-medicine
• Emergency relief and e-Risk
• E-government

Numerous functionalities to be incorporated


in the end-to-end solution Package:
• Fast Internet
• Push of files & Mirror of URL
• Video streaming, Encoding/ Decoding
• Content Management

6. SOME EXAMPLES

6.1 Remote staff medical training and support

6.2 Example of e-Education for Civil Protections

52
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

6.3 Inter-continental deployment for Focolare Movement

S-N America Europe Africa


Example of 25th sept 2003 event (Rome)
Focolare Movement
Live event
• Brazil S.Paolo (300 pers)
• USA, New York (50 pers)
• Venezuela, Caracas (53 pers)
• Holland (50pers)
• Switzerland, Montet (200 pers)
• Italy, Florence (300 pers)
Off-line streaming just after event
• Cameroon, Fontem
• Camerron, Douala

• USA, New York • Brazil S.Paolo

• Kenya, Nairobi • Uplink & Applications platform • Camerron, Douala


Focolare-Rome

7. CONCLUSIONS offered technologies


AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Relationship with end-users is the
key to success & Local/International
• International Communities need ICT Organisations can help in a very sig-
& Applications for capacity-building nificant way
> on a wide area, covering a country, a • The “ Pilot-Approach” for a step-by-
region, a continent, several continents step success:
> Meeting various categories of needs > Convinces International Communi-
and activities ties of the added value of e-activities
• ICT's implementation requires to thanks to a real-scale implementation in
master many parameters: Socio-eco- concrete conditions
nomic, cultural, affordability, existing > Allows to better understand real end-
infrastructures, regulation, climatic con- users needs thanks to a mutual-benefit-
straints…. ing dialogue and collaborations with
• Need for Information, Demonstra- user's representatives
tion, Promotion: > Helps finding the “good for all” solu-
> People are not aware of the added- tion
value solutions brought by Telecom > Allows involving the user in building
Satellites its solution and consequently makes him
> People are not sure to make the right become a real actor.
technological choice in the panel of „

53
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

BUILDING CAPACITY FOR THE 21ST,


NOT THE 20TH CENTURY

STEPHEN HEPPELL All around the world there has been some- was one way. In an input output model, stu-
Director of Learn3K thing of a revolution in the way that we dents received wisdom, teachers communi-
National College of Ireland, Ireland
work with information and harness technol- cated it whilst universities created and
ogy in our everyday lives. In amongst a lot endorsed it. A production line model of
of hype about new technologies themselves learning saw the same disaggregation of
there have been real changes in both the tasks that characterized huge manufactur-
way that we live our lives and in the expec- ing companies, so that chemistry was some-
tations that we have for those lives. These how separate from biology and technology
impacts depend greatly on the institutions whilst the world was desperately short of
and organizations that we relate to in our bio-technologists and bio-chemists. If a few
learning lives. In making learning more children were wasted in this "production
engagingly effective, and in building capac- line" process, none worried too much. The
ity through education policy, we ignore process required conformity and acquies-
these changes at our peril. cence; those were the students that passed
through the system effectively.
This adds up to a need to looking afresh at
learning in the 21st century and at how it is But new technology has wrought changes in
significantly different from learning in the our family, community, cultural, civic and
20th century. That fresh look cannot be economic lives. Above all else it is a centu-
piecemeal. It needs a robust re-examination ry of symmetry, where many have a con-
of the design of our school buildings, of the tributory role. Some of the biggest changes
age phases and organization of learning, of in recent years have taken place where peo-
the tools and models we have for assess- ple have been given an opportunity to play
ment, of the communities that will be learn- their part: Google has made everyone a
ing together, and of the expectations we researcher, from family history to celebrity
have for successful learning. However, this insights. Mobile phones, for really signifi-
does not mean we are facing the upheaval cant proportions of the world's population,
of a revolution. Instead we face the steady have helped to build a complex network of
march of iterative evolution as each of the peer to peer interaction, where texts, pic-
complex key components of learning edge tures and more are exchanged in an almost
forwards together. For that movement to be "viral" way that has defined a generation
effective and directed we need a clear and and beyond. At the same time cars, comput-
shared view of what future learning should ers or even second hand items can be
be like. Currently, that shared view, or ordered, bespoke, from websites. The "per-
vision, is almost wholly absent. Where there fect competition" of a freer market with
is vision, too often it is of a model of learn- many buyers and sellers, linked by clear
ing productivity with a focus on "transmit- information is very much where e-Bay and
ting knowledge" cheaper, faster, to larger its competitors have evolved to. The open-
groups or more rapidly. This static model ness of this peer to peer world should be
sees learning as a constant, but with the empowering for both developing and devel-
cost of "delivery" as a variable. Nothing oped countries.
could be less suited to supporting the capac-
ity that is needed for the 21st century. The short version is that, rich or poor, we
have become, or are becoming, more active
The 20th century schools "delivered" a cur- and less passive; less willing to accept that
riculum, with a dissemination channel that “one size fits all” and quite aggressively

54
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

keen to see our own needs, wishes, cultures tical market. It heavily favored the econom-
and demands responded to. The couch pota- ically mature nations. But those high costs,
to generation is passing. This is thus an era and the costs of protecting IPR, have the
of personalized learning where "every child potential to be burden rather than an asset.
matters", learner centric rather than institu- The emerging nations can leap right past
tion centric, and where lifelong learning is and into a newly symmetrical, equitable,
exactly that. affordable world with the potential to
leapfrog their way past developed nations
As we have seen with the News, portable on the way. Perhaps this is why such excit-
technologies help to make everyone poten- ing progress is in evidence across the Pacif-
tially a reporter. In the 9/11 New York ter- ic Rim and S.E. Asia? Capital and content
rorist attacks images and video were cap- are not king any more, but maybe commu-
tured largely by private individuals who nity is becoming sovereign in the form of
happened to have broadcast quality cameras learning communities?
in their bags or offices. By the time of the
London 7/7 bombings this year News had But if the new capacities are about collabo-
already progressed to offer vivid phone- ration, ingenuity, creativity, equity, symme-
captured contributions, shot as individuals try, technology and agility then a tough
were exiting the scene of the disaster. That question is about the way that the design of
evening some major news providers were learning environments around the world
left with feeble requests on their websites must respond to this new world of learning:
for people to contribute any phone captured already the trends are clear as schools
footage they might have; but at the same organize increasingly in mixed age groups
time those very images were already being where the youngest chase the role models of
passed vigorously from phone to phone in the oldest, who in turn reinforce their own
the viral, rapid, people centric way that understandings by working with the
characterizes the 21st century. In this new younger students; geographical location is
world of UGC (user generated content) those ceasing to define learning groups as new
who sought to "control" or "deliver", mak- technologies open up conduits of learning
ing choice for the consumer, are struggling. between schools, or communities of learn-
Mapping these changes onto education and ers, around the world; the time-blocks set
learning, it is clear that a new learning aside for learning are changing too because
world that is agile, peer to peer, viral, working with new media takes greater con-
ingenious and symmetrical, that is founded centration for longer periods of time, but is
on community with communication, is a more motivating so that children make bet-
whole fresh challenge. Seeking to "deliver" ter progress in longer timetable blocks; sub-
the curriculum or to "control" quality ject specialisms are crumbling as project
already feels dated and indeed is. based learning sweeps across the world, and
so on.
Most excitingly for UNESCO, this new world
of learning is very accessible to developing The schools needed to house this project
and underdeveloped nations and regions. based, time intensive, mixed age, subject
The old 20th century world of learning saw domain free, geographically dispersed, col-
some strong unassailable alliances between laborative learning are of course very differ-
substantial capital and the learning "indus- ent from the schools needed to house the
try" - as we saw for example with the vast old "factory' model of "stand and deliver".
text book industry - often to the exclusion Again this is hugely advantageous to the
of the developing regions. This was a world developing and underdeveloped nations and
of high costs, protected by aggressive IPR regions because the old "learning factories"
legislation and underpinned by a clear were capital intensive, with investment lives
model of delivery with a clearly defined ver- of many decades and dedicated, expensive,

55
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

STEPHEN HEPPELL plant. The new learning centres can be dis- All these are indicative of a newly bespoke
Director of Learn3K persed, local, culturally specific but joined learning environment. As communities of
National College of Ireland, Ireland
through ICT to gain economies of scale of learners and communities of practice
administration, short lived and co-located assemble around the world to evolve learn-
with sports centres, shopping centres, busi- ing for the 21st century an essential role for
ness parks and other community assets. UNESCO, surely, will be to look for the
Suddenly dramatic innovations are appear- points of intersection between these learners
ing: TK Park in Bangkok, an ambitiously and to support them. Inevitably, there is a
effective community learn space temporari- constant tension between a wish to control
ly located in a shopping mall; the short (5 and deliver information for people and a
year) design life of Unlimited school in wish to empower people to do things them-
Christchurch New Zealand; the fibre glass selves. New learning suggests that the future
pod based Ingenium classrooms in London's lies in building the capacity for us all to
Richmond on Thames; the tiny Stepping learn with each other.
Stones school for between 3 and 10 students „
in the UK's rural Surrey.

56
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

ICT PARTNERSHIPS
FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING

JEAN-PHILIPPE COURTOIS INTRODUCTION One of our broadest and most significant


CEO, Microsoft EMEA partnerships has been with UNESCO itself.
Senior Vice President,
Microsoft Corp. I am very pleased to be able to take part in Bill Gates, our chairman, signed an agree-
this session on best practices in partnerships ment here in this room last November with
to build ICT capacity as: Director General Koïchiro Matsuura. Our
• Partnerships directly reflect how goal is to work together and learn from each
Microsoft approaches emerging markets other how to better improve the access and
and use of ICT to promote socioeconomic devel-
• Partnerships are core to our business opment. The agreement focuses on:
model in all markets • Education and learning
• Community access and development
I believe that our private sector role in soci- • cultural and linguistic diversity
ety is to innovate, apply knowledge and preservation
technology to problems and turn them into I believe that this partnership will touch and
economic reality. improve the impact of all of our initiatives.

In turn, our public sector goal is to work in You heard another great example of a suc-
partnership with governments, international cessful partnership earlier from Jordan's
organiztions such as UNESCO, local com- Minister of Education, His Excellency Dr
munity institutions and local ICT industries Khaled Toukan, when he described how we
to support their goals. and industry partners have worked to accel-
erate education reform and ICT capacity-
Partnerships are the key to effective capaci- building on a country-wide scale through
ty-building and economic development: the Jordan Education Initiative.
Without them, there are dangers:
• Duplication of effort <Related to Panellist Steven Nolan: Our par-
• Lack of skills focus ticipation in the global e-schools initiative
• Reinvention of solutions already real- supporting 21 schools in 5 African countries
ized by others involving 9 of our industry partners>

With partnerships, however, there are Today I would like to focus on some of our
important benefits: shared challenges and examples of the ways
• Convergence of skill sets we have partnered to build ICT capacity
• Accelerated reforms across the world.
• Cost and efficiency savings
• Trust building and mutual under-
standing THE CHALLENGE

It is also not simply about “giving” but also 21st century challenges:
gaining: • Earth's population has reached over
• We gain insights and inspiration from six billion and is continuing to grow
others to push ourselves as solutions rapidly.
developers and • This year the number of people access-
• What we learn in emerging markets ing the Internet has passed one billion.
can also be beneficial to more mature • Also for the first time, there are more
markets. people accessing the Internet in the

57
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

JEAN-PHILIPPE COURTOIS developing world than in the developed cial software ecosystem and a central
CEO, Microsoft EMEA world. element of our business model
Senior Vice President,
Microsoft Corp. • But over a third of the world's popu-
lation have still never made a telephone Local partnerships resulting in new emerg-
call ing market applications include:
• 70% of the world's population lives in • Working with local academic and
rural and remote areas where access to computer linguistics experts to create
information and communications tech- Local Language versions of our products
nologies or even a telephone is scarce at - from Basque to Farsi. In addition to
best. the 35 Full Edition languages for Office,
• Nature of the growth of the first bil- another 19 languages have been made
lion is interesting but the way in which available as LLPs and another 18 are in
the next billion achieve access the inter- production.
net will be an even greater challenge as • Working with local NGOs and IT
the greater majority of these people will experts in countries like Bulgaria to sup-
be in developing countries. port development and availability of
high-quality text-to-speech recognition
tools in Bulgarian, to enable blind peo-
CREATING PARTNERSHIPS TO BUILD ple in Bulgaria access to education and
ICT CAPACITY employment through IT.

Our broad approach focuses on 3 important We are also working in partnership on the
areas to build ICT capacity in the larger retail side to identify creative and effective
economy, the community and education. purchasing models:
• We have recently piloted a Pre-Paid
1. ICT industry partnerships that provide PC with a retail partner in Brazil. Simi-
immediate local and world wide technology lar to a Pre-Paid cell phone, the cus-
solutions and stimulate local economic tomer purchases the PC for a low
growth. upfront cost, and then purchases Pre
Paid cards to use the PC. After a certain
2. Community partnerships that provide an number of hours of usage, the PC
environment where underserved popula- belongs to the customer. Essentially, you
tions can use ICT to support workforce have a finance plan, but payment sched-
development and thereby impact current ule is completely up to the customer.
and medium term workforce needs. Early returns show promise in this
model.
3. Education partnerships where we pro-
vide a broad range of support to improve Another area of development is that of the
teaching and learning effectiveness to build Low Cost Device, usually those under $300.
the skills those workforces need in the While there are many examples, let me
future. highlight just one. We have worked with
AMD on their Personal Internet Communi-
cator (PIC). This device was recently
1. ICT INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS launched in conjunction with Tata Telecom
in India as a lower cost alternative to the
A very important part of our business focus- traditional PC.
es on providing a software platform and
tools enabling other software companies to This device runs on Windows CE, the basis
build their own software applications. of our operating system used in embedded
• We consider these companies partners devices and cell phones. Users can surf the
• They are a crucial part of the commer- internet, listen to music, watch video, send

58
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

and receive email, and perform word pro- Digital Pipelines: Providing access in
cessing and spreadsheet functions. developing countries
To help address access to technology, we
have launched a digital pipeline initiative
2. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS which aims to move large numbers of refur-
bished computers to developing countries.
After consulting widely about community
needs, we found that many governments In Namibia we have opened our first refur-
wanted us to help create public private part- bishment centre at a local technical college:
nerships to develop the workforce skills of • In just a few months the centre itself
adults who are outside traditional school has recycled almost 1000 PCs which are
settings. now being used in education and com-
munity projects.
Our Unlimited Potential initiative supports
lifelong, community-based IT skills training Refurbished PCs often represent the lowest
for the unemployed, elderly, people with cost hardware available today. Our initial
disabilities and refugees. work in Namibia shows that refurbishment
is costing between $100-150, and with new
Through Unlimited Potential we have sup- software and servers, students can experi-
ported: ence these computers like new ones. Refur-
• Over 1,000 community technology bishment also addresses environmental con-
learning centres across EMEA, working cerns.
with more than 200 community partners
in 58 countries.
3. EDUCATION PARTNERSHIPS
We are fortunate to have high-level, broad-
impact partners that are in a position to We recognise governments want to create
promote global change, such as UNESCO, an effective teaching workforce and help
UNDP, UNHCR, NEPAD. students gain technology skills, but we also
observe the changing nature of the educa-
Examples of such local community partner- tional experience:
ships are diverse and creative: • The change from traditional, teacher
• Mtandao Africa, an initiative of led education to student-centred learn-
SchoolNet, which empowers African ing is a real challenge but this really can
youth to gain IT skills to develop be helped with ICT.
African educational web content and • This is not only a challenge in the
use African languages on the internet. developing world but in developed
The program includes a pan-African countries too.
competition for best content and web-
sites that involves 10,000 young And here is the long term trap:
Africans from 17 countries. Unless today's students, tomorrow's work-
• Red de Solidaridad Social, Columbia, force, can learn new skills for this new
an organization that seeks to achieve economy, then the digital divide will get
social and employment integration for deeper.
underserved people ages 17-30 with
limited education and who are victims Our Partners in Learning initiative has been
of violence. The project not only provid- designed to increase access to technology
ed IT training to the 195-program par- and technology skills, providing software
ticipants but also provided temporary and helping improve and expand teacher
job placement in collaboration with training.
local companies.

59
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

JEAN-PHILIPPE COURTOIS I feel very proud about the progress the INNOVATIVE TEACHERS NETWORK
CEO, Microsoft EMEA teams on the ground have made.
Senior Vice President,
Microsoft Corp. • We have signed Partners in Learning We are working now with UNESCO Bangkok
agreements with 95 countries across the to implement a pilot of the Innovative
world Teachers Network, a virtual community that
• In just two years, we have reached 3.5 will facilitate the development of best prac-
million educators and students tices, content generation and sharing of
• The company's goal is to bring the information for teachers within UNESCO
benefits of technology and technology programs and beyond.
skills across the world to more than 250
million people by 2010
SCHOOL TECHNOLOGY
INNOVATION CENTRES
KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS
We also recognize the need to have physical
Knowing how others have used ICT to suc- places to learn about and use innovative
cessfully accelerate capacity building is also technology. In my region, we have started to
crucial: build a network of School Technology Inno-
• Communities do not have the time or vation Centres across EMEA with our part-
resources to make the mistakes that oth- ners Cisco, INTEL, HP and local governments.
ers have made
• When resources are limited we need to These centres will be places for ICR decision
help teachers and administrators under- makers to test new technology and document
stand when and when not to use ICT and best practices. The first centre opened in
develop the teaching skills to be able to Amman Jordan in February, and we have
make the choice plans to open 5 more centres across EMEA.
• Knowing what works and doesn't
work is crucial to building capacity and All of these initiatives reflect the notion of
success, and we all know that success seeking a multiplier effect, rapidly but care-
breeds success fully, by
• Absorbing and documenting what we
To help in this we have a number of initia- all learn
tives which help people share ICT knowl- • Sharing knowledge to enable others
edge and best practices. and, above all, by
• Making success lead to more success

SOLUTIONS SHARING NETWORK


CONCLUSION
Another innovative new tool is our Solu-
tions Sharing Network. SSN, launched in In conclusion, these are both challenging and
November 2004, is an online community- exciting times.
based platform to promote increased com- • We see working with partners in the
munication and deeper information community, education and private sector
exchange and collaboration between: is the way to make a positive difference.
• government organizations We could not do this work alone.
• academic institutions and • We see education as the crucial place to
• other public sector agencies focus for the long-term and we can't be
effective here without education partners
There are now 16 SSN sites around the • We see ICT as being able to unlock the
world. potential of citizens in the global econo-
my but only if the broad range of com-

60
Chapter III. Technology Partnerships for Long-Life Learning in Developing Countries

ponents and local strategies are devel- 1. The first is for business to join forces
oped even further with more cross-sector partner-
• And our work in the field shows that a ships as well as with the public sector.
coordinated a approach can bring success
2. The second is for the IT industry, local
These are important lessons we want to media and civil society and all partners, to
reflect upon and share with others. We share ideas, answers and initiatives on how
know that the World Summit on IT could also support the other basics - such
as transparency, governance, local culture
Information Society (WSIS) in November in preservation and human rights - that also
Tunis will be another important milestone promote development and opportunity.
in this journey.
As the recent report by the Africa Commis-
sion says - the key word is NOW. The two
GROWING PARTNERSHIPS: words I would like to add are, TOGETHER
TWO CALLS TO ACTION and FASTER. We all need to accelerate pol-
icy adoption and reforms, and our business
I'd like to end my remarks with 2 calls to and social investments. „
action:

61
Chapter IV.
Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

MICROFINANCE AND IT -
AN IMPORTANT PARTNERSHIP
A GENERAL PRESENTATION AND SEVERAL CASE STUDIES

JACQUES ATTALI & I. INTRODUCTION II. MICROFINANCE


MAREK HUDON 1 AND THE IT INFLUENCE
PlaNet Finance France & Belgium Microfinance - financing for the poor -
was developed and provided, since its Approximately three billion people world-
beginnings in the 1970s, mostly positive wide - roughly half the Earth's population -
results. Lately, the ever expanding infor- live on $2 a day or less. In fact, more than
mation-technology (IT) sector has found a billion people survive on $1 a day, accord-
its uses in the field of microfinance. ing to the World Bank report, which sup-
Microfinance projects are being developed ports this as the definition of extreme
around the world and the impact of IT sys- poverty - $1 a day is the lowest
tems is being increasingly felt, as technol- allowance on which a person can survive2.
ogy improves the quality of the services However, the definition of poverty is highly
and provides new opportunities for contested. According to Mosley, it is unclear
advances in the development field. The whether poverty is largely about material
field of microfinance is open now to IT needs or whether it is about a much broad-
sector and technology has the potential to er set of needs that permits well-being. Con-
make a significant impact in the develop- sequently, the focus of many NGOs and
ment field in the future. PlaNet Finance, a government aid agencies is to improve the
young but fast growing development situation of poor people through direct
organization has attempted to use technol- financial aid but also through other means
ogy towards alleviating poverty and creat- designed to ensure self sufficiency3.
ing new opportunities for the poor with
promising results. It purports to continue The reasons leading to poverty however are
in this track in the future and to increase subject to less debate. Regular wage-paying
its use of IT in its mission to solve world's jobs are scarce in many developing coun-
poverty. tries. Instead, most inhabitants make their
The purpose of this study is to present a living through self-employment in the
general picture of poverty, microfinance informal sector, undertaking enterprises
and IT systems as a solution for the poor such as selling tortillas, sewing clothes or
and to bring two specific examples of suc- selling vegetables in the street4. According
cessful IT projects undertook by several to the International Labor Office, nearly
microfinance organizations. The first part 60% of Latin America's and two thirds of
of the paper looks at poverty, microfinance Africa's non-agricultural employment is in
and IT solutions on a general level. The the informal sector. In India, the same
second part of the paper brings the picture source estimates, nine out of ten workers are
_____________________________ into focus by presenting several successful in the informal sector, contributing 60% of
1We are grateful to Firas-Eugen IT projects in microfinance: the Grameen net domestic product and 70% of income5. A
Taso for research work. Foundation initiatives in Bangladesh and similar situation occurs throughout the
2http://www.worldbank.org/ the PlaNet Finance projects in Benin, developing countries of the world. However,
China and Nepal. The conclusion empha- without access to quality, affordable finan-
3David Hulme and Paul Mosley,
sizes the positive impact of these initia- cial services in order to fund their activities
Finance Against Poverty - Volume
1. London: Routledge, 1996, page tives, the potential influence IT could have and reduce their vulnerabilities to external
105 in alleviating poverty and the significant shocks, many of these micro-entrepreneurs
4http://www.accion.org
influence it could have with investment cannot develop their micro-enterprise into a
from the developed countries and organi- solid business and consequently remain
5http://www.ilo.org/ zations. trapped into a cycle of poverty.

