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Condensed milk is a milk product obtained by evaporating part of water of whole milk, or fully or partly
skimmed milk, with or without the addition of sugar. The term ͚condensed milk͛ is commonly used when
referring to full cream sweetened condensed milk whereas the term evaporated milk is generally used while
referring to full cream unsweetened condensed skim milk. Skimmed milk products are known as sweetened
condensed skim and unsweetened condensed skim milk respectively.

The ratio of concentration of milk solids is about 1: 2.5 full cream milk
products and 1: 3 for the preparation of sweetened condensed skim
milk. According to the rules specified by the PFA (1976), the various
standards governing condensed milks have been given as follows:

Sweetened condensed milk is the product obtained from cow or

buffalo milk or a combination thereof, or from standardized milk, by
partial removal of water and after addition of cane sugar. It may
sometimes contain added refined lactose, calcium chloride, citric acid
and sodium citrate, sodium salts of orthophosphoric acid and
polyphosphoric acid not exceeding 0.3 per cent by weight of the
finished product.

Such kind of addition need not be declared on the label. Sweetened

condensed milk should contain not less than 9.0 percent milk fat, and
not less than 31 per cent milk solids and 40.0 per cent cane sugar.

Unsweetened condensed milk (evaporated milk) is the product

obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination therefore, or from
standardized milk, by partial removal of water. It may contain added
calcium chloride, citric acid and sodium citrate, sodium salts of orthophosphoric acid and polyphosphoric acid
not exceeding 0.3 per cent by weight of the finished product. Such addition need not be declared on the label.
Unsweetened condensed milk should contain not less than 8.0 percent milk fat, and not less than 26 per cent
milk solids.

Sweetened condensed skim milk is the product obtained from cow or buffalo skimmed milk or a combination
thereof by the partial removal of water and after the addition of cane sugar. It may contain added refined
lactose, calcium chloride, citric acid, sodium citrate and sodium salts of orthophosphoric and polyphosphoric
acid not exceeding 0.3 per cent by weight of the finished product. Such additions need not be declared on the
label. The standards for sweetened condensed skim milk is it should contain not less than 26.0 percent of total
milk solids and not less than 40.0 percent cane sugar. The fat content should not exceed 0.5 percent by weight.

The composition of condensed milk, sweetened or unsweetened (whole or skim milk) is given below.

Gross composition of condensed milk (shown as percentage)

S.No Type of condensed milk Fat Total milk solids

1 Condensed milk (Sweet, full cream) 9.0 7.9 31.0 25.9
2 Evaporated milk (Unsweetened, full cream) 9.0 8.5 31.0 28.0
3 Skim sweetened -- -- 20.0 20.0
4 Skim unsweetened -- -- 26.0 24.0



Nutrients present in the condensed milk (expressed as percentage)

S.No Type of condensed Water Total Fat Milk Solids Not Protein Lactose Ash Total Milk Sucrose
milk solids Fat Solids
1 Condensed milk 26.0 74.0 9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 43.0
2 Evaporated milk 31.0 69.0 9.0 22.0 8.3 12.2 1.5 31.0 --
3 Skim sweetened 29.0 71.0 0.5 25.5 9.3 14.0 2.2 26.0 45.0

The composition of unsweetened condensed skim milk has not been included in the table shown above as it is
rarely manufactured because of poor demand.

Indian standard specifications for sweetened condensed milks

S.No Characteristics Standards

Condensed milk Skim sweetened
1 Total milk solids (%wt.) Min 31.0 26.0
2 Fat (% wt.) Not less than 9.0 Not more than 0.5
3 Sucrose (% wt.) Min 40 40
4 Acidity (% lactic) Max 0.35 0.35
5 Bacterial count (per g.) 500 500
6 Coliform count (per g.) -ve -ve
7 Yeast and Mould count (per g.) Max 10 10

Food and nutritive value of condensed milk ʹ sweetened and unsweetened types

The nutritive value of the sweetened and unsweetened condensed milk is very high. Both of them are rich in fat
and fat soluble vitamins viz. A, D, E & K and body building proteins, bone forming minerals and energy giving
lactose. While sweetened condensed milk is especially high in energy giving sucrose because of the added sugar,
evaporated milk is suitable for infant feeding since it makes a soft curd and is easily digested.



