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Systems Operation - Fundamentals


950G Series II Wheel Loader
Media Number -SEGV3012-00 Publication Date -01/07/2004 Date Updated -02/08/2004

i02130637

Power Shift Transmission


SMCS - 3030

Manual Transmission

Illustration 1 g01085657

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In a manual transmission, power is transferred through the gears on the shafts by sliding the gears so
the gears mesh. Power is transferred by using a collar to hold the driven gears to the shafts.
Combinations of levers, shafts, and/or cables control the shifting forks that physically move the gears
or the collars. In most cases, a flywheel clutch is used to interrupt the flow of power during the shift.

The power shift transmission is a train of gears that can be shifted without interrupting the flow of
power. Instead of physically sliding a gear or a collar, hydraulically activated clutches control the
flow of power. In a power shift transmission, the gears are constantly in mesh.

The major advantage of a power shift transmission is quicker response when the operator shifts from
one gear to another. This allows a quick change of speeds. Power shift transmissions may be shifted
under loads with no loss of productivity.

Illustration 2 g01085658

A hydraulic clutch consists of a clutch pack (discs and plates) and a clutch piston. The clutch is
engaged when pressurized oil pushes the clutch piston against the discs and plates. When the discs
and plates are pushed together, friction allows power to flow through them. Discs are connected to
one component. Plates are connected to another component. Power is transmitted from one of the
components through the clutch pack to the other component.

The power shift transmission uses internal oil pressure to engage hydraulic clutches. When the
operator selects a gear position, hydraulic oil engages the clutches that route power to the selected
gears. Each combination of clutches results in a different gear ratio and a different speed.

When a clutch is no longer needed, oil flow stops and the clutch is released. Spring force moves the
clutch piston away from the discs and the plates, this allows the held component to spin freely. Power
flow through that clutch stops.

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Illustration 3 g01085661

The gear train transfers the power from the engine through a train of gears to the drive wheels. The
most common types of power shift transmission gear trains are the countershaft transmission
(Illustration 3, right diagram) and the planetary transmission (left diagram).

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