63
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

JACQUES ATTALI & It can be therefore concluded that a major micro-entrepreneurs with a means to self-
MAREK HUDON part of the reason why such a large number sufficiency and a better life.
PlaNet Finance France & Belgium of people around the world dwell in pover- The IT sector entered the microfinance sec-
ty is the lack of access of micro-entrepre- tor slowly but surely. In the century of
neurs to credit. The reasons for this lack of information and technology, it was
access to credit vary from country to coun- inevitable that microfinance move towards
try, but similarities do exist. Commercial the new trend. From computers, servers,
banks or other formal credit institutions do websites and data bases to cell phones, the
not serve these customers because the loans microfinance sector has been increasingly
needed by these people are small ($100 or gifted with the latest technology. As a result,
less) and thus costly and unprofitable for costs of operations have decreased, commu-
the banks. Additionally, the hazards com- nication and sharing information between
mercial banks encounter (screening, ex- MFIs and their clients, as well as donors and
ante, ex-post and enforcement problems) government agencies is a lot easier. Due to
deter them from extending loans to poor information systems like credit bureaus
people. Common traits such as living in (such as the one set up by PlaNet Finance in
rural areas or regions that are hard to access Benin since 2003) risk can be better man-
or to serve for major commercial banks, aged -credits can now be awarded much
spread illiteracy, lack of consumer protec- easier and the repayment rates are higher -
tion policies, lack of a credit history or and more people can benefit from microcre-
assets to pledge as collateral are further dits. The Internet, accessible everywhere in
major disadvantages for micro-entrepre- the world to whomever has access to a
neurs attempting to obtain credit under rea- modem and a computer, a PDA or a mobile
sonable conditions. phone is becoming an increasingly useful
This is the context in which the microfi- tool for organizations like PlaNet Finance
nance movement was born. Its goal is to and for a major part of MFIs, as they can
ease the suffering caused by poverty and to present their organizations and actions bet-
help poor people work their way out of ter and they can attract donors easier. Thus
poverty. Microfinance is the term most often the IT sector and microfinance have moved
used to describe financial services for poor in the direction of collaboration towards
people in developing countries. It includes improving the services offered to the poor
several components. Micro-credits or micro- and making a significant impact on the life
loans represent small amounts of money of millions from developing countries.
lent to poor people in order to finance self-
employed activities or for other purposes
and constitutes the main occupation of III. NGOS AND THEIR IT
microfinance institutions. Additionally, MICROFINANCE PROJECTS
NGO's and government agencies involved in
the microfinance sector encourage and col- a) An Example: The Grameen Foundation
lect savings and perform payment transfers and its IT Initiatives
- services which enable people employed in
other parts of the country or the world to The Grameen Foundation (the big sibling of
send small amounts of money regularly to Grameen Bank of 1976) oriented itself
family members back home. (In fact, this is towards IT, understanding the sector's huge
a major revenue stream in many developing potential in serving the poor's needs. On
countries)6 Furthermore, microfinance insti- March 26, 1997 a cellular phone provider
tutions provide micro-insurance services for for the poor - GrameenPhone - was
the small entrepreneurs undertaking proj- launched in Bangladesh. After eight years of
_____________________________
6www.villagebanking.org
ects. Thus, credit is readily available for operation, GrameenPhone is the largest cell
poor as actions are being taken to alleviate phone provider in Bangladesh, with over 2.8
7http://www.grameenphone.com poverty around the world and to provide the million subscribers (as of March 2005)7.

64
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

GrameenPhone has a dual purpose: to with loans from Grameen Bank. The VPs in
receive an economic return on its invest- operation now provide access to telecom-
ments and to contribute to the economic munications facilities to more than 60 mil-
development of Bangladesh where telecom- lion people living in rural areas of
munications can play a critical role. This is Bangladesh. According to some research
why GrameenPhone, in collaboration with studies, the introduction of VPs has made a
Grameen Bank, aims to place one phone in tremendous social and economic impact in
each village to contribute significantly to the rural areas, creating a "substantial con-
the economic uplift of those villages. sumer surplus" for the users.
GrameenPhone's Global System for Mobile Following the great success of the Village
or GSM technology is the most widely Phone Program, the Grameen Bank initiated
accepted digital system in the world, cur- a new assistance project for beggars n rural
rently used by over 300 million people in areas in September 2004. According to this
150 countries. GSM brings the most new initiative, beggars in rural areas, who
advanced developments in cellular technol- make much less than beggars in urban areas
ogy at a reasonable cost by spurring severe will be given cell phones so they can pro-
competition among manufacturers and vide roving telephone services in exchange
driving down the cost of equipment. Tele- for money. To be eligible for mobile phones,
phony helps people work together, raising beggars will need to become members of a
their productivity, making development and Grameen Bank project. The bank will also
business complementary. By bringing elec- provide a loan in cash to each 'cell-class'
tronic connectivity to rural Bangladesh, beggar so he/she can sell snacks, chocolates,
GrameenPhone is delivering the digital rev- cookies and nuts to earn additional income.
olution to the doorsteps of the poor and Thus the Grameen Foundation, after starting
unconnected. By being able to connect to small with the new technology implementa-
urban areas or even to foreign countries, a tion in the mid 1990s has realized the
whole new world of opportunity is opening potential of this sector and is making
up for the villagers in Bangladesh. Grameen remarkable advances in integrating the ben-
Bank borrowers who provide the services eficial influence of IT into the microfinance
are uplifting themselves economically initiative, to the sole benefit of the poor.
through a new means of income generation
while at the same time providing valuable b) PlaNet Finance's Experience with IT
phone service to their fellow villagers. The
cell phone has thus become a weapon Founded in Paris in 1998, PlaNet Finance is
against poverty. an international non-governmental organi-
Grameen microfinance & IT initiative is the zation whose mission is to reduce poverty
Village Phone Program (VP). Initiated in by using the potential of the Internet and
1997, the VP has continued to grow at a information technology for the development
robust pace over the years reaching 95,000 of micro-finance and micro-enterprise.
subscribers in December 2004. The program PlaNet Finance has representative offices in
facilitates women borrowers of Grameen the UK, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Belgium,
Bank to the GSM technology through the Dubai, and the US. PlaNet Finance also runs
village phones. They become effectively Country Programs in Asia (India and China),
mobile public call offices. This not only pro- Latin America (Mexico and Brazil) and
vides rural poor with new, exciting income- Africa (Morocco, Senegal, Benin, and Togo).
generating opportunities, but it also helps In its 8 years of operation, PlaNet Finance
enhance the social status of women from has achieved international recognition for
poor rural households. The VP works as an its microfinance expertise and innovative
owner-operated pay phone. It allows the use of IT to bridge the digital divide and fuel
rural poor who cannot afford to become a community economic development around
regular subscriber, to avail of the service the globe. PlaNet Finance's 3 key areas for

65
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

JACQUES ATTALI & action and intervention are the Training and the IT world in order to help their mission of
MAREK HUDON Technical Support, its Rating and its alleviating poverty around the world.
PlaNet Finance France & Belgium Financing and Partnership activities: Some specific examples of PlaNet Finance's
a) The Training and Technical Support pro- involvement in spreading IT in the microfi-
grams aim at increasing MFI capacities. nance sector are its Credit Bureau projects in
Programs include numerical gap reduction, Benin and Morocco, Africa. More than 400
a microfinance portal, PlaNet Library MFIs are currently active in Benin, serving
(expertise shared by different microfinance more than 2.6 million people. This is a huge
actors through the internet), Impact Knowl- impact on poverty and is helping the coun-
edge Market programs (a technical assis- try immensely, but with the high competi-
tance and evaluation program directed to tion in the microfinance market the risk of
MFI) and PlaNet University (the e-learning default on credits was rather high. PlaNet
and IT training for MFIs). Finance, though its Benin office and with
b) PlaNet Rating offers MFI rating, publish- the help of CARE International designed a
es evaluation reports conclusions and ani- Credit Bureau experiment based on IT. After
mates training sessions oriented to GIRAFE having created websites for several microfi-
methodology, a complete evaluation and nance organizations, the project com-
rating instrument especially created to menced in 2000 with 5 MFIs sharing their
answer to specific MFI characteristics. information. It involved creating a data base
c) The Financing activities of PlaNet where information about borrowers was
Finance include raising funds for young or kept and to which MFIs could subscribe. It
starting MFIs through the PlaNet Microfund was such a success that in 2003 PlaNet
or for established microfinance institutions Finance and CARE were given a grant by
with the help of the PlaNet BNP Paribas the World Bank to set up a countrywide
Responsibility Fund. Credit Bureau. Using the internet and NTIC
(New Information and Communication
As PlaNet Finance's motto is “The Microfi- Technologies) PlaNet Finance managed to
nance Platform” and its domain of activity move forward in successfully designing a
and expertise is greatly based on IT and its project which integrates IT and microfi-
implementation in the microfinance initia- nance. Today most of the MFIs in Benin are
tive, the organization has been working subscribers of the Credit Bureau together
hard to design different projects around the with banks and commercial institutions.
world that use IT as a basis. For example, This way risky borrowers are prevented
PlaNet Finance supports websites for many from taking loans, the interest rates are kept
microfinance organizations in Africa, Latin at a low level to the benefit of the poor.
America and Asia, providing the organiza-
tions with access and exposure to the web. PlaNet's experience with credit bureaus
This allows MFIs to reach donors, to publish extended to Morocco. Here, the project has
a newsletter and to provide information just begun and makes good use of IT in the
about their operations world wide at little or microfinance initiative. Of the 11 MFIs act-
no cost. It also allows them access to more ing in Morocco, most of them have 99% or
resources and to attract more clients, con- even 100% repayment rate. However, as is
tributing to the overall beneficial impact of the case with Benin, bringing the business
microfinance. In addition, PlaNet Finance, to new areas and competition endangered
with the help of donors worldwide, designs the high repayment rates and increased the
assistance programs to MFIs, provides them risk of lending. That is why PlaNet Finance,
with computers, software, cell phones and through its Morocco office, decided the
other accessories that increase the efficien- development of a credit bureau for MFIs.
cy and allow access to communication for Operational since April 2005, the credit
these firms. PlaNet Finance is thus making bureau has an estimated volume of 1 mil-
efforts to involve more and more MFIs in lion transactions a year. The credit bureau is

66
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

similar to the one in Benin as it is based on order to expose the microfinance practition-
Microsoft and IBM technology. The bureau ers to IT practices and to initiate the learn-
has several databases: the CAIS (Credit ing process. IT tools are important for the
Account Information Sharing), very impor- microfinance practitioners in order to ame-
tant and comprehensive, the Bureau Inquiry liorate the functioning of their organization,
Database and the External database. MFIs to be more efficient and able to propose the
have access and update the databases regu- best solutions to their clients needs. Ulti-
larly, making awarding loans easier and mately, not only the MFI will benefit from
improving the efficiency of the sector in the better utilization of IT tools, but all its
Morocco The cost of the project was 600 clients as well. RoughIT lies on a very sim-
000 DHS (approx. US$ 67,000) and was ple idea: trainings are the occasion to share
entirely supported by PF Morocco. Thus PF rather than to impose, to guide to the solu-
uses IT in important endeavours such as tion rather than to teach, to favour a supple
credit bureaus in its attempt to develop and approach and encourage adaptation rather
improve the microfinance sector around the than rigidity. RoughIT proposes to cover the
world. entire IT spectrum, from the basics to the
Another successful example of IT and creation of a network or the update of a
microfinance comes from China. PlaNet website, the content depending on the needs
Finance China, the representative office of exposed by the participants during the
PlaNet Finance, has as its mission the sup- preparation of the activity. This ongoing
port and promotion of microfinance pro- project greatly increased the awareness and
grams in China through the use of IT. Since computer literacy of MFI practitioners in
2004 PlaNet Finance has begun implemen- Nepal, which has eased their mission and
tation of 6 CTLC projects in urban and rural contributed to the improvement of the
China. These projects have become one of microfinance initiative.
the primary activities of the PF China office.
The first CTLC was established for migrant IV. CONCLUSION
workers in Beijing, in partnership with the
All-China Communist Youth League and the Microfinance is an important and successful
Xicheng District Library. The project solution to improving the lives of million
involves volunteer training and basic IT around the world living at or below the
training for 80-120 migrant workers per poverty line. The micro-loans ensure that
quarter. The other CTLCs were established they work their way out of their situation,
for “barefoot bankers,” teachers, civil ser- maintaining their dignity and lowering the
vants, and farmers in rural areas of Fujian, existent gap between genders and social
Guizhou, Shaanxi, and Shanxi provinces. status. Stories coming from all over the
This second CTLC initiative has been imple- world prove that the initiative works and
mented in partnership with the China Foun- that the results are not just on paper, but
dation for Poverty Alleviation and the Min- actually have names and professions. The IT
istry of Science and Technology. PlaNet sector has been playing an increasingly
Finance is currently in the process of important role in the development of the
launching a new business planning and microfinance initiative. Projects like the
management information system tool for ones undertook by the Grameen Foundation
rural and urban microfinance programs in or by PlaNet Finance are just a few of the
China using Microsoft Excel examples of introducing IT solutions to
A final example of PlaNet Finance's suc- MFIs worldwide. The sector is only in the
cessful attempt to integrate IT in the micro- development stage and many more initia-
finance initiative comes from Nepal. There, tives are in the process of being developed.
PlaNet Finance India designed the project Fishermen using cell phones to get the lat-
Rough IT in November 2004. RoughIT pro- est weather updates for their business, wire-
vides base training at the grassroots level in less networks in remote villages granting

67
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

JACQUES ATTALI & access to the World Wide Web to people try- V. REFERENCES
MAREK HUDON ing to sell their products, training and edu-
PlaNet Finance France & Belgium cating people in new technologies and tech- 1. ACCION International website:
nical equipment are only a few ideas that <http://www.accion.org>
are being researched by experts. 2. The Grameen Foundation website:
The IT sector is advancing with lightning <http://www.grameen-
speed. Similarly, microfinance has come a info.org/bank/GBGlance.htm>
long way since Prof. Muhammad Yunus 3. The GrameenPhone website:
introduced it to Bangladesh. The potential <http://www.grameenphone.com>
for both sectors is still great and the impact 4. Hulme and Paul Mosley, Finance
that they can make on mankind is signifi- Against Poverty - Volume 1. London: Rout-
cant. A closer partnership in the future ledge, 1996
between these two sectors is therefore not 5. The International Labor Organization
only an idea, but a necessity that needs to website:
be pursued and implemented whenever pos- <http://www.ilo.org>
sible. Organizations like Orange, Microsoft 6. The PlaNet Finance Website and internal
or HP have already shown interest and pro- documents:
vided invaluable support to microfinance <www.planetfinance.org>
projects. The rest are still to follow suit, as 7. The Village Banking website:
the goal of both sectors is improving the life <www.villagebanking.org>
of many as efficiently and painlessly as pos- 8. The World Bank website:
sible. <http://www.worldbank.org>
„
About PlaNet Finance

PlaNet Finance (www.planetfinance.org) is


an international non profit organization,
which aims at alleviating poverty in the
world by contributing to the development of
the microfinance sector.
PlaNet Finance supports Microfinance Insti-
tutions (MFIs) and accelerates their growth
by federating them and providing them with
services in terms of capacity building and
financing.
PlaNet Finance operates in more than 60
countries and has permanent programs and
offices in 15 countries (Mexico, Brazil,
Morocco, Benin, Senegal, China, India, Italy,
USA, UAE, Portugal, UK, Spain, Belgium,
France).

68
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD


CAN INDIA OVERCOME IT?

ASHOK JHUNJHUNWALA Prof. Ashok Jhunjhunwala is Professor of These include:


TeNet Group, Indian Institute of the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Technology, Madras-Chennai • enabling 50 million broadband
Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai,
connections in the next five years
India and was department Chair till recent-
• doubling the rural GDP of India
ly. He received his B.Tech degree from IIT,
• turning India into a telecom Design
Kanpur, and his MS and Ph.D degrees from
House for the world
the University of Maine. From 1979 to
• enabling one or two billion-dollar
1981, he was with Washington State Uni-
product companies in India
versity as Assistant Professor. Since 1981,
• driving the next generation of inter-
he has been teaching at IIT, Madras.
national wireless standards specifically
for India
Dr.Jhunjhunwala leads the Telecommunica-
• high quality distance education with
tions and Computer Networks group (TeNeT)
an emphasis on rural areas.
at IIT Madras. This group is closely working
with industry in the development of a num-
The TeNeT Group has about two hundred
ber of Telecommunications and Computer
full-time researchers, engineers and other
Network Systems. TeNeT group has incubat-
technical staff, and project students working
ed a number of technology companies which
in over 10 dedicated labs. Currently, the
work in partnership with TeNeT group to
Group works in diverse areas including
develop world class Telecom Access prod-
Wireless Communications, Computer Net-
ucts. The group has also incubated a compa-
working, Fibre Optics, Digital Systems
ny which aims to install and operate tele-
Architecture, Network Management Sys-
phone and Internet in every village in India.
tems, Integrated Voice/Video/Data Commu-
nications, Indic Computing and applications
ABOUT TeNeT
for rural development.
Established a decade ago, the TeNeT Group
The expertise in the TeNeT Group spans the
is today a coalition of 14 faculty from the
entire gamut of specialisations pertinent to
Electrical Engineering and Computer Sci-
the TeNeT mission: digital communications,
ence & Engineering Departments of IIT-
wireless networks, computer protocols, opti-
Madras who work together towards a few
cal communications, digital signal process-
common goals in research and product
ing, speech, audio and video technologies,
development. The focus is to address press-
computer vision, network management,
ing needs of India and other developing
multimedia, digital system design and
countries by market-driven product devel-
embedded systems. In addition, there is a
opment, strengthening of Indian
small group of experts in areas such as rural
telecom/networking industry, technical
finance, small scale enterprises for rural
training and education, and driving tele-
areas.
com/IT policy.
Our vision is "World-class Technology at an
The type of activities of the TeNeT Group
Affordable Price". At different times, this
includes teaching and training, product
vision translates to various tangible goals.
development, incubation of technology
For some years, it was to enable 100 million
companies by alumni, telecom and IT policy
telephone and Internet connections in India.
studies, and front-line research in the spe-
As this goal is a reality, we now have other
cialties.
missions.

