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Strength prediction of a concrete

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and Temperature Measurements for concrete mixes with OPC

J. A. A. S. Jayasinghe1, A. I. G. K. Mataraarachchi2 and S. M. A. Nanayakkara3

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka

play a major role. For concretes with Ordinary Portland Cement, this is generally considered as 28-day

compressive strength since the strength gain thereafter is insignificant. However, in event of change of

materials, the ready-mixed concrete suppliers find it difficult to conduct trials for a new design and

verify 28-day compressive strength due to limited availability of time. Hence, developing a methodology

to estimate the expected mean compressive strength of concrete at a specified age using its early age

properties will be of great practical use. In this paper, a model has been developed to estimate the

compressive strength at specified ages of a given concrete mix with Ordinary Portland Cement, within a

maximum period of 3 days. Concrete compressive strength measurements at 3-day, and temperature

variation of a representative mortar specimen with time under known boundary conditions were used as

the model inputs. Based on the temperature measurements, heat of hydration curve for cements were

developed using a multi component finite element hydration model. The developed hydration model was

used to estimate the degree of hydration at the respective ages of compressive strength records and at

the specified age. The compressive strengths of the concrete mixes at the specified age were estimated

with the use of estimated degree of hydration and measured compressive strengths. The proposed

methodology was found to be satisfactory for the tested concrete mixes.

Temperature variation.

development of concrete is critical in designing the issue in various means. Elaty, (2018) has

of concrete structures due to variety of expressed the compressive strength

requirements. The strength at different ages of a development as a logarithmic curve. By

particular concrete mix may be required for the considering two points at the curve he claims to

decision making at critical stages if the develop the strength development curve. He

construction such as for the removal of also claims higher accuracy with predefined

formwork, for the verification of the strength parameters which can be calculated with

requirement to proceed the construction, for the statistical expressions based on previous

prestressing of a concrete member etc., the compressive strength data. Kabir et al. (2012)

understanding about the development of have established an empirical relationship

compressive strength is required. Also, in the between 7-day compressive strength data and

event of change of materials, the ready-mixed 28-day compressive strength data and claims

concrete suppliers find it difficult to conduct higher accuracy in his prediction model. Kheder

trials for a new design and verify 28-day et al. (2003) has conducted a multivariable

compressive strength due to limited availability regression analysis combining compressive

of time. Thus, this research is focused on strength of heat cured mortar cubes, ultrasonic

developing a model which can predict the pulse velocity of the cubes, density of the cubes

compressive strength development of a concrete and chemical composition of cement to predict

mix using early age strength data and heat of the compressive strength of cements.

hydration of cement. In this study the concrete Neelakanthan et al. (2013) have related 28-day

1

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

compressive strength to the compressive release up to the peak of the temperature history

strength of heat cured samples in a statistical with the 28-day compressive strengths and

approach. obtained a linear relationship. Schutter &

Some researchers have tried the maturity Taerive, (1996) have calculated the degree of

concept to predict the compressive strength. hydration using a model which considers

Maturity concept relates the combined effect of isothermal calorimeter readings. They have

temperature and the time to strength considered the ratios of the properties at a

development of concrete. Carino & Lew. particular age to ultimate value for degree of

(2001) have presented the relationship between hydration and the compressive strength, and

the compressive strength and the maturity observed a nonlinear relationship. Viviani et al,

which have been calculated using temperature (2008) have presented a concept named

monitoring. Benaicha et al. (2016) have also “Equivalency points” which is supposed to

presented a model to predict early age strength reflect degree of hydration. It requires

through maturity concept. Chengju, (1989) temperature and deformation monitoring for 72

claims that there are several acceptable hours and then uses maturity concept. With

approaches for calculation of maturity. calibration strength values within 72 hours age

According to them, the maturity concept is the model could predict compressive strength

useful in determining the early age strength development.

provided that already established reference

curves are available for the particular concrete, c. Research Gap

which can be seen as a disadvantage.

