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o Philosopher is part of reality

PHILOSOPHY that he is investigating


o Penetrates social dimension
 Epochs
of human existence with the
o Ancient
immediacy of intuition
 Basic stuff
o Searching for meaning and
 Understand the universe
values
 Man is a part of nature
o Integrative to the meaning
 Totality
of living
 Cosmocentric
 DESCARTES
o Medieval
o Methodic doubt
 Handmaid of theology
 Findings that could not be doubted
 Man is a creation of God
so that knowledge can be based
 Contemplate God and his creation
there
 Theocentric
 You can’t doubt your own existence
o Modern
 Rationalism
 Reason- liberated from nature and
 Thinking not senses
faith
 No experiences
 Descartes, Kant
 A priori
 Systematized
 Empiricism
 Anthropocentric
 Senses
 Kant
 A posteriori
 Nomina (thing itself),
phenomena (senses)  Experience then know
 Scientific if:
 Could not be understood
because mind filters  Scientifically accepted by the
information community
 Information that could not be  Undergone experimentation
accessed (scientific method)
o Contemporary  Principle of sufficient reason
 Present mode and system of o Everything has a reason
philosophizing  What makes science a science
 SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIAL o Science
SCIENCES  Philosophy has reflection as a
 Both spring from experience method; science does not
o Borne from the craving to  Science’s method
understand reality o Statistics
 Makes reality into an object  Logic
 Examine a segment of social o Logic is a proposition
reality o It is a proposition about
 Measurements and statistics what is true (language)
 Limited to observable therefore, it is
phenomena o Something we agreed upon
 FOUNDATIONS OF PHILOSOPHY
 Can be traced from Socrates,
o Nature and Functions of Philosophy
Plato, and Aristotle
 Philosophy integrates itself and
 Philosophy
other disciplines to achieve a
 Integrative of experience
comprehensive and coherent world
view
 Philosophy analyzes the very o Sensible world
foundations of other disciplines  Elitist; stay where you are
 Analyzes and criticizes treasured o Eastern
beliefs and tradition  The truth is always beautiful nor
o Branches of Philosophy beautiful words the truth (Lao Tzu)
 Logic o Western
 the study of reasoning  The nominal definition of truth is the
 Is it correct? Is it rational? agreement of cognition with its
 Metaphysics object (Immanuel Kant)
 the nature of being, existence,  There are two ways to be fooled.one
and reality is to believe what isn’t true; the
 What is there? What is it like? other is to refuse to believe what is
 Epistemology true
 the theory of knowledge  There are no facts; only
 the investigation of what interpretations (Friedrich Nietzsche)
distinguishes justified belief  THEORIES OF THE TRUTH
from opinion o Correspondence
 Ethics  Something conforms to an idea
 Branch of knowledge that deals  Seeing rain means that it is raining
with morality and it aligns to the idea of rain
 What is right? o Coherence
 Aesthetics  One’s proposition conforms to
 Study of beauty another’s proposition
 What is beautiful?  Agreeable; can be proven in court
o Methods of Philosophizing  Stability of the story; undoubtable
 Reality o Pragmatic
 Practical or proven in practice
 Fact
 Empirical
o Is a piece of information
o Constructivist
having objective reality
 The truth is a perception of one’s
which is acknowledged by
truth
the greater whole
 Interpretation
 Truth
 Result of historical process
o Is a proposition believed to
o Consensus
be the absolute reality
 Everyone agrees on the proposition
 Opinion
 Mistakes during pre-midterm
o It is a judgement based on
o pre-Socratic philosopher who thought
personal convictions which
that everything came from water
may or may not be factual,
 Thales
truthful, or false. Regardless
o Story by Plato that shows the
of factuality, one’s opinion
complacency of people
can’t be free from another’s
 Allegory of the cave
opinion
o Filipino philosophers
o Plato (Idealist)
 “lundagin mo beybe”
 World of forms
 Fr. Roque Ferriols SJ
 We are destined to return to the
 Manuel B Dy Jr
world of forms
o Types of love
o The real world is only an
 Agape (Unconditional)
image of the world of forms
 Philia (Brotherly) o To exist is to coexist (esse
 Eros (Lust) est coesse)
 Estorge (Familial) o Participate in the fulfilment
 Existentialism of being through love, hate,
o Soren Kierkegaard etc.