69
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

ASHOK JHUNJHUNWALA resources of experts from all the IITs and


TEACHING AND TRAINING
TeNet Group, Indian Institute of other leading institutions in preparing the
Technology, Madras-Chennai As part of the IIT Madras curriculum, the
course material. UACT had the capacity to
TeNeT faculty regularly teach a wide variety
train about a thousand engineers each year
of undergraduate and postgraduate courses
for industry.
in all the specialization's mentioned above.
IIT Madras is recognized today as having an
The second training center to be opened by
extremely high-quality program in commu-
the TeNeT Group was the Analog Devices-
nications and networking. The number of
IITM DSP Learning Center, also at IIT
graduating students in these fields has more
Madras. This center is dedicated to training
than doubled in the last few years. In addi-
final year engineering students from engi-
tion, a very large number - close to 1,000 -
neering colleges, as well as industry person-
engineers and technicians have been trained
nel, in programming Digital Signal Proces-
to become top-notch designers by working
sors. There is a severe shortage of engineers
hands-on in the numerous projects under-
in the area of DSP programming, and most
taken by the TeNeT Group in the last decade.
opt for other software avenues primarily
due to lack of exposure and the mystique
However, the group has been seized of the
associated with DSP. The DSP Learning Cen-
issue of how to scale their efforts so as to at
ter seeks to redress this lacuna. It runs its
least partly fill the ever-increasing gap
programs throughout the year and trains a
between the demand and supply of engi-
few hundred students each year.
neers in the Information Technology (IT)
sector. It became clear that there are limits
Building on these experiences, the TeNeT
to increasing supply by simply scaling the
Group is now starting a multi-institutional
size of the existing teaching institutions. On
finishing school that will use the Internet
the other hand, the numerous engineering
for delivery of live and recorded lectures.
colleges that have come up in the last
decade do graduate a large number of engi-
neers, despite poor infrastructure and RESEARCH
under-staffed faculty. These engineers have One of the key beliefs of the TeNeT group is
several gaps in their preparation, and the IT that all the latest technological develop-
industry needs to impart significant addi- ments worldwide have to be brought to bear
tional training before they can begin to on its mission of enhancing telecom and
contribute. Internet in India. While systems developed
abroad for a different market may have only
Bearing this situation in mind, the TeNeT limited application in India, the technolo-
group has pioneered the concept of finish- gies incorporated in them, with appropriate
ing schools. The first one to be set up, as a redesign, give rise to systems that are more
joint effort between IIT Madras and the affordable and better suited to our require-
Usha Martin Group, was the Usha-Martin ments. It is therefore imperative for the
Academy of Communication Technology TeNeT group to be at the forefront of
(UACT). Over a period of three years, this research in wireless and optical technolo-
institution ran three-month intensive pro- gies, system design and ASIC development,
grams throughout the year for fresh indus- communication protocols, audio, video and
try recruits in the areas of telecommunica- image processing, and international stan-
tions and networking. The courses, which dardisation efforts. „
include nearly 50% laboratory content, were
carefully designed by TeNeT faculty such
that the gaps in the preparation of these
fresh graduates are filled, and they are
introduced to the latest concepts prevalent
in the IT field. UACT has drawn on the

70
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

SATELLITE RADIO
THE EXAMPLE OF WORLDSPACE

WorldSpace, Inc. was founded in 1990 by holders of XM Satellite Radio in the U.S.
PIERRE CASADEBAIG Noah A. Samara, its Chairman and CEO, and is responsible for some proprietary
Director-General WorldSpace
France with a mission to provide digital satellite technology and original programming and
audio, data and multimedia services prima- format structure, which is currently used to
rily to the emerging markets of Africa and broadcast to over 1.5 million subscribers
Asia. A pioneer of digital satellite radio, Mr. across the U.S. The WorldSpace Global Con-
Samara was also instrumental in the devel- tent and Programming department provides
opment of the satellite radio industry approximately 10% of the original content
through his early involvement with XM music programming heard in America on
Satellite Radio in the United States. XM Satellite Radio.
The company’s mission is to provide a vari-
ety of high quality programming through a HOW DOES WORLDSPACE WORK?
subscription-based service that uses low- WorldSpace uses its two satellites, AfriStar™
cost portable satellite radios and is available and AsiaStar™, to broadcast more than 100
in underserved markets that lack program- digital-quality audio channels to people
ming choices. WorldSpace is the first and around the world who want world class pro-
only company with rights to the world’s gramming that is not available or rarely
globally allocated spectrum for digital satel- found on local, regional or national terres-
lite radio. Its broadcast footprint covers over trial radio. Each satellite has three beams
130 countries including India and China, all and each beam is able to send up to 80
of Africa and the Middle East and most of channels directly to portable satellite radios.
Western Europe – an area that includes five Inside each WorldSpace Satellite Radio dig-
billion people and more than 300 million ital audio receiver is a proprietary chipset
automobiles. Its two fully operational satel- designed to lock onto the WorldSpace satel-
lites and ground infrastructure are based on lite signal in your region of the world.
proprietary and patented technology.
EQUAL ACCESS
WHAT IS WORLDSPACE SATELLITE Radio remains the medium of choice to
RADIO? reach audiences in the developing world.
WorldSpace is the only satellite radio serv- One example is Equal Access, an NGO from
ice outside of the USA, Japan, and South San Francisco, that uses Worldspace to
Korea. Through its subscription-based serv- reach the Developing World via Satellite
ice, WorldSpace broadcasts news, sports, Radio, and concentrates on two practical
music and educational programming to applications of this medium. Equal Access
satellite radios throughout a global area that broadcasts content directly to the communi-
includes more than four billion people. ty sites via satellite, where organized listen-
WorldSpace is also credited with creating ing groups discuss the content following the
the evolution of satellite radio. WorldSpace broadcasts. It also form partnerships with
was the first to create and broadcast pro- radio stations for content rebroadcast. As
gramming via company owned and the primary medium of information distrib-
launched satellites AfriStar™ and AsiaStar™ uted on the EA channel is audio program-
to deliver 100% digital audio and exclusive ming, partnerships with local broadcasters
WorldSpace created programming to satel- allow "Equal Access" to reach a much
lite radio receivers throughout Asia, Europe, broader audience in hundreds and thou-
the Middle East and Africa. WorldSpace was sands of communities. „
also one of the principal founding share-

71
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

CAPACITY-BUILDING:
THE ROLE OF LOW-COST
SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

PIETRO LO GALBO From the Message to WSIS from Kofi 1. Often the only viable short term solu-
Head of the Telecommunications Annan, United Nations Secretary-General tion in remote areas
Department
European Space Agency (ESA) 2. Quick and easy to deploy
“We are all familiar with the extraordinary 3. Well suited for bundled community
power of information and communications services
technologies. 4. Regional, Continental or Worldwide
From trade to telemedicine, from education coverage
to environmental protection, we have in our 5. Seamless integration with existing
hands, on our desktops and in the skies terrestrial solutions
above, the ability to improve standards of 6. Broadcast, one way and two way
living for millions upon millions of people. services through a single platform.
Information and communication technolo- 7. Most powerful for rural solutions in
gies are not a panacea or magic formula. combination with wireless technology.
But they can improve the lives of everyone
on this planet.
We have tools that can propel us toward the So the potential is there and solutions are
Millennium Development Goals; instru- available but there is a but…..The “but” is
ments with which to advance the cause of mainly an economic reason as most of the
freedom and democracy; vehicles with which areas of the world where such action is
to propagate knowledge and mutual under- needed are not seen as short term invest-
standing. ment opportunities and hence they have no
We have all of this potential. potential for generating return on invest-
ment in a reasonable time. For this reason is
The challenge before this Summit is what to clear that some external intervention is
do with it.” needed and the international co-operation
could channel government money to joint
efforts and provide satcom infrastructure
ESA presentation on the subject of Capacity investments that once in place would quick-
Building and use of satellite communica- ly start a reaction chain capable to boost
tions is an attempt to provide some concrete capacity building initiatives involving local
answers to Mr. Annan above statement. On champions and hence with high probability
one hand it is now well accepted that ICT of long term sustainability.
can play a big role in capacity building ini-
tiatives on the other hand ICT based solu- In this respect before outlining ESA vision
tions seem very often devised for the west- and possible road map on the subject a
ern part of the world where access to ICT breakdown of the major costs involved for
tools and solutions is generally not a prob- the provision of satellite communications
lem. The big issue which a vast part of the services and infrastructure is given. This is
world is facing is in fact the availability of based on the main four cost elements:
affordable solutions for accessing ICT from
any geographical location and most impor- - User terminal
tant from remote areas. For this reason it is - Satellite Capacity
widely accepted that satellite communica- - Installation & Maintenance
tions can provide a solution to this quest for - Operations
the following reasons:

72
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

USER TERMINAL: CONCLUSIONS

Impact on service costs: LOW TO MEDIUM On the basis of the above it is clear that the
Depending on deployment scale and on user aggregation of common resources at inter-
site architecture: e.g. one satcom terminal national level towards the common goal of
can serve hundreds of PC connected universal access via satellite in remote areas
through wired or wireless LANs in order to make available suitable applica-
tions that could boost local skills and facil-
itate capacity building initiatives.
SATELLITE CAPACITY
ESA vision on the way forward is the fol-
Impact on service costs: HIGH lowing:
Despite large number of transponders are
currently unused, capacity cost is high. 1. Adopt standard based solutions for
Large number of users or user communities boosting competition and pushing ter-
aggregation is needed to have reasonable minal price down.
ROI. 2. Provide “ad hoc” low cost integrated
services for capacity building through
dedicated regional or global infrastruc-
INSTALLATION & MAINTENANCE tures adapted to developing countries
user needs.
Impact on service costs: MEDIUM/HIGH 3. Involve local players in all elements
Can be optimized through involvement of of value chain to guarantee long term
local players or users themselves, when capacity building perspectives.
capable. 4. Provide easy & cheap access to
unused sat capacity through special
deals with operators on a best effort
OPERATIONS basis

Impact on service costs: MEDIUM ESA is willing and ready to join forces with
Can be optimized through one or more tele- other International Institutions willing to
ports with worldwide coverage. work together through satcom solution to
provide quick and effective answers to
urgent capacity building issues worldwide.
„

73
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

DEMAND, UTILITY AND IMPACT OF


LOW-COST MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS
IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

PETER JOHNSTON Mobile communications has the greatest “Phone Ladies” in Asia and Africa are the
Head, Evaluation and Monitoring, and widest utility, namely to foster commu- focal points of contact of whole communi-
DG Information Society
European Commission nity building, and specifically the establish- ties that relies upon them to keep in touch
ment of so called market networks, in both with relatives in the outside world; to do
developed and developing countries. There business and a vital link to emergency serv-
is therefore a substantial demand, even in ices. They are key clients to Grameen bank
the poorest communities, for affordable microfinance, and a vital first step to many
mobile communications; new business initiatives.
This demand can be met by a number of
low-cost technologies, some already avail- Data from rural communities in Tanzania
able (e.g., GSM) and others currently being from the “Growing Sustainable Business”
developed by leading EU, US and Japanese initiative of the UNDP, ILO and UNIDO
companies. Increased use of low-cost shows that 50% of people in the villages
mobile communications in developing know and have used mobile phones; a fur-
countries will make a substantial contribu- ther 45% know of them but haven't used
tion to economic growth and stronger social them; despite that only 5% actually own
networks; one. Over 50% intend to buy one when
These benefits will only be realised with on affordable.
one side, continued investments in technol-
ogy developments towards low-cost com- This awareness of mobile phones contrasts
munications, in Europe, US and Asia, and with the lack of awareness of computers and
by a business-environment in poor commu- e-mail: only 2% of the same group know of,
nities that facilitates social and business and have used e-mail; only 9% know of it,
innovations. but haven't used it; and 90% are not yet
The utility of mobile voice communications aware. For PCs, only 2% have used a PC,
is wider than that of key-board-based e- only 32% know of PCs, but haven't yet used
mail for a number of reasons: one, and 67% not yet aware of PCs.

The views expressed are those of the There is still a digital divide in mobile phone
author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the use in developing countries, but it is closing
policies of the Commission of the European fast: use in Africa is still low, and world-
Union. wide, total subscriptions are likely to reach
2 billions by 2010, of which 30% will be in
• It is accessible to the illiterate and Asia and only 18% in Europe1. In Africa as
those without keyboard skills; a whole, still only 6% of the population
• It is inherently multi-lingual: any lan- subscribes to mobile telephony, compared
guage can be used in a local social net- with 15% in Asia, ~55% in the US, and
work; >80% in EU-25 (>70% Europe as a whole)2.
• The handsets are easy to use; In Tanzania, the number of subscribers has
• They can be very cheap; they are light grown from 50,000 to 2 million in 6 years
_____________________________ and can be carried easily; to 20053. In Africa as a whole, there were
1. OMSYC data, “The World
Mobile Market, 1996-2004).
• Energy use is very low, and occasion- over 50 million subscribers at the end of
al battery re-charging is possible from 2003, a ten-fold increase from 1998.
2. ITU data
local and renewable energy sources.
3. Sunday News, Tanzania: 6th The digital “mobile” divide is being closed
February 2005. by a new generation of low-cost handsets

74
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

and infrastructure equipment; and by mar- services - such as cheap and secure payments
ket liberalisation enabling new business and messaging.
models and entrepreneurial innovations. The mobile phone is the technology with the
However, there is still a major challenge greatest impact on development. The new
ahead: in Tanzania, 90% of the territory and assessments by Prof. Leonard Waverman of
75% of the population do not yet have the London Business School in the recent
access, although the World Bank now esti- report on the impact of Mobile Phones in
mates that 77% of the world's population Africa4 show a positive contribution to eco-
lives within range of a mobile network and nomic growth (GDP per head) greater in
access could be provided to 50% of the pop- developing, than developed countries - with
ulation by 2015. an increase in use by 10 people per 100,
increasing GDP growth by 0.6%. Experience
The new major investments in the new low- in Africa shows that they can also cut trans-
cost systems are being made by the Euro- action costs, notably for small businesses and
pean, US and Japanese leaders in technology individual entrepreneurs; avoid the need to
development, and will extend the market travel for information; and broaden market
well beyond the 2 billion sub-scribers pro- networks.
jected with current technologies. The social and entrepreneurial benefits are
even greater than the economic benefits:
Low-cost technologies are not low-tech. Low mobile phone strengthen social networks -
retail and usage costs come from greater family and friends, and contribute to person-
electronics integration and miniaturisation; al security.
greater energy and spectrum efficiencies, and Conclusion
the optimum use of the competitive advan- There is now sound evidence that the first
tages of all world regions in the supply and most valuable contribution from ICT to
chains. Low-cost mobile technologies incor- capacity building can come from wider avail-
porate the latest innovations for Third Gen- ability of mobile communications. There is a
eration systems. Therefore, investments in viable business case for low-cost technolo-
next generations in Europe and the devel- gies to meet demand, even in the poorest
oped world, have major impact on develop- communities - this involves investments in
ing countries. technology developments in Europe and the
developed world, and a business environ-
Low-cost services also require innovative ment in developing countries which facili-
business models - notably of shared use of tates business and social innovation. Partner-
_____________________________
4. www.vodafone.com/assets/files mobile communications in poor communi- ship in development is therefore essential.
/en /AIMP_ 09032005.pdf _ ties; but also for a wider range of mobile „

75
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD (OLPC).


AN OVERVIEW

NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ment programs, and not through retail or
The Media Lab Massachusetts commercial channels. MIT and OLPC would
Institute of Technology
The OLPC non-profit Association Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) license or give away the IP necessary to
and the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) non- bring similar products to retail.
profit Association, propose a global pro-
gram to equip many millions of students
and their teachers with ultra low-cost, indi- THE VISION
vidual, connected laptop computers to dra-
matically enhance the children's primary Once upon a time only the very adventurous
and secondary education. These will be fully traveled, and only a few people had access
powered, general purpose laptops, sized for to knowledge. Then, technologies such as
children and adolescents, running Linux, the compass, paper and printing trans-
with wireless connectivity. Among other formed the world by expanding these limits.
unique features, each will carry a suite of Today there is a new opportunity to trans-
software--informally known as MIT Inside- form the world once again, to create and
- designed by a team of world leaders in disseminate a technology that will allow
educational technology. They will be built schoolchildren in even the most distant
and sold for $100, or less, apiece. places access to knowledge and learning on
an unprecedented scale.
In its pilot phase, the program would be
divided on a country-by-country basis into Preparing students for success in a knowl-
culturally-diverse regions -- emphasizing, edge-based science- and technology- rich
when possible, rural and remote areas -- society requires more than dispensing facts
where all students in all primary and sec- and practicing textbook skills. It requires
ondary grades receive a personal and con- developing new ways of thinking. It
nected machine: One Laptop per Child. requires a culture of science, information
and global understanding. And it requires
An essential feature of the pilot program learning foreign languages. The question we
would be training, logistics and an adminis- address is how this essential work can be
trative initiative based in the host country. accomplished in distant communities, so far
Here, in partnership with local educational poorly served by the digital revolution,
organizations or other groups to be deter- where teachers know of the new technology
mined, MIT would help create a center to only from poor or incomplete descriptions
implement a carefully-designed, exponen- in books.
tial process to impart the necessary techno-
logical and pedagogical skills to classroom Our answer is to provide every student with
teachers over a period of six months or less. a personal laptop -- a full-powered comput-
er with permanent wireless connection that
The project's technological infrastructure can be used at home as well as at school,
would incorporate design and engineering and is easily carried to places of play, cul-
advances developed at MIT's Media Lab, ture and social action. Quantitatively this
plus innovations in manufacturing and dis- permits more high quality learning than can
tribution to bring costs in line with the host be achieved in the hours spent at school.
country's budget structures. The laptops But the real gain is qualitative: the $100
would be made available only to school- laptop removes the barriers that separate
children and their teachers, through govern- learning from living, school from family

76
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

and society. It embodies the new culture and One final point -- not about the laptops
fosters individual growth within that cul- themselves, but about how to implement
ture. Just as a language is best acquired by far-reaching change in a very large and
speaking it, a culture is best acquired by liv- complex system. Experience in every coun-
ing it. try shows that issuing rules and instructions
for change works poorly. People re-interpret
Savings help offset costs. Under OLPC, gov- the rules. Besides it is enormously compli-
ernments can distribute required texts digi- cated and expensive to work out all the
tally, and update them freely at a fraction of details of a new kind of education. We pro-
the cost of printing and shipping hard pose an approach that is far simpler. Satu-
copies. Plus there will be an even greater rate the country with this hyper-modern
savings for those books that every student digital object-- the $100 laptop --which will
should be given but only comparatively rich induce the kind of change in thinking that
families can afford. These include encyclo- is needed to live in a digital world. One
pedias, full dictionaries and professional object may be worth ten thousand rules.
quality atlases, as well as personal subscrip-
tions to periodicals.
EXPERIENCE TO DATE
The computer can serve as a library, a labo-
ratory and an art studio, saving construc- The concepts underpinning the One Laptop
tion costs while making existing facilities per Child concept have already taken root
far more useful. It can reduce the number of around the globe. One of the earliest pro-
teachers for specialized subjects: for exam- grams was started in 1989 when the
ple students can learn English by interacting Methodist Ladies College in Melbourne,
with English-speaking students online. Australia, began requiring all incoming stu-
There are also savings that come from hav- dents from the fifth to twelfth grades to
ing greatly reduced numbers of students arrive with their own portable Toshiba lap-
with “learning difficulties.” tops.

It is important to note that everything we Since then, schools in numerous countries


have said here about how students will learn have followed the Methodist Ladies Col-
with their laptops applies equally to teach- lege's lead. For example, Costa Rica's pro-
ers. They also need to learn. The days when gram for bringing computers into educa-
a future teacher could be “trained” to do tion, the first, and still most-widely-praised
everything that needs to be done in a career program on a national level, is based a
of teaching are over. The world changes too design by Seymour Papert8. It has been
fast. Teachers need to be permanently implemented in collaboration with a team
engaged in learning as they teach. Every from the Media Lab.
student is exploring new knowledge and
challenging the teacher as much as the Other initiatives range from the modest - a
teacher is able to challenge the students. small but so-far promising program involv-
ing 50 children in two remote Cambodian
In the same spirit, when the children take villages - to the ambitious, such as the U.S.
the laptops home they are also bringing new State of Maine where the State legislature
ways of thinking into the family and giving has mandated that all middle and high
their parents new opportunities to learn. school students be issued their own perma-
Thus, the laptops will transform education nent laptops. An estimated 1000 U.S. school
not just in the narrow sense of schooling. districts have followed Maine's example.
We are talking about transforming society. There are two similar programs currently
______________________ Which of course is what education should underway in France, including one in Mar-
8. http://www.papert.org/ be about. seilles, the nation's second-largest city, but

77
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE a poor town, with enormous ethnic and cul- only students' writing attitudes, but also
The Media Lab Massachusetts tural diversity. in their practices. These are changes
Institute of Technology
The OLPC non-profit Association we've also observed in language arts
It is too early to assess the full impact of teachers' writing instruction strategies,
One Laptop per Child in detail, but the most and in the attitudes and practices of
extensive study to date, a four-year investi- other content area teachers.
gation of 50 schools across the U.S. con-
ducted by Saul Rockman9, a widely-respect- "It absolutely begins to transform the high
ed educational consultant, ratifies Seymour school," said one school administrator in
Papert's constructionist theories that under- Florida. "It's the single most dramatic thing
pin the One Laptop per Child philosophy. I've seen affect the classroom-in a very pos-
Among Rockman's key findings: itive way."

Learning environments are transformed.