There are methods which have been developed Though the previous researchers claim higher

on theoretical approaches as well. Cervera et al. accuracy in predicting the strength

(2002) presents a comprehensive analytical development, some methods require complex

model which uses concepts of maturity and and expensive experiments. Some other

normalized chemical affinity. They have related methods are based purely on statistical analysis

the compressive strength directly proportional which may lack the logical approach. Some

to the degree of hydration. But this method approaches require acceleration of the chemical

requires extensive experimentations to reaction of cement in their predictions. Thus,

determine the model coefficients. Chidiac et al. this study focusses on the development of a

(2013) have developed a model to predict model to predict the compressive strength

28-day compressive strength of concrete development with early age measurements

consists with sub models to calculate degree of through a logical approach. As the model

cement hydration, average paste thickness, inputs, the 3-day compressive strength results

cement paste strength and 28-day bond of the concrete, temperature variation of a

strength. It requires a dataset for calibration. representative mortar due to heat of hydration

Heat or temperature measurements have been of cement, mix proportions of concrete and

considered as a basis of the models for some chemical composition of the cement were

researchers. Baran & Pichniarczyk, (2017) have considered.

measured the total heat release for different

cements at different ages and compared with 2 METHODOLOGY

the respective compressive strengths of

different cements and observed a linear Previous researchers have consistently

relationship. Bentz et al, (2012) have

emphasized the relationship between the

considered compressive strength of mortar with

measured cumulative heat release per volume development of compressive strength and the

of initial water for different cements, mix degree of hydration. Also, the relationship

proportions and ages and observed a linear between the 28-day compressive strength and

relationship. Boumiz et al, (1996) have the early age compressive strength has been

measured the heat release of cement pastes and proven to be significant by the previous

mortars using isothermal calorimeter and the researchers. Hence, a method which uses early

calculated degrees of hydration have been age compressive strength and degree of

compared with compressive strength and found hydration is considered in this study. The

to be having a linear relationship. Kszyaska, degree of hydration is calculated considering

(2002) has plotted the measured adiabatic heat the variation of temperature of a representative

release with compressive strength of concretes mortar due to heat of hydration of cement in a

and has observed an exponential relationship. known environmental conditions. Here the

Loan et al, (2007) have estimated the heat mortar fraction of the concrete mix under

2

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

consideration was tested to obtain temperature Table 2. XRD analysis for cements

variation. The mortar fraction subjected to

thermal monitoring is modeled in a finite Cement Batch a b c

element programme and hydration model C3S (%) 62.53 54.72 57.97

developed by Kishi & Maekawa, (1995) is used

C2S (%) 10.15 10.26 13.39

to develop the degree of hydration curve for the

particular mix. Then the relationship between C3A (%) 5.03 3.56 5.92

the compressive strength and the degree of C4AF (%) 12.03 13.53 11.91

hydration has been established statistically. In Gypsum (%) 2.61 1.04 2.06

order to predict the compressive strength at a

specified age, the data obtained with respect to

compressive strength at particular age and respectively. Table 3 shows the concrete mix

corresponding degree of hydration were used. proportions used in the study.

The proposed methodology is used to predict

some other data set for validation. The concrete cubes of

150mm×150mm×150mm were cast from each

3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME mix and compressive strengths were measured.

Table 4 shows the recorded values for

In this research 10 concrete mixes were used. compressive strengths.

Ordinary Portland cement produced by INSEE

cement Ruhuna Plant, Manufactured sand and The variation of temperature of the

crushed granite were used as raw materials. representative mortar mixes were recorded

Hypercrete Plus M by Millennium Concrete using a semi adiabatic calorimeter. The mortar

Technologies (Pvt) Ltd which is a used for the monitoring is identical as the

Polycarboxylic based superplasticizer was used mortar fraction of the tested concretes. The

as the admixture. Even if the cements were cylindrical moulds with a diameter of 3 inches

from the same source, cements from three and a height of 6 inches, made of PVC were

different batches were used. Chemical used un the calorimeter. The moulds were

composition of cement samples were surrounded by Extruded Polystyrene and the

determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) average thickness of the insulation was 10mm.

analysis and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) In all the cases the mortar mass tested was

analysis and results are shown in Table 1 and 2 1300g. The recorded temperature histories are

depicted in Figure 1. Those records were used

to determine the variation of degree of

Table 1. XRF analysis for cements hydration with time for 10 concrete mixes given

in Table 3.

