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LTE Resource Allocation Tool

LTE provides huge flexibility when it comes to allocation of downlink


and uplink resources on the air interface. The LTE resource allocation
tool supports you in your everyday LTE work and helps you to
understand some basic parameters related to scheduling and resource
allocation as defined in 3GPP specifications TS 36.211 to 36.213.

The tool consists of seven modules:

The modules "Resource Allocation Type 2 Downlink" and "Resource Allocation Type 2
Uplink" assist you in interpreting the important case of resource allocation type 2. Based
on the number of LTE resource blocks you want to allocate and the starting resource
block in the frequency domain, the resource indication value (RIV) is calculated (RB to
RIV). The RIV is used for signaling the resource allocation from the base station to the
terminal. The other way round also works: A given RIV can be converted to the
corresponding number of resource blocks and starting resource block (RIV to RB). The
resulting resource allocation is graphically displayed. Please note that localized resource
allocation is assumed for downlink.

The modules "Transport Block Size Downlink" and "Transport Block Size Uplink"
evaluate the transport block sizes and modulation and coding schemes (MCS) that can
be carried over a given resource allocation. Enter a combination of resource block
allocation size and MCS value, and the resulting transport block size, code rate and
modulation scheme will be displayed.

The module "Search Space" calculates the UE-specific search space for a given
combination of channel bandwidth, frame structure type, number of antennas, number
of symbols in PDCCH and the scaling factor Ng. For frame structure type TDD the
uplink-downlink configuration and subframe number are also required. A table will be
displayed showing the UE-specific search space for all aggregation levels, transmission
time intervals (TTI) and PDCCH candidates.

The module "UCI over PUSCH" calculates the impact of uplink control information
(UCI) on the code rate of the PUSCH. Based on the input of some parameters about the
PUSCH and the UCI configuration, the module calculates the effective code rate with
UCI as well as the separate code rates of the CQI and the HARQ Ack/Nack bits.

A brief explanation of some of the terms used is given below. For a detailed
explanation, please refer to www.rohde-schwarz.com/appnote/1MA111.
Resource block (RB): The basic LTE resource entity in the frequency domain is the
resource block of 180 kHz. One or more resource blocks can be allocated to a terminal
for data transmission and reception. LTE supports scalable bandwidths from 1.4 MHz
up to 20 MHz, corresponding to different numbers of resource blocks (6 up to 100) that
can be allocated at maximum.

Resource Allocation Type: For efficient signaling of the resource allocations from the
base station to the terminal, different resource allocation types are supported. In
resource allocation type 2, which is used in downlink and uplink, a starting resource
block and an allocated number of resource blocks are signaled to the terminal. In order
to save signaling bits on the downlink control channel (physical downlink control
channel, PDCCH), these two parameters are not explicitly signaled. Instead, a resource
indication value (RIV) is derived which is signaled in downlink control information on
PDCCH.

Transport block: Higher layer data packets are multiplexed onto transport blocks
which are delivered to LTE physical layer for transmission. Per LTE transmission time
interval of 1 ms, one transport block (or up to two in the case of MIMO spatial
multiplexing) can be transmitted.

Modulation and coding scheme (MCS): The MCS index (0 ... 31) is used by the base
station to signal to the terminal the modulation and coding scheme to use for receiving
or transmitting a certain transport block. Each MCS index stands for a certain
modulation order and transport block size index. The latter can be used to derive the
transport block size for a given resource block allocation.

Code rate: The code rate is defined as the ratio between the transport block size and the
total number of physical layer bits per subframe that are available for transmission of
that transport block. The code rate is an indication for the redundancy that has been
added due to the channel coding process. In the Transport Block Size modules, the
calculation of the code rate in downlink assumes SISO (single input single output)
operation and does not take into account the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) and
Synchronization Channels (P/S-SCH). For uplink, sounding reference signal (SRS)
overhead is not considered.
LTE Frame Structure and Resource Block
Architecture
LTE Frame Structure

The figure below shows the LTE frame structure under Time division mode (TDD)
Type 2 and Frequency Division mode (FDD) Type 1.

Main differences between the two modes are

 Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink in TDD)


 Frame 1 and frame 6 is always used as for synchronization in TDD
 Frame allocation for Uplink and Downlink is settable in TDD

The sampling rate in both LTE FDD and LTE TDD is the same and both technologies
operate under a 1-ms sub-frame (TTI Transmission Time Interval) and 0.5us timeslot
definition.

The first 3 configurations (0-2) for TDD can also be viewed as 5ms allocation due to
repetition. The figure below shows a detailed relationship between rates and frame
structure in LTE.

LTE Resource Block Architecture

The building block of LTE is a physical resource block (PRB) and all of the allocation
of LTE physical resource blocks (PRBs) is handled by a scheduling function at the
3GPP base station (eNodeB).

In summary,

 One frame is 10ms and it consists of 10 sub-frames


 One LTE subframe is 1ms and contains 2 slots
 One slot is 0.5ms in time domain and each 0.5ms assignment can contain N
resource blocks [6 < N < 110] depending on the bandwidth allocation and
resource availability.
 One resource block is 0.5ms and contains 12 subcarriers for each OFDM symbol
in frequency domain.
 There are 7 symbols (normal cyclic prefix) per time slot in the time domain or 6
symbols in long cyclic prefix for LTE.

LTE Resource element is the smallest unit of resource assignment and its relationship to
resource block is shown as below from both a timing and frequency perspective.

Reference Signal Structure

Reference signal is the “UMTS Pilot” equivalent and it is used by UE in LTE to predict
the likely coverage condition on offer for each of the eNodeB cell received. The figure
below shows the locations of the reference signal within each sub-frame when transmit
antennae are used by the cell.
As LTE is a MIMO based technology, it can have more than two transmit antennae and
in order to avoid reference signals from the same cell interfering with each other,
different antennae will be transmitting reference signal at different time and frequency
and how these are allocated are shown below.

As defined in the standard for LTE TDD operations, the channel-sounding mechanism
involves the UE’s transmitting a deterministic signal that can be used by the eNodeB to
estimate the UL channel from the UE.

If the LTE UL and LTE DL channels are properly calibrated, the eNodeB can then use
the UL channel as an estimate of the DL channel, due to channel reciprocity.

Article Topics :

resource block, reference signal, frequency, block architecture, cyclic prefix, division
mode, physical resource, frame