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1.

This is a double logarithmic plot based on the Archie Equation of a resistivity measurement on the
x-axis versus a porosity measurement on the y-axis. Water resistivities can be determinated from
lines drawn on this plot. What is this plot called? Pickett Plot
2. After plotting US discovery rates vs filed size, this man caused an uproar when he predicted US
oil production would peak in 1971. His famous curve missed it by a year. What is his last name?
Hubbert
3. Type of this stone generally composed by 58% silicon dioxide (SiO2), 15% alumunium oxide
(Al2O3), 6% iron oxide (FeO) dan Fe2O3, 2% magnesium oxide (MgO), 3% calcium oxide (CaO),
3% potasium oxide (K2), 1% sodium oxide (Na2), and 5% air (H2O). Which rich with clay
composition and low permeability. What kind of this stone : Shale stone
4. It is generally agreed that the pore spaces of reservoir rocks were originally filled with water, after
which oil moved into the reservoir, displacing some of the water and reducing the water to some
residual saturation. When discovered, the reservoir pore spaces are filled with 1. Connate water
saturation and 2. oil saturation
5. The tendency of one fluid to spread on or adhere to a solid surface in the presence of other
immiscible fluids is defined by wettability
6. What type of EOR injection to improve oil recovery with criteria oil gravity < 25 API, DEPTH
< 9000 ft, reservoir temp < 200 F and to reduce interfacial tension between fluid injection with
hydrocarbon surfactant flooding
7. Projection of geology condition along the line in one area at the vertical front from a stone which
the function are to know the stratification position from each stone and to know the track of
geology structure : sincline, anticline. Means for Quick Section
8. The minimum temperature at which a produce momentarily ignites, but doesnt burn continously.
Flash Point
9. A device for the bottom-hole separation of oil and gas in a pumping well. It serves to prevent GAS
LOCK by minimizing gas entry into the pump. Gas Anchor
10. The value of the shear stress required to cause permanent deformation of a colloidal suspension.
Gel Strength
11. Drilling wells between known producing wells to exploit the re-sources of a field to best
advantage. Infill Drilling
12. An additive used to retard undesirable chemical action in a product. It is added in small quantities
to gasolines to prevent oxidant and gum formation, to lubricating oils to stop colour change, and to
corrosive environment to decrease corrosive action. Inhibitor
13. What is Stand for INGAA Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. An association of gas
trnasmission companies, produers, and distibutors. Adress : 555 13th street NW, Suite 300-W;
Washington, DC 20004; (202) 626-3200
14. What is Stand for of IOGCC Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. A commission that
comprises governors of oil-producing states. It works cooperatively with the EPA to assist states
in improving regulatory programs. Adress : Box 53127; Oklahoma City, OK 73152-3127; (405)
525-3556.
15. The change in gas temperature that occurs when the gas is expanded adiabatically from a higher
pressure to a lower pressure. The effect for most gasses, except hydrogen and helium, is a cooling
of the gas. Joule – Thomson Effect.
16. A contract by which two or more co-owners of the operating rights in a tract of land join to share
the costs of exploration and possible development. Compare farmout. Join Operating agreement
17. A device made up on the bottom of the fishing string to catch and retrieve pieces of junk from the
bottom of the hole. Junk Basket
18. The depth in a vertical hole at which a deviated or slant hole is started; used in directional drilling.
Kickoff Point (KOP).
