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MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The microwave frequency range is considered to start at:


a. 100 MHz c. 10 GHz
b. 1 GHz d. 100 GHz

ANS: B

2. The UHF range is:


a. below the microwave range c. above the microwave range
b. inside the microwave range d. same as the microwave range
ANS: A

3. The dominant mode of a waveguide depends on:


a. the shape of the waveguide c. the point of signal injection
b. the power level of the signal d. none of the above
ANS: A

4. The dominant mode of a rectangular waveguide is:


a. TE 01 c. TE 10
b. TM 01 d. TM10
ANS: C

5. The dominant mode of a circular waveguide is:


a. TE 01 c. TE 11
b. TM 01 d. TM11
ANS: C

6. Circular waveguides use TM 01 mode because:


a. it is dominant c. it is the only mode possible
b. of its circular symmetry d. it is more efficient
ANS: B
7. The characteristic impedance of a waveguide:
a. is fixed

b. depends on the frequency it carries


c. depends on the longer dimension of its cross section
d. both b and c
ANS: D

8. Power can be coupled into or out of a waveguide:


a. with a magnetic field probe c. through a hole in the waveguide
b. with an electric field probe d. all of the above
ANS: D

9. Directional couplers for waveguides are characterized by:


a. their insertion loss c. their directivity
b. their coupling specification d. all of the above
ANS: D

10. Striplines and microstrips are used to:


a. couple sections of waveguide c. couple components on a circuit board
b. couple waveguides to antennas d. none of the above
ANS: C

11. A resonant cavity is a type of:


a. tuned circuit c. antenna
b. defect in a waveguide d. none of the above
ANS: A

12. A TEE connector used with waveguides is:


a. an H-plane TEE c. a "magic" TEE
b. an E-plane TEE d. all of the above
ANS: D

13. TWT stands for:


a. Transverse Wave Transmission c. Traveling-Wave Tube
b. Transverse-Wave Tube d. Traveling-Wave Transmission
ANS: C

14. An "isolator" is a device that:


a. isolates frequencies in a waveguide
b. allows a signal to pass in one direction only
c. separates signals among various ports
d. prevents microwaves from leaking out of a waveguide
ANS: B

15. A "circulator" is a device that:


a. rotates signal polarity in a waveguide
b. allows a signal to pass in one direction only
c. separates signals among various ports
d. prevents microwaves from being "trapped" in a waveguide
ANS: C

COMPLETION
1. ____________________ is the effect of a pulse "spreading out" as it travels through a waveguide.
ANS: Dispersion

2. The electric field is ____________________ along the walls of a rectangular waveguide.


ANS: zero

3. The waveguide mode with the lowest cutoff frequency is the ____________________ mode.
ANS: dominant

4. In TE10 mode, the ____________________ field peaks in the middle of the waveguide cross section.
ANS: electric

5. In TE20 mode, the electric field has ____________________ peaks in the waveguide cross section.
ANS: two
6. In a circular waveguide, ____________________ mode is used because of its circular symmetry.
ANS: TM01
7. A waveguide acts as a ____________________-pass filter.
ANS: high

8. In a waveguide, group velocity is always ____________________ than the speed of light.


ANS: slower

9. In a waveguide, phase velocity is always ____________________ than the speed of light.


ANS: faster

10. In a waveguide, impedance ____________________ as frequency increases.


ANS: decreases

11. A ____________________ TEE is a combination of E-plane and H-plane TEES.


ANS: hybrid
12. The Q of a r
esonant cavity is very ____________________ compared to lumped LC circuits.
ANS: high

13. A wavemeter is a resonant ____________________ with an adjustable plunger.


ANS: cavity

14. A Gunn device oscillates because of its negative ____________________.


ANS: resistance

15. Both magnetrons and TWTs are slow ____________________ tubes.


ANS: wave

16. Both klystrons and TWTs are ____________________-beam tubes.


ANS: linear
17. A __________
__________ antenna is just a waveguide with a hole in it.
ANS: slot

18. A ____________________ antenna is a flat piece of copper on an insulating substrate with a ground
plane on the other side.
ANS: patch

19. The radar cross section of a target is typically ____________________ than its actual size.
ANS: smaller

20. The frequency of the returned signal will be ____________________ than the transmitted signal if the
target is moving toward the radar antenna.
ANS: higher

Chapter 14
Waveguides & RADAR
1
At a frequency of 1 Ghz
and transmitter-receiver
distance of 30 mi, which
is the most efficient
device for energy
transfer?
a. Transmission lines
b. Waveguides
c. Antennas
d. None of the above

2 The most efficient


means of transmitting a
1-Ghz signal 1500 ft
would typically be
a. Transmission lines
b. Waveguides
c. Antennas
d. None of the above

3 The dominant mode for


waveguide operation is
a. TE10
b. TE01
c. TM10
d. TM01

4 The propagation
velocity of the signal in
a waveguide, when
compared to the speed
of light is
a. larger
b. smaller
c. the same velocity
d. either b or c

5 Ridged waveguides are


advantageous over
rectangular waveguides
in their
a. cost
b. attenuation
c. ability to work at lower frequency
d. ease of construction

6 A circular waveguide is
used for
a. Efficiency reasons
b. Ease of manufacture
c. Rotating section applications
d. Greater bandwidth
7 Variable attenuators are
used in waveguides to
a. Isolate a source from
reflections at its load so
as to

preclude frequency pulling.


b. Adjust the signal levels.
c. Measure signal levels.
d. All the above.