• Educators involved in laptop programs LAPTOP ECONOMICS
… promote collaborative learning and …
provide individualized instruction. Global implementation of One Laptop per
• … students and teachers move around Child clearly is infeasible when the average
more. Instead of staying put to do seat- cost of low-end machines is $600. When
work, students gather to work on proj- the price of a full-feature laptop is just
ects $100, however, One Laptop per Child makes
• … (this) frees teachers to roam about compelling economic sense, in part because
the room helping those who have prob- it comes closer to the cost of providing the
lems or need remediation. students textbooks.
• … learning in laptop classrooms is
often more self-directed We reduce costs in five major ways.
Assessment techniques change 1) Reducing to nearly zero the usual
• Teachers in laptop classrooms are profit margin, together with sales, mar-
more willing to assign presentations and keting and distribution costs. Together,
multimedia products to students, and these typically account for over 50 per-
score them using customized, project- cent of a laptop's price.
driven rubrics and even self-assess-
ments. 2) Innovation in the machine's display.
Students are highly engaged. The display accounts for 50 percent or
• Like teachers, students also show more of the machine's remaining cost.
improved technology skills and sophisti- We have devised several strategies for
cation. reducing those costs to about $30 per
Productivity increases. machine.
• Students develop better organization-
al skills because they now need them to 3) Putting the laptops on an operational
keep track of what's on their computer diet, so to speak. This saves up to 75
and to accomplish complex project work percent of the residual expense by
in a timely manner. deploying a scaled down processor and
Attitudes toward writing improve. needing less memory, using a signifi-
• 76% of students said they enjoy writ- cantly lighter weight operating system -
_____________________________
ing more on the laptops than on paper10; - a "skinny Linux."
9. http://millennium.aed.org/rock- • 80% indicated laptops make it easier
bio.shtml to rewrite and revise their writing 4) Designing and building our machines
10. From a recent U.S. survey
• 73% said they earn better grades for to be rugged and durable, thus reducing
measuring students' attitudes laptop work. the annualized cost of using them.
about writing • The data demonstrate shifts in not

78
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

5) Moving in entirety to an open-source gy will be ideal for textbook replacement


model for software: OS and applications and general purpose, low-cost laptop dis-
play in new form factor, including flexible
We commit to holding and driving down plastics. E Ink also is as much as 10 to 100
costs in the future, as well. The enormous times less expensive than the lithographic
potential volumes of these machines should based processes used to create TFT's for
enable unprecedented scale economies in equivalent sized areas. We see prices head-
manufacture. also, OLPC is a non-profit ed as low as $0.10 per square inch.
association, meaning that our mission of
providing high-quality laptops at the lowest Currently, there are about two dozen efforts,
possible price will not conflict with the both at start-ups and within large corpora-
more typical, profit-making responsibility tions, focused on adapting the economics of
of increasing shareholder value. printing to the manufacture of TFT's and
displays. As an indication of where this field
Our machines will be less prone to theft, might go, E Ink Corporation, using its ultra
because they will not be available on the low power display laminate along with part-
retail market. Initially at least, anybody seen ners including Plastic Logic (Cambridge,
using one had better be a student or a UK) and Polymervision (Eindhoven, Nether-
teacher. lands) has recently demonstrated a series of
displays that incorporate printed organic
In time, implementation of “One Laptop per transistor backplanes on flexible plastic
Child” also will considerably reduce the substrates. Other companies such as Kovio
need to purchase expensive and bulky text- are developing printed inorganic transistors
books that in many disciplines quickly are more similar to the transistors found in
out of date. Laptop data are infinitely standard TFT's. Prof. Joseph Jacobson is a
updatable. founder of both E Ink and Kovio. We plan to
use printed electronics in Gen-2.

GENERATIONS OF MACHINES
THE PEOPLE
Two generations of machines are planned:
Gen-1 and Gen-2. An exciting innovation An elite team of scientists, theorists and
and a powerful emergent technology are technology experts with backgrounds in
two of the reasons that both iterations of the both academia and industry has been
$100 laptop will be special and unique in all assembled to plan and guide the One Laptop
the world. per Child initiative. They include:

The innovation is the toggle-controlled Nicholas Negroponte, chairman and co-


capacity of our Gen-1 machine screens to founder of the Media Lab at MIT.
switch back and forth between full color Besides creating the Media Lab, Nicholas
and black-and-white displays at 3X resolu- lectures and writes extensively on com-
tion. The $100 laptop will be the world's putational and telecommunications
first portable computer to double as an e issues. He sits on the board of directors
book. Plus, the displays will be fully read- at Motorola, as well as other companies
able in direct sunlight. that are start-ups, in which he has been
involved in creating over fifty. His
The new technology, called E Ink, permits books include the international best-
thin-screen, exquisite text reproduction seller, Being Digital.
with very low power consumption. Devel-
oped at the Media Lab by Prof. Joseph M. Seymour Papert, a mathematician and
Jacobson, this full-color, bi-stable technolo- one of the early pioneers of Artificial

79
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE Intelligence, is a world authority on how Mitchel Resnick is LEGO Papert profes-
The Media Lab Massachusetts computers can change learning. Emeri- sor of Learning Research at the Media
Institute of Technology
The OLPC non-profit Association tus LEGO Professor of Learning Research Lab. He is the director of the Lifelong
(a chair created for him) at the Media Kindergarten Group at the lab and cur-
Lab, he is also the inventor of the Logo rently serves as the Academic Head of
computer language and an author most Department for Media Arts & Sciences.
widely known for Mindstorms: Children, His. research group developed ideas and
Computers and Powerful Ideas. technologies underlying the LEGO
Mindstorms robotics construction kits,
Alan Kay is world famous as inventor of used by millions of kids all over the
the laptop, which he called a Dynabook. world.
Among Alan's many other achieve-
ments, he invented Smalltalk, the first Edwin Selker is a world-class inventor
complete, dynamic, object-oriented with countless patents, as well as a pro-
computer language and operating sys- fessor at the Media Lab. He is a former
tem. The popular open-source version of research scientist and manager at IBM,
Smalltalk is called Squeak, designed for where Ted, among other things, invent-
children and learning while he was a ed and developed the familiar track-
Disney. point technology used on many key-
boards.
Joseph Jacobson, a physicist, is a pro-
fessor at the Media Lab, where he co-
founded and is co-principal investigator THE ONE LAPTOP
of the Lab's Center for Bits and Atoms, PER CHILD ASSOCIATION (OLPC)
and leads the Molecular Machine Group,
as well. His best-known invention is OLPC is a U.S.-based, Delaware-incorpo-
“electronic ink” for low-cost paper-like rated, not-for-profit association11 estab-
and flexible displays, which will be the lished for the purpose of enhancing world-
display technology for our third genera- wide primary and secondary education
tion $100 laptop. through implementation of a $100 laptop.

Mary Lou Jepsen's expertise is in opti- Around the globe there are roughly one
cal science. Her areas of focus have been billion children of primary- and second-
manufacturable optical and display ary-school age. International production of
solutions, microdisplays, liquid crystals, laptops is just below fifty million units.
projection display, and diffractive and OLPC's challenge is to further reduce lap-
polarizing optics. Before joining OLPC, top costs and prices and to increase world-
she was director of technology develop- wide distribution dramatically, keeping in
ment in Intel Corp.'s Display Division. mind that the company's mission is learn-
She is also co-founder of the MicroDis- ing, not laptop sales.
play Corp.
Rather than simply theorizing about the
V. Michael Bove, Jr. is a principal extraordinary educational value of one
research scientist at MIT, as well as a co- laptop per child, issuing white papers and
founder and former technical consultant delivering lectures, OLPC is turning the
to WatchPoint Media, Inc. He was concept into reality. As a non-profit corpo-
responsible for some of the earliest ration, the company has distinct advan-
video compression ideas and provided tages in this endeavor, all deriving from
_____________________________
the core and initial theories behind rep- the fact that there is no shareholder inter-
11. In U.S. lagal language: a resenting moving images in a structured est in equity appreciation. For example,
501(c)6 corporation. format. instead of growing profit margins, OLPC

80
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

can translate each technological advance focused on the laptop.


into a lower-cost, lower-price (or higher-
functioning at unchanged cost/price) OLPC will launch with at least seven corpo-
machine. Likewise, as soon as a model is rate investors, of which three already are
released, we won't move derivatives up- publicly committed: Google, AMD, and
market, but will try just the opposite - News Corp. Each company funds a combina-
move them down-market, devoting our- tion of MIT, OLPC and the 2B1 Foundation12,
selves to serving what some people call for a total program of $14M. At present,
“the bottom of the pyramid.” We call the three additional companies are considering
project $100 Laptop simply to make a joining OLPC. We are choosing these compa-
point: this can be done and we're doing it, nies deliberately and carefully so as not to
skeptics notwithstanding. create overlaps in corporate expertise. In
parallel with the proposal, we are in discus-
Certain industry figures, including Bill sions with a telecommunication equipment
Gates of Microsoft, believe that the main provider, a software company, a disc manu-
problem of the “digital divide” is connec- facturer and a display device maker. We
tivity. While worldwide connectivity is cer- expect to announce the next three partners
tainly imbalanced and inadequate, we in the near future. In all cases we have a
believe it already is on a trajectory toward back-up company with whom to extend
rectification through the combined results such discussions if need be.
of such efforts as WiFi, 3G, WiMAX and
mesh networks. In fact, each $100 Laptop At the same time, OLPC is working with the
will be an element in a mesh network. Fur- World Bank and the United Nations. While
thermore, telecommunications bandwidths neither of those organizations is known for
_____________________________ are elastic, inasmuch as any given bit rate speed, both are important to the long-term
12. 2B1 is a non-profit charitable can be shared by a variable and increasing future of the project, especially for smaller
foundation whose purpose is, number of kids without anything close to and very poor nations. (See Annex III for
among other things, to give away
laptops free to the really poor and proportional delays. By contrast, the cost further details)
needy. of laptops for a 100 kids is 100 times the „
cost of one. For this reason OLPC has

81
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

PERSPECTIVES FOR LOW-COST


SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS

DIRK BREYNAERT 1. INTRODUCTION A telecenters can be an 'Internet Café', a


CEO Newtec Group, Belgium 'Telephone Kiosk' or any other facility offer-
The provision of low cost satellite communi- ing a variety of communication and infor-
cation services in developing countries will mation services to the people which do not
be a reality in a few years from now. Low have basic communication means such as
service cost is possible if each actors in the telephone, Internet access (PC), or even in
service Value Chain optimally contribute to some cases any radio or television at their
this objective. Main actors in the value chain premises.
are satellite operators, telecom operators,
solution providers and service providers.
Services offered
As a satellite communication solution Possible services to be offered by telecenters
provider, Newtec (http://www.newtec.be/) is are multiple. The most usual ones are:
representing only one element of this value telephony, email, Internet access, Fax, print-
chain. However, the role of the solution ing, copying.
provider is crucial for obtaining low service
cost: he is indeed responsible for designing Additional services can also be, depending
low cost user equipment and bandwidth effi- on the circumstances and community needs:
cient communication networks. Newtec is wireless telephony, paid-TV, public & pri-
therefore well placed to offer “perspectives vate radio & television and specific content
for low cost satellite communications”, the provision.
subject of the present paper.
Specific content can be as diverse as: dis-
Within this paper, Newtec objective is to tance learning, target information to the
forecast as realistically as possible the most whole community (AIDS and tropical dis-
promising technical solution and cost related ease prevention, administrative services
issues. As an example, solutions for offering etc.), or target information to farmers or
low cost telecenters to remote communities fishermen (daily crops/fish market price,
will be examined. A case study will be pro- weather forecast, techniques,…).
posed to evaluate telecenters cost evolution
and to forecast investment costs. An outlined The possible services to be offered to an user
business model to optimise telecenters self- community are therefore very wide.
sustainability will be presented. As a conclu-
sion, key success factors for the provision of
low cost satellite communications in devel- Strategic importance
oping countries will be presented. Thanks to these facilities, people in remote
communities are able to communicate with
the external world. They can communicate
2. TELECENTERS with their families and friend, but also with
potential business partners, for example for
Definition better selling their local production (such as
'Telecenter' is a generic term defining a crops, fish), locally or even remotely with
multi-users communication facility which is international partners (facilitating 'Fair
openly available to the people living or Trade' with developed countries). Telecenters
working in its vicinity. offer therefore an enabling infrastructure for
local entrepreneurs and small businesses.

82
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

Local entrepreneurs have the capability to tively affordable


commercially operate the telecenters. Expe- • typically 25$cents per minute
rience has shown a lot of creative examples (Tanzania)
of such entrepreneurship.
Unfortunately, cellular coverage can be very
Telecenters offer also an enabling infra- much limited in the poorest countries, and
structure for community Capacity Building. the cellular service is therefore not available
For example, thanks to the telecenter, spe- to most remote communities. Fixed public
cific education content can be easily deliv- telephone and Internet services are often
ered to a remote community. also not available for these communities. In
these circumstances, satellite offers the sole
mean to offer communications to remote
Key issues communities.
Experience has shown that some key issues
impeding a large proliferation of telecenters
are the following: 3. TECHNICAL SOLUTION
• Lack of energy (to power the commu-
nication system) Triple-Play concept
• Local regulations (e.g. for IP telephony) In order to offer low cost communications
• Difficulty of installation and mainte- to remote communities, Newtec is proposing
nance the 'Triple Play' satellite concept.
• Investment costs
• Services self-sustainability The principle of the 'Triple Play' concept is
The present presentation will address the 2 to provide the 3 basic access services (Tele-
later issues. vision, Internet access and Telephony)
through one single satellite communication
network.
Today satellite equipment cost
Satellite equipment costs are today still very As a matter of comparison, in 'terrestrial'
expensive for developing countries or less communications, telecom operators are
economically favoured regions. As an offering today “Dual play” by providing
example a telecenter equipped with one both voice telephony and ADSL internet
satellite terminal and 4 PCs cost today about access over the same network (via tradition-
5000 Euro. al telephone copper cables). Some cable TV
In this example, the main costs elements are operators are competing with them by offer-
the following: ing a “Triple-play” over their coaxial cable
• Satellite terminal: 1600 Euro networks (first with propriety solutions then
• PC & peripherics: 4 x 900 Euro more and more with open standard such as
VoIP).

Today satellite service prices Similarly, the 'Triple Play' satellite service is
Satellite services are equally very expensive expected to offer the 3 access services
today for developing countries. As an together to remote communities, at an
example, for satellite mobile service it is affordable cost.
typically:
• 2 $ per minute for public telephony Satellite terminal
(Inmarsat mini-M) In order to achieve low cost, the communi-
• 7-10 $ per Mbyte for Internet access cation terminal is making use of existing
(Inmarsat BGAN) standard satellite TV reception equipment:
TVROs (TV Receive-Only terminal). Such
In comparison, cellular service price is rela- equipment is presently manufactured in

83
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

DIRK BREYNAERT very large quantities for the Direct-To- Terminal installation can be simple and
CEO Newtec Group, Belgium Home (DTH) consumer market, and is there- straightforward, the only conditions being
fore easily available and very cheap. availability of electrical power, and free
view to satellite (within the satellite foot-
The 2-way Triple play satellite communica- print).
tion terminal is making use of a (1-way)
60/75 cm TVRO antenna equipped with a In places where no electricity is available,
small transmitter offering limited band- the Triple play satellite terminal can be solar
width return channel. powered.

The Triple play terminal includes an In-Door


Unit (IDU) containing the satellite modem Triple-Play satellite Network
with the communication interfaces (see fig The satellite Triple Play network is mainly
below). composed of:
Triple play remote Telecenter
• one 'Central Site' containing the Hub
Station (accessing the satellite) and the
Network Operation Center (NOC)
REMOTE TELE-CENTRE • the satellite terminals proving com-
munication to the remote telecenters
(see Figure below).

The satellite(s) to be accessed to must


equipped with Ku-Band spot beams, in order
to be compatible with the use of small 60/75
cm TVROs antennas.

TRIPLE PLAY NETWORK

The Triple play terminal will offer commu-


nication access to remote telecenters. The
telecenters will be equipped with some com-
munication devices, which, according to the
size and the needs of the community, will
include one or several (IP) phones and per-
sonal computers. Central site Telecenters

These devices are connected through a


Router and a Local Area Network (LAN) Network access & Service provision
which can be wired or wireless (see fig A Network Access Provider operates the
below). Hub station.
In order to provide connectivity, the Hub
A television set can be connected to the (see Figure below) is connected to specific
Triple play satellite terminal trough stan- networks:
dard TV Set-Top box.

84
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

• for IP telephony services: to the For broadband Internet access, communica-


worldwide terrestrial telephony network tion service cost will be about 0,5 cent per
(Public Switched Communication Net- Megabyte, which is quite cheaper than
work - PSTN) through a 'VoIP soft- today satellite service prices.
switch'
• for Internet services: to the worldwide For IP telephony, cost will be 0,2 cent per
internet backbone minute , which is about 1000 times cheaper
• for digital TV broadcasting: to a satel- than present Inmarsat prices.
lite TV contribution network, through
an 'IP TV Head-End', providing access
to multiple channels programming 4. CASE STUDY

In a given country, Local Service Provider(s) In order to have an idea of the investment
will offer the service to the communities cost required for offering telecenters access
(terminal installation, service subscription, to a large number of people, we propose a
terminal maintenance etc.). case study:
Let's imagine a typical remote community
with 400 people.
CENTRAL SITE
We assuming 1 PC can be shared by 100
people.

1 Telecenter with 4 PCs will therefore serve


such community.

We also assume that, in 2008, a key user


device, the PC, will be available for 10 0
(see abstract from Mr N. Negroponte from
MIT on “the 100$ laptop”, presented at the
same conference).

As a consequence, such a Telecenter will


cost about 800 , according to the following
Low costs cost breakdown:
Triple play satellite terminal price will go
down with quantities: target price for 2008 is • Satellite terminal 200
200 , assuming 1 Million terminals will have • Set Top Box 50
been ordered at that time (see Figure below). • Router 100
• PCs 4 x 10 0
• IP Telephone set 50
Satellite Terminals price versus quantities
In such a case, the investment cost will be
1.600 10.000.000 200 per connected PC.
1.400
1.200 1.000.000
1.000
Nr of terminals

800 100.000 In the same case, investment cost per


600 accessed people will be only 2 .
Price (E)

400 10.000
200
0 1.000
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 These figures are of course valid starting
from 2008. From now on, telecentre price
Terminal price (E) Nr of terminals installed will decrease together with the price of its
components (mostly satellite terminal and
PCs).

85
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

DIRK BREYNAERT The telecentre price will go down with the be pointed out: the self-sustainability. Expe-
CEO Newtec Group, Belgium number of telecenters installed (see Figure rience with telecenters already deployed in
below). remote areas of developing countries - and
which have been in most cases subsidized -
has shown that this is by far the biggest
Telecenter cost versus number of telecenters issue.

Nr of telecenters installed
6.000 10.000.000
5.000 For that purpose, we will outline a typical
Telecenter cost (E)

8.000.000
4.000 business model to optimise telecenters self-
6.000.000
3.000
2.000
4.000.000 sustainability potential.
1.000 2.000.000
0 0 Local entrepreneur
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
A key actor in any realistic business model
Telecenter cost (E) Nr of telecenters installed is the Local Entrepreneur, which offers the
services to the local community.

Belonging to the community, the entrepre-


As a consequence, the total number of neur must be responsible for telecentre tech-
accessible peoples will increase significant- nical and business operation. He must be
ly with the number of telecenters installed committed to the provision of the services
(see Figure below). and the success of its own business.

For that reason, the portfolio of different


Telecenter cost versus number of accessible peoples services to be offered to the community
must be selected by him, according to the
6.000 1,000.0 specific needs of his community.
5.000
Telecenter cost (E)

100.0
Millions of people

4.000
3.000 10.0 Roles
2.000
1.0
1.000
0 0.1
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
LOCAL User services
Telecenter cost (E) Nr of accessible peoples ENTERPRENEUR

INSTITUTIONAL Infrastructure
It can be concluded that the equipment cost ACTORS, NGOs installation
will not be predominant barrier to the large Provision of
scale deployment of information and com- specific content
munication technologies to remote commu-
nities.
As explained above, the local entrepreneur is
a key actor to assure the long term econom-
5. BUSINESS MODEL ic sustainability.
Other key actors are the Institutional actors
Objective
The long term viability of telecenters (local ministries, international organisations
assumes of course that a number of other etc.) and Non Governmental Organisations or
conditions are fulfilled. It is not the scope of NGOs (see Figure below). Institutional actors
this presentation to analyse these issues. and NGOs will be responsible for the telecen-
ters infrastructure installation (including
There is however one key issue which must satellite terminals and user devices).

86
Chapter IV. Sustainability & Low-cost Infrastructure

The Institutional actors and NGOs will then 6. CONCLUSION:


have the opportunity to make use of the KEY SUCCESS FACTORS
infrastructure to provide specific multime-
dia content contributing to community's As a conclusion, some key success factors to
capacity building (distance learning etc.). 'bridge the digital divide' in poor remote
communities are the following:

Cost sharing • Suitable satellite capacity must be


Non-recurring investment costs related to the available on time. For example, today,
communication infrastructure and installa- there is not enough suitable capacity for
tion will have to be subsidized by Institution- 100K Triple Play users in Africa.
al actors and/or NGOs (see Figure below).
• Satellite terminals must be manufac-
Investiments Operation Cost tured in large quantities (> 1 Million) to
get the target 200 unit price.