19. A device machined internally to receive the movable locking devices used to position. Lock and
seal subsurface production controls in tubing. This tool provides a seat at a known depth into
which various types of retrievable flow control equipment can be set. Landing Nipple
20. The northern part of the supercontinent Pangaea, comprising the future land masses of North
America, Greenland and Eurasia. Laurasia
21. To hoist the drill stem out of the wellbore to perform one of a number of operations, such as
changing bits or taking a core, and so forth, and then to return the drill stem to the well bore. Make
a trip
22. A metal device used to remove small droplets of moisture or condensable hydrocarbons from a gas
stream in an oil and gas separator. The small droplets of moisture collect on the metal surface to
form larger drops, which are removed from the separator along with oyher separated liquids. Mist
extractor
23. A well not in use because it was a dry hole originally, or because it has ceased to produce. Statues
and regulations in many states require the seepage of oil, gas, or water from one stratum of
underlying rock to another. Abandoned well
24. Pressure exceeding or falling below the pressure to be expected at a given depth. Normal pressure
increases approximately 0.465 pow1ds per square, inch per foot of depth or 10.5 kilopascals per
metre of depth. Thus, normal pressure at 1,000 feet is 465 pounds per square inch. Abnormal
pressure
25. A vessel or tank that receives and temporarily stores a liquid used in a continous process in a ga
plant. Accumulator
26. What is Stand for of AGA American Gas Association. A national trade association whose
members are US and Canadian distributors of natural, manufactured, and mixed gases. AGA
provides information on sales, finances, utilisation, and all phases of gas transmission and
distribution. Its official publications are AGA Monthly and Operating Section Proceedings.
Address : 1515 Wilson Boulevard; Arlington, VA 22209; (703) 841-8400; fax (703) 841-8406
27. What is Stand for of AIME American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum
Engineers. Parent group of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). Its official publication is the
Journal of Petroleum Technology. Address: 345 East 47th Street; New York, NY 10017; (212)
705-7695
28. What is Stand for of ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. Organization that sets
guidelines for the testing and use of equipment and materials. Address : 100 Barr Harbor; West
Conshosocken, PA 19428; (610) 832-9500
29. Deviation from the norm. In geology the term indicates an abnormality such as a fault or dome in
a sedimentary bed. Anomaly
30. One of two electrodes in an electrolytic cell; represented as the negative terminal of the cell, it is
the area from which electrons flow. Anode
31. States that under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, equal volumes of all gases
contain equal numbers of molecules. What the law it is? Avogadro’s Law
32. When considering a VES fracturing fluid for a stimulation/workover, what does the acronym VES
mean? Visco-Elastic Surfactant
33. The partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gasses is defined as the pressure that the gas would
exert if it alone were present at the same temperature and volume as the mixture. If the ideal gas
law applies, which law states that the total partial pressure of a mixture is equal to the sum of the
partial pressure? Dalton’s Law
34. A tool consisting of a handle and releasable chain used for turning pipe of fittings of a diameter
larger than that which a pipe wrench would fit. What the name of tools? Chain tongs
35. A device intended primarily for heat energy transfer between two fluids is ... Heat Exchanger
36. Igneous or metamorphic rock, which seldom contains petroleum. Ordinarily, it lies below
sedimentary rock, when it is encountered in drilling, the well is usually abandoned. Basement rock
37. The principle that states that at a fixed temperature, the volume of an ideal gas or gases varies
inversely with its absolute pressure. As gas pressure increas, gas volume decreases prportionately.
What is the low of this condition? Boyle’s Law
38. The apparent loss of weight of an object immersed in a fluid. If the object is floating, the
immersed portion displaces a volume of fluid the weight is equal to the weight of the object.
Bouyancy
39. The location of the bottom of a string of casing that is cemented in a well. Typically, a casing shoe
is made up on the end of the casing at this point. Casing seat
40. A means of preventing the destructive electrochemical process of corrosion of a metal object by
using it as the cathode of a cell with a sacrificial anode. Current at least equal to that caused by the
corrosive action is directed toward the object, offsetting its electrical potential. Cathodic protection
41. A chemical with properties that cause the water droplets in a water-in-oil emulsion to merge and
settle out of the oil, or oil droplets in an oil-in-water emulsion to coalesce, when the chemical is
added to the emulsion, also called emulsion breaker. Demulsifier
42. A type of test for either an oil well or a gas well to determine the actual flow rate. Deliveribilty
test
43. A centrifugal device for removing sand from drilling fluid to prevent abrasion of the pumps. It
may be operated mechanically or by a fast-moving stream of fluid inside a special cone-shaped
vessel, in which case it is sometimes called hydrocyclone. Desander
44. A condition in which the drill stem becomes stuck againts the wall of the wellbore because part of
the drill stem (usually the drill collars) has become embedded in the filter cake. Differential
sticking
45. A device that uses part of the kinetic energy of a fluid passing through a machine by gradually
increasing the cross section of the channel or chamber through which it flows so as to decrease its
speed ands increase its pressure. Diffuser
46. The process of diving off gas or vapor from liquids or solids, usually by heating, and condensing
the vapor back to liquid to purify, fractionate, or form new products. Distillation