 Father of existentialism  Jean Paul Sartre
 Man cannot be placed as “a cog in a o To exist is to be condemned
machine” to freedom
 Response to Hegelian dialectic o Face the consequences
o Thesis + o Existence precedes Essence
Antithesis=Synthesis  Maurice Merleau-Ponty
 Philosophy became the search for o Man is condemned to
the meaning of life meaning
 The truth is the search for meaning  Albert Camus
 What is the meaning of life o To live the absurdity of life
o 2 difficulties in existentialism  Freedom of Man
 The question of what is the meaning  Kierkegaard
of life is more important than the o Aesthetic (impulses), to
answer ethical (right thing), then to
 Existentialism is not so much of a take the leap of faith
philosophical system as a o Freedom varies
movement, an attitude, or a frame  Authentic experience
of mind o Authentic
o 2 camps  Living the life that you
 Theist want
 Atheist o Inauthentic
o Commonalities  Others control your life
 Philosophize from the standpoint of  Blame others
an actor rather than a spectator  Escape responsibility
 Philosophies of man o Search within
 Subjectivity o Subject is the giver or discoverer of
 Everything is for us meaning
 Man as situated o Values
 Man is limited by his situation or  Is that for which a person lives and
context dies for ground which human
 Kierkegaard activities revolve
o Existence is a religious  Phenomenology
activity (highest category) o Unity before analyzing this unity
 Martin Heidegger o Attempts to describe rather than to
o Man is a dasein (there explain (Husserl)
being) o Natural attitude
o Thrown into the world  Scientific or generalized attitude
(fallenness)  Singular judgement
 Karl Jaspers o Characteristics of phenomenology
o To exist is to be able to  Unity first or being faithful to the
transcend oneself from limit original experience
situations  It explicates, unfolds what is already
 Gabriel Marcel there
 Man’s being in the world with others  Nothing is universal other than
 Has a suspension of judgement power
o Important steps  Gilles Deleuze
 Epoche  Rhizome
 Bracketing o Connections are made
o Holding natural biases spontaneously
before investigating o There is no single truth
 Eidetic reduction  Jacques Derrida
o Eidos- essence  Deconstruction
o Reduce the experience to its o a critique of the relationship
essence between text and meaning
 Transcendental reduction  Analytic Tradition
o Reduce the object to the o Something is true if it is logical, precise,
very activity of my accurate
consciousness o Is the conviction that to some degree,
o Intentionality of consciousness problems are rooted in language
 Every conscious act intends o The solution is the sound analysis of
something language
 Consciousness is consciousness of o Ludwig Wittgenstein
something other than itself  Language is socially constructed
 Noesis and noema  Language games
 Subject of the object (noesis)  Social construct
 Object for the subject (noema) o Bertrand Russel
o Gabriel Marcel  Logician, founder of analytic
 Reflection is rooted in experience tradition
 Primary reflection o Jules Vuillemin
o Looks at the world, or object  Philosophy of science
as a problem, detached o GE Moore
from the self  Natural ethics
 Secondary reflection  The Spirit
o Refusal to accept the o Ancient (soul is the most important part)
primary reflection as final  Plato
 Post Modernism  Man is his soul
o Modernism = violence  Soul= essence of man’s
o Structure promotes violence humanity and the source of all
o Rejects, challenges or aims to supersede activity
modernity  The soul is the charioteer of the
o Reality cannot be known nor described two winged horses
objectively  Transcendence from this world
o Rationalism silences other rationalities is necessary
o Humans should arrive at the truth  The human body is unfortunate;
beyond the rational an imprisonment of a free and
o Post structuralists pure soul. Death sets the soul
 Michel Foucault free
 Relationship between power  Aristotle
and knowledge and how they  Man is the whole of his body and
are used as a form of social soul
control  Body and soul= matter and form
o Medieval (soul belongs to God’s o Primary and secondary
kingdom) reflection
 Augustine  Objectum=thrown in
 Man can be divided into body front (ob-jectum)
and soul  Body= “a body”
 The soul is more real and  Body (objective)=
important universal, anybody’s,
 The soul belongs to the city of nobody’s
God  Dangerous because it
 Man is not a soul but a soul is can be used as a means
part of man to an end
o Therefore, man is not man  Secondary= “my body”;
without a soul something that is
o Therefore, man is a unity of uniquely mine
body and soul  My body= “I have my
 Aquinas body” or “ I am my
 Man is not only a rational animal body”
but also an embodied spirit  “ I have my body”
 Soul of man =/= soul of an  I own my body
animal  It is I who should
 Man’s faculties (intellect and take care of my
will) which characterize man’s body
soul can exist without the body  I have control of my
but cannot operate without a body
body  Extension not just
 Body and soul form one the possession
substance; inherently united  “ I am my body”
 Essence of soul- to be one with  No gap between me
the body and my body
o Modern  My body is my
 Descartes expression of my
 Clear and distinct=God=perfect subjectivity
being therefore, it is not
 Man is independent of the body an object
 Man=res cogitans=thinking  Body is the
being=/=bodily being intermediary
 Latter part, there is unity of between the person
body and soul and the world
 Inquiry into the nature of the  The body in inter-
soul is complicated and cannot subjectivity
be discussed in philosophy  Value the body
 Marcel
 Aims to describe the experience
of the body as a lived body
 Descartes=objective body
 Primary datum= starting point
 Man= embodied spirit