Institutional COMMUNICATION SATELLITE • To validate the business model,


Actors, INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK
NGOs (INCL, INSTALLATION) ACCESS telecenters must be deployed on a large
scale in several countries.

Local USER HOSTING,


Entrepreneur TERMINALS MAINTENANCE • Satellite infrastructure and communi-
& TRAINING cation costs must be initially subsidized
by Institutional actors.
Some recurring costs, including satellite
communications costs, will also have to be • Initiative has to be taken to set-up of
subsidized, at least in the first 5-10 years of a new standard which defines basic
operation. infrastructure requirements. When such
a standard and a proven business model
On the other side, the Local Entrepreneur will be available, industry will then
will take in charge all recurring costs relat- invest in the development of very low
ed to local operations (hosting, mainte- cost communication terminals._
nance, users training etc.) and to the „
replacement and update of user devices
(PCs, software etc.).

Local financing
After an initial period, the local entrepre-
neur's revenue generated by the services
provision (bills for telephone calls etc.) is
expected to be large enough to cover its
own costs. At this point, self-sustainability
will be assured.

However, in the initial first years period


(start-up phase), the local entrepreneur will
have to face substantial financial charges.
It is therefore proposed to support him by
mean of “micro-credits”.

LOCAL
Microcredit ENTERPRENEURS

87
Chapter V.
GDLN Interactive Participations

Part I. LATIN AMERICA

Part II. ARAB STATES

Part III. AFRICA

Part IV. ASIA


Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

INTRODUCTION

The Global Development Learning Network local initiatives from around the world.
(GDLN) of the World Bank Institute, initiat- Three countries per region/continent were
ed in June 2000, offers the use of advanced bundled in a session of three hours. In this
information and communication technolo- way, it was possible to integrate four ses-
gies to connect people working in develop- sions, spread over the three day World Con-
ment around the world. ference and having participations from:

GDLN enables organizations, teams, and Latin America : Brazil, Mexico and Argenti-
individuals around the world to communi- na
cate, share knowledge, and learn from each Arab States : Kuwait, Jordan and Egypt
others’ experiences in a timely and cost- Africa : Tanzania, Senegal and South Africa
effective manner. Asia : Afghanistan, India and China.

GDLN facilities include classrooms or meet- The video-conference studios of the GDLN
ing rooms with access to videoconferencing network, being linked among them, allowed
and high-speed internet resources (such as the session participants to share the presen-
email and instant messenger). tations and discussions of in the remote
places as well as well with those in the con-
The use of this network allowed the present ference site at UNESCO in Paris. „
World Conference to share the experience of

89
Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

BRAZIL
ICTS IN POOR URBAN AREAS,
IN THE LEGISLATURE
AND VIEWS OF YOUNG PEOPLE

HEITOR GURGULINO I. THE COMMITTEE FOR DEMOCRACY IN ITCRS using CDI's methodology and model
DE SOUZA INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (CDI) concept throughout Brazil.
Former Vice-Rector
of UNILEGIS.
hgurgulino@aol.com CDI is a non-profit organization with the CDI developed a socio-educational approach
mission of fostering the social inclusion of to teach information technology. Students
less-privileged social groups by using Infor- learn how to use computers and software
EDA C. BARBOSA mation and Communication Technologies as while discussing issues of particular interest
Director-General tools to encourage active citizenship. We to their community, such as human rights or
Institute of Higher Education
of Brasilia (IESB) work in low-income communities and with environment. Furthermore, the model is
iesb@iesb.br institutions assisting individuals with spe- based on the concept of helping people to
cial needs including, among others, the help themselves.
FILIPE RIZZO OLIVEIRA physically and mentally disabled, the visu-
Diretor CDI-Brasilia ally impaired, homeless children, prisoners CDI trains the future teachers of the schools,
cdi@cdi.org.br
and indigenous populations. who, in turn, will train others back in their
communities. CDI is continuously expand-
Learning new technologies not only creates ing its national and international network.
job opportunities, but also expands access Presently our offices are located in several
to knowledge and encourages social inter- Brazilian states and in three other conti-
change. At CDI, we believe this initiative nents. CDI regional committees are self-sus-
contributes to changing the lives of individ- tained and administratively autonomous.
uals and has a profound impact in commu- Their mission is to replicate CDI experience
nity development. CDI opens Information and educational strategy when implement-
Technologies and Citizens Rights Schools ing the schools. Periodic follow-up visits to
(ITCRS) in partnership with community- the committees guarantee the quality and
based associations, providing free computer the continuity of the CDI project. (Presenta-
equipment, software and implementing edu- tion made by Filipe Rizzo of the CDI Brasil-
cational strategies for a continuous training ia Office).
of local instructors. Through periodic visits,
CDI coordinators monitor its performance
identifying key challenges and opportuni- II. UNILEGIS
ties. School coordinators work together with
CDI representatives to find creative ways of A new University created for all Legislatives
addressing problems, formulating and shar- of Brazil. A major objective of the Federal
ing solutions. Each School is an Senate of Brazil when it established UNI-
autonomous unit, self-managed and self- LEGIS (Universidade do Legislativo
sustainable through a symbolic contribution Brasileiro) was to promote and maintain
collected from its students. activities to improve legislative procedures
and to study, at the highest level, strategic
This fund covers the maintenance costs, and matters related to the development of our
the payment of instructors. Presently, there country. It represented one more initiative
are 946 autonomous and self-sustainable of the Senate to offer Brazilian society new

90
Part I.
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

mechanisms to train leaders and to provide and its first students completed all the aca-
better conditions for the development of our demic requirements early in 2004. Their
citizens and institutions, with direct benefits graduation ceremony took place last May
to the process of strengthening our democ- when 83 Graduates (out of an initial enroll-
racy. The specific goals of the University are ment of over 100 students) received their
the generation, development, transmission Certificate of Specialist in Legislative Law,
and application of knowledge, through thanks to a partnership that UNILEGIS had
teaching, research and extension activities, established with the Federal University of
using ICT´s, in capacity building, in all areas Mato Grosso do Sul (a public University
related to the legislative domain, and spe- accredited by the Ministry of Education).
cially, in relation to the organization and
legislative procedures. This year UNILEGIS is again offering a face
to face Specialization Course on Legisla-
Honored with an invitation from the then tive Law, for 50 students, and two new
President of the Federal Senate - Senator Courses: one in Legislative Administration,
José Sarney I have accepted the challenge also for 50 students and one in Control of
and was the Vice-Rector (Academic) of UNI- Constitutionality of the Laws, for 45 stu-
LEGIS, for two years, until last April. The dents, with the cooperation of Brazil's
President of the Senate is also the Rector of Supreme Federal Tribunal.
the University.
These last two Courses are offered in part-
This pioneering and ambitious initiative, nership with the University of Brasilia. All
links all legislative houses of the country: at three courses offered this year have a dura-
the Federal level in Brasilia (Senate, House tion of 360 hours, require an attendance of
of Representatives and the Federal Accounts over 70% of the classes, students are
Tribunal) with all 27 State Assemblies (there required to attain a grade of 7 (in a scale 0-
are 26 States in Brazil and the Federal Dis- 10) and also have to prepare a monograph,
trict of Brasilia), and with all Municipal on a topic of their own choice, at the end of
Chambers (County Boards of elected offi- their Course. All Courses offered are devel-
cials). Since there are 5,561 counties in oped in accordance with the Regulations set
Brazil, the estimated potential "student" forth by the Ministry of Education and the
body of our University, to be reached espe- National Council of Education of Brazil.
cially through distance education, compris- The previously created Brazilian
es 70,000 Members of Parliaments and
150,000 of its supporting staff. Already by Legislative Institute (ILB), is the Executive
the end of this year, about 2,500 counties - Body that provided support for UNILEGIS
less than half of the total- will be linked to Administration and for its initial activities.
Brasilia and with each other, through the The University has an Executive Vice-Rec-
Program Interlegis (a joint initiative, funded tor, who is also the Director-General of
by a US$40 million project, supported by the Senate, so that it can mobilize other
the Brazilian Senate and the Interamerican already existing important resources of the
Development Bank) already functioning, Parliament such as: its Radio and TV sta-
that has supplied computers, printers and tions, its excellent Library and ICT
access to the internet to a large number of resources, its computer data banks (Pro-
them. The Senate in Brasilia and all 27 State dasen) and the Printing Press (Gráfica) to
Assemblies are also already linked through support our University work. We are just
excellent video-conference facilities provid- beginning a very long journey and there is
ed by the Interlegis Program. still a lot to be done. But, in our view, UNI-
LEGIS has indeed a great potential and
UNILEGIS started its teaching activities in could serve as an example of good use of
the end of 2002, offering a graduate Course ICTs for other countries to follow.

91
Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

III. INSTITUTO DE ENSINO SUPERIOR of mobilization, associated with others


DE BRASILIA - IESB sectors of the society, particularly in
bringing the knowledge and circulation of
Integration and sharing of knowledge in information. Given the fact that a minori-
the academic communities, made possible ty of the population has effective access to
by the revolution of the ways of commu- the means (computers and communica-
nica-tions, has permitted a meaningful tions) the process of digital inclusion asks
circulation of scientific investigation and for an impressive governmental and socie-
the improvement of teaching and learning tal movement to spread the availability of
processes. equipments and communications means to
Nevertheless, the expansion and univer- the population. As it is now, the access to
salization of these effects doesn't happen modern means of information and com-
in a homogeneous way. Great disparities munications tends to deepen the gap
among technology advances and its real between rich and poorer classes of the
absorption by societies generate great dif- society.
ferences among individuals and social
groups, deepening the existing ruptures. The deficiencies in pre-school, primary
and secondary education, either quantita-
In Brazil, there is a paradoxical situation: tively as well as qualitatively, makes a sig-
at the same time it seems to be included in nificant challenge to the inclusion, since
the information society by the modernity the children and youngsters do not have
of some of its governmental and social the necessary background to enter the era
programs, it is excluded when we consider of digital inclusion.
the effective results of these programs and
the low universalization of the means. At last we understand that the machines
(equipments) alone have neither noxious
We are convinced that the process of digi- effects nor benefits, but the sense that is
tal inclusion should be considered in the given to its utilization. That's what allows
construction of democratic citizenship in a real social transformation, by means of a
many and diverse dimensions. thorough citizenship building, taken into
We believe that the academic community account the several dimensions of social,
should assume a natural leadership in the political, economical and cultural life.
process of digital inclusion by the means „

92
Part I.
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

MEXICO
E-MEXICO - BUILDING
ON SUCCESS, FOR SUCCESS

TERENCE KARRAN When considering the growth and role of preventing México from catching up with
Director, information and communication technolo- more advanced nations. Over the same peri-
Virtual Campus, Universidad gies (ICT) for capacity building in México, od, GDP per capita rose by 3% or more in
Autonoma de Guadalajara, Mexico
and its ability to meet the challenges of the Greece, Portugal and Korea, three other
emergent Information Society and the Glob- nations with comparatively low income lev-
al Knowledge Economy, it is necessary to els. Economic growth in México is con-
address the social and economic contexts of strained by low levels of human capital
the country, which define the particular development, and additional finances are
problems of México and affect its ability to needed to improve and expand the inade-
deal with them. By many standards, México quate physical infrastructure, and combat
has a strong economy. In terms of total GDP, widespread acute poverty that leads to poor
the combination of a population of 100 mil- health and social marginalization. Hence, in
lion and GDP per capita over US$5,000 the short term, targeted programs are need-
makes México the tenth largest economy in ed to attack poverty and ensure that basic
the world. With US$232 billion in trade in needs are met, but in the longer run, pover-
2002, it is the USA's second trading partner ty can only be addressed systematically
(after Canada), and far ahead from the third through improved access to a more effective
trading partner (Japan with US$184 billion). educational system, which will improve the
Moreover, the OECD Economic Survey: skills base of the workforce and thereby
México undertaken in November 2003, strengthen human capital. However, despite
showed that México's economic perform- major improvements over the past decades,
ance improved during the 1990s, with vig- especially in increasing basic school enrol-
orous growth in GDP, and steadily falling ment for a rapidly growing school-age pop-
inflation. Since the 1995 peso crisis, the ulation, the level of the skills base of Méxi-
financial system has been strengthened, so co's human capital lags behind many other
that, when compared with many other Latin countries. The quality of education services
America countries, the Mexican economy and training is below OECD best practice, so
has been stable. that many school-leavers have poor literacy
and numeracy skills, and the cost effective-
However, despite this improving situation, ness of education programs needs to be
México's economic growth performance has improved.
been poor, and potential GDP growth esti-
mates have been revised down to below 4%, However, data from the OECD Information
which is too slow for a country with low Technology Outlook reveals that the growth
levels of income and productivity and high of the ITC Sector in the Mexican economy
rates of population growth, and hence too has been substantial. The largest exporters
slow to narrow the gap in living standards of communication equipment in 2002 were
relative to other countries. México's GDP the U.K. and the USA, followed by Germany,
per capita is equivalent to about one quar- Korea, and México. Of these countries,
ter of that of the United States. Over the exports for Korea and México increased
1990s, it increased by only 1_% per year, most rapidly from 1996 to 2002, by 32%

93
Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

TERENCE KARRAN and 23% per year respectively. Moreover the administration recognized the need to
Director, share of ICT Manufacturing in Total Manu- address the impact of new technologies
Virtual Campus, Universidad facturing Value added is greater in México within society. This led to a major policy
Autonoma de Guadalajara, Mexico
than that in many European nation states, initiative in the form of e-México
and from 1995-2001 this share grew faster (http://www.e-mexico.gob.mx/).
in México than all other OECD countries
apart from Finland. Similarly, the share of The objective of e-México is to create a
ICT manufacturing in total manufacturing technological system with social content,
employment has been very high in México which can offer all the tools and opportuni-
when compared with other OECD countries. ties that are available through the use of
Information and Communications Tech-
Not only has ICT manufacturing increased nologies, in order to increase the quality of
in México, so has the purchase and use of life for all Mexicans.
ICT equipment. Data from the OECD Com- e-México is being developed through five
munications Outlook shows that the number thematic areas, as follows:
of cellular mobile phone subscribers in
México is below average by international e-Learning - will provide new options
standards, but it is growing very fast. Simi- of education and training which will
larly, the proportion of households with stimulate learning as a means of integral
access to a home computer is low, but is development for Mexicans, promoting
catching up with European nations. In 1997 education for all, while respecting iden-
the number of PCs in México was 3.5 mil- tity and cultural diversity;
lion, but exceeded 8 million by 2002. In e-Health - will increase the level of
addition, more people are accessing the health and well-being of society by
Internet - the number of internet users in placing within the reach of the entire
México rose from just over half a million in Mexican population general medical
1997 to over 7 million by 2002, and was information which will promote human
expected to reach 15 million by the end of development and the development of
2004. As the OECD Science Technology and the health institutions, eliminating bar-
Industry Scoreboard for 2004 shows, the riers to the access of information and
number of Mexican registered websites, the health and social security services;
although low, is growing at a faster annual e-Economy - will accelerate the process
rate than the OECD average. This growth of development of the digital economy
has been aided by the liberalization of the within businesses, specially micro, small
telecommunication industry in the 1990's, and medium size businesses (MSMBs)
starting with the privatization of TELMEX thereby increasing the competitive posi-
and the emergence of new providers like tion of the Mexican economy; as well as
TELCEL. developing a computer culture within
society, particularly amongst con-
Hence, in terms of building ICT capacity, the sumers;
situation in México is one of successful e-Science, Technology and Industry -
growth in the ICT manufacturing sector, and will integrate and develop an informa-
in the purchase and use of ICT equipment, tion society and knowledge economy,
albeit from a small base, and despite an eco- facilitating a greater level of develop-
nomic climate characterized by low growth. ment by focusing on the needs of Mex-
Building on this success requires political icans to strengthen their industrial
will, and another important factor in the last infrastructure, and by direct linkage
decade has been the election of President with the research sector, thereby
Vincente Fox. The effect of the election of enabling the achievement of highly
Fox after 71 years of rule by the PRI was competitive quality standards as meas-
both symbolic and substantive, as the new ured in world markets;

94
Part I.
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

e-Government - will provide full infor- dents and 40,000 teachers.


mation on, and access to, all State serv- Red Escolar - a computerized system of
ices offered at Federal, Regional, information and communication based
National or City level, thereby guaran- on the Internet for México's student
teeing that all Mexican people can community, which has 4,000 units
access and take full advantage of all installed in more than 1,000 education-
public services. al units
Edusat - Educational Satellite Television
The success of the e-México initiative in Network - is a closed-circuit system
improving human capital will depend on its based on the most advanced digital
success in raising the level of education. technology. Its 12 video and 24 audio
This in turn depends on the willingness of channels broadcast all over México, and
the educational and training sectors to it reaches over 30,000 educational cen-
adopt new technologies. This will be vital tres in the country, through receivers in
first, because global competitiveness will secondary and technical schools and
depend on the extent to which people leav- public and private universities.
ing education have acquired high level ICT Enciclomedia - has enabled the digitali-
skills - so teachers will need to know how to zation of primary education textbooks
use ICT, in order to use it to teach more in CD-ROM format. Along with the
effectively themselves, and teach others material from the textbooks themselves,
how to use it. Secondly, and more critically, a plethora of resources, including
the current population growth is outstrip- videos, complementary information and
ping economic growth. México does not the use of the Microsoft Encarta student
possess the resources to increase the level of encyclopedia, are available to teachers
education by increasing the physical num- and students. The system began as a
ber of schools and universities, and there- pilot in the 2003-04 year, is now in
fore needs to turn increasingly to using new place in close to 22,000 fifth- and sixth-
technologies in teaching and the greater use grade classrooms around the country,
of open and distance learning, which are and is expected to expand to thousands
more cost effective. of schools during 2005-6

México is one of the countries with the Hence e-México will develop new initiatives
greatest experience in the field of distance within México to build on previous success-
education in the world. The main purpose of es in open and distance learning, and take
the SEP (Ministry of Education) National up the challenge of new technologies to
Distance Education Program (PROED) is to move both conventional and open and dis-
raise the level of educational opportunities tance education forward. There will be a
by incorporating electronic and computer need to use new technologies to create high
technology media into education. Its inten- quality intensely supported active learning
tion is to expand its coverage, combat edu- environments for students, both on an off
cational backlog and regional disparities in campus. The technology already exists to
educational opportunities, and promote provide these new environments. However,
training programs for human resource the major challenge lies in trying to use new
development through a series of initiatives technologies to shift the educational process
including: away from a passive didactic transmission
model of teaching to an active construc-
Telesecunderia - launched over 31 years tivist conversational model of lifelong
ago, the Telesecundaria, a televised learning. This requires changes, not just in
based distance secondary program, cur- pedagogy but across the entire educational
rently has more than 14,000 schools institution. To be successful, this new gener-
totaling approximately 1,200,000 stu- ation of e-learning will require teachers to

95
Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

TERENCE KARRAN adopt a new educational and pedagogic par- e-México initiative to accelerate its success-
Director, adigm based on learning and to change ful growth in the manufacture and use of
Virtual Campus, Universidad their role radically from being deliverers of ITC remains to be seen. Making internation-
Autonoma de Guadalajara, Mexico
subject content to facilitators and promoters al benchmarking comparisons is very diffi-
of learning. cult. However, it is worth noting that one
nation which has been able to transform
The role of universities as catalysts for itself through the use of ICT in the last three
change will be vital in this process. First, decades has been Finland. The defining
because they will supply high level training benchmarks in Finland's success have been
necessary for both continued growth in the a strong ICT manufacturing base lead by
development and manufacture of ITC, and Nokia, the deregulation of the telecommuni-
its integration in all aspects of the economy cations industry, consequent high usage of
and society. Secondly, because universities' ITC, a strong tradition of open and distance
research activities put them at the cutting learning facilitated by technology, collabo-
edge in the development of new technolo- ration between universities and industries
gies. Previously the role of universities in (facilitated via technology transfer and sci-
the industrial economy was to supply high- ence parks), and a national policy initiative
ly trained workers for the manufacturing which put the development of ICT at the
sector. By contrast, in the information soci- heart of its economic and educational strat-
ety global knowledge economy, universities egy. By adopting similar benchmarks, Méx-
are primary producers of the main product, ico can build on its current success to
knowledge, and so are crucial in the process expand its ICT industry and infrastructure,
of building learning regions within the and use policy instruments like e-México to
global knowledge economy. This has lead to promote the widespread use of information
a convergence between universities and and communication technologies, in homes,
high tech companies in the knowledge schools and universities, and business and
economy, often facilitated through the industry, with substantial social and eco-
development of university science parks. nomic benefits for all the Mexican people.
Whether or not México manages to use the „

96
Part I.
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

ARGENTINA
TELEWORK, NEW WORK METHODS
AND LOCAL JOB DEVELOPMENT.