47. An abrupt change in direction in the wellbore, frequently resulting in the formation of a keyseat.
Dogleg
48. A heavy, thick-walled tube, usually steel, used between the drill pipe and the bit in the drill stem
to provide weight to the bit. Drill collar
49. The geologic principle that the processes that are at work today on the earth are the same as, or
very similar to, the processes that affected the earth in the past. The principle was formulated in
1785 by James Hutton, a Scottish Geologist. Uniformitarianism
50. A valve installed above the kelly that can be closed manually to protect the rotary hose from high
pressure that may exist in the drill stem. Upper kelly cock
51. The supercontinent comprising all of the principal continental masses near the begining of the
Mesozoic era. Pangea
52. The science that concerns the life of past geologic periods, especially fossil forms and the
chronology of the earth. Paleontology
53. A bottomhole assembly usually made up of drill collars and a stabiliser just above the bit, that can
be used to increase hole angle. In holes inclined 3 degrees or more off vertical. Fulcrum assembly
54. A type of corrosion that occurs when a small electric current flows from one piece of metal
equipment to another. It is particularly prevalent when two dissimilar metals are present in an
environment in which electricity can flow (as two dissimilar joints of tubing in an oil or gas well).
Galvanic corrosion
55. A device used to separate and identify gas compounds by their adhesion to different layers of a
filtering medium such as clay or paper, sometimes indicated by colour changes in the medium.
Gas chromatograph
56. A condition sometimes encountered in a pumping well when dissolved gas, released from solution
during the upstroke of the plunger, appears as free gas between the valves. If the gas pressure is
sufficient, the standing valve is locked shut, and nu fluid enters the tubing. Gas lock
57. An instrument placed on the surface that detects vibrations passing through the earth’s crust. It is
used in conjunction with seismography. This tool is often called jugs. Geophone
58. The southern part of the supercontinent Pangea, comprising the future land masses of South
America, Africa, Antartica, Australia, and India. Gondwanaland
59. The technique of laying an additional pipeline alongside an existing one when additional capacity
is needed. Looping
60. A specially fabricated length of casing or tubing usually placed temporarily above a valve on toop
of the casing-head or tubing head. It is used to run swabbing or perforating tools into a producing
well and provides a method for sealing off pressure and thus should be rated for highest
anticipated pressure. Lubricator
61. A tubular, perforated device attached to the bottom of a suker-rod pump that helps to prevent gas
lock. The device works on the principle that gas, being ligther than oil, rises. Gas anchor
62. A unit of measure of liquid capacity that equals 3.785 litres and has a volume of 231 cubic inches
(0.000379 cubic metres). What is the unit of volume? Gallon
63. An intrusive igneous rock with the same composition as basalt. What is the rock? Gabbro
64. The increase in the temperature of the earth with increasing depth. It averages about 10 F per 60
feet (10 C per 18.3 metres), but may be considerably higher or lower. What is that? Geothermal
gradient
65. An igneous rock composed primarily of feldspar, quartz, and mica. It is the most common
intrusive rock – that is, it originally solidified below the surface of the earth. Its rock crystals are
easily seen by the eye. Granite
66. the total production of oil from a well or lease during a specified period of time. Gross production
67. An acoustic logging method based on the fact that sound travels at different speeds through
materials of different densities. The fact that sound travels faster through cement than through air
can be used to determine whether the cement has bonded properly to the casing. Cement bond log
68. A metal strip inserted into a system to monitor corrosion rate and to indicate corrosion inhibitor
effectiveness. Corrosion coupon.
69. A method of pumping oil from wells by using a downhole pump without sucker rods. Subsurface
of this pumps consist of two reciprocating pumps coupled and placed in the well. One pump
function as an engine and drives the other pump (the production pump). The downhole engine is
usually operated by clean crude oil under pressure (power oil) that is drwan from a power-oil
settling tank by a triplex plunger pump on the surface. What kind of pump?