Cement Batch a b c 4 HYDRATION MODEL

SiO2 (%) 19.45 17.42 19.66

Al2O3 (%) 4.74 4.44 5.09 The prediction methodology presented in this

Fe2O3 (%) 2.92 2.93 3.02

research is based on the degree of hydration of

the concrete. Temperature variation of the

CaO (%) 61.65 59.92 61.6 mortar fraction of the concrete is used to

MgO (%) 1.53 1.62 1.4 develop the variation of degree of hydration

K2O (%) 0.56 0.54 0.47 through a hydration model. The hydration

Na2O (%) 0 0.11 0.14

model developed by Kishi & Maekawa, (1995)

is adopted in this research. In this model,

SO3 (%) 2.29 2.59 2.94 hydration process of cement is modeled by

LOI (%) 3.19 3.55 3.14 considering the hydration of individual mineral

Sum (%) 96.32 93.11 97.46 components separately. The equations 1-3 are

LSF (%) 96.79 103.75 94.32

the basic equations used in the hydration model.

(Mataraarachchi et al. 2012, Mataraarachchi et

T-ALK (%) 0.37 0.48 0.46 al. 2015)

LOI – Loss of Ignition

LSF – Lime Saturation Factor

T-ALK – Total Alkalinity

3

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

Concrete No C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 CA CB

Used Cement label b b b b a c c c b c

Cement (kg/m3) 280 299 373 390 417 435 463 476 358 420

3

Water (kg/m ) 199 210 183 164 154 179 176 182 198 179

Fine Agg (kg/m3) 891 878 865 872 812 809 826 815 847 810

3

Coarse Agg (kg/m ) 1086 1069 1054 1063 1139 1075 1012 996 1035 1079

Admixture (ml/m3) 1121 1204 2988 3507 2522 4785 5536 5955 2515 4204

3

Density (kg/m ) 2456 2456 2474 2488 2522 2498 2479 2470 2437 2488

Slump (mm) 5 70 210 170 150 150 185 180 60 60

Concrete C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 CA CB

No

12.8 16.4 20.2 23.1 31.1 33.4 23.4 25.3

13.7 16.2 19.6 21.2 30.7 34.6 39.4 23.2 25.4

1 day 13.8 15.4 23.2

25.8 40.5 41.0 46.6 51.8

25.8 40.7 41.5 38.0 48.5 55.1

2 day

20.2 22.9 30.8 34.8 48.4 51.0 46.7 55.2 27.5 48.0

19.4 23.4 30.4 34.7 52.4 33.6 48.6

3 day 20.3 22.1 54.8 34.7

20.9 25.0 57.6 33.1

20.2 26.4 54.1 36.3

4 day 21.2 25.5 34.3

58.4

58.5

5 day 59.7

58.1

57.7

6 day 58.8

36.7 36.7 64.8 48.4 57.6 40.5

37.5 44.8 53.9 48.8

7 day 62.3

66.4

65.1

14 day 65.9

43.0 42.5 64.9 52.0 63.0 52.1

42.9 49.7 61.6 62.4 60.4 58.7

21 day 60.3

31.3 28.9 41.1 51.0 65.8 63.6 52.6 60.0 34.7 54.8

28.2 32.0 41.5 49.6 59.1 62.8 47.6 40.8 60.8

28 day 28.3 29.9 60.7 47.8

4

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

section is used in the finite element model.

Then the model was calibrated using a data set

corresponding to one concrete mix. The

calibration is mainly required to adjust the

delaying effect due to the admixtures.

Thereafter for other 9 concrete mixes the model

is used to develop the hydration model and

using the finite element model the temperature

variation is obtained and verified with the

experimental temperature variation (see Figure

2). The developed curves for the variation of

degree of hydration for the 10 concretes are

shown in Figure 3.

hydration and the compressive strength is

intended to be developed statistically in this

research. The relationship is assumed to be in

the following manner.