ANGÉLICA ABDALLAH WE SHARE THREE REGIONAL Guinea straw -a trade that was disappearing
President, Argentine EXPERIENCES AS AN INTRODUCTION: due to the introduction of plastic materials.
Telework Association
aabdallah@aat-ar.org In 2002, this people published an add on the
First case: a pastry artisan that offers her Internet, in the classifieds sections, offering
products in her quarter. Due to a relative's Guinea straw brooms and an e-mail address
suggestion, she started selling them on the to contact them. Orders start arriving from
Internet. In a second stage of this enterprise, different places, for instance, from Canada,
some artisans from other cities join, thus requesting 70,000 brooms. The hindrance to
developing a network which gets trained in overcome in this case was to have the dif-
the manufacturing of these products, how to ferent families sharing the best of their own
deliver them, how to keep the records, mar- knowledge to manufacture, all together, a
keting techniques, etc. The access to the Net uniform and good quality product to satisfy
is made from public centers located at pub- the shipments.
lic cabins.
The web page of this experience is: Low-complexity technologies (an ad on
www.tortasperu.com.pe the Web and an e-mail address) that made
Let's see, in their own words, what Tortas possible to give a fresh impetus to the
Perú's team (year 2000) has learned: trade. Technology worked its magic, the
• It is possible to create an electronic human group tried to overcome the obsta-
company in our country, even with sim- cle… there was growth.
ple products like pies.
• Pastry manufacturing can also be cou-
pled with children care and the use of Third case: a Chilean town (Lota), whose
Internet, without leaving our home. main -and, virtually, the only- activity, was
• For the population of developing mining. When the coalmines were closed
countries, this is an opportunity to use (1997), work sources disappeared. The
our imagination and creativity to create marches to the capital claiming for a solu-
jobs and income sources. tion become more and more frequent, thus
creating violent scenes. This situation con-
Medium-complexity technology (a web tinued for more than one year. When the
page with an electronic cart), which com- main state bank was considering the place
plements a personal micro-enterprise not to establish its contact center, the political
related to ICTs, and can also grow by the decision was… to establish it in the town
entrance of new entrepreneurs. ICTs make that was present in the pages of the nation-
their part, the human group overcomes the al press almost every day, because almost
obstacles and there is growth and work. each day it has no work to do. The contact
center was opened in 2001.
After three years of operation, when evalu-
Second case: a little town in the northern ating the impact of the contact center, the
region of Argentina, whose traditional trade Teleoperators acknowledged the training
was the manufacturing brooms made of and the learning experience, the job

97
Part I. LATIN AMERICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

ANGÉLICA ABDALLAH stability and the prestige related to being With these cases, we tried to give examples
President, Argentine working in that company; the teleoperator's of how technology can be applied to work.
Telework Association
aabdallah@aat-ar.org relatives could not deny the socioeconomic In these new work methods, we include the
improvement and the improvements intro- web page designer, who works as a free-
duced in the families' dynamics; the bank lancer in a little town and offers his work to
recognized the city as an excellent platform other towns in the country or abroad; the
for an efficient business (qualified person- artisan -rather, an organization of artisans-
nel, low cost, and access to technology); the who offer their products directly from a web
community admitted the decrease in the page that includes catalogs, prices, packag-
unemployment of the city (especially, ing, delivery routes, different payment
youngsters and women), the impact on con- methods… in other words, a “virtual win-
sumption, the contact center as the “sym- dow” that enables the community to retain
bol” of a new reconversion plan (utilities, in its territory all the value generated by
technology, a modern building, support to those activities.
national government).
We also include the “training” centers,
High-complexity new technologies (a which offer their services through the Inter-
state-of-the-art contact center), which net. And of course, we cannot forget about
enabled the city revitalization. The ICTs the “virtual” organizations, which do not
made their work, all social player joined require that their members should be locat-
forces. In view of this temporary pushing ed in large urban centers and close one
situation, decisions had to be made by the another; conversely, they make it possible
government, the key player in such kind for any team member to work from his or
of proposals. her location. A virtual organization that
may provide services to farmers of different
communities, offering information about
TELEWORK, NEW WORK METHODS AND prices, climate, tools, leads; an organization
LOCAL DEVELOPMENT... that may link the different players of each
community, and gathers their stories and
In the three cases mentioned before, tech- traditions to share them with the rest of the
nology has very much to do. In the first community and the world through the
case, we remark the “appropriation”; not Internet.
only the access but also the “know how to
do” through the ICTs. In the second case, In all this work, there is also a very important
technology is applied to the revitalization of added value: leads, income, reinvestment,
the typical trade of a community and, at the growth, innovation. Everything moves, cir-
same time the confirmation that it does not culates, grows, strengthens, is generated and
necessarily destroy work sources. In the regenerated in the place where the story
third case, technology is used to build syn- begins -in the local community.
ergy, make arrangements, and add political
efforts to make possible the development of This is our vision on the possibilities of the
a less favored territory. new information and communication tech-
nologies, and on the factors that should be
When we speak about ICTs, we speak about also present to obtain better results. And
a process, social and institutional transfor- this is what we try to implement from the
mations. This is something that primarily ATA in the RUTEL Telecenters (Free Telecen-
represents a great opportunity for develop- ters - UNESCO Network) that we have
ment, to become part of a “globalized” opened in Buenos Aires; two Telecenters, in
world, which we should continue building, which different social groups work in the
with the greatest equity and respecting rebuilding of ICTs capabilities by using free
“diversity”. software.

98
Part I.
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

Apart from the skills acquired in the use and community's willingness and motivation,
application of ICTs, those who participate in and their members' desire to grow. There are
the activities of these telecenter develop always alternatives to start. The most
other kind of competencies related to col- important thing is to be aware of the oppor-
laboration, teamwork, practical application, tunity we have. And many of us must also
commitment, research, etc. be aware about our role in the development
of knowledge, skills, competences, and atti-
Our experience is only a small sample of the tudes. We should work for a real “appropri-
variety of options that we can develop hand ation” of the ICTs, a real building of capa-
in hand with ICTs. In many cases, those bilities, knowing what to use, how to use,
options depend on who has the responsibil- what for…
ity to make the political decision, on the „

99
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

KUWAIT
ICT IN HEALTH AND EDUCATION
IN KUWAIT

HAMEED AL-QAHERI 1. ICT IN EDUCATION 1.1.3 Teacher Training: International Com-


MAGDY EL-HUSSAINY puter Driving License
Kuwait University, 1.1 ICT in K-12
Kuwait
9000 Teachers out of 35,000 (25%) are ICDL
REGIONAL CENTER Total Numbers of Computers in Ministry of certified and the rest are following, MOE
FOR DEVELOPMENT OF Education 31,214 PCs connected within expects all teachers to be certified by year
EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE. LANs and all are WAN connected via the 2007.
ReDSOFT® Ministry CLOUD, with approximately cost
41.4 Million dollars. 1.2 e-Learning and Distance Learning at
Kuwait University
1.1.1 PCs Distribution
1.2.1 Infrastructure
• Cisco Model Network.
• Clusters of Alpha Servers.
• 1 Gbits Fiber Optic Connecting the 6
Campuses (to the Buildings).
• UTP within the Buildings.
• 18 Mbits Internet Access
within each Campus.

1.2.2 Applications
• Portal-Based, Fully
• Automated Student Information
System (SIS).
1.1.2 Ministry of Education Network • Oracle Finance and HR Systems.

100
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

2. ICT IN HEALTH CARE MINISTRY OF HEALTH: HEALTHNET

2.1 Ministry of Health: HealthNet 2.3.2. Staff Training


• During the Period of 2001-2004
• Over 1000 Trainings Courses were
conducted.
• Over 11000 Users (Doctors, Pharma-
cists, Nurses and Staff) were trained._

2.2 HealtNet Main Features and Objec-


tives.

Kuwait Health Care System (Health under


implementation.Net) is partly implemented
and partly

2.3 The objectives of the Health Net are:


• Single Patient View via Unified Patient
Index.
• Improve clinical practices and Provide
Better Service.
• Self-service options to access standard
services for patients and physicians.
• Inline with Kuwait eGov Initiatives.
• Reduce Service and Administrative
costs.

2.3.1. Primary HealthCare System (PHS) „


• Unified Electronic Patient File.
• PHS in 80 Clinics consisting of the fol-
lowing stations:
• Reception.
• The Attending Doctor.
• Pharmacy.
• Nursing.

101
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

THE JORDAN EDUCATION


INITIATIVE -JEI

JEI defines partnerships mize the effectiveness of this partnership


ANDREAS COX
Program Manager
depends on you - the partners of the JEI.
ACHIEVING OUR VISION The answers you provide must quantitative-
MAJIED QASEM
Program Director
ly and qualitatively enhance the ability of
An opportunity of this kind is now emerg- the public and private sectors to work
ing in the Jordan Education Initiative (JEI), together in a concert of effective synergy.
born in the vision of His Majesty King
Abdullah II and endorsed by the World Eco- The challenge is threefold. First, we must
nomic Forum, whose members are con- arrive at a shared understanding of the
tributing to the enrichment, strengthening exceptional experiment called the JEI. Sec-
and deepening of this initiative. ond, we must channel our collective inter-
est, wisdom, commitment and energy to
In fact, so powerful is the capture of the JEI define the most effective ways to rapidly
that to date no less than 17 global corpora- enable the JEI to live, grow and realize that
tions, 17 Jordanian entities, and 11 govern- unique vision. Third, we must reach depth
mental and non-governmental organiza- within - challenging our own assumptions
tions are working together to achieve the about what it is we offer to the experiment-
JEI objectives with the Government of Jor- in order to provide those critical elements
dan. Direct contributions to the initiative and resources essential to the future success
from global and local partners have reached of the Jordan Education Initiative.
over US$10 million. These, coupled with the
Government of Jordan’s in-kind contribu- OBJECTIVES
tion of over US$3 million, are being innov-
atively channeled to advance this public 1. Improve the development and the deliv-
private partnership model for effectives and ery of education to Jordan’s citizens
advanced learning development. through public-private partnerships, and in
the process help the government of Jordan
The JEI is in many ways a bold experiment achieve its vision for education as a catalyst
-on the one hand the experiment must hold for social and economic development.
firm to the four “pillars” or objectives of the 2. Encourage the development of an effi-
initiative. On the other hand, the experi- cient public-private model for the accelera-
ment, of necessity and from an impending tion of educational reforms in developing
sense of urgency to take advantage of this countries based on unleashing the innova-
rare opportunity, must actively and aggres- tion of teachers and students through the
sively facilitate the rapid generation and effective use of ICT.
application of innovation -in part through 3. Build capacity of the local information
untested partnerships and unique and technology industry for the development of
untried approaches to defining and over- innovative learning solutions in partnership
coming challenges. In many respects, the with world class firms, creating economic
JEI is both the “keeper” of an exceptional value that will lead to mutually beneficial
vision as well as being the “enabler” of that business opportunities.
vision. 4. Leverage an environment of national
commitment and corporate citizenship to
The two hands of the experiment must work build a model of reform that can be export-
together if the JEI is to achieve the success ed to and replicated in other countries. „
that many are envisioning. How we maxi-

102
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

EGYPT
ICT FOR THE TAHA HUSSEIN
LIBRARY BLIND AND VISUALLY-
IMPAIRED AT THE BIBLIOTHECA
ALEXANDRINA

SOHAIR F. WASTAWY Within the Taha Hussein (TH) Library for THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICA-
Chief Librarian Library the Blind and Visually Impaired, a special- TION TECHNOLOGY PRESENCE
of Alexandria, Egypt
ized library in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina
(BA), there has always been a strong pres- The ICT infrastructure in the TH library can
ence of Information and Communication be divided into two groups, hardware and
Technology (ICT). Unfortunately, Egypt has software:
over three million Egyptians who are blind
or visually impaired, a large heterogeneous Hardware: The TH Library contains 10 per-
group, that mostly fell on the wrong side of sonal computers, 10 scanners, 3 Braille
the digital divide up until the TH Library. printers, 2 Braille displays, 1 Braille key-
Now, through the multiple resources, assis- board and 2 CCTV (closed circuit televi-
tive technology and trained librarian, TH sion).
users can independently read for pleasure,
education, lifelong learning, career Software: All software assistive technolo-
advancements, and an overall improve- gy (AT) support all standard windows
ment in their quality of life. applications and internet explorer with
special features such as links lists, frames
The BA's TH library after 2 years of its lists, forms mode, reading HTML tables and
inception, a grand total of 97 users have graphic labels.
completed training on the proper use of the • JAWS (Job Access With Speech)
available assistive technology. TH member- transforms digital text to speech, sup-
ships, in 2005, reached a total of 221 mem- porting almost all European languages.
berships, and library non-member visitors JAWS also includes a unique scripting
reached 12,055 visitors a year. The TH language for further customization
Library provides a variety of services to with non standard windows applica-
their users, such as the ability of trans- tions and proprietary software.
forming text into Braille or speech, digital • Sakhr Text To Speech (TTS) converts
texts to be read with synthetic speech, any Arabic/English digital text to
enlargement software and a Braille display. speech, with a larger focus on an Ara-
Moreover, the TH library offers a number bic TTS engine that can match the
of resources, including periodicals, study quality of the human voice.
materials, brochures, reference materials • The Diacritizer engine inserts the
and books, all cataloged by title and author diacritics needed in Arabic texts auto-
and available for search on the BA Catalog. matically, in order to insure all texts
are as clear and accurate as possible.
• Ibsar is a technology based on the
Sakhr TTS and Sakhr Optical Character
Recognition engines. Ibsar enables
blind users to read printed books and
documents as well as electronic files on
their own, without assistance. Not only

103
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

SOHAIR F. WASTAWY does Ibsar enable users to read, but it this library, 72% reported that as a result of
Chief Librarian Library also enables them to write texts in both the training they could use it unassisted
of Alexandria, Egypt
Arabic and English, in addition to sav- once it had been set up to suit their needs,
ing and printing these texts in Braille. 12% could use it unassisted, and could
• Kurzweil 1000 (Scan, Read and Write adjust it themselves to suit their needs, 4%
Software) includes a powerful scanner, required occasional help because it was not
writing and editing tools, study tools, well suited for their needs, and 12%
online information search, low vision required frequent help because it was not
features, audio file creation and a well suited for their needs.
Kurzweil virtual printer.
• The TH Library also offers music soft- When asked about the purposes AT is serv-
ware which scans music notes, editing ing, 72% reported that they use the tech-
and printing them into Braille. nology to study and research, 68% for
finding information, 48% in leisure read-
ing and only 20% use word processing.
THE TH TRAINING PROGRAM
As the library offers a great number of e-
The TH Training program includes a brief resources, participants were also asked
introduction to computers and the assistive about the frequency of using such
technology, including mastering computer resources. The results showed that 60%
keyboards and typing rules using Ibsar could use e-resources unassisted, once it
software; an introduction to the windows had been set up to suit their needs, 8%
environment (desktop icons and compo- could use it unassisted, and could adjust it
nents, start menu, etc.); use of the Paper themselves to suit their needs, 24%
Reader Program; Web browsing; searching required occasional help because it was not
the library catalog; and use of the Screen well suited for their needs, and 8% required
Readers. The training duration is eight frequent help. Regarding the use of the
weeks, held for five groups of five people Internet, the 64% of these patrons reported
each. listening to music and movies most, 60%
TH users that have received training in the browse & search for specific information,
past were surveyed in order to measure the 20% use Email, 8% search for information
assistive technology educational and on visual impairment, and 4% use it for
research impact, the overall training pro- chat.
gram, and the social and personal impact.
Of the 44% who are totally blind and 52% As for the efficiency and effectiveness of
who have low vision, it was found out that the training program on assistive technol-
64% don't have computers in their homes ogy, 80% had no prior experience using
and 68% of them do not have access to the assistive technology; 88% use the assistive
internet. Survey results also showed that technology available at the library; 96%
80% stated they come on a daily basis, 8% use PCs most frequently; and 61% of TH
twice a week, 4% on a weekly basis, 4% members who received training said that it
every two weeks, 4% occasionally. The use was very useful, 11% think it was good,
of ICT for the blind is not much different 11% think it was mediocre and 11% think
than their sighted counterparts, for exam- it may need some adjustments.
ple 80% of TH members use the library to
surf the internet, 68% to read, 60% to It was clear from the survey results that
study, 40% to conduct research, and 12% after attending the training program, users
to visit the library and meet friends. began doing other things such as general
browsing, exploring the web, and using
When the survey participants were asked search engines to find information, rather
about the ease of use for the AT used in than using the internet exclusively to for

104
Part II. ARAB STATES
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

personal entertainment such as listening to and spoke of the current barriers and limi-
music. Through the training program, TH tations and the need to expanding the size
users are developing many information lit- of the TH Library, upgrade and acquire new
eracy skills, developing recognition of need computer software and hardware, and the
for information, an ability to locate infor- need to examine innovative approaches to
mation (using search engines), and evalu- create the next generation of library serv-
ating, using and sharing the information. ices to this special group of users especial-
ly children and youth.
The presentation offered some interpreta- „
tion of the above mentioned survey results,

105
Part III. AFRICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

TANZANIA
DEVELOPING ICT SKILLS AND TOOLS FOR
EMPOWERMENT FOCUSING ON YOUNGSTERS,
WOMEN AND REFUGEES, THROUGH
THE ONEVILLAGE RURAL COMMUNITY
TELECENTRE (SANAWARI, ARUSHA)

TITUS TOSSY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ABOUT ARUMERU AND ARUSHA


http://www.kukaye.tk; DISTRICTS
tmtossy@yahoo.com
The project took almost 8 years to become
true through his dedication and efforts for The district has a population of 799,526
harnessing the potential of ICTs for commu- (with 392,180 and 407,346 men and women
nity development. In 2002 the community respectively). The main economic activities
Telecentre was officially opened with 4 old are farming, livestock keeping and trading.
personal computers. More than 75% of people are living in rural
The project has trained 167 people (47 areas, for which more than 47% are women
women, 52 youngsters and the rest are and youngsters. Internet connection is very
men), serving two districts (Arumeru and expensive here (for ours I have lined a wire
Arusha District) with a population of 4 km with more than 5 hubs between)
799,526 (among whom 392,180 are male
and 407,346 are female). The project has
managed to reduce the economic and digi- SERVICE OFFERED
tal gap between marginalized groups, rural
and urban, through embracing ICTs as a The following are the services being offered
means of providing internet access and edu- by this Telecentre: compu-ter Training
cation for community development. (more than 67 women and youngsters has
been trained), Secretarial services, IT Con-
sultancy and Internet and Emails. We plan
TELECENTRE ESTABLISHMENT to establish the following services if we will
have funding from self-motivated people
In the year 2002, OneVillage Rural Commu- and groups: Photocopying (seeking photo-
nity Telecentre was officially lunched in copy machine), Scanning (seeking Scanner),
Arumeru District (for the purpose of serving CD Burning (seeking CD-Burner), Video
two districts, Arumeru and Arusha district) hire/ shooting/show (seeking video cameras,
under the personal initiative and sponsor- etc.), Fax and Telephone (seeking telephone
ship of T. Tossy, an orphan. The main Goal and fax machine, plus installation costs),
was to bring ICTs as an enabler of Commu- Conference room (seeking funds to hire big
nity development closer to hands of people building).
(especially rural areas and marginalized
groups) and let them exercise and use it. I
believe that “Educating a woman is educat- USERS OF TELECENTER
ing whole nation” has used this principle
and has materialized. Hence, all efforts has The users of the Telecentre are: children,
been put to educated and train a woman, youths, women and adults. But there is great
girls, refugees and marginalized groups to gap between men and women who have
use ICT for their development. Mr. Tossy is access to the center.
a strong woman Development activist with
great vision to serve his community.

106
Part III. AFRICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

TELECENTER MANAGEMENT typing their works and for communication,


It has accepted great attention from com-
The management of the Telecentre is well munity level and all are asking to train their
constructed which consists of: LSC-Commu- kids and family members, Received more
nity Level (such as Government representa- than 26 requests from different regions
tive, Farmers and livestock keepers, Busi- requesting us to establish similar projects
ness people, Academicians/ professionals, (emphasize to be managed by women).
Women groups) and PMC-National Level
(consisting Representative from respected
donors, LSC Chairperson & Project FACTORS LEAD TO SUCCESS
Founder/manager).
Some of the factors lead to success are:
Accountability/Good Management Team,
PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY Community Participation & women owner-
ship, Proper accounting systems, Good poli-
At the beginning the sustainability of the cies, Services should address community
project was very difficult due to internet cut needs, Use of volunteers from local commu-
off. As a result, founder to keep investing nity and international community, Easy
the funds from his pocket. But after few access to services, Good Customer Care.
months the sustainability is assured for run-
ning of the project and the workers are paid
WHAT NEXT?