70. An instrument with a graduated stem, used to determine the gravity of liquids. The liquid to be
measured is placed in a cylinder, and) this instrument dropped into it. It floats at a certain level in
the liquid, and the stem marking indicate the gravity of the liquid. What is the instrument?
Hydrometer
71. What is Stand for of IADC International Association of Drlling Contractors.
72. One of the pioneer companies in electric well logging, named for the French scientist who first
developed the method. What is the companies? Schlumberger
73. Earth is divided into three major layers. Name these major layers. Answer: Crust, mantle,
core
74. Crude oil and petroleum product prices are the result of thousands of transactions taking
place simultaneously around the world and the highest bidder will “win” the available
supply. What do you call this transaction? Answer: Global auction
75. A reservoir fluid whose critical temperature is greater than the reservoir temperature, with
initial producing GOR of 2000 or less Scf/STB and gravity below 45 ⁰API. What type of fluid
is expected from this reservoir? Answer: Black Oil
76. X is defined as the measurement of a rock's ability to transmit fluids, typically measured in
darcies or milidarcies. What is X? Answer: Permeability
77. Long time ago, all of the continents are embedded together which created super continent.
What is this super continent known as? Answer: Pangea
78. Crude oil markets tend to be stronger in the fourth quarter of the year (the high-demand
quarter on a global basis, where demand is boosted both by cold weather and by inventory
building) and weaker in the late winter as global demand for oil falls with warmer weather.
What do you call this kind of condition? Answer: Seasonal change
79. The person is the location supervisor for the drilling contractor. The person is usually a
senior, experienced individual who has worked his way up through the ranks of the drilling
crew positions. His job is largely administrative, including ensuring that the rig has
sufficient materials, spare parts and skilled personnel to continue efficient operations. This
person also serves as a trusted advisor to many personnel on the rigsite, including the
operator's representative, the company man. What is this person called? Answer:
Toolpusher
80. The volume unit of measurement for oil is the barrel. What is the equivalent of 1 BBL in
litre? Answer: 159 litres
81. This equipment is used to contain oil from spreading in the event of an offshore oil spill,
keeping the oil from spreading. This equipment works best in calm waters. Name this
equipment. Answer: Boom
82. What is the theory that explains continental drift called? Answer: Plate Tectonic
83. After crude oil is refined into gasoline and other petroleum products, the products must be
distributed to consumers. Mention two major ways of transporting gasoline. Answer:
Pipelines and trucks
84. A particularly crooked place in a wellbore where the trajectory of the wellbore in three-
dimensional space changes rapidly. (Hint: this term associated with part of body of an
animal). What is this situation called? Answer: Dog leg
85. The point at which gas evolves from the solution is known as? Answer: Bubble point
pressure
86. This mechanical device is used to physically remove the oil from the surface of the
water. Answer: Skimmers or Vacuum pumps
87. What is the process by which one plate is thrust beneath another called? Answer:
Subduction
88. In what year crude oil reached the highest average price ever? Answer: 2008
89. After successfully landing 9-5/8" casing and cementing, drilling operation normally will
continue by making up 8-1/2" BHA and running in hole to drill new formation about 3m.
Then, they will continue to do LOT prior to further drilling 8-1/2" hole. What does LOT
stand for? Answer: Leak Off Test
90. The widely used method for analysing the pressure and future performance of production
wells especially in low permeability gas reservoir is known as? Answer: Decline curve
analysis
91. This oil spill clean-up method involves corralling and igniting oil contained by a fire-
resistant boom. In ideal circumstances, this technique removes 90-95% of the oil on the
surface of water. Name this method. Answer: In-situ burning
92. Name the location where oil and gas flow naturally to the surface? Answer: Seeps
93. Today, gasoline is the fuel used by most passenger vehicles in the United States and each
gasoline station in the U.S. usually sells three grades of gasoline. Name these grades. Answer:
Regular, Midgrade, Premium
94. Gamma Ray log tools are normally attached in LWD tools while drilling a well. If the scale
of gamma ray 0 to 200, and the gamma ray result showing deflection to the right, towards
200, What type of formation/rock will it be? Answer: Shalestone
95. This equipment is installed after the flowline. The function of this equipment is to remove or
separate the drill cuttings from the mud by vibrating. This equipment is normally dressed
with various screen size from coarse to fine depending on the hole size/section being drilled.