Figure 1. Recorded temperature histories

Hc = ∑ pi Hi (1) (4)

Here;

Hi = γ βi λ µ si Hi,T0 (Qi)exp{-Ei/R[1/T -1/T0]} CS(t) – Compressive strength at t days

(2) CS(28) – Compressive strength at 28 days

DoH(t) – Degree of hydration at t days

Qi = ʃ Hidt (3) DoH(28) – Degree of hydration at 28 days

f() – A function

Where,

Hi,T0 : Reference hear generation of ith Thus, the available data of the concretes labeled

mineral component per unit weight C1 to C8 is plotted according to the above

at constant temperature T0 (i=1 to 4 relationship and the resulted plot is presented in

corresponding to C3S, C2S, C3A Figure 4.

and C4AF)

Pi : Weight composition ratio

Qi : Accumulated heat Model Experimental

R : Gas constant 40

Ei/R : Thermal activity

Temperature (0C)

T0 : Reference temperature 35

T : Temperature

30

The above hydration model is combined with a

25

finite element analysis programme, ANSYS for

the thermal analysis. The element type 20

SOLID70 which is a three dimensional 0.0 12.0 24.0 36.0 48.0 60.0 72.0

isoperimetric eight node solid element is used Time (h)

to model the geometry of the experimental

setup. Due to the cuboidal geometry of the Figure 2. Example of comparison of model vs

elements, it was difficult to model the experiment for temperature variation (For CB)

cylindrical shape of the mould of the specimen.

5

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

0.9 70

0.8

y = 31.897ln(x) - 72.667

[CS(28)xDoH(t)]/DoH(28)

0.7 60

R² = 0.89

0.6

C1

0.5 50

DoH

C2

0.4

C3 40

0.3

0.2 C4

30

0.1 CA

0

20

0 7 14 21 28

Age (days)

10

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

0.9

CS(t) (N/mm2)

0.8

0.7

0.6 70

C5

0.5

DoH

C6 y = 11.371e0.0279x

0.4 60

R² = 0.89

C7

0.3

CS(t) (N/mm2) 50

0.2 C8

0.1 CB 40

0

0 7 14 21 28 30

Age (days)

20

10 20 30 40 50 60 70

(R2) of 0.89 it can be seen that the relationship

is sufficiently accurate to be used in a Figure 4. Plot of Equation (3) with

prediction model. Thus, the developed

statistical relationship can be used to predict the experimental data

compressive strength at any age if some known experimental strength values and the

compressive strength value at early age and the developed degree of hydration curves for the

thermal history are known. concretes labeled as A & B. The 3-day strength

values are used to predict the strength at later

6. VALIDATION OF THE MODEL stages. The inverse relationship given in second

graph of Figure 3 is used to predict the strength

The developed equation is used to predict the before 28 days. The percentage error is

compressive strengths at specified ages using a calculated compared with the measured

label Age DoH Strength Strength Error %

CA 3 day 0.7189 31.9

CA 28 day 0.8004 42.1 41.1 -1.0 -2.3

CB 3 day 0.7115 48.3

CB 21 day 0.7729 53.4 55.4 2.0 3.6

CB 28 day 0.7734 55.4 57.8 2.4 4.1

Mean 1.8 3.3

(all strength values are in N/mm2)

6

SOCIETY OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS, SRI LANKA - ANNUAL SESSIONS 2018

compressive strength values as given in Table Benaicha, M., Burtschell, Y. & Alaoui, A. H. 2016,

5. Prediction of compressive strength at early age of

concrete- Application of maturity, Journal of Building

The provision of average error is limited to 3.3 Engineering, Vol 6. Pp 119-125.

N/mm2 (1.8%) in the tested concretes indicating Chengju, G. 1989. Maturity of Concrete: Method of

Predicting Early- Stage Strength. ACI Materials

the satisfactory accuracy of the model.

Journal. Vol 86. No 4. Pp 341-353.

Cervera, M., Faria, R., Oliver, J & Prato, T. 2002.

7 CONCLUSION Numerical modelling of concrete curing, regarding

hydration and temperature phenomena. Computers

A methodology has been developed to estimate and Structures. Vol 80. Pp 1511-1521.

the compressive strength development using Chidiac. S. E., Mahomoodzadeh, F. & Moutassem, F.

early age compressive strength measurements 2013. Compressive strength model for concrete.

and the temperature history of a representative Magazine of Concrete Research. Vol 65. No 9. Pp

mortar sample of the concrete mix. The 557-572.

statistical model was developed between the Baran, T. & Pichniarczyk, P. 2017. Correlation factor

ratios of degree of hydration at a particular age between heat of hydration and compressive strength

over 28 days and the ratios of compressive of common cement. Construction and Building

strength at the corresponding age over 28 days. Materials. Vol 150. Pp 321-332.