Technique involved in the manufacture of condensed milk is presented here as
flow diagram

Receiving milk --> Filtration / Clarification --> Standardization --> Forewarming / Pre heating
(115 - 118°C / No Hold ) --> Addition of sugar -->Condensing (2.5:1) --> Homogenization -->
Cooling and crystallization --> Packaging --> Storage (10°C)


The principle underlying the condensing operation is the removal of water from the
standardized milk by boiling it at low temperature under partial vacuum till the desired
concentration is reached. The advantages of using the condenser for evaporation of
moisture are

-rapidity of evaporation
-economy in the scale of operation
-protection of nutrients of milk against heat damage.
Apart from these, evaporation under vacuum achieves a product which is free from cooked
flavour defect but at the same time, the product can be readily reconstituted into the
original milk.

The evaporators used in the dairy industry may vary and can be classified into

*Vertical short tube evaporator

*Vertical long tube evaporator
*Forced circulation evaporator
*Plate evaporator
*Multiple effect evaporator
*Centrifugal evaporator
*Expanding flow evaporator
*Vapor recompression evaporator
*Low temperature evaporator

Important steps involved in evaporating the milk

-The evaporator may be operated on a batch or continuous method depending on

the type of the machine and volume of milk processed.
-Sanitization of the evaporator is must before beginning the operation
-The product (milk) should cover the heating tubes containing the coils before
admitting the steam and this prevents scorching.
-The quantum of the product needs to be maintained at recommended level and this
is made possible by controlling the fresh product intake so that the volume of water
removed is replaced.
-Quick and rapid boiling inside the evaporator is avoided as it leads to entrainment.



-Air leaks in the evaporating system shall be strictly controlled as it reduces the
efficiency of the operation.

Stopping of the evaporator shall be followed with coordinated sequences and it is usually in
the following order : Turn off the steam, turn off water to the condenser, stop the vacuum
pump, and finally open the vacuum relief.

Generally dry saturated steam is considered more desirable for vacuum pan operation than
wet or super heated steam.

Striking the batch

When the boiling milk approaches the desired concentration, it is visually indicated by
settling down of milk to a quite boil, the surface of milk assumes glossy and glistening
luster, heavy roll of milk from periphery to the centre etc. These are the visual signs that
warn the operator as to the right time for ³striking the batch´.

The term ³r  

´ indicates the correct concentration (as determined by specific
gravity / density tests) has been reached. But the sampling of condensed milk shall begin
sufficiently early to permit taking and testing for density several successive samples
without the risk of objectionable over condensing. The pan temperature slowly drops to
49°C, which is the standardized testing temperature.

What are the practical density tests available in while preparing condensed milk?

- Pycnometer test
- Hydrometer test
- Refractometer test
- Viscosimeter test.

Finishing the batch

On ³striking the batch´, when the desired density has been reached, the condensing
operation is stopped. The entire steam to the condenser is stopped and the steam to the pan
is shut off. The valve in the waterline to the condenser is closed. Then the vacuum pump is
stopped and the vacuum relief is opened. These operations are done in a sequence as told in
order to avoid milk from burning on to the heating surface and condenser water from
flooding the pan. Only when the vacuum is dissipated, the condensed milk is drawn from
the pan.

Third standardization

It is a common practice to slightly over condense the milk and then standardize it back to
exact concentration required to meet the legal standards by adding correctly calculated
quantum of water.




Throughout the world the hot condensed milk during its manufacture, is invariably
homogenized before being cooled and crystallized. The objective of homogenization is to
uniformly distribute the fat globules and reduce the fat separation during storage. A
specially designed homogenizer, capable of handling highly viscous products is used for this
purpose and it is operated at a pressure of 2000 PSI in the first stage and 500 PSI in the
second stage.

Cooling and crystallization

The cooling of hot condensed milk is very important in its manufacture so that the end
product is delicious and marketable. Prompt cooling is essential to delay age thickening
and changes in color; prolonged high temperature favors color darkening. Quick cooling
helps in the production of smooth texture of the finished product and its freedom from
objectionable sugar deposit.

Importance of lactose

Lactose in condensed milk helps in controlling the texture of the product, which is present
in a highly concentrated state. At room temperature, a majority of the lactose is present in
crystal form and their size determines the relative smoothness of the product. It is the size
of the lactose crystal that determines smoothness.

Effect of cooling

The type of cooling the hot sweetened condensed milk receives during the manufacture that
determines the number and permanent size of lactose crystals. If the number of lactose
crystals is in the range of 300,000 to 400,000 per cubic millimeter with the length of the
longest edge of the crystal is approximately 9 micron, then the product will be regarded as
excellent in smoothness.

How lactose crystallizes?

Alpha lactose hydrate will crystallize under the temperature conditions that prevail in the
manufacture of condensed milk. The rate of lactose crystallization is impeded by presence
of milk colloids and high viscosity which prevents the rate of diffusion. The temperature of
maximum rapidity of crystallization for an average compositioned condensed milk product
is about 30°C or 86°F.


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