What is this equipment called? Answer: Shale shaker
96. X is defined as the pressure exerted by a column of water from the formation's depth to sea
level. What is X? Answer: Pore pressure
97. It is the ratio of void space in a rock to the total volume of rock and it reflects the fluid
storage capacity of the reservoir. What is it? Answer: Porosity
98. An organization has significant influence on world oil prices because its members produce
over 40% of the world’s crude oil and have more than two-thirds of the world’s estimated
crude oil reserves. What is the name of this organization? Answer: OPEC
99. Any unskilled manual laborer on the rigsite. This person may be part of the drilling
contractor's employee workforce, or may be on location temporarily for special operations.
They are commonly hired to ensure that the skilled personnel that run an expensive drilling
rig are not distracted by peripheral tasks, ranging from cleaning up location to cleaning
threads to digging trenches to scraping and painting rig components. What is the name given
to these people in the rig site? Answer: Roustabout
100. Water Based Mud normally will be used to drill top hole section. Caustic Soda
normally will be used to modify the pH of the system to meet the requirement. Normally the
pH required is about 9 - 10. What is the chemical formula for Caustic Soda? Answer: NaOH
101. Which recovery technique is the most suitable in producing crude oils with API
gravity less than 20? Answer: Thermal recovery
102. It is the amount of pore space present in the sediment at the time of deposition, or
formed during sedimentation. What type of porosity is it? Answer: Primary porosity
103. This country has the world's cheapest fuel, which costs only $0.12/gallon or cheaper
than a bottle of mineral water. Which country is that? Answer: Venezuela
104. When drilling a well, part of BHA normally consist of MWD and LWD. What do
MWD and LWD stand for? Answer: Measurement While Drilling and
Logging While Drilling
105. An object that is left in the wellbore during drilling or workover operations and that
must be recovered before work can proceed. It can be anything from a piece of scrap metal
to a part of the drill stem. What is this object called? Answer: Fish
106. This is an oil spill clean up method in which oil in water is broken down into small
droplets. They enhance natural dispersion, accelerating and making the oil more available
for natural biodegradation. Name the method mentioned. Answer: Chemical dispersants
107. The organic content of a rock that is extractable with organic solvents is known as
what? Answer: Bitumen
108. Proper bit selection affects performance of that bit. Proper selection will save time
and money; also, proper selection means a better opportunity for proper use of the bit, and
therefore cost savings. What is the most expensive bit that is used in drilling? Answer:
Diamond bit
109. When there is a kick, there are various of well control methods can be applied. But,
after the well is shut-in, we need to record the readings of SIDPP and SICP. This two
parameters are important to calculate the kill mud weight to kill the well from having blow
out. What do SIDPP & SICP stand for? Answer: Shut In Drill Pipe Pressure & Shut In
Casing Pressure
110. MPD is an adaptive drilling process used precisely control annular pressure profile
throughout the wellbore. What is MPD stands for ? Answer: Managed Pressure Drilling
111. Oil transportation companies in the U.S. have developed oil spill response co-
operation known as OSROs. State the full name of OSROs. Answer: Oil Spill Removal
Organization
112. What is the part of the organic matter in a rock that is insoluble in common organic
solvents. Answer: Kerogen
113. Which term is used to refer to the Exploration and Production part of the oil cycle?
Answer: Upstream
114. ECD is one of the key of the success to drill a well. This ECD taking into account the
pressure drop in the annulus above the point being considered and fluid movement againsts
the formation. What does ECD stands for? Answer: Equivalent Circulating Density
115. A percussion tool operated manually or hydraulically to deliver a heavy upward or
downward blow to fish stuck in the borehole. What is this tool called? Answer: Jar
116. What are the two components that made up natural gas? Answer: Carbon and
hydrogen
117. It is a type of weathering that occurs when solid rock is fragmented by physical
process that does not change the rock's chemical composition. What is it called? Answer:
Physical weathering
118. Name the biggest state-owned oil company that has one-fourth of world oil reserves.
Answer: Saudi Aramco
119. A floor hand, or member of the drilling crew who works under the direction of the
driller to make or break connections as drillpipe is tripped in or out of the hole. What is this
person called? Answer: Roughneck
120. The space between two concentric objects, such as between the wellbore and casing or
between casing and tubing, where fluid can flow. Pipe may consist of drill collars, drillpipe,
casing or tubing. What is that space called? Answer: Annulus
121. According to current estimates, more than 80% of the world's proven oil reserves are
located in OPEC Member Countries. Which OPEC country contains the highest amount of
oil reserves as of 2010? Answer: Venezuela
122. what is the type of rock that is formed from the crystallization of molten rock
(magma or lava) from within the earth's mantle? Answer: Igneous rock
123. What do you call the value of a petroleum asset by the end of its useful life? Answer:
Salvage Value
124. The cell dimentions and rock properties is known as? Answer: GRID
125. Typical clay (bentonite) is dispersed in drillwater/tap water. But there is another type
of clay that can dispersed in seawater. What is the name of this clay? Answer: Attapulgite
126. What type of fuel is designed for spark-ignition internal combustion engines?
Answer: Gasoline
127. What is the type of rock that is formed from pre-existing rocks by mineralogical,
chemical and/or structural changes in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure,
shearing stress and chemical environment. Answer: Metamorphic rock
128. Name the only intangible asset that is not amortized over its useful life. Answer:
Goodwill
129. Darcy's law is a generalized relationship for flow in porous media. It shows the
volumetric rate is a function of the flow area, elevation and to proportional constant, state
the equation for a finite 1-D flow? Answer: Q = KA(dh/dl)
130. A particular type of floating vessel that is supported primarily on large pontoon-like
structures submerged below the sea surface. The operating decks are elevated perhaps 100
or more feet above the pontoons on large steel columns. What is the name of this vessel?
Answer: Semisubmersible
131. This petroleum product is mostly used for jet fuel. It contains hydrocarbons with 10
to 16 carbon atoms and have boiling points between 150 and 240 °C. Name this petroleum
product. Answer: Kerosene
132. It is the study of the origin, composition, distribution and sequence of layers of
sedimentary rock or strata. What is it? Answer: Stratigraphy
133. Petroleum projects include a large number of individual purchases and sales, from
very small and trivial purchase, such as a "cup of coffee" to very large and vitally important
purchase. Name the most expensive purchase an oil company may do? Answer: Platform
134. Simulation is based on the discretization of space and time, aimed to convert the
diffusivity equation into data that can be treated numerically by? Answer: Computer
135. A generic term for soft, sticky, swelling clay formations that are frequently
encountered in surface holes offshore or in sedimentary basins onshore near seas. This clay
fouls drilling tools and plugs piping, both severe problems for drilling crews. What is this
type of clay normally called? Answer: Gumbo
136. In some fields, operators may consider obtaining fluid samples during testing
operations. Name this approach in sampling method. Answer: Sampling while testing
137. It is the study of life in past geologic time, based on fossil plants and animals. What is
it? Answer: Paleontology
138. What is the term for crude oil that is considered to be representative of a market?
Answer: A Marker
139. CALCULATION: The average cost of drilling = $600/ft. Find total cost of drilling
5000 ft of a well. Answer: $3,000,000
140. An unmanned submersible vehicle controlled from surface. In deepwater operations,
submersible vehicles are used to inspect subsea structures and equipment, and to control or
manipulate valves. They can operate at depths from 1500 to 10,000 ft [457 to 3048 m]. This