Bentz, D. P., Barrett, T., Varga, I. D. L. & Weiss, W. J.

The model resulted in a coefficient of 2012. Relating compressivs strength to heat release in

determination of 0.89 implying the satisfactory mortars. Advances in Civil Engineering Materials.

predictability. Strength results of two concrete Vol 1. No 1. Pp 1-14.

mixes were used to validate the model and the Boumiz, A., Vernet, C. & Tenoudjit, F. C. 1996.

predicted strengths were found to be Mechanical properties of cement pastes and mortars at

satisfactory. It is necessary to use more strength early ages: Development with time and degree of

data to check the accuracy of the methodology. hydration. Advanced Cement Based Materials. Vol 3.

No 3-4. Pp 94-106.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Kaszynska, M. 2002. Early age properties of high-

strength/high-performance concrete. Cement and

Concrete Composites. Vol 24. Pp 253-261.

The authors wish to acknowledge the Loan, M., Radu, L. & Mandoiu, C. 2007. Software-

financial support provided by INSEE Cement enhanced method for rapid determination of the early

for this project. Help from all the laboratory heat of hydration of cement CEM II/A and B-S to

technical staff members is also predict the 28-day compressive strength. International

acknowledged. Proficiency Testing Conference. 11-13 October 2017.

Sinaia, Romania.

Schutter, G. D. & Taerwe, L. 1996. Degree of hydration-

REFERENCES based descriotion of mechanical properties of early

age concrete. Materials and Structures. Vol 29. Pp

Elaty, M. A. A. A. 2014. Compressive strength prediction 335-344.

of Portland cement concrete with age using a new Viviani, M., Glisic, B., Scrivener, K. L. & Smith, I. F. C.

model. Housing and Building National research 2008. Equivalency Points: Predicting concrete

Centre, Vol 10. No 2. Pp 145-155. compressive strength development in three days.

Kabir, A., Hasan, M & Miah, M. K. 2012. Predicting 28 Cement and Concrete Research. Vol 38. Pp 1070-

days compressive strength of concrete from 7 days 1078.

test result. International conference on advances in Kishi, T. & Maekawa, K. 1995. Multi-component model

design and construction of structures, Dhaka, for hydration heating of Portland cement. Proc. of

Bangladesh. Pp 18-22. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. V-29.

Kheder, G. F., Gabban, A. M. A & Abid, S. M. 2003. 10.2208/jscej.1995.526_97.

Mathematical model for the prediction of cement Mataraarachchi, A.I.G.K., Nanayakkara, 2012. S.M.A.

compressive strength at the ages of 7 and 28 days and Asamoto, S. Investigation of temperature rise due

within 24 hours. Materials and Structures. Vol. 36. Pp to heat of hydration of cement and annual temperature

693-701. variation related to control of thermal cracking in

Neelakanthan, T. R., Ramasundaram, S., Shanmugavel, concrete water retaining structures, Society of

R. & Vinoth, R. 2013. Prediction of 28-day structural engineers, Sri Lanka.

compressive strength of concrete from early strength Mataraarachchi, A.I.G.K., Sayanthan, R. & Nanayakkara,

and accelerated curing parameters. International S.M.A. 2015. An experimental investigation on

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Pp 1197-1201. International Conference on Structural Engineering

Carino, N. J. & Lew, H. S. 2001, The maturity method: and Construction Management 2015,Kandy, Sri

From theory to application. Structures Congress & Lanka, 11th-13th December 2015.

Exposition, Washington D.C, May 21-23, 2001, 19 p.

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Concrete Compressive strength prediction models.

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol 20. No 1. Pp

343-358.

Kahouadji, A., Clastres, P. & Debicki, G. 1997. Early-

age compressive strength prediction of concrete-

Application on a Construction Site. Construction and

Building Materials. Vol 11. No 7-8. Pp 431-436.

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