CHALLENGES The founder through the established charity,


and through support from different people
Some of the challenges faced in implemen- and groups, expect to establish community
tation of this project are: Community Resis- Telecenters, much managed by women and
tance to Changes, Poor telecom infrastruc- youngsters, ICT Education for women and
ture (internet connection), Constant power youths, ICTs workshops and seminars for
cut off, Language barriers, Poor facilities I women, Training and conferences centers
have and in low quantity, Few computers and Establishment of ICT community Trust
while we have large population, Support Fund.
form the local and international level and
Small room and no conference room to
facilitate our training. IN CONCLUSION

I believe that “Educating a woman is Educa-


SUCCESS tion the whole Nation” and “It is not the
strongest species that survives or the most
We are proud that 78 youngsters out of 120 intelligent ones, but the ones that are most
trained has secured employment and the responsive to changes”.
rest has self-employment, 49 women out of The orphan believes that “Together we will
89 trained has secured employment and the reduce the digital divide” hence requests the
rest has self-employment and All of the men international and local aspirants to join him
secured employment, Many community through material and financial donations._
NGOs use our Telecentre for printing and „

107
Part III. AFRICA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

SOUTH AFRICA
COMPUTAINER HIV AWARENESS
TRAINING KIOSKS

MARK VAN DER MERWE Faced with the challenge of 5.2 million HIV With the kiosk training materials updated
Managing Director infected people and a population of 27 mil- every 6 months, subsequent years reinforce-
CompuTainer Pty Ltd,
South Africa lion in the age group of 15-49 years of age ment training is lowered to a maximum cost
it became very apparent that current meth- of only R10.00 ($1.60) per person due to the
ods of awareness such as peer education yearly maintenance fee of only R10,000
were facing a massive capacity issue in ($1,600).
South Africa. With approximately 250,000 CompuTainer has also recently released an
people a year facing peer education it would interactive CD version of the training for
still take us 109 years to educate the target organizations and companies that have PCs
group on HIV, AIDS, TB and Malaria. already. With this high quality content now
available on interactive CD we give the user
With this in mind CompuTainer set out two permission to run the CD at the offices and
years ago to develop a model that not only should they have access to PCs at home then
would give comprehensive education but the license extends to home use thereby
also incorporate a model that would provide doubling the return on investment in HIV,
employment at the same time. AIDS, TB and Malaria education. The CDs
are priced on volumes and range from R266
The CompuTainer HIV Awareness Training ($43) down to R12 ($2).
Kiosk is an innovative way to run mass
training on HIV, AIDS, TB and Malaria. Top- With monies allocated from training budg-
ics covered during the training include: ets, corporate responsibility funds and mar-
keting funds, the cost of implementing the
• What is HIV and AIDS CompuTainer HIV, AIDS, TB and Malaria
• How HIV Infects Awareness Training Kiosk and/or the Com-
• How HIV doesn't infect puTainer Interactive HIV, AIDS, TB and
• Sexually Transmitted Diseases Malaria Training CD, is affordable even to
• Condoms the smallest of companies in Africa. We
• Safer Relationships believe that the CompuTainer HIV Aware-
• HIV and AIDS and Nutrition ness Training Kiosk is simply the best way
• Antiretrovirals to begin your HIV and AIDS education pro-
• Tuberculosis grams in your company or community.
• Malaria Language releases are based on the follow-
ing schedule:
The interactive kiosks can be used to train English: Currently shipping
over 1,000 people a year at costs far less French : Release date 16th September 2005
than any provider can produce today. At a Portuguese: Release date end October 2005
maximum cost of R34,000 ($5,420) per Arabic - Release date mid December 2005
kiosk, deployed, supported and maintained For contact please use one of the following
in any geographic location within Southern methods. Telephone: +27-73-355-4191.
Africa, one can train in excess of 1,000 peo- E-mail - mark@computainer.com
ple for the cost of only R34.00 ($5.42) each. „

108
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

AFGHANISTAN
REACHING RURAL AFGHANS
WITH INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
BY SATELLITE

ABDULLAH FAIM STRENGTHENING RURAL GOVERNANCE BY villages, as well as other general educa-
Equal Access, Radio Danesh, ESTABLISHING A COMMUNITY LEVEL tional programs geared to family health,
National Solidarity Program
STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM women's programs, livelihoods and
business development, farm informa-
MUSTAFA BABAK Equal Access has been funded for this proj- tion, narcotics curtailment, and other
Technical Manager ect by UNAMA, DFID, and The United awareness-raising programming.
Equal Access, Radio Danesh,
National Solidarity Program Nations Foundation, initiated in July, 2004. • Provides education and training pro-
The project calls for distribution of satellite grams to villages for distribution to
radios, broadcasting on the Equal Access teachers, police, and other public offi-
channel of WorldSpace Satellite, to elected cials or organizations.
Community Development Councils of the
National Solidarity Program. The NSP is the
largest development initiative in IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES AND
Afghanistan, currently working with 7,000 CHALLENGES:
rural villages. This has presented significant
communications challenges for the Ministry The NSP is implemented by 22 International
of rural Rehabilitation and Development, as NGOs, and distribution of the equipment was
villages are in very remote places with accomplished through this network. The Equal
largely illiterate populations. The program Access model works with an interactive feed-
content: back loop that is best accomplished through
• Provides information about the NSP relationships with implementing partners.
that assists villagers in developing their „

109
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

EQUAL ACCESS SATELLITE RADIO


NATIONAL SOLIDARITY PROGRAM COMMUNICATIONS MODEL
FOR THE MINISTRY OF RURAL
REHABILITATION AND DEVELOPMENT (MRRD)

SATELLITE

MRRD Media / Program RECEIVERS


Equal Access Content

Program Production 7000 NSP Community Radio Stations


MRRD Media Unit Development Councils
listening group

SUB-GROUPS
CONTENT INPUT
TEAMS

110
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

INDIA
NAMMA DHWANI FROM THE PROGRAM
ICT IN THE HANDS OF POOR

ASHISH SEN INTRODUCTION lages visited Budhikote.


Director Voices 3) Community Ownership: In May 2002,
Located in the village of Budhikote in Kar- the relevance of the loudspeaker narrow-
SAVITHRI SUBRAMANIAN nataka, about 100 kilometers from Banga- cast was picked up by the local school. Pro-
UNESCO New Delhi Office lore, Namma Dhwani is a partnership grams made by the school children were
between the poor farmer community, NGOs cable cast into the senior class rooms. The
MYRADA and VOICES, and supported by community members recognized its poten-
UNESCO. It comprises a radio studio, with tial and articulated the need for household
an audio production centre where the local access to cable. Consequently, in March
community produces and cable casts their 2003 the first phase of cabling from the
own radio programs daily into the houses of audio centre into homes was put in place.
the village thought a local cable network. Programs comprise a mix of information
Complementing the cable initiative, com- and entertainment and include bus timings,
munity narrowcasting is regularly carried market prices, indigenous medicine, agricul-
out which reaches a cluster of 35 villages in ture, health and issues related to the pan-
the area. A telecenter featuring computers chayat Community management and own-
and other multi media tools enables web ership at Namma Dhwani is exemplified
browsing and computer skills learning. through its management committee who are
responsible for:
1) Supervising the running of the sta-
TIME LINE AND GROWTH tion - on a day to day basis, the station
is run by three studio managers with
1) Training and Sensitization: Between voluntary assistance from the village
April 2000 and September 2001, volunteers youth
from the community, selected by Self Help 2) Evaluating the programming.
Groups working in the area , were trained in 3) Recruiting volunteers, especially
radio programming and production, in col- women and girls.
laboration with AIR. Many of these pro-
grams were broadcast on AIR and narrow-
cast at community meetings. TECHNOLOGY -HARD-/SOFTWARE
2) Community Participation & Manage-
ment: In September 2001 the Namma Namma Dhwani represents a mixed media
Dhwani Audio production Centre was oper- model that combines audio, cable and com-
ationalized with UNESCO support. puter technologies. Radio programs are
Managed by the community, the centre pro- cablecast daily to houses in Budhikote using
duced audio programs on local issues such an eight channel mixer, cassette and CD
as agriculture, water problems and health decks, microphones and a computer for dig-
issues. The programs were narrowcast ital editing. People listen to the service
through tape play back as well as a loud- either through TV sets or specially modified
speaker narrowcast during the weekly mar- radios with a jack to plug in the cable.
ket day, when people from surrounding vil- Another connection takes the signal to the

111
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

high school about 1000 meters away where paid certificate courses in association with a
students listen to their own programs for computer institute in Bangarpet town situ-
two hours a week using a speaker which is ated some 16 km away.
positioned at the front of the class room Renting Equipment: The computer centre is
In three neighboring villages, loud-speaker popular for scanning and printing as well as
broadcasts that comprise a mix of local and recreational computer usage. Web browsing
live presentations take place daily using and e-mail usage are other mechanisms
speakers that are strategically located on which will be shortly used as income gener-
buildings or trees. These originate at the ating mechanisms.
local information resource centres. Internet Documentation work: Namma Dhwani is
connectivity remains fragile, although cell positioned as the Community Information
phone connectivity through a reliance cell Arm of the Jagruthi Resource Centre and
phone has enabled access to the Internet. three other resource centres facilitated by
Given this, offline internet activity is carried MYRADA. Audio documentation and equip-
out through websites that are copied in Ban- ment hire provides income generation to
galore. These are stored and delivered to the Namma Dhwani
centre using portable USB drives. Similar Community Fund: Namma Dhwani com-
content is also gleaned from a variety of CD munity fund has also been set up to which
based media. Local information that ranged the local community contributes. This will
from market prices to health and income gradually be refashioned to promote a
generation activities are packaged using MS membership model.
word, Powerpoint and Excel. Volunteers: Volunteers are critical in sus-
taining the life force of the station. In
Namma Dhwani, the management commit-
SUSTAINABILITY tee facilitates the process of building a vol-
unteer base. Each member of the committee
Training: Namma Dhwani has from its ensures that volunteers, especially women
inception aimed at developing training from their self help groups participate in
resources within the community to facilitate producing radio programs at the centre.
community participation, management and Currently, of the 28 volunteers who help, 13
ownership. Today this resource has actively are girls.
engaged in training other communities in
audio programming and production.
Training both in radio and loudspeaker pro- WINNING HEARTS AND MINDS
duction and narrowcasting is provided to
NGOs, CBOs and communities especially Since its inception, Namma Dhwani has
Dalits and People with disabilities. Groups linked itself closely with issues related to
who have trained with Namma Dhwani governance and development. Health, Edu-
include NGOs like the MS Swaminathan cation and Income Generation programs are
Foundation, Youth Democratic Forum, emphasized through the audio production
Green Foundation, National Institute of the centre.
Visually Challenged and ActionAid India These have enabled Namma Dhwani to link
partners. itself both with the local community and
Computer training is also provided at a other players in civil society including the
nominal fee and is generally taken by the government.
local youth in Budhikote and nearby vil- The School Audio program has been
lages. The courses cover computer basics approved by the Block Development Officer.
and MS Office. Modules on basic account- Its popularity has now resulted in the idea
ing for the Self Help Groups and use of being discussed in the other primary schools
regional fonts and softwares have now been in Budhikote.
added. Last year Namma Dhwani started There have been other areas where Namma

112
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

Dhwani has managed to touch both the had to fill a form which cost Rs 100. Namma
heart and the heads of the local communi- Dhwani found this to be a racket where
ties as well as the local government. The middlemen were making money. It cable
examples below reinforce the point. cast the correct information and the bubble
1. Namma Dhwani's monitoring and cable was burst.
casting of the recent gram panchayat elec- Health, income generation, culture and edu-
tions evoked considerable community par- cation are other popular programmes of
ticipation. It also reinforced transparency. A Namma Dhwani. The school audio initiative
local reporter, Nagraraj went to Bangarpet ensures that educational programs (many
with a mobile phone to monitor the count- made by the children) are cablecast regular-
ing of votes. He gave reports every fifteen ly to the nearby government school. Namma
minutes which reached the speaker phone Dhwani's program about indigenous medi-
placed in the radio station. A microphone cine is another popular program. Addressing
was placed near the phone and thus every minor ailments like cold, cough and fever, it
word Nagaraj spoke was cablecast. The has also strengthened the cause of indige-
reception was tremendous says Nagraj, nous medicine.
“people kept calling the Namma Dhwani About 1.5 km from Budikote lies the Dalit
Centre till three in the morning”. village of Ambedkar Colony which is con-
2. In June, 2003 Budhikote was grappling nected to Namma Dhwani by loudspeakers.
with drought. The water pipes had dried up It has low media penetration levels, low
and there was no water for eight days. knowledge levels about diseases like AIDS,
Despite protests from the local community Tuberculosis and low knowledge levels on
and promises from the authorities nothing information about their elected representa-
happened. Finally, Nagraj decided to record tives. Through loud speaker narrowcasts,
the sentiments of the community “Women Namma Dhwani provides awareness to the
complained and shouted into the mike and local community about these issues.
vented their anger at the village chief's
indifference.” The tape was played that
evening through the cable centre. The mes- CHALLENGE AHEAD
sage struck home, the pipes were repaired
and the water supply restored. While the current mix of cable and loud-
3. Another significant intervention was in speaker narrowcast have impacted the lives of
the area of disabilities. While subsidized the community, community radio, legislation
public transport was guaranteed for people would enable Namma Dhwani to go to scale
with disabilities, the community was and cover a cluster of villages in the region.
informed that in order to be eligible they „

113
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

CHINA
INITIAL EXPLORATION ON THE
TRANSITION OF RURAL DISTANCE
EDUCATION MEDIUM TO DIGITAL
APPROACH

ZENG YICHUN The China Agricultural Broadcast and Tele- School, 38 Provincial Schools, 330 Prefec-
President, Central Agricultural vision School (CABTS) were set up in 1980. ture Schools, 2,408 County Schools, and
Broadcasting and Television School
(CABTS), China CABTS' work in agricultural distance educa- 23,000 Township Teaching Stations. CABTS
tion is strongly supported by governments employs a total of 46,000 full and part-time
from national to local levels, and is enthu- staff. CABTS is now the largest agricultur-
siastically received by farmers and local al distance education system in the world,
leaders. CABTS operates in a cost-effective with annual enrolments of over one million
manner, reaching large numbers of students students.
across vast geographic areas in rural China.
The School is dedicated to serving rural CABTS offers five major types of education
areas, agriculture and farmers. CABTS pro- and training: short courses in applicable
vides education and training services to agricultural technology, Green Certificate
diverse audiences, including youth, grass- training, secondary diploma education, pro-
roots leaders, agricultural technicians, fessional certificate training, and college
women, ethnic minority group members, degree education.
and farmers ranging in education levels
from those who cannot read or write to At present, CABTS offers courses, covering
those working toward university degrees. most areas of agriculture under the cate-
gories of crop cultivation, livestock, eco-
CABTS is governed by a Leading Group nomics and management, agricultural engi-
whose members include the Ministry of neering, forestry, agri-ecology, rural home
Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Ministry economics etc.
of Finance, Ministry of Organization, State
Development Planning Commission, Min- CABTS teaches its students both through
istry of Personnel, Ministry of Social Secu- distance education media and face-to-face.
rity, State Family Planning Commission, Distance teaching is conducted through a
State Forestry Administration, State Admin- range of media, including radio, television,
istration of Radio and Television, China Sci- audio and videotapes, video compact discs
ence and Technology Association, Central (VCD), and print materials. The teaching
Committee of Democracy Development, programs of the CABTS are broadcasted reg-
China Youth League, All China Women's ularly by national television and radio net-
Federation, All China Association of Indus- works (China Central Radio Station and
try and Commerce, Poverty Alleviation and China Central TV Station). At the same time,
Development Office of the State Council and the teaching programs are broadcast by
the China Agriculture Association. This broadcasting stations and television stations
broad support for CABTS has strengthened at provincial, prefecture, and county level.
the leadership and coordination of agricul- Students may listen to and watch the pro-
tural education through broadcast and tele- grams and study written textbooks and sup-
vision. plementary materials at home. Or they can
CABTS functions through a five-level be organized by the county branch schools
administrative system having one Central or township teaching stations to listen to or

114
Part IV. ASIA
Chapter V. GDLN Interactive Participations

ZENG YICHUN watch teaching programs in tapes, video- CABTS Strategic Plan for Digital Deliv-
President, Central Agricultural tapes and VCD that are made and distrib- ery of Education for Agriculture and
Broadcasting and Television School
(CABTS), China uted by the Central School or provincial Rural Development.
schools. Face-to-face teaching at the local
level supplements distance teaching provid- • To conduct a staff training pro-
ed by higher levels in the CABTS system. grammes:
a) senior management
In recent years, CABTS started up its pilot b) managers and administrators on
projects in using digital means to deliver “Leading and Managing Distance educa-
distance education. It officially launched its tion for Agriculture and Rural Devel-
“China Rural Distance Education Network” opment in China”,
in 2000. c) instructional designers and produc-
tion technicians for Learning materials.
With the financial support of the govern- d) teaching and learning in a digital
ment, it started to build its satellite-based environment
distance education system in 2001, and at • To develop new teaching materials in
present there are over 60 receiving stations digital formats. The four subjects are
in the country and a live broadcast studio in selected as new instructional materials
Beijing. Another 300 receiving stations are for development:
under construction and be completed by the Integrated use of biogas
end of this year, which will cover most Home economics service provider
branch schools at prefecture level and some Non-pollution tomato production tech-
at county level. nologies
Non-pollution cucumber production
With the support of the Food and Agricul- technologies
ture Organization of the United Nations,
CABTS in 2002 initiated the project of The project also produced minority lan-
“Strengthening Distance Education in Agri- guage versions of the following materials.
culture and Rural Development Using Digi- High efficiency production of new and
tal Technologies. unique vegetables in sunshine greenhouse
(Uygur):
The specific objectives are: Pest management of pear trees (Uygur),
• To enhance the institutional capacity Cattle production (Kazak)
of CABTS to incorporate digital delivery Pest Management of Tomato (Tibetan).
methods in its provision of education
for agriculture and rural development; • To establish an online learning platform.
• To enable CABTS' staff to effectively
adopt new training methods for farmers The most effective approach to deliver train-
and other rural target audiences; ing resources to rural people is the “Blended
• To improve the institutional capacity learning model”, as such to prevent the new
of CABTS to meet the learning needs of educational technologies from creating barri-
farmers and other rural target audiences. ers to education for rural people.
„
The main outputs of the project are:
• To develop a strategic plan entitled

115
Chapter VI.
Synthesis
Chapter VI. Synthesis

REPORT ON
ICT FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING:
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS

ELIZABETH LONGWORTH A) DATE, PLACE AND ORGANIZERS other skills development. It gave particular
Director Division of Information attention to the special needs of marginal-
Society, UNESCO
1. The Conference "ICT for Capacity Build- ized groups in areas that are un reached by
ing: Critical Success Factors" was held at the traditional education systems but could
UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France, from be given access to new forms of education
11 to 13 May 2005. The Conference was rec- delivery through satellite technologies.
ognized as one of the "thematic meetings"
of the World Summit on the Information 5. The purpose of the Conference was to:
Society (WSIS).
• Identify prerequisites and success fac-
2. The Conference was organized by tors for capacity building using ICT;
UNESCO and the Club of Rome in relation to • Collect and disseminate testimonies
Chapters 4 "Capacity building" of the "Dec- and case studies from around the world
laration of Principles" and the "Plan of on how to make a quantitative leap in
Action" respectively, adopted by WSIS in development by using ICT;
December 2003 in Geneva, Switzerland, and • Give IT industry a platform to present
aimed in particular at contributing to the technology that is both appropriate to
Chapter 4, paragraph I I of the WSIS Action the development environment and meet
Plan stating that "Everyone should have the the needs of emerging markets.
necessary skills to benefit fully from the
Information Society. Therefore capacity
building and ICT literacy are essential. ICTs C) PARTICIPANTS
can contribute to achieving universal edu-
cation worldwide, through delivery of edu- 6. The meeting was attended by more than
cation and training of teachers, and offering 320 participants from over 70 countries.
improved conditions for lifelong learning, Links were established via satellite facilities
encompassing people that are outside the to twelve centres affiliated with the Global
formal education process, and improving Development Learning Network (GDLN) in
professional skills". Africa (Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania),
Asia (Afghanistan, China and India), Arab
3. The Conference was held under the Region (Egypt, Jordan and Kuwait) and
patronage of leaders and decision makers Latin America (Argentina, Brazil and Mexi-
from governments, international organiza- co). Entirely web cast, the Conference
tions, private sector and civil society. brought together local leaders, community
educators in learning, members of Perma-
nent Delegations of Member States to
B) PURPOSE OF THE CONFERENCE UNESCO, and representatives of IGOs, NGOs
and the private sector.
4. The Conference aimed at discussing the
use of information and communication
technology (ICT), including satellites, for D) STRUCTURE OF THE CONFERENCE
capacity building, and its key strategic role
for achieving the UN Millennium Develop- 7. Valdas Adamkus, President of Lithuania,
ment Goals (MDGs) and for building knowl- Janis Karklins, President of the World Sum-
edge societies. Its main focus was on new mit on the Information Society Preparatory
delivery methods of formal learning and Committee, Raoul Weiler, President of the

117
Chapter VI. Synthesis

Brussels-EU Chapter of the Club of Rome, “Content is no longer king community is


and Koïchiro Matsuura, Director ¬General of sovereign”
UNESCO addressed the Opening Ceremony. “What matters are people and communities,
process, not the products”
8. Four strategic sessions on "Policy making
and critical success factors", "Technology
partnerships for life long learning in devel- A) CONTEXT
oping countries", "Sustainable solutions for
capacity building" and "Low cost technology 12. Capacity building today is subject to a
solutions for capacity building" alternated variety of developments which can be sum-
with the presentation of case studies live marized by new literacies, new pedagogical
from Latin America, Arab States, Africa and paradigms, new forms of knowledge with an
Asia. strong emphasis on the education of teach-
ers as knowledge transmitters and the need
9. During the strategic sessions, develop- to "un¬learn":
ment experts, academics, and representa-
tives from industry, non governmental and • New literacies include technology liter-
intergovernmental organizations evaluated acy, information literacy and media liter-
the impact of the current investment in ICT acy and new forms of learning paths,
projects, debating the key issues of sustain- particularly of younger generations and
ability, impact monitoring and evaluation, their new forms of memory organization
infrastructure solutions, human capabilities, and information management, largely
appropriation of technologies and content driven by new technologies;
by local communities, and the social
dynamics of these projects. • The new pedagogical paradigms are
characterized by the phenomenon that
10. The conclusions of the conference were learning is a constructive process that
presented in final wrap up session by Eliza- increasingly takes place in non formal
beth Longworth, Director of UNESCO's institutions and in a dialogue. New flex-
Information Society Division, ible learning environments emerge which
largely cooperate with ICT and media
11. HRH Prince El Hassan bin Talal, Jordan, institutions while keeping educational
President of the Club of Rome (via autonomy;
video¬recording), Raoul Weiler, President of
the Brussels-EU Chapter of the Club of • Knowledge is increasingly transdisci-
Rome, and Abdul Waheed Khan, Assistant plinary and contextual, and needs to be
Director General for Communication and created through application ('learning by
Information, UNESCO addressed the closing doing'), thereby reflecting local/regional
ceremony of the Conference. realities;

• These developments result in an


CONCLUSIONS increased emphasis on teacher education,
which is conducive to improving the sta-
“We need to redesign learning around what is tus of teachers and strengthening profes-
effective rather what is convenient” sional education;
“It 's not .just about knowledge, but it is
about building communication spaces” • The new environment requires attitudes
“Vocational skills have a new value in ICT of "un learning" including de activating
world” obsolete practices and authoritarian
“We don't have 109Years to train people on approaches, which believe in absolute
prevention of HIV/AIDS” certainties.