term is commonly abbreviated as ROV. What does ROV stands for? Answer: Remotely
Operated Vehicle
141. What is the common name for a deflection tool used for changing the wellbore
trajectory while drilling a well? Answer: Whipstock
142. What is the process by which petroleum moves from source bed to reservoir rocks?
Answer: Primary migration
143. Sometimes, it is a precondition of gaining an exploration license in a new country that
an international oil company forms an alliance with a local or national oil company. What is
this alliance called? Answer: Joint Venture
144. The petroleum industry is a popular target for government. Oil and gas are subject to
a wide range of fiscal charges at all stages, from royalties on exploration to duty on the sale
of petrol. What is the economic term for these charges? Answer: Taxation
145. When there is a kick, the well is shut-in and the readings are recorded, pumping mud
is begun immediately. The influx is pumped from the wellbore without any prior weighting
up of the mud. Once the influx has been pumped from the well, the well is shut-in, and the
surface mud system is weighted up to the kill mud weight. The lighter mud is then displaced
by the kill mud. What is this method called? Answer: Driller's method
146. A cap in the reservoir often develop once production starts and reservoir pressure
declines. What is the type of cap formed? Answer: Gas cap
147. It is a dark colored, solid to semi solid form of petroleum (at surface temperatures
and pressures) that consists of heavy hydrocarbons and bitumen. What is it? Answer:
Asphalt
148. Name the largest oil producer of Africa. Answer: Nigeria
149. What is the process of converting geological success into commercial success called?
Answer: Appraisal
150. The angle between the vertical projection of a line of interest onto a horizontal
surface and true north or magnetic north measured in a horizontal plane, typically
measured clockwise from north. What this angle called for? Answer: Azimuth
151. Name the first person in America who successfully produced commercially usable
quantities of crude oil in 1859. Answer: Edwin Drake
152. It is one of reservoir rocks which is generally created by the accumulation of large
amounts of clastic sediments and which is a characteristic of depositional environments such
as rivers, channels, deltas, beaches, lakes and submarine fans. What is it? Answer:
Sandstone reservoir
153. What is the largest oilfield in the world and in which country is it located? Answer:
Ghawar in Saudi Arabia
154. What is the service life of petroleum assets as released by the U.S. Bureau of Internal
Revenue? Answer: 14 years
155. Barite is used to weigh up drilling fluid. What is chemical formula of Barite? Answer:
Ba2SO4
156. Which university first introduced a Petroleum Engineering degree course in 1915?
Answer: University of Pittsburgh
157. It is a pressure which is a function of depth and it increases one pound per square
inch for each foot of depth. What type of pressure is it? Answer: Overburden pressure
158. Who is the current SPE International President? Answer: Jeff Spath
159. Suppliers for development drillers of oil are usually ready to increase their drilling by
2.5 times as crude prices increase, while explorers of oil will only increase their test drillings
0.5 times as much as prices of crudes increase. What do you call this condition? Answer:
Price elasticities
160. A large-diameter pipe that connects the subsea BOP stack to a floating surface rig to
take mud returns to the surface. What is this pipe called for ? Answer: Riser
161. This liquid hydrocarbon has a low density and high API gravity, usually found in
association with natural gas. What is the term used for this liquid hydrocarbons? Answer:
Condensates
162. It is one type of reservoir rocks that is created in marine sedimentary environments
with little or no clastic material input and is generally located between 30 degree north and
south of the equator. Answer: Carbonate reservoir
163. In which is OPEC headquartered? Answer: Vienna
164. What is the time required for an oil and gas investment to generate sufficient cash
flow to recover the initial capital investment? Answer: Payback period
165. A flow of formation fluids into the wellbore during drilling operations caused by the
pressure in the wellbore being less than that of the formation fluids, thus causing flow. What
this phenomenon called? Answer: Kick
166. CCS is a technique used in capturing a certain type of gas emitted by fuel combustion
or industrial process, and its storage underground, in depleted oil and gas fields and deep
saline formations. What is CCS? Answer: Carbon capture and storage
167. It is a principle which states that the geologic processes and forces now operating to
modify the earth's crust have acted in much the same manner and with essentially the same
intensity throughout geologic time, and that past geologic events can be explained by forces
observable today. What is it? Answer: The present is the key to the past
168. What does LNG and LPG stand for? Answer: Liquified Natural Gas and Liquified
Petroleum Gas
169. The petroleum industry is truly international and must therefore buy and sell,
borrow and invest in different countries, with different currencies. If the exchange rate
between some of these currencies should change, after a decision has been taken, the
outcome may be worse, or better than expected. What was the initial exchange rate between
U.S. Dollar and the Euro? Answer: 1:1
170. The amount of pressure (or force per unit area) exerted on a formation exposed in a
wellbore below the internal fluid pressure of that formation. If sufficient porosity and
permeability exist, formation fluids enter the wellbore. What is this condition called?