8 The coupling in dB of a
directional coupler that
has 85 mW into the
main guide and 0.45
mW out the secondary
guide is
a. 22.8

b. 18.9
c. 188.9
d. 45.6

9 The resonant frequency


of a cavity may be
varied by changing the
cavity's
a. Volume
b. Inductance
c. Capacitance
d. All the above

10 The guide wavelength


is
a. Greater than free-space wavelength

b. Equal to free-space wavelength


c. Less than free-space wavelength
d. All the above

11 The process of
employing radio waves
to detect and locate
physical objects is
known as
a. The Doppler effect
b. Radar
c. Directional coupling
d. Cavity tuning
12 The use of two
grounded conductors
that sandwich a smaller
conductive strip with
constant separation by
a dielectric material on
a printed circuit board
for use at frequencies
above 500 Mhz is
known as
a. Artwork traces
b. Dielectric waveguide
c. Microstrip/stripline
d. MICs or MMICs

13 Second return echoes


are
a. Echoes produced when the reflected beam
makes a second trip
b. Echoes that arrive after the transmission of
the next pulse
c. Echoes caused by the PRT being too long
d. All the above

14 The characteristic wave


impedance for
waveguides is
a. 75
b. 377
c. Dependent on frequency
d. Dependent on waveguide shape
e. c and d

15 A dielectric waveguide
is

a. Enclosed by a conducting material


b. A waveguide with just a dielectric
c. Dependent on the principle that two dissimilar
dielectrics can guide waves
d. b and c

Chapter 10: Microwave Techniques


1. The main benefit of using microwaves is
Ans: More spectrum space

2. Radio communications are regulated in


the United States by the
Ans: Federal Communications
Commission
3. Which of the following is not a
disadvantage of microwaves?
Ans: higher-cost equipment

4. Which of the following is a microwave


frequency
Ans: 22 GHz

5. Which of the following is not a common


microwave application?
Ans: mobile radio

6. Coaxial cable is not widely used for long


microwave transmission lines because
of its
Ans: high loss

7. Stripline and microstrip transmission


lines are usually made with
Ans: PCBs

8. The most common cross section of a


wave guide is a
Ans: rectangular

9. A rectangular waveguide has a width of


1 in. and a height of 0.6 in. Its cutoff
frequency is
Ans: 5.9 GHz
Solution:
1 in = 0.0254 m
5.9GHz
2(0.0254)
3 10 m/s
2Width
c
f
8
===

10. A waveguide has a cutoff frequency of


17 GHz. Which of the signals will not be
passed by the waveguide?
Ans: 15 GHz

11. Signal propagation in a waveguide is by


Ans: Electric and magnetic fields
12. When the electric field in a waveguide is
perpendicular to the direction of wave
propagation, the mode is said to be
Ans: Transverse electric

13. The dominant mode in most waveguides


is
Ans: TE0,1
14. A magnetic field is introduced into a
waveguide by a
Ans: Probe

15. A half-wavelength, closed section of a


waveguide that acts as a parallel
resonant circuit is known as a(n)
Ans: Cavity resonator

16. Decreasing the volume of a cavity


causes its resonant frequency to
Ans: Increase

17. A popular microwave mixer diode is the


Ans: Gunn

18. Varactor and step-recovery diodes are


widely used in what type of circuit
Ans: Frequency multiplier

19. Which diode is a popular microwave


oscillator
Ans: Gunn

20. Which type of diode does not ordinarily


operate with reverse bias
Ans: Tunnel

21. Low-power Gunn diodes are replacing


Ans: Reflex klystrons

22. Which of the following is not a


microwave tube?
Ans: Cathode-ray tube

23. In a klystron amplifier, velocity


modulation of the electron beam is
produced by the
Ans: Buncher cavity

24. A reflex klystron is used as a(n)


Ans: Oscillator
25. For proper operation, a magnetron must
be accompanied by a
Ans: Permanent magnet

26. The operating frequency of klystrons


and magnetrons is set by the
Ans: Cavity resonator

27. A magnetron is used only as a(n)


Ans: oscillator

28. A common application for magnetrons is


in
Ans: Radar
3. 1 Evaluate the ratio of the area of a circular waveguide to that of a rectangular one if both are have
the same cut-off frequency for a dominant mode.
3.2 In a air-filled rectangular waveguide, the cut-off frequency of a TE10 mode is 5 Ghz, whereas that of
TE01 mode is 2GHz. Calculate:

a) The dimension of a waveguide


b) The cut-off frequencies of the next three higher TE modes.
c) The cut-off frequency for TE11 mode if the guide is filled with lossless material having €r = 2.25,
µr=1.