118
Chapter VI. Synthesis

ELIZABETH LONGWORTH B) CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS V. Government support:


Director Division of Information
Society, UNESCO
13. Within this overall context, the Confer- Governments must be prepared to think
ence identified twelve factors that are criti- innovatively (e.g. broadband models, solar
cal for the success of projects in the area of energy, wireless, PDAs, mixed technologies),
ICT and capacity building: and identify as principal priorities the
development of basic infrastructure require-
I. Clear vision: ments such as energy supply and telecom-
munications using bundling demand models
Projects should take a humanistic approach, (e.g. satellite platforms) to be used for mul-
focusing on people rather than on technol- tiple applications and services.
ogy.
VI. Multi stakeholder partnerships:
II. Holistic and integrated approach:
Multi stakeholder partnerships based on
Projects should be aligned with national trust and a shared vision are essential to
and regional policy objectives to optimize create impact and to build scale so that
benefits. They should also take advantage of knowledge can be leveraged across the
economies of scale of sufficient conse- world. Networks should be built around the
quence to lower the costs of services and projects with active participation of private
technologies (e.g. bulk buy of bandwidth, sector for support and input into the reform
consortia approaches to similar initiatives, process.
learning objects repositories, one platform
combining applications to share capacities, VII. Flexibility to enable innovative solu-
education, public services, entertainment tions:
and business) while responding to the spe-
cific needs of local communities. Flexibility and innovation require changes
in attitudinal approaches and state of mind
III. Local ownership and community par- in order to able to meet the different levels
ticipation: of sophistication of the users.

Projects must involve local communities to VIII. The need of the appropriate technol-
get their commitment, build local entrepre- ogy environment
neurship and enhance local know how such
as on crafts. Volunteers and NGO communi- Innovative solutions need flexibility in the
ty should also be involved in projects to choice of technology and an open regulato-
bring their expertise in delivery of practical ry environment (e.g. open standards, facili-
activities and local knowledge and net- tating access to licenses and mixed technol-
works. ogy approaches). Technology solutions
should be easy to deploy and maintain ' and
IV. Develop not only skills but state of be upgraded continuously to develop skills
mind and attitude: and abilities to make use of more sophisti-
cated technologies.
Projects must create a dynamism among all
actors involved to develop imagination, IX. Localization:
motivation and the desire to be productive,
and to build a "culture of innovation" based Projects must be adapted to local communi-
on the familiar and friendly use of technol- ties and contextualized taking account of
ogy. The role of inspiring youth is essential local competencies (e.g. in terms of lan-
in building this cultural identity. guage), curricula and content should be
localized.

119
Chapter VI. Synthesis

X. Development of human capacities: XII. Sustainability:

Project methodology and approach should Projects must become integrated in the life
be geared towards building capacity, specif- of community to be sustainable. That
ically with the partner organizations aimed means that projects should:
at promoting local knowledge and skills
transfer. In this way a project should: • Identify key stakeholders in the com-
munity and ensure that they are
• Adopt continuous approach of the involved in the project as a way of
acquisition of skills where people are ensuring economic sustainability;
training themselves; • Deliver recognizable value and prove
• Train educators, including teachers; itself;
• Pay special attention to inclusive poli- • Work with a core group which multi-
cies involving women, youth and mar- plies;
ginalized groups; IGOs leave; and
• Ensure training in policy advocacy and • Ensure local counterpart teams so
coordination expertise; that the knowledge and skills stay
• Pay special attention to transfer experi- behind after the
ence and knowledge to young people; and • Offer bundling services and become a
• Understand the power of networks and hub for a range of community activi-
identify within the community “change ties;
agents” that can help implement the proj- • Have a high quality project manage-
ects, provide special training, support ment
teachers, and become a most reliable sup-
port of most powerful influence. XIII. Monitoring and evaluation

XI. Involvement of women: Projects should include monitoring and


evaluation mechanisms by identifying
The involvement of women is essential for intermediary and final outcomes that can
building trust in projects. Educating a be measured continuously even using ICT-
woman is also educating her family and the based tools.
families to come. „

120
Chapter VII.
Closing Address
Chapter VII. Closing Address

CLOSING MESSAGE

His Royal Highness Prince In spite of the higher standards of education As in the statement of the Club of Rome to
EL HASSAN BIN TALAL and globally networked information, I think the World Summit on Information Society
President of the Club of Rome the challenge that we face here today is how in Geneva 2003, we emphasized that emerg-
a growing number of people are protesting ing knowledge-society itself adds new chal-
the failure of our governance. I say this in lenges. And there are tremendous opportu-
the context of the Commission for Global- nities of course involved but enormous risks
ization and Democracy, the Helsinki Process as well. Advanced technologies, especially
with which I am directly associated. And I information and communication have creat-
would like to point out that global problems ed the infamous digital divide. The info-rich
of governance include poverty, social insta- are getting richer and the info-poor poorer.
bility, sanitation, water management, health The question is will these advanced tools for
care; a range of issues where degradation of development reach the poor and underpriv-
good governance means the degradation of ileged, or will they simply become another
our environment ,both human and physical. major factor in increasing the digital
And it is a paradox, I suppose, that the divide?
breakdown of communication also comes at
a time of advanced networking of commu- All too often, the troubling reality has been
nication skills. persistently a growing disparity between the
'haves' and 'have nots'. So many places
So let us ask ourselves a question as the seem to be floundering hopelessly and help-
world rallies with the UN's Millennium lessly between poverty and disease, violence
Development Goals. Is a conference like this and public failings. Again, the failure of
going to highlight truths about the reality governance, in spite of these competing pri-
and challenges that the world faces today? orities that urgently need to be addressed,
Can we summon a moral global commit- the importance of culture and human digni-
ment to bettering human conditions? In the ty that would ultimately generate better
words of Mahatma Ghandi: "if you want societies, is sidelined as a luxury.
something really important to be done, then
you must speak in terms of not only satisfy- I feel what is needed is not track one, gov-
ing reason but also moving the heart". The ernmental action, or track two, civil society,
appeal of reason or the passion of moving as we know there is nothing global about a
the heart brings to my mind inner net not global civil society, but possibly a track one
only internet but the inner understanding of and a half which makes UNESCO's partner-
man. ship with the Club of Rome so important.
We addressed this issue during our last
The information age as we know is fuelled meeting when we said culture should be
by two major components: information and given equal opportunity to the baskets of
communications technologies on the one security and economy. Culture should not
hand, globalization on the other. Both of be an after thought. The forces that threat-
which have dramatically affected societies en the breakdown of order usually stem
in both developing and developed countries. from a crisis in identity, hence the impor-
Technological advancement of communica- tance of the cultural crisis. Can we move
tion is undisputed, but has this potential towards a cultural participation? It is impor-
provided the participation for all in its tant to develop shared solutions across cul-
accessibility? tures, supra-culturally if you will to trans-
form the omnipresent culture of war to a

122
Chapter VII. Closing Address

culture of peace. To reconstruct education al civil society, supranational civil society.


psychologically.
In addition I would like to emphasize the
It seems to me that in these highly intercon- importance of working for something, not
nected and intercommunicative times we do only against anti-Semitism, against Islamo-
have a chance to enhance inter-cultural phobia, against discrimination, but for a
conversation, interactive conversa-tion, racial equality index, culturally for a Centre
where our mutual ability affects each others' for Mediterranean Humanities and I am
lives. delighted to announce that a centre of that
name has been announced only a few weeks
I feel that this positive impact, the role of ago as an extension of the Parliament of
the human element in development cannot Cultures that I discussed with my friend the
be divorced from the notion of investment late Yehudi Menuhin many years ago as I
in human capital via education. Apart from did with Walter Sisulu in South Africa.
being an effective change, education as a
value and as a passion provides a possible I feel that individuals of all races and faiths
bridge to a better world by enabling indi- have a right to developing an understanding
viduals to help themselves out of poverty of the other not only in the present but also
and ignorance. And in this context, I would in the context of literary texts, and for that
like to emphasize the importance not only matter it is important to develop the
of illiteracy but of all forms of illiteracy encounter of Mediterranean, Iberian and
including legal illiteracy as we create citi- Latin American cooperation.
zenship from the bottom up.
But I would like to remind you that events
The role of the media is crucial only in come and go. In 1978 we met in Buenos
alliance with the power of ideas. That Aires calling for the development of what
important marriage of the media and of aca- we then called a database of South-South
demia. It is in this context that I look for- cooperation. We met under the auspices of
ward in June of next year to hosting in Jor- UNDP and today we are no closer to devel-
dan the World Congress of Middle East oping a knowledge-based society. And I
Studies, the four networks for Middle East think that what is important in 2005, mark-
Studies in the western hemisphere and sub- ing as we do the 35th anniversary of the
sequently hosting the network of Middle Helsinki Final Act, that we are no longer
Eastern studies in the former Eastern bloc. closer to a vision of multilateral action; uni-
lateralism is still the order of the day.
And I feel that prejudices can be addressed
in the context of this positive alliance. I feel In a knowledge-based society, in a wisdom-
that the Socrates, Minerva and Erasmus pro- based society to which we aspire, I do
grams have addressed the subject of putting believe that sharing of information, sharing
yourself in the shoes of the other. And it is of knowledge and indeed interactively
in this context that I'm happy to announce developing international institutional struc-
MECA, Middle East Citizens' Assembly, tures or what we call capacity building, all
where last March we were able to host citi- of this has to be updated from the family to
zens from countries including Palestine, the concept of World Governance. It is this
Turkey, Iran, Azerbaijan and Israel attend- interaction which I seek to promote through
ing either as participants or as observers. this valuable discussion in Paris today, and
The aim of course of such civil society net- I thank you for giving me the opportunity to
working is to bridge divides and in addition address you on this topic. „
to encourage the emergence of transnation-

123
ANNEX I. SES GLOBAL ASTRA

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS

FERDINAND KAYSER
President and CEO SES ASTRA,
Member of the Executive Committee
SES GLOBAL

124
ANNEX I SATELLITE APPLICATIONS

SATELLITE APPLICATIONS

125
ANNEX II. STORYBOARD DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

CAN INDIA OVERCOME IT?

ASHOK JHUNJHUNWALA
TeNet Group, Indian Institute of
Technology, Madras-Chennai

126
ANNEX II. STORYBOARD DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

127
ANNEX II. STORYBOARD DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

ASHOK JHUNJHUNWALA
TeNet Group, Indian Institute of
Technology, Madras-Chennai

128
ANNEX III. THE US$ 100 LAPTOP

THE US$ 100 LAPTOP


FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE What is the $100 Laptop, really? commonly found in inexpensive DVD play-
The Media Lab Massachusetts The proposed $100 machine will be a Linux- ers, but that can also be used in black and
Institute of Technology based, full-color, full-screen laptop that will white, in bright sunlight, and at four times
The OLPC non-profit Association
use innovative power (including wind-up) the normal resolution—all at a cost of
and will be able to do most everything approximately $35.
except store huge amounts of data. These Second, we will get the fat out of the sys-
rugged laptops will be WiFi- and cell tems. Today's laptops have become obese.
phone-enabled, and have USB ports galore. Two-thirds of their software is used to man-
Its current specifications are: 500MHz, 1GB, age the other third, which mostly does the
1 Megapixel. same functions nine different ways.
Third, we will market the laptops in very
Why do children in developing large numbers (millions), directly to min-
nations need laptops? istries of education, which can distribute
Laptops are both a window and a tool: a them like textbooks.
window into the world and a tool with
which to think. They are a wonderful way Why is it important for each child
for all children to "learn learning" through to have a computer? What's wrong
independent interaction and exploration. with community-access centers?
One does not think of community pencils—
Why not a desktop computer, or— kids have their own. They are tools to think
even better—a recycled desktop with, sufficiently inexpensive to be used for
machine? work and play, drawing, writing, and math-
Desktops are cheaper, but mobility is impor- ematics. A computer can be the same, but
tant, especially with regard to taking the far more powerful. Furthermore, there are
computer home at night. Kids in the devel- many reasons it is important for a child to
oping world need the newest technology, "own" something—like a football, doll, or
especially really rugged hardware and inno- book—not the least of which being that
vative software. Recent work with schools these belongings will be well-maintained
in Maine has shown the huge value of using through love and care.
a laptop across all of one's studies, as well
as for play. Bringing the laptop home What about connectivity? Aren't
engages the family. In one Cambodian vil- telecommunications services
lage where we have been working, there is expensive in the developing world?
no electricity, thus the laptop is, among When these machines pop out of the box,
other things, the brightest light source in the they will make a mesh network of their own,
home. peer-to-peer. This is something initially
developed at MIT and the Media Lab. We are
Finally, regarding recyled machines: if we also exploring ways to connect them to the
estimate 100 million available used desk- backbone of the Internet at very low cost.
tops, and each one requires only one hour of
human attention to refurbish, reload, and What can a $1000 laptop do that
handle, that is forty-five thousand work the $100 version can't?
years. Thus, while we definitely encourage Not much. The plan is for the $100 Laptop
the recycling of used computers, it is not the to do almost everything. What it will not do
solution for One Laptop per Child. is store a massive amount of data.

How is it possible to get the cost How will these be marketed?


so low? The idea is to distribute the machines
First, by dramatically lowering the cost of through those ministries of education will-
the display. The first-generation machine ing to adopt a policy of "One Laptop per
may use a novel, dual-mode LCD display Child." Initial discussions have been held

129
ANNEX III. THE US$ 100 LAPTOP

NICHOLAS NEGROPONTE with China, Brazil, Thailand, and Egypt. non-profit association based on the "con-
The Media Lab Massachusetts
Additional countries will be selected for structionist" theories of learning pioneered
Institute of Technology
The OLPC non-profit Association beta testing. Initial orders will be limited to by Seymour Papert and later Alan Kay. It is
a minimum of one million units (with totally separate from MIT, with its own
appropriate financing). board, executives, location, and staff. Its
founding members are AMD, Brightstar,
When do you anticipate these lap- Google, News Corporation, and Red Hat, all
tops reaching the market? What do of whom have funded both OLPC and the
you see as the biggest hurdles? MIT Media Lab.
Our preliminary schedule is to have units
ready for shipment by the end of 2006 or OLPC is funding research at the Media Lab
early 2007. Manufacturing will begin when focused on developing the $100 Laptop.
5 to 10 million machines have been ordered
and paid for in advance. The three principals at MIT are faculty
members at the Media Lab: Nicholas Negro-
The biggest hurdle will be manufacturing ponte (a founder of the Lab), Joe Jacobson
100 million of anything. This is not just a (serial entrepreneur, co-founder and director
supply-chain problem, but also a design of E Ink), and Seymour Papert (one of the
problem. The scale is daunting, but I find world's leading theorists on child learning).
myself amazed at what some companies are
proposing to us. It feels as though at least Additional researchers include: Mike Bove,
half the problems are being solved by mere Mary Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay, Tod Machover,
resolve. Mitchel Resnick, and Ted Selker. „

How will this initiative be struc-


tured?
The $100 laptop is being developed by One
Laptop per Child (OLPC), an independent,

130
ANNEX III. THE US$ 100 LAPTOP

THE US$ 100 LAPTOP


DESIGN STUDIES

131
ANNEX III. THE US$ 100 LAPTOP

132
ACRONYMS
AT Assistive Technology
CABTS China Agricultural Broadcast and Television School
CAIS Credit Account Information Sharing
CDI Committee for Democracy in Information Technology
COR The Club of Rome
DCC Digital Community Center
DTH Direct-To-Home
EMEA Europe, Middle East and Africa
ESA European Space Agency
GDLN Global Development Learning Network
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GIRAFE Governance, Information, Risk assessment, Activities and services,
Financing and liquidity, Efficiency and profitability
ICDE International Council for Open and Distance Learning
ICT Information and Communication Technology(ies)
IDU In-Door Unit
IPR Intellectual Property Rights
ISEF Intel International Science and Engineering Fair
IT Information Technology
ITCRS Information Technologies and Citizens Rights Schools
JAWS Job Access With Speech
LAN Local Area Network
LLP Local Language Partnerships
MDG Millennium Declaration Goals
MFI Micro Finance Institutions
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MRRD Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NIH “Not-Invented-Here”
NOC Network Operation Center
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
OER Open Educational Resources
OLPC One Laptop Per Child
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PREPCOM Preparatory Committee of WSIS
PSTN Public Switched Communication Network
ROI Return On Investment
SATCOM Satellite communication
SME Small and Medium Enterprises
TFT Thin Film Transistor
TH Taha Hussein Library for the Blind and Visually Impaired
TTS Text To Speech
TVRO TV Receive-Only
UAE United Arab Emirates
UGC User Generated Content
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USP University of the South Pacific
VCD Video Compact Discs
VOIP Voice over Internet Protocol
WAN Wide Area Network
WSIS World Summit on the Information Society

133
ORGANIZED BY COPYRIGHT
The Club of Rome and UNESCO Copyright © 2005. UNESCO and The Club of Rome.
http://www.unesco.org All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of
http://www.clubofrome.org material in this publication for educational or other non-
commercial purposes are authorized without prior written
permission from the copyright holders provided the source
EDITORS: is fully acknowledged. Reproduction of material in this pub-
Raoul Weiler, Abdul Waheed Khan lication for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibit-
Roland A. Burger, Thomas Schauer ed without written permission by the copyright holders.

DISCLAIMER
The authors are the sole responsible for the choice and the
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: presentation of the facts contained in this publication and
THE CLUB OF ROME - EUROPEAN SUPPORT CENTRE for the opinions expressed there in, which are not necessar-
Tuchlauben 8/15 . A-1010 Vienna, Austria ily those of the organizations and do not commit them.
E-Mail: office.europe@clubofrome.at
http://esc.clubofrome.org/worldconference.html

PRODUCED AND PUBLISHED BY


NEMATRIX RESEARCH
BIC Tower . Via Siemens-Str.19 Avenue Louise 149/24
I-39100 Bolzano/Bozen B-1050 Brussels
Italy Belgium

E-Mail: infowsis2005@nematrix.com
http://www.nematrix.com

THEMATIC SITE ON DIGITAL DIVIDE:


http://www.digitalworld.org

GRAPHIC DESIGN
Blauhaus, Bolzano/Bozen

ISBN
ISBN 88-89813-00-8

ISBN 88-89813-00-8
90000>

THIS IS THE ELECTRONIC VERSION OF THE


9 788889 813003 PROCEEDINGS: PDF VERSION: File 200510240222