Answer: Underbalance
171. The price of oil was affected due to supply disruptions and the Korean conflict. At
which year did this event occur? Answer: 1952
172. It is a principle which states that most layers of sediment are deposited in a nearly
horizontal layer. What is it? Answer: Principle of original horizontality
173. It is a survey that involves the natural or artificial generation and propagation of
elastic waves down into earth until they encounter a discontinuity (any interruption in
sedimentation) and are reflected back to the surface. What is it called? Answer: Seismic
survey
174. What is the full name of Petronas? Answer: Petroliam Nasional Berhad
175. CALCULATION: Probability of success in a drilling operation = 10%. Determine the
number of dry holes if an oil company decides to drill 50 wells. Answer: 45 wells
176. Since many consumers around the world are paying outrageous prices for oil, they
are urging for changes in policies and to find and investing in alternative sources for fuel.
Name two alternative sources of oil. Answer: Nuclear and renewable energy
177. It is a tool that is used to measure local variations in the strength of the earth's
magnetic field and indirectly, the thickness of sedimentary rock layers where oil and gas
might be found. What is it called? Answer: Magnetometer
178. What type of intangible assets do governments give to oil companies in order to be
able to do their business? Answer: Licenses
179. Interest is defined as the compensation paid for the use of borrowed capital. What
type of interest is mostly used in oil economics? Answer: Compound interest
180. Construction of production facilities is a critical phase for a project. It is normally the
time of major capital investment, and the economics of the project may be dependent on
delivery of the facility on budget and on time. What will be charged to the oil contractors if
they fail to do so? Answer: Penalty
181. CALCULATION: An oil company deposits $1 million into a virtual bank account
where the interest rate is 10%. Calculate the amount of money after 4 years using simple
interest method. Answer: $1,400,000
182. Traps that are formed as a result of differences or variations between or within
stratified rock layers, creating a change or loss of permeability from one area to another.
What trap is it? Answer: Stratigraphic trap
183. What is the mostly used economic analysis by the petroleum industry? Answer:
Discounted-cash-flow analysis
184. It is a type of clastic sedimentary rock that is formed by the consolidation of fine
grained material including clay, mud, organic content and silt and have a layered or
stratified structure parallel to bedding. What is it? Answer: Shales
185. It is a natural gas that results from the thermal alteration of kerogen due to an
increase in overburden pressure and temperature. What is it? Answer: Thermogenic gas
186. CALCULATION: An oil well is producing 10,000 bpd. What is the net income if the
price of oil is assumed to be $70/bbl? Answer: $700,000/day
187. It is a natural gas that is formed solely as a result of bacterial activity in the early
stages of diagensis. It forms at low temperatures, at overburden depths of less than 3000 feet
and under anaerobic conditions. It is often associated with high rates of marine sediment
accumulation. What gas is it? Answer: Biogenic gas
188. There are two ways to compare recent oil prices with historical oil prices. What are
they? Answer: Nominal price and real price
189. There is always some uncertainties in oil investment analysis. The future cash-flow
can not be projected with certainty at the time of investment. How can we lower the risk and
uncertainty? Answer: Doing business diversification
190. It is a form of secondary porosity which results from the dissolution of the more
soluble portions of rock or solution enlargement of pores or fractures. What is it? Answer:
Vuggy porosity
191. It is a principle which states that each layer of sedimentary rock in a sequence that
has not been tectonically disturbed is younger than the layer beneath it and older than the
layer above it. What is it? Answer: Principle of superposition
192. Sedimentary rocks that are formed as a result of the weathering or fragmentation of
pre-existing rocks and minerals and classified on the basis of their textures, primarily the
sizes of the grains. What type of sedimentary rock is that? Answer: Clastic sedimentary rock
193. Name the traditional steps used in the development of a reservoir simulator? Answer:
Formulation, discretization, Well representation, Linearization, Solution & Validation